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  • Kubin, Markus
    et al.
    Kern, Jan
    Gul, Sheraz
    Kroll, Thomas
    Chatterjee, Ruchira
    Löchel, Heike
    Fuller, Franklin D.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Quevedo, Wilson
    Weniger, Christian
    Rehanek, Jens
    Firsov, Anatoly
    Laksmono, Hartawan
    Weninger, Clemens
    Alonso-Mori, Roberto
    Nordlund, Dennis L.
    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt
    Glownia, James M.
    Krzywinski, Jacek
    Moeller, Stefan
    Turner, Joshua J.
    Minitti, Michael P.
    Dakovski, Georgi L.
    Koroidov, Sergey
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
    Kawde, Anurag
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kanady, Jacob S.
    Tsui, Emily Y.
    Suseno, Sandy
    Han, Zhiji
    Hill, Ethan
    Taguchi, Taketo
    Borovik, Andrew S.
    Agapie, Theodor
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Chemistry, Molecular Biomimetics, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE 75237 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Erko, Alexei
    Föhlisch, Alexander
    Bergmann, Uwe
    Mitzner, Rolf
    Yachandra, Vittal K.
    Yano, Junko
    Wernet, Philippe
    Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers2017Inngår i: Structural dynamics, ISSN 2329-7778, Vol. 4, nr 5, 054307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn similar to 6-15 mmol/l) with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5) in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l) at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 10:00 Forum Humanum, önköping
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Borås.
    Conflicting values - everyday ethical and leadership challenges related to care in combat zones within a military organization2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Licensed medical personnel (henceforth LMP) experience ethical problems related to undertaking care duties in combat zones. When employed in the Armed Forces they are always under the command of tactical officers (henceforth TOs).

    Aim: The overall aim was to explore everyday ethical problems experienced by military medical personnel, focusing on licensed medical personnel in combat zones from a descriptive and normative perspective. A further aim was to explore leadership challenges in leading licensed medical personnel.

    Methods: For the research descriptive, explorative (inductive and abductive) and normative designs were used. Data collection was undertaken by using different methods. Altogether 12 physicians, 15 registered nurses, seven combat lifesavers and 15 tactical officers were individually interviewed. The participants were selected by strategic (I), purposive (II) and theoretical sampling (III). The interviews were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Study III used classic grounded theory and study IV was a normative analysis of an ethical problem based on the idea of a wide reflective equilibrium.

    Results: We found that LMP experience ethical problems related to dual loyalty when serving in combat zones. They give reasons for undertaking, or not, military duties that can be seen as combat duties. Sometimes they have restricted reasons for undertaking these military duties. Furthermore, LMP are under the command of TOs who found it challenging when leading LMP, since TOs have to unify LMP in the unit. The unifying makes it difficult since LMP experience dual loyalty.

    Conclusions: LMP experience dual loyalty in combat zones. The reason maybe that humanitarian law and the medical ethical codes are not clear-cut or explicit about how to be interpreted around these everyday ethical problems in internal military operations. In order to fit in todays context humanitarian law needs to be revised. Furthermore, LMP need further training in parallel with reflections on ethical problems in order to adapt to the combat zones of today.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 13:00 Room B7:101a, Uppsala
    Daurer, Benedikt J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär biofysik.
    Algorithms for Coherent Diffractive Imaging with X-ray Lasers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) has become a very popular technique over the past two decades. CDI is a "lensless" imaging method which replaces the objective lens of a conventional microscope by a computational image reconstruction procedure. Its increase in popularity came together with the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) which produce extremely bright and coherent X-rays. By facilitating these unique properties, CDI enables structure determination of non-crystalline samples at nanometre resolution and has many applications in structural biology, material science and X-ray optics among others. This work focuses on two specific CDI techniques, flash X-ray diffractive imaging (FXI) on biological samples and X-ray ptychography.

    While the first FXI demonstrations using soft X-rays have been quite promising, they also revealed remaining technical challenges. FXI becomes even more demanding when approaching shorter wavelengths to allow subnanometre resolution imaging. We described one of the first FXI experiments using hard X-rays and characterized the most critical components of such an experiment, namely the properties of X-ray focus, sample delivery and detectors. Based on our findings, we discussed experimental and computational strategies for FXI to overcome its current difficulties and reach its full potential. We deposited the data in the Coherent X-ray Database (CXIDB) and made our data analysis code available in a public repository. We developed algorithms targeted towards the needs of FXI experiments and implemented a software package which enables the analysis of diffraction data in real time.

    X-ray ptychography has developed into a very useful tool for quantitative imaging of complex materials and has found applications in many areas. However, it involves a computational reconstruction step which can be slow. Therefore, we developed a fast GPU-based ptychographic solver and combined it with a framework for real-time data processing which already starts the ptychographic reconstruction process while data is still being collected. This provides immediate feedback to the user and allows high-throughput ptychographic imaging.

    Finally, we have used ptychographic imaging as a method to study the wavefront of a focused XFEL beam under typical FXI conditions. 

    We are convinced that this work on developing strategies and algorithms for FXI and ptychography is a valuable contribution to the development of coherent diffractive imaging. 

  • Hermanson, M.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital.
    Hägglund, G.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital.
    Riad, J.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Skaraborgs Hospital/Skövde.
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the head-shaft angle in children with cerebral palsy2017Inngår i: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, ISSN 1863-2521, E-ISSN 1863-2548, Vol. 11, nr 4, 256-262 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at increased risk for hip dislocation. This can be prevented in most cases using surveillance programmes that include radiographic examinations. Known risk factors for hip dislocation include young age, high Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level and high migration percentage (MP). The head-shaft angle (HSA) has recently been described as an additional risk factor. The study aim was to determine inter- and intra-rater reliability of the HSA in a surveillance programme for children with CP.

    Methods We included hip radiographs from the CP surveillance programme CPUP in southern Sweden during the first half of 2016. Fifty radiographs were included from children at GMFCS levels II-V, with a mean age of 6.6 (SD 3.2) years. Three raters measured the HSA of one hip (left or right) at baseline and four weeks later; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate inter- and intra-rater reliability.

    Results Inter-and intra-rater reliability were excellent for the HSA, with ICC 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96) and ICC 0.99 ( 95% CI 0.98-0.99), respectively.

    Conclusion The HSA showed excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability for children with CP, providing further evidence for use of the HSA as an additional factor for identifying risk for further hip displacement or dislocation.

  • Stawarz, J. E.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Imperial College London.
    Eastwood, J.P.
    Department of Physics, Imperial College London.
    Varsani, A.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Ergun, R.E.
    Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder.
    Shay, M.A.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware.
    Nakamura, R.
    pace Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Phan, T.D.
    Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California.
    Burch, J. L.
    South West Research Institute.
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Russell, C. T.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire.
    Magnetospheric Multiscale analysis of intense field-aligned Poynting flux near the Earth's plasma sheet boundary2017Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, nr 14, 7106-7113 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission is employed to examine intense Poynting flux directed along the background magnetic field toward Earth, which reaches amplitudes of nearly 2 mW/m(2). The event is located within the plasma sheet but likely near the boundary at a geocentric distance of 9 RE in association with bulk flow signatures. The fluctuations have wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field of 124-264 km (compared to an ion gyroradius of 280 km), consistent with highly kinetic Alfven waves. While the wave vector remains highly perpendicular to the magnetic field, there is substantial variation of the direction in the perpendicular plane. The field-aligned Poynting flux may be associated with kinetic Alfven waves released along the separatrix by magnetotail reconnection and/or the radiation of waves excited by bursty bulk flow braking and may provide a means through which energy released by magnetic reconnection is transferred to the auroral region.

  • Capovilla, Giovanna
    et al.
    Symeonidi, Efthymia
    Wu, Rui
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Spemannstr. 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Contribution of major FLM isoforms to temperature-dependent flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana2017Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 68, nr 18, 5117-5127 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM), a component of the thermosensory flowering time pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, is regulated by temperature-dependent alternative splicing (AS). The main splicing variant, FLM-beta, is a well-documented floral repressor that is down-regulated in response to increasing ambient growth temperature. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain how flowering time is modulated by AS of FLM. In the first model a second splice variant, FLM-delta, acts as a dominant negative isoform that competes with FLM-beta at elevated ambient temperatures, thereby indirectly promoting flowering. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the induction of flowering at elevated temperatures is caused only by reduced FLM-beta expression. To better understand the role of the two FLM splice forms, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to specifically delete the exons that characterize each splice variant. Lines that produced repressive FLM-beta but were incapable of producing FLM-delta were late flowering. In contrast, FLM-beta knockout lines that still produced FLM-delta flowered early, but not earlier than the flm-3 loss of function mutant, as would be expected if FLM-delta had a dominant-negative effect on flowering. Our data support the role of FLM-beta as a flower repressor and provide evidence that a contribution of FLM-delta to the regulation of flowering time in wild-type A. thaliana seems unlikely.

  • Tyrala, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Wojtaszek, Klaudia
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Pajek, Marek
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University.
    Kayser, Yves
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).
    Milne, Christopher
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Szlachetko, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University; Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    State-Population Narrowing Effect in Two-Photon Absorption for Intense Hard X-ray Pulses2017Inngår i: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 7, nr 7, 653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on studies of state-populations during the two-photon absorption process using intense X-ray pulses. The calculations were performed in a time-dependent manner using a simple three-level model expressed by coupled rate equations. We show that the proposed approach describes well the measured rates of X-rays excited in the one-photon and two-photon absorption processes, and allows detailed investigation of the state population dynamics during the course of the incident X-ray pulse. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear interaction of X-ray pulses with atoms leads to a time-narrowing of state populations. This narrowing-effect is attributed to a quadratic incidence X-ray intensity dependence characteristic for nonlinear interactions of photons with matter.

  • Disputas: 2018-01-09 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    An Experimental Study to Measure Grout Penetrability, Improve the Grout Spread, and Evaluate the Real Time Grouting Control Theory2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the significant influence of the grout penetrability properties on spread of grout in rock fractures, this study aimed to investigate the grout penetrability from four different aspects. In Part (a), after review of all the existing methodologies developed to measure the grout penetrability, Filter-pump and Penetrability-meter were examined against Short-slot to figure out which one is more reliable. The study decisively considered Short-slot more reliable. In part (b), the so-called varying aperture long slot (VALS), an artificial fracture with apertures of 230-10 μm, was developed to study the gout penetrability more realistically. In part (c), a low-frequency rectangular pressure impulse was introduced to improve the grout spread by successive erosion of the produced filter cakes in consecutive cycles. The results showed considerable improvement in experiments using Short-slot. The dissipation of the pressure impulses was then investigated using VALS with noticeable remaining amplitudes after 2.0-2.7 m. In part (d), VALS was once more introduced to examine RTGC theory in a fracture with variable aperture. The study showed a relatively satisfactory agreement between the experimental results and the predictions of the grout propagation using the hydraulic aperture, whereas the predictions using the mean physical aperture showed considerably faster spread.

  • Hoogendoorn, Martine
    et al.
    Feenstra, Talitha L.
    Boland, Melinde
    Briggs, Andrew H.
    Borg, Sixten
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Risebrough, Nancy A.
    Slejko, Julia F.
    Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.
    Prediction models for exacerbations in different COPD patient populations: comparing results of five large data sources2017Inngår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 12, 3183-3194 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Exacerbations are important outcomes in COPD both from a clinical and an economic perspective. Most studies investigating predictors of exacerbations were performed in COPD patients participating in pharmacological clinical trials who usually have moderate to severe airflow obstruction. This study was aimed to investigate whether predictors of COPD exacerbations depend on the COPD population studied.

    Methods: A network of COPD health economic modelers used data from five COPD data sources - two population-based studies (COPDGene (R) and The Obstructive Lung Disease in Norrbotten), one primary care study (RECODE), and two studies in secondary care (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoint and UPLIFT) - to estimate and validate several prediction models for total and severe exacerbations (= hospitalization). The models differed in terms of predictors (depending on availability) and type of model.

    Results: FEV1% predicted and previous exacerbations were significant predictors of total exacerbations in all five data sources. Disease-specific quality of life and gender were predictors in four out of four and three out of five data sources, respectively. Age was significant only in the two studies including secondary care patients. Other significant predictors of total exacerbations available in one database were: presence of cough and wheeze, pack-years, 6-min walking distance, inhaled corticosteroid use, and oxygen saturation. Predictors of severe exacerbations were in general the same as for total exacerbations, but in addition low body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and emphysema were significant predictors of hospitalization for an exacerbation in secondary care patients.

    Conclusions: FEV1% predicted, previous exacerbations, and disease-specific quality of life were predictors of exacerbations in patients regardless of their COPD severity, while age, low body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and emphysema seem to be predictors in secondary care patients only.

  • Åberg, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Saccoccia, Fulvio
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Grabherr, Manfred
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ore, Wai Ying Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Jemth, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hultqvist, Greta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Evolution of the p53-MDM2 pathway2017Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The p53 signalling pathway, which controls cell fate, has been extensively studied due to its prominent role in tumor development. The pathway includes the tumor supressor protein p53, its vertebrate paralogs p63 and p73, and their negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. The p53/p63/p73-MDM system is ancient and can be traced in all extant animal phyla. Despite this, correct phylogenetic trees including both vertebrate and invertebrate species of the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families have not been published. Results: Here, we have examined the evolution of the p53/p63/p73 protein family with particular focus on the p53/ p63/p73 transactivation domain (TAD) and its co-evolution with the p53/p63/p73- binding domain (p53/p63/p73BD) of MDM2. We found that the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD share a strong evolutionary connection. If one of the domains of the protein is lost in a phylum, then it seems very likely to be followed by loss of function by the other domain as well, and due to the loss of function it is likely to eventually disappear. By focusing our phylogenetic analysis to p53/p63/ p73 and MDM proteins from phyla that retain the interaction domains TAD and p53/p63/p73BD, we built phylogenetic trees of p53/p63/p73 and MDM based on both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The trees follow species evolution and contain a total number of 183 and 98 species for p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively. We also demonstrate that the p53/p63/p73 and MDM families result from whole genome duplications. Conclusions: The signaling pathway of the TAD and p53/p63/p73BD in p53/p63/p73 and MDM, respectively, dates back to early metazoan time and has since then tightly co-evolved, or disappeared in distinct lineages.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-13 15:15 D3, Stockholm
    Negi, Prabal
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Boundary layers over wing sections2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of developing boundary layers over wings is an important topic from the perspective of industrial applications. An increased understanding would be consequential not only for achieving higher fuel efficiency but also in the design of aircraft control strategies. With these aims in mind, the current work aims to further the understanding of developing boundary layer over wingsections. The study is performed with two particular perspectives in mind -unsteady aerodynamic effects in a pitching airfoil and turbulent boundary layerstructure in non-equilibrium boundary layers over a stationary airfoil.The boundary layer evolution in unsteady natural laminar flow airfoils undergoing small-amplitude pitch-oscillations is investigated. For high Reynolds numbers the origins of the non-linear unsteady aerodynamic response of laminar airfoils is explained on the basis of quasi-steady assumptions. Temporal nonlinearitiesin aerodynamic forces are shown to be inherently linked to thenon-linearities of static aerodynamic force coefficients and that a simple phaselagconcept can model the observed non-linear unsteady response. On the other hand at lower Reynolds numbers, when there exists an unstable leading edgelaminar separation bubble, the unsteady response is dynamically rich and changes in boundary layer characteristics can be abrupt. Such quasi-steadyphase-lag concepts are no longer appropriate to explain the unsteady flow physics in such a case. For the case of stationary airfoils, flow statistics for flow around an airfoil at two different Reynolds numbers are compared to assess Reynolds number effects in non-equilibrium flows. Pressure gradient effects found to be stronger at low Reynolds numbers, leading to higher energy in the larger structures present  in the outer part of the turbulent boundary layer.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-11 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Kolitsidas, Christos
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektroteknisk teori och konstruktion. Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Next Generation Wideband Antenna Arrays for Communications and Radio Astrophysics2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Wideband, wide-scan antenna arrays are a promising candidate for the future wireless networks and as well as an essential part of experimental radio astrophysics. Understanding the underline physics of the element performance in the array environment is paramount to develop and improve the performance of array systems. The focus of this thesis is to develop novel wideband antenna array technologies and develop new theoretical insights of the fundamental limits of antenna arrays. The developed methodologies have also been extended to include a radio astrophysics application for the global 21cm experiment.  

    Investigating the fundamental antenna array limits and extracting general performance measures can provide a priori estimates for any application of arrays. In this thesis, a general measure for antenna arrays, the array figure of merit is proposed. This measure couples bandwidth, height from the ground plane and reflection coefficient in a bounded quantity. An extension of the array figure of merit that is able to provide matching, bandwidth and directivity/gain limits is also introduced.

    The soft Vivaldi array is introduced as a novel wideband, wide-scan angle array technology. Periodic structure loading has been utilized to improve the array's performance and mold the electromagnetic wave behavior to our benefit. The soft condition has been utilized in the same manner as the conventional soft-horn antenna at the Vivaldi element. An integrated matching layer in the form of periodic strip loading is introduced. A single polarized soft Vivaldi array prototype has been developed fabricated and measured. The developed finite array has been loaded with a soft condition in the periphery to mitigate edge effects. The results indicated improved cross-polarization and side-lobe levels.

    A new class of wideband antenna arrays, the Strongly Coupled Asymmetric Dipole Array (SCADA) was also proposed in this thesis. Exploiting asymmetry in the array element introduces an additional degree of freedom that improves bandwidth and scanning performance. A novel methodology for terminating finite arrays is also proposed. The theory and an experimental antenna array is presented with good agreement between measured and simulated results. An effort to integrate a vertical wide angle matching layer was also addressed and a prototype array with this concept is presented.

    In the last part of this thesis, a methodology for the detection of the global cosmological 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is developed. The main sources of errors in this experiment, the foregrounds and the antenna chromaticity are evaluated. A new algorithmic methodology for extracting the global EoR signal is proposed. The method is based on piecewise polynomial fitting and has successfully been applied and evaluated. An antenna array that is based on the methodologies described in this thesis has been developed and evaluated with the proposed algorithm.

  • Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Giordano, James
    Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, Neuroethics Studies Program-Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States.
    The Utility- and Use–of Neurotechnology to Recover Consciousness: Technical and Neuroethical Considerations in Approaching the “Hard Question” of Neuroscience2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 11, 1-3 s., 564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Engström, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för moderna språk, Slaviska språk.
    Ikonens metamorfoser i det postsovjetiska Ryssland2014Inngår i: Med blicken österut: Hyllningsskrift till Per-Arne Bodin / [ed] Per Ambrosiani, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2014, 67-78 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2017-12-15 09:00 Sal-C, Kista.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Performance Characterization and Optimization of In-Memory Data Analytics on a Scale-up Server2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The sheer increase in the volume of data over the last decade has triggered research in cluster computing frameworks that enable web enterprises to extract big insights from big data. While Apache Spark defines the state of the art in big data analytics platforms for (i) exploiting data-flow and in-memory computing and (ii) for exhibiting superior scale-out performance on the commodity machines, little effort has been devoted to understanding the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on modern scale-up servers. This thesis characterizes the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on scale-up servers.Through empirical evaluation of representative benchmark workloads on a dual socket server, we have found that in-memory data analytics with Spark exhibit poor multi-core scalability beyond 12 cores due to thread level load imbalance and work-time inflation (the additional CPU time spent by threads in a multi-threaded computation beyond the CPU time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation). We have also found that workloads are bound by the latency of frequent data accesses to the memory. By enlarging input data size, application performance degrades significantly due to the substantial increase in wait time during I/O operations and garbage collection, despite 10% better instruction retirement rate (due to lower L1cache misses and higher core utilization).For data accesses, we have found that simultaneous multi-threading is effective in hiding the data latencies. We have also observed that (i) data locality on NUMA nodes can improve the performance by 10% on average,(ii) disabling next-line L1-D prefetchers can reduce the execution time by upto14%. For garbage collection impact, we match memory behavior with the garbage collector to improve the performance of applications between 1.6xto 3x and recommend using multiple small Spark executors that can provide up to 36% reduction in execution time over single large executor. Based on the characteristics of workloads, the thesis envisions near-memory and near storage hardware acceleration to improve the single-node performance of scale-out frameworks like Apache Spark. Using modeling techniques, it estimates the speed-up of 4x for Apache Spark on scale-up servers augmented with near-data accelerators.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 09:15 A1:107a, Uppsala
    Lundstedt, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Development of Mild Methods for Selective Covalent Functionalization of Graphene2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses methods for the comparatively mild covalent functionalization of graphene. Several graphene models were investigated: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-graphene on SiO2/Si substrate, graphite foil, graphite flakes, kish graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The PAHs were viewed as graphene edge analogs with the following molecules representing different edge motifs: pyrene, perylene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, triphenylene, acenapthylene, and anthracene.

    Ozone was used in combination with different solvents to functionalize PAHs, graphite, and CVD-graphene on SiO2/Si. Ozonation in water or methanol resulted in trapping of the carbonyl oxide intermediate that was formed in the reaction, producing a variety of functional groups. Ozonation in hydrogen peroxide solution with sonication promoted radical formation, possibly resulting in edge-oxidation of graphite. The regioselectivity for addition reactions (ozonolysis) and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with graphene edges is discussed.

    To achieve functionalization of the basal plane of graphite or graphene, white light irradiation was used in combination with several transfer hydrogenation reagents. Formic acid treatment under irradiation resulted in the expected hydrogenation, whereas iso-propanol treatment resulted in iso-propanol attachment to the graphene.

    The developed methods provide opportunities for graphene functionalization without the need for metal based reagents or harsh conditions.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-11 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Synchrophasor Applications and their Vulnerability to Time Synchronization Impairment2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen the significance of utilizing time-synchronized, high resolution measurements from phasor measurement units (PMUs) to develop and implement wide-area monitoring, protection and control (WAMPAC) systems. WAMPAC systems aim to provide holistic view of the power system and enable detection and control of certain power system phenomena to enhance reliability and integrity of the grid.

    This thesis focuses on the design, development and experimental validation of WAMPAC applications, and investigates their vulnerability to time synchronization impairment. To this purpose, a state-of-the-art real-time hardware-in-the-loop (RT-HIL) test-bench was established for prototyping of synchrophasor-based applications. This platform was extensively used throughout the thesis for end-to-end testing of the proposed WAMPAC applications. To facilitate the development of WAMPAC applications, an open-source real-time data mediator is presented that parses the incoming synchrophasor stream and provides access to raw data in LabVIEW environment.

    Within the domain of wide-area protection applications, the thesis proposes hybrid synchrophasor and IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE-based islanding detection and automatic synchronization schemes. These applications utilize synchrophasor measurements to assess the state of the power system and initiate protection / corrective action using GOOSE messages. The associated communication latencies incurred due to the utilization of synchrophasors and GOOSE messages are also determined. It is shown that such applications can have a seamless and cost-effective deployment in the field.

      Within the context of wide-area control applications, this thesis explores the possibility of utilizing synchrophasor-based damping signals in a commercial excitation control system (ECS). For this purpose, a hardware prototype of wide-area damping controller (WADC) is presented together with its interface with ECS. The WADC allows real-time monitoring and remote parameter tuning that could potentially facilitate system operators’ to exploit existing damping assets (e.g. conventional generators) when changes in operating conditions or network topology emerges.

    Finally the thesis experimentally investigates the impact of time synchronization impairment on WAMPAC applications by designing RT-HIL experiments for time synchronization signal loss and time synchronization spoofing. It is experimentally demonstrated that GPS-based time synchronization impairment results in corrupt phase angle computations by PMUs, and the impact this has on associated WAMPAC application. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-12 13:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Crawford, Jason
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Regulation's Influence on Risk Management and Management Control Systems in Banks2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores regulation’s influence on risk management and management control systems (MCS) in banks. The dissertation comprises of an introductory chapter, two published book chapters, one of which is an extensive literature review, and two working papers, presented at several European conferences. The overall objective of this dissertation is to explore how banks are responding to banking regulation in light of the 2007-08 financial crisis and what the implications of those responses are, particularly in relation to risk management and MCS, and their interactions. The overall research question is therefore: what influence does regulation have on risk management and management control systems in banks over time? The intended ambition is to contribute to existing knowledge on the relationship between bank regulation, risk management, and MCS by providing several practical and theoretical contributions. The dissertation employs an adapted theoretical framework and uses institutional theory and contingency theory to expose tensions between, the demands for uniformity residing in banking regulation, and the demands for uniqueness residing inside banks themselves as they seek to maintain control over the design and use of their organizational controls. The empirical material used in the longitudinal case study is gathered from a large European bank. The main findings of the dissertation are as follows. In Paper I, the findings show that banking regulation’s influence on risk management and management control is mixed, which in turn can influence risk management’s integration with MCS. The paper also finds that very little knowledge exists about regulation’s influence on risk management and MCS. In Paper II, the findings show that while regulatory influence in IT control has increased over time, banks continue to exercise significant influence over regulatory demands. In Paper III, the findings show how regulation’s influence varies considerably over time and that increased regulatory pressure can lead to a higher degree of integration between risk management and MCS across the three dimensions of integration. In Paper IV, the findings show how regulation’s influence is shaping the mental processes of management and employees, and can vary significantly based on several identified factors.

  • Kulkarni, Yashraj S.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Liao, Qinghua
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Petrovic, Dusan
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Complex Syst Struct Biochem, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Krüger, Dennis M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Strodel, Birgit
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Complex Syst Struct Biochem, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Theoret & Computat Chem, Univ Str 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Amyes, Tina L.
    SUNY Buffalo, Dept Chem, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA..
    Richard, John P.
    SUNY Buffalo, Dept Chem, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA..
    Kamerlin, Shina C. L.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Enzyme Architecture: Modeling the Operation of a Hydrophobic Clamp in Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase2017Inngår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, nr 30, 10514-10525 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a proficient catalyst of the reversible isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to D-glyceraldehyde phosphate (GAP), via general base catalysis by E165. Historically, this enzyme has been an extremely important model system for understanding the fundamentals of biological catalysis. TIM is activated through an energetically demanding conformational change, which helps position the side chains of two key hydrophobic residues (1170 and L230), over the carboxylate side chain of E165. This is critical both for creating a hydrophobic pocket for the catalytic base and for maintaining correct active site architecture. Truncation of these residues to alanine causes significant falloffs in TIM's catalytic activity, but experiments have failed to provide a full description of the action of this clamp in promoting substrate deprotonation. We perform here detailed empirical valence bond calculations of the TIM-catalyzed deprotonation of DHAP and GAP by both wild type TIM and its 1170A, L230A, and 1170A/L230A mutants, obtaining exceptional quantitative agreement with experiment. Our calculations provide a linear free energy relationship, with slope 0.8, between the activation barriers and Gibbs free energies for these TIM-catalyzed reactions. We conclude that these clamping side chains minimize the Gibbs free energy for substrate deprotonation, and that the effects on reaction driving force are largely expressed at the transition state for proton transfer. Our combined analysis of previous experimental and current computational results allows us to provide an overview of the breakdown of ground-state and transition state effects in enzyme catalysis in unprecedented detail, providing a molecular description of the operation of a hydrophobic clamp in triosephosphate isomerase.

  • Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Brunnström, Hans
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden.;Reg Labs Reg Skane, Dept Pathol, Lund, Sweden..
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi.
    Veerla, Srinivas
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Mattsson, Johanna Sofia Margareta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi.
    La Fleur, Linnea
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi.
    Jönsson, Mats
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Reuterswärd, Christel
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Planck, Maria
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med & Allergol, Lund, Sweden..
    Staaf, Johan
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Div Oncol & Pathol, SE-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Gene Expression Profiling of Large Cell Lung Cancer Links Transcriptional Phenotypes to the New Histological WHO 2015 Classification2017Inngår i: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ISSN 1556-0864, E-ISSN 1556-1380, Vol. 12, nr 8, 1257-1267 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Large cell lung cancer (LCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) constitute a small proportion of NSCLC. The WHO 2015 classification guidelines changed the definition of the debated histological subtype LCLC to be based on immunomarkers for adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer. We sought to determine whether these new guidelines also translate into the transcriptional landscape of lung cancer, and LCLC specifically.

    Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed by using Illumina V4 HT12 microarrays (Illumina, San Diego, CA) on samples from 159 cases (comprising all histological subtypes, including 10 classified as LCLC WHO 2015 and 14 classified as LCNEC according to the WHO 2015 guidelines), with complimentary mutational and immunohistochemical data. Derived transcriptional phenotypes were validated in 199 independent tumors, including six WHO 2015 LCLCs and five LCNECs.

    Results: Unsupervised analysis of gene expression data identified a phenotype comprising 90% of WHO 2015 LCLC tumors, with characteristics of poorly differentiated proliferatiVe cancer, a 90% tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) mutation rate, and lack of well-known NSCLC oncogene driver alterations. Validation in independent data confirmed aggregation of WHO 2015 LCLCs in the specific phenotype. For LCNEC tumors, the unsupervised gene expression analysis suggested two different transcriptional patterns corresponding to a proposed genetic division of LCNEC tumors into SCLC-like and NSCLC-like cancer on the basis of TP53 and retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) alteration patterns.

    Conclusions: Refined classification of LCLC has implications for diagnosis, prognostics, and therapy decisions. Our molecular analyses support the WHO 2015 classification of LCLC and LCNEC tumors, which herein follow different tumorigenic paths and can accordingly be stratified into different transcriptional subgroups, thus linking diagnostic immunohistochemical staining driven classification with the transcriptional landscape of lung cancer.

  • Kawakami, Takeshi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Mugal, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Suh, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Nater, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Burri, Reto
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Dept Populat Ecol, Jena, Germany..
    Smeds, Linnea
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds2017Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 26, nr 16, 4158-4172 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of the recombination landscape between these species at the scale of 200 kb, but we also identified differences in the local rate of recombination despite their recent divergence (<1 million years). Genetic diversity and differentiation were associated with recombination rate in a lineage-specific manner, indicating differences in the extent of linked selection between species. We detected 400-3,085 recombination hotspots per population. Location of hotspots was conserved between species, but the intensity of hotspot activity varied between species. Recombination hotspots were primarily associated with CpG islands (CGIs), regardless of whether CGIs were at promoter regions or away from genes. Recombination hotspots were also associated with specific transposable elements (TEs), but this association appears indirect due to shared preferences of the transposition machinery and the recombination machinery for accessible open chromatin regions. Our results suggest that CGIs are a major determinant of the localization of recombination hotspots, and we propose that both the distribution of TEs and fine-scale variation in recombination rate may be associated with the evolution of the epigenetic landscape.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 B2, Stockholm
    Xu, Xin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Metallografi. KTH.
    Phase Separation in Stainless Steels Studied by Small-angle Neutron Scattering2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fe-Cr based steels, i.e. stainless steels, possessing a combination of excellent corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties, have indispensable applications ranging from low-end cooking utensils, to sophisticated components for nuclear power plants. However, the bcc/bct phase containing stainless steels which have a miscibility gap (MG) suffer from the so-called “475 oC embrittlement” leading to hardness increase and toughness deterioration. It occurs due to demixing of Fe and Cr leading to the formation of Fe-rich (α) and Cr-rich (α′) regions in bcc/bct phases. The demixing is referred to as phase separation (PS).

    The goal of this work was to study PS in ferrite containing stainless steels mainly by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Firstly, the application of different experimental techniques for the study of phase separation in Fe-Cr based steels was reviewed and supplemented by new measurements. SANS was shown to be very sensitive to the nanostructure change caused by PS and capable of characterizing the early stages of PS in Fe-Cr alloys. However, atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy are complementary to SANS. Therefore, in order to have a more complete view of the microstructure, the combination of these techniques should be pursued. Secondly, the factors affecting the initial microstructure prior to aging treatment and the effect of the resulted initial microstructure on PS were systematically investigated using binary Fe-Cr model alloys. The critical temperature of the MG was determined to be located between 560 and 580 oC in binary Fe-Cr. The results indicate that the solution treatment temperature above the MG and the cooling rate after solution treatment have significant effects on the initial microstructure and thus on PS during subsequent aging. The mechanisms responsible for the changed aging behavior are Cr clustering, quenched-in vacancy and decomposition during cooling. Therefore, computational simulations should take into account these factors and the initial microstructure to make predictions that are more accurate. Thirdly, the study was extended to PS in commercial duplex stainless steels (DSSs) which are of practical importance in various industries, e.g., nuclear power. It is found that alloying elements have an important effect on PS in DSSs. The grade 2507 (25 %Cr, 7 %Ni) experiences stronger PS than grade 2205 (22 %Cr, 5 % Ni) for the same heat treatment. Moreover, the fracture mechanisms as well as the mechanical properties depend on the extent of PS.  Finally, the fundamental aspects regarding the neutron scattering behavior for Fe-Cr alloys were examined. The results show that the nuclear and magnetic scattering of neutrons depend on the evolution of the nanoscale compositional fluctuation in Fe-Cr alloys. The ratio of the magnitude of nuclear scattering versus magnetic scattering varies with the extent of PS.

  • Kjellström, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ansvar, hälsa och människa: en studie av idéer om individens ansvar för sin hälsa2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    That people should take responsibility for their health is a prominent contemporary idea. But what does such responsibility actually entail, and what demands are being put on people? The objective of the dissertation is to describe and critically examine various ideas on personal responsibility for health. In the first step, I identify and describe a wide variation of uses of responsibility and in the second step, I problematize them. The analyzed material consists of Swedish government reports and various types of health advice literature, including medical books and alternative medicine literature. I employ a framework of philosophical, social scientific, and developmental psychology theories on responsibility to critically examine the material.

    The study shows that taking responsibility involves both body and mind. Common ideas are that it requires maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing one's self-care. But it is also considered important to take responsibility for beliefs and emotions and to adopt an accepting attitude. Another idea is that spiritual insights expand the scope of responsibility. Some important abilities required to take responsibility are conscious healthy choices, self-knowledge, and critical thinking. The view of responsibility is also influenced by individual factors, cultural beliefs about health and disease, and social structures. In the literature, health responsibility is regarded both as a social duty and as a never-ending task performed by an active individual.

    Finally, I use Robert Kegan's theory of adult development to show that taking responsibility imposes psychological demands on people's awareness. The demands are often higher than many people can manage. Some of the stress and poor health that people experience may be the product of an inability to manage all of life's demands. The developmental perspective also asserts that people can develop the requisite capacity. One conceivable conclusion of the study is that if we want people to take more responsibility, we should not only invest resources in health information, but also in measures that generate self-knowledge, reflection, and personal development.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Raúl Sitoe, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Environmental history in southern Mozambique: Reconstruction of flooding events, hydroclimate and sea-level dynamics since mid-Holocene2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to reconstruct paleoenvironment, paleohydrology and paleoclimate in coastal southern Mozambique, with emphasis on tracing past flooding events on the lower Limpopo River floodplain. In order to extend flood chronologies beyond periods covered by instrumental data, sediments from lakes on the floodplain were studied (Lake Lungué, Coassane Oxbow, Lake Magandane and Lake Soane). Past sea-level variations and climate changes were deduced by analyzing sediments from coastal sites north of the floodplain area (Lake Chilau, Lake Nhauhache and Macassa Bay). To achieve the established objectives, a multi-proxy approach was applied on most of the retrieved sediment cores, involving analysis of mineral magnetic parameters, grain-size and organic carbon in combination with analysis of microfossils such as diatoms and/or phytoliths. Chronologies for the constructed time-series analysis were obtained by radiocarbon dating and age-depth modelling. The synthesized data from the sampled sites on the Limpopo River floodplain suggest that the area was affected by at least 16 flooding events of variable magnitudes during the studied period. These are dated to c. AD 940, 980, 1040, 1100, 1250, 1300, 1370, 1580, 1665, 1730, 1755, 1855, 1920, 1945, 1970 and 2000. In calibrated years BP these ages correspond to 1010, 970, 910, 850, 700, 650, 580, 370, 285, 220, 195, 95, 30, and 5 cal yrs BP. The two youngest are dated to 20 and 50 years AP (After Present being 1950). Proxy data further suggest that southern Africa was subject to two periods of sea-level highstands, at c. 5000–4200 BC (6950–6150 cal yrs BP) and AD 300–950 (1650–1000 cal yrs BP). The former represents the middle part of the postglacial climatic optimum. The wettest period in the Limpopo River floodplain was reported between AD 1360 and 1560 (590 and 390 cal yrs BP) in the Lake Lungué record, while Lake Chilau experienced wet conditions between AD 1200 and 1400 (750 and 550 cal yrs BP), then returning to drier conditions that prevailed until c. AD 1600. In Lake Nhauhache, however, drier conditions prevailed from c. AD 1200–1700 (750–250 cal yrs BP), shifting towards wetter at c. AD 1900 (50 cal yrs BP). The deviating signals between records can partly be explained by Lake Lungué basin being located on the Limpopo River floodplain, responding to flooding events associated with precipitation upstream the drainage area. Therefore, wet and dry periods in floodplain lakes (e.g. Lake Lungué) are not expected to correlate with precipitation changes on a local scale, as indicated by e.g. Lake Nhauhache. This is supported by a relatively weak agreement between Lake Lungué record and other nearby records (outside the floodplain), but a better correlation with records from the upper catchment, where a more regional climate signal is provided of the southern African summer rainfall region.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen) NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Garcia Lobato Tavares, Raquel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Host cell responses to Helicobacter pylori secreted factors2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The infection of the human gastric mucosa by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori can lead to the development of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, and cancer. The factors that determine disease development in a small percentage of infected individuals are still not fully understood.

    In this thesis, we aimed to identify and functionally characterize novel virulence factors of H. pylori and to understand their effect on host cell responses.

    In Paper I, we found that JHP0290, an uncharacterized secreted protein of H. pylori, induced macrophage apoptosis concomitant to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF via the regulation of the Src family of kinases and ERK MAPK pathways. In paper II, we demonstrated that JHP0290 exhibits both proliferative and anti-apoptotic activity, together with a faster progression of the cell cycle in gastric epithelial cells. During these responses, ERK MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated. Paper III revealed a pro-apoptotic effect of another H. pylori-secreted protein HP1286 in macrophages via the TNF-independent and ERK-dependent pathways. No apoptosis was observed in HP1286-treated T cells or HL60 neutrophil-like cells, suggesting cell-type specific effect of HP1286. In Paper IV, we observed the pro-inflammatory activity of H. pylori secreted protein HP1173 in macrophages. The protein was found to induce TNF, IL-1β, and IL-8 in macrophages through MAPKs, NF-κB, and AP-1 signaling pathways. Furthermore, differential expression and release of JHP0290, HP1286, and HP1173 homologues was observed among H. pylori strains (papers II, III, IV). 

    Due to their ability to regulate multiple host cell responses, proteins JHP0290, HP1286, and HP1173 could play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis.

     

  • Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Box 7023, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tengvall, Katarina
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Karolinska Inst, Neuroimmunol Unit, Centrum Mol Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergvall, Kerstin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Farias, Fabiana H. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Wang, Liya
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, 415 Main St, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
    Andersson, Göran
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Box 7023, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Comparison of cellular location and expression of Plakophilin-2 in epidermal cells from nonlesional atopic skin and healthy skin in German shepherd dogs2017Inngår i: Veterinary dermatology (Print), ISSN 0959-4493, E-ISSN 1365-3164, Vol. 28, nr 4, 377-e88 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background - Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Previously, a genome-wide significant risk locus on canine chromosome 27 for CAD was identified in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) and Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) was defined as the top candidate gene. PKP2 constitutes a crucial component of desmosomes and also is important in signalling, metabolic and transcriptional activities.

    Objectives - The main objective was to evaluate the role of PKP2 in CAD by investigating PKP2 expression and desmosome structure in nonlesional skin from CAD-affected (carrying the top GWAS SNP risk allele) and healthy GSDs. We also aimed at defining the cell types in the skin that express PKP2 and its intracellular location.

    Animals/Methods - Skin biopsies were collected from nine CAD-affected and five control GSDs. The biopsies were frozen for immunofluorescence and fixed for electron microscopy immunolabelling and morphology.

    Results - We observed the novel finding of PKP2 expression in dendritic cells and T cells in dog skin. Moreover, we detected that PKP2 was more evenly expressed within keratinocytes compared to its desmosomal binding partner plakoglobin. PKP2 protein was located in the nucleus and on keratin filaments attached to desmosomes. No difference in PKP2 abundance between CAD cases and controls was observed.

    Conclusion - Plakophilin-2 protein in dog skin is expressed in both epithelial and immune cells; based on Its sub cellular location its functional role is implicated in both nuclear and structural processes.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 13:15 MA121, Umeå
    Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Performance anomaly detection and resolution for autonomous clouds2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental properties of cloud computing such as resource sharing and on-demand self-servicing is driving a growing adoption of the cloud for hosting both legacy and new application services. A consequence of this growth is that the increasing scale and complexity of the underlying cloud infrastructure as well as the fluctuating service workloads is inducing performance incidents at a higher frequency than ever before with far-reaching impact on revenue, reliability, and reputation. Hence, effectively managing performance incidents with emphasis on timely detection, diagnosis and resolution has thus become a necessity rather than luxury. While other aspects of cloud management such as monitoring and resource management are experiencing greater automation, automated management of performance incidents remains a major concern.

    Given the volume of operational data produced by cloud datacenters and services, this thesis focus on how data analytics techniques can be used in the aspect of cloud performance management. In particular, this work investigates techniques and models for automated performance anomaly detection and prevention in cloud environments. To familiarize with developments in the research area, we present the outcome of an extensive survey of existing research contributions addressing various aspects of performance problem management in diverse systems domains. We discuss the design and evaluation of analytics models and algorithms for detecting performance anomalies in real-time behaviour of cloud datacenter resources and hosted services at different resolutions. We also discuss the design of a semi-supervised machine learning approach for mitigating performance degradation by actively driving quality of service from undesirable states to a desired target state via incremental capacity optimization. The research methods used in this thesis include experiments on real virtualized testbeds to evaluate aspects of proposed techniques while other aspects are evaluated using performance traces from real-world datacenters.

    Insights and outcomes from this thesis can be used by both cloud and service operators to enhance the automation of performance problem detection, diagnosis and resolution. They also have the potential to spur further research in the area while being applicable in related domains such as Internet of Things (IoT), industrial sensors as well as in edge and mobile clouds.

  • Sepahvand, Mohammad H
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University.
    Intergenerational Transmission of Risk Attitudes:The Role of Gender, Parents and Grandparents in Burkina Faso2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes for three risk domains in Burkina Faso. First, our results shows a strong transmission of attitudes from parents to children. Although, estimates from intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes in developing countries should not be compared directly with those from developed countries, our results goes in the same direction as previous literature from Germany. That is risk attitudes are transmitted from; parents to children, local enviorment to children and positive assortative mating of parents strengthens the parents’ transmission of attitudes to her child. Second we analyze three generations of risk attitude transmission. Our results indicates that it exist a transmission of risk attitudes from grandparents to their grandchildren. The strength and significance of this socialization decreases when we control for parents risk attitudes. Third, since there are strong gender roles in Burkina Faso, we test if mothers and fathers transmission of risk attitudes on their daughter is the same as on their son. We find that mother’s transmission of risk attitudes is stronger on their daughters than sons. For fathers the pattern is reverse. However, our findings show that it exist a heterogenity in the transmission of risk attitudes in male and female dominated risk domains. This gives support for the gender-specific role model hypothesis in terms of risk attitudes.

  • Buzzi, Michele
    et al.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Makita, Mikako
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Howald, Ludovic
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Kleibert, Armin
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Vodungbo, Boris
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7639, Lab Opt Appl,ENSTA ParisTech, Chemin Huniere, F-91761 Palaiseau, France.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LCPMR, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Maldonado, Pablo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Raabe, Jörg
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Jaouen, Nicolas
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Redlin, Harald
    DESY, HASYLAB, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Tiedtke, Kai
    DESY, HASYLAB, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    David, Christian
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Nolting, Frithjof
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Luning, Jan
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, LCPMR, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Single-shot Monitoring of Ultrafast Processes via X-ray Streaking at a Free Electron Laser2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of x-ray free electron lasers has extended the unique capabilities of resonant x-ray spectroscopy techniques to ultrafast time scales. Here, we report on a novel experimental method that allows retrieving with a single x-ray pulse the time evolution of an ultrafast process, not only at a few discrete time delays, but continuously over an extended time window. We used a single x-ray pulse to resolve the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetisation dynamics in a thin cobalt film over a time window of about 1.6 ps with an excellent signal to noise ratio. From one representative single shot measurement we extract a spin relaxation time of (130 +/- 30) fs with an average value, based on 193 single shot events of (113 +/- 20) fs. These results are limited by the achieved experimental time resolution of 120 fs, and both values are in excellent agreement with previous results and theoretical modelling. More generally, this new experimental approach to ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy paves the way to the study of non-repetitive processes that cannot be investigated using traditional repetitive pump-probe schemes.

  • Dýrmætt samstarf: Viðhorf norræns almennings til Norðurlanda2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [is]

    Norræna ráðherranefndin og Norðurlandaráð hafa látið gera umfangsmikla könnun á því hvað íbúum Norðurlanda finnst um norræna samstarfið – grundvöll þess, tilhögun og viðfangsefni.

    Niðurstöður könnunarinnar sýna að norrænt samstarf nýtur víðtæks stuðnings meðal almennings. Íbúarnir telja að mikilvægasti grundvöllur samstarfsins sé annars vegar sameiginlegt gildismat og hins vegar svipuð samfélagsgerð. Það norræna gildi sem flestum finnst einkenna löndin er málfrelsið.

    Stór hluti íbúanna telur að það að geta nýtt öll Norðurlöndin sem atvinnu-, menntunar- og búsetusvæði sé einn af stærstu kostum samstarfsins. Almennt telja íbúar að varnar- og öryggismál séu það svið þar sem mikilvægast sé að eiga í samstarfi.

    Þessi skýrsla var unnin af greiningar- og matssviði Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar. Skýrsluröð sviðsins er ætlað að varpa ljósi á málefni sem eru ofarlega á baugi og mikilvæg frá norrænu sjónarmiði. Þetta er þriðja skýrslan í röðinni. Þær tvær fyrstuvoru:

    Tillit – Det nordiska guldet (Traust – norræna gullið) Greining nr. 1/2017

    Er Norden best i verden? (Eru Norðurlönd best í heimi?) Greining nr. 2/ 2017

  • Arvokasta yhteistyötä: Pohjoismaiden asukkaiden näkemys Pohjoismaista2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [fi]

    Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvosto ja Pohjoismaiden neuvosto ovat toteuttaneet laajan kyselytutkimuksen tavoitteenaan selvittää, mitä Pohjoismaiden asukkaat ajattelevat pohjoismaisesta yhteistyöstä: sen lähtökohdista, muodosta ja sisällöstä.

    Kyselytutkimuksen mukaan pohjoismaisella yhteistyöllä on kansan laaja tuki. Väestö pitää yhteistyön kahtena tärkeimpänä lähtökohtana yhteisiä arvoja ja samankaltaisia yhteiskuntajärjestelmiä. Sananvapaus koetaan Pohjoismaidenominaisimmaksi arvoksi.

    Merkittävä osa väestöstä pitää yhteistyön yhtenä suurimpana etuna mahdollisuutta työskennellä, opiskella ja asua kaikkialla Pohjoismaissa. Yleisimmällä tasolla tärkeimpänä pidetään yhteistyötä turvallisuus- ja puolustuskysymyksissä.

    Raportin on laatinut Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston analyysi- ja selvitysyksikkö. Yksikön raporttisarjassa tarkastellaan Pohjoismaiden näkökulmasta keskeisiä ajankohtaisia aiheita. Tämä on sarjan kolmas raportti. Aiemmat raportit:

    Analyysi nro 1/2017: Tillit – det nordiska guldet.

    Analyysi nro 2/2017: Er Norden best i verden?

  • Bergström, Joakim J. E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Mice Immunized With IgG Anti-Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) Together With SRBC Have a Suppressed Anti-SRBC Antibody Response but Generate Germinal Centers and Anti-IgG Antibodies in Response to the Passively Administered IgG2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, 911Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered together with large particulate antigens such as erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antigen-specific antibody response. The mechanism behind has been elusive. Herein, we made the surprising observation that mice immunized with IgG anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and SRBC, in spite of a severely suppressed anti-SRBC response, have a strong germinal center (GC) response. This occurred regardless of whether the passively administered IgG was of the same allotype as that of the recipient or not. Six days after immunization, the GC size and the number of GC B cells were higher in mice immunized with SRBC alone than in mice immunized with IgG and SRBC, but at the other time points these parameters were similar. GCs in the IgG-groups had a slight shift toward dark zone B cells 6 days after immunization and toward light zone B cells 10 days after immunization. The proportions of T follicular helper cells (TFH) and T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, mice immunized with allogeneic IgG anti-SRBC together with SRBC mounted a vigorous antibody response against the passively administered suppressive IgG. Thus, although their anti-SRBC response was almost completely suppressed, an antibody response against allogeneic, and probably also syngeneic, IgG developed. This most likely explains the development of GCs in the absence of an anti-SRBC antibody response.

  • Bergman, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Inst. för socialt arbete, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Rejmer, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Parents in child custody disputes: Why are they disputing?2017Inngår i: Journal of Child Custody, ISSN 1537-9418, 1-17 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att det under lång tid har funnits samhällsinsatser för att hjälpa föräldrar att lösa konflikter om vårdnad, boende och umgänge är området relativt outforskat. Aktuella forskningsöversikter visar att det finns ett behov av en fortsatt kunskapsutveckling. Det saknas exempelvis en differentierad kunskap om vilka föräldrar som utvecklar vårdnadskonflikter och om deras konflikt.  Vårdnadskonflikter är ett ökande samhällsproblem. Sedan 2006 har  antalet inkomna stämningsansökningar till tingsrätt om vårdnad, boende och umgänge om barn, ökat med 35 %. Det innebär att cirka 7 000 barn årligen i Sverige upplever att deras föräldrar strider i domstol. Av föräldrabalken framgår att domstol ska fatta beslut i dessa frågor, utifrån barnets bästa. Bäst för barn med särlevande föräldrar anses två samarbetande föräldrar med låg konfliktnivå vara. Erfarenheter från professionella aktörer och föräldrar visar att detta sällan uppnås. Konflikterna förblir många gånger olösta och ökar risken för känslo- och beteendemässiga störningar hos barn. Handläggningsordningens oförmåga att hjälpa barn och föräldrar i vårdnadskonflikter har bidragit till att det startas projekt i utvecklande syfte. Under senare år har en norsk modell för medling i vårdnadstvister, Konflikt och försoning, och en amerikansk modell med stödpersoner för föräldrar i konflikt, Parenting Coordinator, införts i nio kommuner och vid tre tingsrätter i södra delen av Stockholms län, utan vetenskapligt inhämtad kunskap om modellernas effekter i en svensk kontext. Detta projekts övergripande syfte är att fylla inomvetenskapliga kunskapsluckor om föräldrar som utvecklar vårdnadskonflikter, deras konflikt och behov av stöd från samhället för att sänka konfliktnivån och öka samarbetsförmågan. Därutöver syftar projektet till att undersöka i vilken utsträckning domstols handläggning samt modellerna Konflikt och försoning och Parenting Coordinator har en konfliktreducerande och samarbetsfrämjande effekt. Projektet genomförs i två delstudier. Den första är en deskriptiv studie som syftar till att kartlägga föräldrar som utvecklat en vårdnadstvist och deras konflikt. Resultaten från kartläggningen förväntas kunna ligga till grund för en differentiering av föräldrar och deras konflikt. Den andra delstudien är en tredelad effektstudie av domstols handläggningsordning samt av modellerna Konflikt och försoning och Parenting Coordinator avseende deras effekt på konfliktutvecklingen och föräldrarnas samarbetsförmåga. Resultaten från effektstudien förväntas kunna visa vilken metod som fungerar på vilka föräldrar och vilka typer av konflikter samt föräldrarnas upplevda behov av stöd och upplevelse av samhällets insatser. Kartläggningen genomförs med hjälp en enkätundersökning och en uppföljande intervjustudie.  Effektstudien genomförs genom att föräldrarna fyller i ett skattningsinstrument där deras konfliktnivå,upplevt behov av stöd och upplevelse av erhållet stöd mäts vid tre olika tidpunkter. Även effektstudien följs upp med en intervjustudie. Projektets undersökningspopulation utgörs av cirka 600 föräldrar som kommer att få stöd enligt Konflikt och försoning vid Södertörns, Nacka och Södertälje tingsrätter under 2012, samt cirka 600 föräldrar får stöd enligt gällande handläggningsordning för domstol vid Attunda, Solna och Norrtälje tingsrätter under samma år samt 150 föräldrar som kommer att få stöd av en koordinator vid nio kommuner under 2012. Projektet och dess förväntade resultat har stor betydelse såväl nationellt som internationellt. Projektets resultat kommer att bidra till att fylla inomvetenskapliga kunskapsluckor som är en förutsättning för en fortsatt utveckling och reformering av handläggningen av vårdnadstvister.  Dessutom kommer projektet att bidra med en systematisering av föräldrar och deras konflikter som kommer att kunna ligga till grund för en teoriutveckling som möjliggör en differentiering av föräldrar, konflikter och insatser samt anvisa vilken metod som fungerar på vilka föräldrar och vilka typer av konflikter. Projektet kan också komma att bidra med en vetenskapligt grundad metod som kan ligga till grund för att mäta effekter av olika handläggningsmodeller, vilket saknas såväl nationellt som internationellt.  

  • Ögren, Jim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    ELEPHANT: A MATLAB-code for Hamiltonians, Lie algebra, normal form and particle tracking2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we explain the structure and functionality of ELEPHANT: a MATLAB-code developed for particle tracking and treating Hamiltonians in the Lie formalism with applications for accelerator physics. The code can operate on Hamiltonians and using the similarity transform and the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff formula to express a map as an effective Hamiltonian and a linear map.The code can also express a map in a normal form and from this calculate the amplitude-dependenttune-shifts. Finally, the code can analyze the standard linear transverse dynamics and do particletracking. The purpose of the code is to treat nonlinear fields analytically and cross-check with tracking results.

  • Holmbom, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brymer, Eric
    Schweitzer, Robert D.
    Transformations through proximity flying: a phenomenological investigation2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 1831Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants' perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity.

  • Ahmeti, Artan
    et al.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George University London.
    Ibrahimi, Pranvera
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova.
    Elezi, Shpend
    Haliti, Edmond
    Poniku, Afrim
    Batalli, Arlind
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova; Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina.
    Quality of life questionnaire predicts poor exercise capacity only in HFpEF and not in HFrEF2017Inngår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most widely used measure of quality of life (QoL) in HF patients. This prospective study aimed to assess the relationship between QoL and exercise capacity in HF patients.

    Methods: The study subjects were 118 consecutive patients with chronic HF (62 +/- 10 years, 57 females, in NYHA I-III). Patients answered a MLHFQ questionnaire in the same day of complete clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic assessment. They also underwent a 5 min walk test (6-MWT), in the same day, which grouped them into; Group I: <= 300 m and Group II: > 300 m. In addition, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), divided them into: Group A, with preserved EF (HFpEF) and Group B with reduced EF (HFrEF).

    Results: The mean MLHFQ total scale score was 48 (+/- 17). The total scale, and the physical and emotional functional MLHFQ scores did not differ between HFpEF and HFpEF. Group I patients were older (p = 0.003), had higher NYHA functional class (p = 0.002), faster baseline heart rate (p = 0.006), higher prevalence of smoking (p = 0.015), higher global, physical and emotional MLHFQ scores (p < 0.001, for all), larger left atrial (LA) diameter (p = 0.001), shorter LV filling time (p = 0.027), higher E/e' ratio (0.02), shorter isovolumic relaxation time (p = 0.028), lower septal a' (p = 0.019) and s' (p = 0.023), compared to Group II. Independent predictors of 6-MWT distance for the group as a whole were increased MLHFQ total score (p = 0.005), older age (p = 0.035), and diabetes (p = 0.045), in HFpEF were total MLHFQ (p = 0.007) and diabetes (p = 0.045) but in HFrEF were only LA enlargement (p = 0.005) and age (p = 0.013. A total MLHFQ score of 48.5 had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 63% (AUC on ROC analysis of 72%) for limited exercise performance in HF patients.

    Conclusions: Quality of life, assessment by MLHFQ, is the best correlate of exercise capacity measured by 6-MWT, particularly in HFpEF patients. Despite worse ejection fraction in HFrEF, signs of raised LA pressure independently determine exercise capacity in these patients.

  • Vinuesa, Ricardo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Negi, Prabal
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    High-fidelity simulations of the flow around wings at high Reynolds numbers2017Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Sundell, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Ådin, Lars
    Piteå hospital.
    Larsén, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Physical Examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stress-Related Bone Injuries in Tuber Ischiadicum2017Inngår i: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics, ISSN 2374-6904, Vol. 4, nr 1, 1-3 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Stress-Related Bone Injuries (SRBI) in the Tuber Ischiadicum (TI) is a possible preliminary diagnosis in adolescent athletes with pain in the pelvic region or in the back of the thigh. The condition requires an early diagnosis in order to heal properly. We describe five cases of young athletes seeking a physiotherapist for pelvic or back thigh pain.

    Materials and methods: Five patients previously diagnosed with lower back pain, groin pain, pelvic or back thigh pain underwent a Physical Examination (PE) by a physiotherapist to identify the pathogenesis of the pain. The PE led to the preliminary diagnosis of SRBI in the TI, which was confirmed by an MRI. The patients were treated with rest and Personally Guided Rehabilitation (PGR).

    Results : All cases had a positive eccentric hip extension test and pain provocation on palpation on the TI. MRI found different levels of stress reactions/fractures in the enthesis of the TI. After rest and rehabilitation, all subjects returned to their previous level of physical activity.

    Conclusion: PE appeared to identify adolescent athlete patients with SRBI in the TI requiring an MRI. The correct diagnosis led to a quick return to the previous level of physical activity.

    Clinical relevance: An early and correct diagnosis thru a thorough PE can lead to complete healing and a return to sports.

  • Monroe, Melanie J.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Biological Sciences and the IRMACS center for interdisciplinary research, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby , BC, Canada.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Does density-dependent diversification mirror ecological competitive exclusion?2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 10, e0184814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Density-dependence is a term used in ecology to describe processes such as birth and death rates that are regulated by the number of individuals in a population. Evolutionary biologists have borrowed the term to describe decreasing rates of species accumulation, suggesting that speciation and extinction rates depend on the total number of species in a clade. If this analogy with ecological density-dependence holds, diversification of clades is restricted because species compete for limited resources. We hypothesize that such competition should not only affect numbers of species, but also prevent species from being phenotypically similar. Here, we present a method to detect whether competitive interactions between species have ordered phenotypic traits on a phylogeny, assuming that competition prevents related species from having identical trait values. We use the method to analyze clades of birds and mammals, with body size as the phenotypic trait. We find no sign that competition has prevented species from having the same body size. Thus, since body size is a key ecological trait and competition does not seem to be responsible for differences in body size between species, we conclude that the diversification slowdown that is prevalent in these clades is unlikely due to the ecological interference implied by the term density dependence.

  • Negi, Prabal
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Philipp, Schlatter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC).
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Unsteady aerodynamic effects in small-amplitude pitch oscillations of an airfoilManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Negi, Prabal
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish e-Science Research Center, SeRC.
    Dynamic response of laminar flow airfoils2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Negi, Prabal
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish e-Science Research Center, SeRC.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish e-Science Research Center, SeRC.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Stabilitet, Transition, Kontroll. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centra, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish e-Science Research Center, SeRC.
    A re-examination of filter-based stabilization for spectral-element methods2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2017-12-11 13:00 Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Johari, Dalina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Features of the Electric Fields Generated by Lightning with Special Attention to Positive Ground Flashes2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the main processes in positive ground flashes and the distant lightning environment for both positive and negative ground flashes. It presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBPs), the characteristics of the electric field pulses observed during leader propagation, and the characteristics of the electric fields produced by the first and the subsequent return strokes. It also features the observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes at distances up to 1000 km. The results were based on electric field measurements conducted remotely during summer thunderstorms in Sweden in 2014.

    We found that the majority of the positive ground flashes were preceded by PBPs. Some were preceded by more than one PBP train, and the parameter values for the subsequent PBP trains were found to be smaller than the values for the first PBP train. Three types of PBPs were also identified. The results suggest that the PBPs in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak, and the inverted dipole charge cloud configuration is consistent with our observation.

    A small percentage of these positive ground flashes were observed to be preceded by pronounced leader pulses. The presence of these pulses suggests that the leaders propagate in a stepped manner. We inferred that these pulses were due to the upward-connecting negative leader since their characteristics were similar to those of a negative stepped leader. On the basis of the leader pulses’ time of initiation and the average speed of the leader, we estimated the distance travelled by the leader. One case of positive return stroke preceded by negative leader pulses was also observed, and the occurrence of these pulses was the first in positive ground flashes to be reported.

    The majority of these positive ground flashes were found to be single-stroke. Comparison between the first and the subsequent return strokes showed that the average durations of the subsequent stroke parameters were smaller than that of the first strokes. The distances reported by the lightning location system suggest that the subsequent strokes probably created new terminations to ground. Two possible reasons were given to explain the reason for the shorter duration of the subsequent return strokes parameters compared to the first strokes.

    Finally, observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes showed that the electric field waveforms have a typical shape, like a distorted ‘W’ (or distorted ‘M’ for negative ground flashes) followed by small oscillations. These small oscillations were more pronounced in negative ground flashes, especially at a greater distance. The heights of the ionospheric reflections estimated for both ground flashes were found to likely correspond to a D-layer of the ionosphere. Two possible reasons were suggested for the small oscillations observed in the waveforms.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-12 09:30 Polhemssalen, Uppsala
    Lindgren, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Observationell astrofysik.
    Metallicity determination of M dwarfs2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    M dwarfs constitute around 70% of all stars in the local Galaxy. Their multitude together with their long main-sequence lifetimes make them important for studies of global properties of the Galaxy such as the initial mass function or the structure and kinematics of stellar populations. In addition, the exoplanet community is showing an increasing interest for those small, cold stars. However, very few M dwarfs are well characterized, and in the case of exoplanetary systems the stellar parameters have a direct influence on the derived planet properties.

    Stellar parameters of M dwarfs are difficult to determine because of their low surface temperatures that result in an optical spectrum dominated by molecular lines. Most previous works have therefore relied on empirical calibrations. High-resolution spectrographs operating in the infrared, a wavelength region less affected by molecular lines, have recently opened up a new window for the investigation of M dwarfs. In the two first papers of this thesis we have shown that we can determine the metallicity, and in some cases the effective temperature, using synthetic spectral fitting with improved accuracy.

    This method is time consuming and therefore not practical or even feasible for studies of large samples of M dwarfs. When comparing our results from the high-resolution studies with available photometric calibrations we find systematic differences. In the third paper we therefore used our sample to determine a new photometric metallicity calibration. Compared to previous calibrations our new photometric calibration shows improved statistical characteristics, and our calibration gives similar results as spectroscopic calibrations. In a comparison with theoretical calculations we find a good agreement of the shapes and slopes of iso-metallicity lines with our empirical relation. Applying the photometric calibration to a sample of M dwarfs with confirmed exoplanets we find a possible giant planet-metallicity correlation for M dwarfs.

  • Janlöv, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan.
    Johansson, Linda
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Clausson, Eva
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan. Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Mental ill-health among adult patients at healthcare centres in Sweden: district nurses experiences2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental ill-health among the general population is increasing in Sweden. Primary Health Care (PHC) and Healthcare Centres (HCC), where district nurses (DNs) work, bear the basic responsibility for treatment of mental ill-health, while severe mental ill-health fall under the responsibility of psychiatric specialist care. The increased prevalence of mental ill-health in the community means that DNs increasingly encounter people with mental health problems - not least as a comorbidity. How well DNs are equipped to deal with mental ill-health is currently unclear.

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore district nurses' experience of encountering and dealing with mental ill-health among adult patients at healthcare centres.

    DESIGN: A qualitative explorative approach was used to capture the experiences of the phenomena under study.

    METHODS: Individual interviews were conducted with 10 DNs working at six HCCs. The interviews were transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The result emerged as several subcategories captured by three categories: (i) having competence - a prerequisite for feeling confident; (ii) nursing mental ill-health requires time and commitment; and (iii) working in an organisation without preparedness, encompassed by the synthesising theme; nursing mental ill-health requires specific competence and organisational support.

    CONCLUSION: Working as a DN requires formal and informal competence when encountering patients with complex health needs. The findings revealed that the DNs could feel insecure regarding how to deal with patients with mental ill-health due to lack of knowledge. Assessment of patients with mental ill-health is time- and energy-consuming and calls for improved teamwork at HCCs as well as effective collaboration with psychiatric specialist care and other care givers. The DNs responsibility to fulfil their work considering the increasing number of mental ill-health among people that seeks help at HCCs needs to be acknowledged and met by the PHC organisation.

  • Piston, Dominik
    et al.
    Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia
    Bansal, Vikas
    Gargano, Daniela
    Yao, Zhi
    Szabadkai, Gyorgy
    Odell, Mark
    Puno, M. Rhyan
    Björkblom, Benny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Maple-Grodem, Jodi
    Breuer, Peter
    Kaut, Oliver
    Larsen, Jan Petter
    Bonn, Stefan
    Moller, Simon Geir
    Wuellner, Ullrich
    Schapira, Anthony H. V.
    Gegg, Matthew E.
    DJ-1 is a redox sensitive adapter protein for high molecular weight complexes involved in regulation of catecholamine homeostasis2017Inngår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 26, nr 20, 4028-4041 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    DJ-1 is an oxidation sensitive protein encoded by the PARK7 gene. Mutations in PARK7 are a rare cause of familial recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), but growing evidence suggests involvement of DJ-1 in idiopathic PD. The key clinical features of PD, rigidity and bradykinesia, result from neurotransmitter imbalance, particularly the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline. We report in human brain and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines that DJ-1 predominantly forms high molecular weight (HMW) complexes that included RNA metabolism proteins hnRNPA1 and PABP1 and the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH. In cell culture models the oxidation status of DJ-1 determined the specific complex composition. RNA sequencing indicated that oxidative changes to DJ-1 were concomitant with changes in mRNA transcripts mainly involved in catecholamine metabolism. Importantly, loss of DJ-1 function upon knock down (KD) or expression of the PD associated form L166P resulted in the absence of HMW DJ-1 complexes. In the KD model, the absence of DJ-1 complexes was accompanied by impairment in catecholamine homeostasis, with significant increases in intracellular DA and noraderenaline levels. These changes in catecholamines could be rescued by re-expression of DJ-1. This catecholamine imbalance may contribute to the particular vulnerability of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons to neurodegeneration in PARK7-related PD. Notably, oxidised DJ-1 was significantly decreased in idiopathic PD brain, suggesting altered complex function may also play a role in the more common sporadic form of the disease.

  • Siotis Ekberg, Camilla
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Do preschool children not forget over time?2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Th result of recognition tests on 4- and 6-year-olds resulted in a forgetting curve for 6-year olds over 48 h, but not for 4-year-olds, who kept the same level of correct recognition.

    A tentative exmplanation is that the older children were more mentally active during the longer retention intervals, causing more false trails than the youger children. The older children, may be more active over time in processing  the material to a much greater degree, for instance in categorizing the animals. Thereby, the 6-year-olds may loose some of the specificity of the perceptual traces over time, making presented and distraction animals less distinct from one another. Thememories of the  4-year olds are then thought to remain more stabe, as they do not get re-processed in the same manner.

  • Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Epigenetics, evolution and the survival of the non-unfit2017Inngår i: The Biochemist, ISSN 0954-982X, Vol. 39, nr 5, 8-11 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition that occurred in vertebrates moving from water to land was a major step in the evolution of terrestrial animals. This is an evolutionary step that has always fascinated scientists and the general public. The land-to-water vertebrate transition happened around the Devonian period and involved structural changes such as the transition from fin to limb, a reduction of the gill arch, loss of the mid-fin and a reduction in the number of scales, among others. I will use this interesting example to depict how the same evolutionary process can be seen through two different lenses. One view, which is the most widespread way of seeing evolution, is the 'survival of the fittest'. The other is intentionally stated in the title as the double negative 'survival of the non-unfit'. Only semantic differences? Not in my view.

  • Puettner, R.
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Fachbereich Phys, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Jankala, K.
    Univ Oulu, Nano & Mol Syst Res Unit, POB 3000, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Kushawaha, R. K.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Marchenko, T.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Goldsztejn, G.
    Max Born Inst, Max Born Str 2A, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Travnikova, O.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Guillemin, R.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Journel, L.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Ismail, I.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    de Miranda, B. Cunha
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Lago, A. F.
    Univ Fed ABC UFABC, Ctr Ciencias Nat & Humanas, Ave Estados 5001, BR-09210580 Santo Andre, SP, Brazil..
    Ceolin, D.
    Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piancastelli, Maria Novella
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik. UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Simon, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Mat & Rayonnement,Sorbonne Univ, F-75005 Paris, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Detailed assignment of normal and resonant Auger spectra of Xe near the L edges2017Inngår i: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, ISSN 2469-9926, E-ISSN 2469-9934, Vol. 96, nr 2, 022501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation on the LMM, LMN, and LNN normal Auger spectra of xenon, which reveal excellent agreement with theory when core-hole lifetimes of the two-hole final states are taken into account. Generally, the spectra turned out to be highly complex due to a strong overlap of the Auger transitions subsequent to 2s(1/2)(-1), 2p(1/2)(-1), and 2p(3/2)(-1) ionization. This overlap is due to the splitting of the three initial L core holes and the different final M and N core holes being on the same order of magnitude of several hundred eV. The Auger transitions are assigned in detail based on the theoretical results. Most of the MM, MN, and NN final states are described well based on jj coupling. In addition, we present a detailed assignment of the resonant LM45M45 Auger transition subsequent to the 2s -> 6p, 7p and 2p -> 5d, 6d excitations.

  • Nomesco, Nomesco
    Nordiska ministerrådet, NOMESKO-NOSOSKO.
    Health and health care of the elderly in the Nordic Countries: From a statistical perspective2017 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic region has one of the world’s oldest populations and over the past decades, the health and care of elderly people have attracted more and more attention, as the proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. This trend is expected to continue in the coming decades.

    The aim of this report is to provide a general statistical description of the care and treatment of elderly people in the Nordic region from the age of 65, with a focus on the 80+ age group. Another aim is to develop and improve NOMESCO’s annual statistics, and revisions to the statistics are proposed where necessary. Some of the OECD indicators are used to highlight and compare certain aspects of health care that are particularly important for elderly people.

    The report is based on available Nordic statistics collected continually by NOMESCO and other international organisations, and on statistics collected especially for this project from the national patient, cancer, prescribed drugs, and cause of death registers. The statistics show, for example, the occurrence of disease, pharmaceutical prescriptions and mortality in different age groups over 65, distinguishing between women and men, in the Nordic countries. Most of the data is from 2015. Information from national interview surveys is an important complement to the registry data, enabling health trends in the population to be monitored over time. Over several decades, the Nordic countries have developed their own surveys of living conditions, which are adapted to national circumstances. This means there are certain differences between the countries in survey methods and degree of coverage.