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  • Olsson, Sören
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Probe for static pressure measurements in furnaces1985Report (Refereed)
  • Löfström, Roland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mätning av k-värde med hot box i hus: Utveckling av metod och utrustning1985Report (Refereed)
  • Samuelson, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Källarväggar med invändig värmeisolering: Fuktmätningar på EW-element1984Report (Refereed)
  • Altun, Nergiz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dunerholm, Katerina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palladium: En verksamhetsutvärdering2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering syftar till att belysa Palladiumprojektet ur ett antal olika perspektiv. Målet är att analysera hur Palladiums verksamhet har fungerat i relation till de mål och intentioner som fanns i planeringen av projektet, både från kommunpolitikers håll och från brukarna av verksamheten, det vill säga ungdomarna. Vi har undersökt verksamhetens organisation, hur den fungerat och om det finns brister i verksamheten, samt om huruvida det finns ett fortsatt behov av Palladium i Katrineholms kommun. Utvärderingen grundar sig på dokumenten Idéskiss- kultur- och mediehus för unga i Katrineholms kommun, Palladium no smoking, och Palladium - café och kulturhus för unga, ett antal intervjuer med politiker, en tjänsteman och ungdomar som är involverade i projektets verksamhet samt en observation.

  • Johansson, Carl-Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hållfasthet hos fingerskarvat virke till limträ: Bestämning av böj- och draghållfasthet hos fingerskarvade limträlameller från fem tillverkare1983Report (Refereed)
  • Ziethén, Rune
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hållfasthetsprovning av spånskivor: Effekter av ändrade provningsmetoder1982Report (Refereed)
  • de Boniface, Jana
    et al.
    Frisell, Jan
    Andersson, Yvette
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Ahlgren, Johan
    Ryden, Lisa
    Bagge, Roger Olofsson
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Surgery Center, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Hemming
    Lundstedt, Dan
    Survival and axillary recurrence following sentinel node-positive breast cancer without completion axillary lymph node dissection: the randomized controlled SENOMAC trial2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has increasingly been called into question among patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Two recent trials have failed to show a survival difference in sentinel node-positive breast cancer patients who were randomized either to undergo completion ALND or not. Neither of the trials, however, included breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy or those with tumors larger than 5 cm, and power was debatable to show a small survival difference.

    Methods: The prospective randomized SENOMAC trial includes clinically node-negative breast cancer patients with up to two macrometastases in their sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients with T1-T3 tumors are eligible as well as patients prior to systemic neoadjuvant therapy. Both breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy, with or without breast reconstruction, are eligible interventions. Patients are randomized 1:1 to either undergo completion ALND or not by a web-based randomization tool. This trial is designed as a non-inferiority study with breast cancer-specific survival at 5 years as the primary endpoint. Target accrual is 3500 patients to achieve 80% power in being able to detect a potential 2.5% deterioration of the breast cancer-specific 5-year survival rate. Follow-up is by annual clinical examination and mammography during 5 years, and additional controls after 10 and 15 years. Secondary endpoints such as arm morbidity and health-related quality of life are measured by questionnaires at 1, 3 and 5 years.

    Discussion: Several large subgroups of breast cancer patients, such as patients undergoing mastectomy or those with larger tumors, have not been included in key trials; however, the use of ALND is being questioned even in these groups without the support of high-quality evidence. Therefore, the SENOMAC Trial will investigate the need of completion ALND in case of limited spread to the sentinel lymph nodes not only in patients undergoing any breast surgery, but also in neoadjuvantly treated patients and patients with larger tumors.

  • Sandberg, Per Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Värmeledningsförmåga i fuktiga material: Förlsag till provningsmetodik1982Report (Refereed)
  • Gustafsson, Hans
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stridh, Göran
    Luftföroreningar från inrednings- och byggmaterial: Klimatkammarmetod för bl a formaldehyd1982Report (Refereed)
  • Tillverkningskontroll inom byggträområdet: Riksprovplatsen för trämaterial och träkonstruktioner för byggändamål. Årsrapport 1980/811981Report (Refereed)
  • Spang, Christoph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Le Roux, Sandrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Chen, Jialin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Glutamate signaling through the NMDA receptor reduces the expression of scleraxis in plantaris tendon derived cells2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, 218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A body of evidence demonstrating changes to the glutaminergic system in tendinopathy has recently emerged. This hypothesis was further tested by studying the effects of glutamate on the tenocyte phenotype, and the impact of loading and exposure to glucocorticoids on the glutamate signaling machinery.

    Methods: Plantaris tendon tissue and cultured plantaris tendon derived cells were immunohisto-/cytochemically stained for glutamate, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). Primary cells were exposed to glutamate or receptor agonist NMDA. Cell death/viability was measured via LDH/MTS assays, and Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase 3) and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP). Scleraxis mRNA (Scx)/protein(SCX) were analyzed by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. A FlexCell system was used to apply cyclic strain. The effect of glucocorticoids was studies by adding dexamethasone (Dex). The mRNA of the glutamate synthesizing enzymes Got1 and Gls, and NMDAR1 protein were measured. Levels of free glutamate were determined by a colorimetric assay.

    Results: Immunoreactions for glutamate, VGluT2, and NMDAR1 were found in tenocytes and peritendinous cells in tissue sections and in cultured cells. Cell death was induced by high concentrations of glutamate but not by NMDA. Scleraxis mRNA/protein was down-regulated in response to NMDA/glutamate stimulation. Cyclic strain increased, and Dex decreased, Gls and Got1 mRNA expression. Free glutamate levels were lower after Dex exposure.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, NMDA receptor stimulation leads to a reduction of scleraxis expression that may be involved in a change of phenotype in tendon cells. Glutamate synthesis is increased in tendon cells in response to strain and decreased by glucocorticoid stimulation. This implies that locally produced glutamate could be involved in the tissue changes observed in tendinopathy.

  • Watson, David
    et al.
    Fischer-Bogason, Rikke
    Ympäristöä säästävämpiä tekstiilejä: Opas ympäristöä säästäviin hankintoihin terveydenhuoltosektorilla2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Tämä opas on tarkoitettu pohjoismaisille terveydenhuoltosektorin hankkijoille, jotka ovat vastuussa tekstiilituotteiden ja -palveluiden hankinnasta. Opas auttaa heitä kehittämään prosesseja sopivien ja käytännöllisten ympäristökriteerien laatimiseksi tarjousasiakirjoihin. Hankkijat saavat tietää, millä tekijöillä tuotannossa ja tekstiilien huollossa on eniten merkitystä ympäristölle ja miten niitä voidaan käsitellä kriteerien avulla. He tutustuvat ympäristömerkkien rooliin hankinnoissa ja löytävät linkkejä valmiisiin kriteereihin ja muita hyödyllisiä tietoja kansallisista hankintalaitoksista. Opas on laadittu yhteistyössä Pohjoismaisen terveydenhuoltosektorin hankkijoiden kanssa osana Pohjoismaisen kestävän muodin ja tekstiilien toimintasuunnitelmaa “Well-dressed in Clean Enviro nment”. Se on Pohjoismaisen ministerineuvoston rahoittama.

  • Wijk, Helle
    et al.
    Nordin, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Vårdmiljöns betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 2, 156-166 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Medvetenheten om vårdmiljöns betydelse för patientens hälsa ökar världen över. Det syns tydligt då vårdprogram, nationella riktlinjer och standarder inom vård och omsorg i ökad grad beaktar aspekter av den fysiska miljöns betydelse för god vård. Även ett stort antal forskningsartiklar har presenterats genom åren som illustrerar betydelsen av arkitektur och design. Exempel på nya rön är vikten av en tillgänglig vårdmiljö som är lätt att tolka och förstå, vikten av en vårdmiljö där det finns möjlighet till privathet, samt inte minst en estetiskt tilltalande miljö som visar respekt och värdighet för besökaren. För att nya forskningsrön ska komma patienter och vårdare till gagn krävs att dessa implementeras i praktiken. En viktig utgångspunkt är dialogen mellan företrädare för vård, arkitektur, design och kultur och att deras kunskapsbidrag samspelar utifrån en gemensam övertygelse om att detta främjar patientens hälsa och välbefinnande. I denna artikel diskuteras hur olika delar och innehåll i miljön påverkar varandra och måste ses i sitt sammanhang.

  • Bodin, Maja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Käll, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Stern, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Sophiahemmet Univ, Dept Hlth Promot, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Drevin, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Exploring men's pregnancy-planning behaviour and fertility knowledge: a survey among fathers in Sweden2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 2, 127-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Research about pregnancy-planning behaviour mostly focuses on women, even though pregnancy planning usually also concerns men. The purpose of this study was to investigate how men plan for family, and to measure their fertility knowledge after having become fathers. Material and methods: Data were collected in 2014 as part of a Swedish longitudinal pregnancy-planning study. Men were recruited through their female partner one year after childbirth. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about pregnancy planning, lifestyles, and fertility. Results: Of the 796 participants, 646 (81%) stated that the pregnancy had been very or fairly planned, and 17% (n=128) had made a lifestyle adjustment before pregnancy to improve health and fertility. The most common adjustments were to reduce/quit the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, or snuff, and to exercise more. First-time fathers and those who had used assisted reproductive technology to become pregnant were more likely to have made an adjustment. Fertility knowledge varied greatly. Men with university education had better fertility knowledge than men without university education. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there is variation in how men plan and prepare for pregnancy. Most men did not adjust their lifestyle to improve health and fertility, while some made several changes. Both pregnancy-planning behaviour and fertility knowledge seem to be related to level of education and mode of conception. To gain deeper understanding of behaviour and underlying factors, more research is needed.

  • Burkhardt, Christian
    et al.
    Neuwirth, Christoph
    Sommacal, Andreas
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Weber, Markus
    Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?: A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0177555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients.

    Methods: Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015. Forty-two of these patients consented for genetic testing. Effects of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death were analyzed in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression.

    Results: Six patients, who requested assisted suicide causing drug-induced hypoxia, were excluded from final analysis. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death in 72 out of 74 patients. Fifteen out of 74 died of aspiration pneumonia 23/74 of bronchopneumonia and 8/74 of a combination of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia. Twenty died of hypoxia without concomitant infection, and six patients had pulmonary embolism alone or in combination with pneumonia. NIV (p = 0.01) and PEG (p<0.01) had a significant impact on survival. In patients using NIV bronchopneumonia was significantly more frequent (p <0.04) compared to non-NIV patients. This effect was even more pronounced in limb onset patients (p<0.002). Patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions showed faster disease progression and shorter survival (p = 0.01).

    Conclusion: The use of NIV and PEG prolongs survival in ALS. This study supports current AAN and EFNS guidelines which recommend NIV and PEG as a treatment option in ALS. The risk of bronchopneumonia as cause of death may be increased by NIV.

  • Tolu, Julie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Spatial variability of organic matter molecular composition and elemental geochemistry in surface sediments of a small boreal Swedish lake2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 7, 1773-1792 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of sediment organic matter (OM) exerts a strong control on biogeochemical processes in lakes, such as those involved in the fate of carbon, nutrients and trace metals. While between-lake spatial variability of OM quality is increasingly investigated, we explored in this study how the molecular composition of sediment OM varies spatially within a single lake and related this variability to physical parameters and elemental geochemistry. Surface sediment samples (0-10 cm) from 42 locations in Harsvatten - a small boreal forest lake with a complex basin morphometry - were analyzed for OM molecular composition using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the contents of 23 major and trace elements and biogenic silica. We identified 162 organic compounds belonging to different biochemical classes of OM (e.g., carbohydrates, lignin and lipids). Close relationships were found between the spatial patterns of sediment OM molecular composition and elemental geochemistry. Differences in the source types of OM (i.e., terrestrial, aquatic plant and algal) were linked to the individual basin morphometries and chemical status of the lake. The variability in OM molecular composition was further driven by the degradation status of these different source pools, which appeared to be related to sedimentary physicochemical parameters (e.g., redox conditions) and to the molecular structure of the organic compounds. Given the high spatial variation in OM molecular composition within Harsvatten and its close relationship with elemental geochemistry, the potential for large spatial variability across lakes should be considered when studying biogeochemical processes in-volved in the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace elements or when assessing lake budgets.

  • Pacurar, Daniel Ioan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Lakehal, Abdellah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Pacurar, Andrea Mariana
    Ranjan, Alok
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    The Arabidopsis Cop9 signalosome subunit 4 (CNS4) is involved in adventitious root formation2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex that regulates many aspects of plant development by controlling the activity of CULLIN-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). CRLs ubiquitinate and target for proteasomal degradation a vast number of specific substrate proteins involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including light and hormone signaling and cell division. As a consequence of CSN pleiotropic function, complete loss of CSN activity results in seedling lethality. Therefore, a detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in adult Arabidopsis plants has been hampered by the early seedling lethality of csn null mutants. Here we report the identification and characterization of a viable allele of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome subunit 4 (CSN4). The allele, designated csn4-2035, suppresses the adventitious root (AR) phenotype of the Arabidopsis superroot2-1 mutant, potentially by altering its auxin signaling. Furthermore, we show that although the csn4-2035 mutation affects primary and lateral root (LR) formation in the 2035 suppressor mutant, CSN4 and other subunits of the COP9 complex seem to differentially control AR and LR development.

  • Christiansen, Bo
    et al.
    Jepsen, Nis
    Kivi, Rigel
    Hansen, Georg H.
    Larsen, Niels
    Korsholm, Ulrik S.
    Air Quality in the Nordic Countries and Climate Changes in the Arctic: LINKA2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report use ozone measurement data retrieved in the Arctic with balloon borne ozone sondes for the last 20-30 years. Four stations with the best data series have been selected. Using a Monte Carlo method the yearly period is subtracted from the data and the remains, the anomalies, are correlated towards the area of the Polar Front, the temperature rise of the Nortern Hemisphere and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and towards one another. It was found that the NAO correlates negatively with ozone anomalies for all four stations albeit the correlations are weak. Besides, the polar front area correlates weakly positive with the ozone anomalies for three out of the four stations. These results, together with the observation that the ozone-anomalies have a brief decorrelation time, indicate that most of the variability in the anomalies should be found in local conditions.

  • Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    BTH Newsletter on Science Publishing and Information about research funding: June 20172017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hjältén, J.
    et al.
    Hägglund, R.
    Löfroth, T.
    Roberge, J-M
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olsson, J.
    Forest restoration by burning and gap cutting of voluntary set-asides yield distinct immediate effects on saproxylic beetles2017In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 26, no 7, 1623-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the importance of restoring natural forest disturbance regimes and habitat structures for biodiversity is widely recognized. We evaluated the immediate effects of two restoration methods on wood-inhabiting (saproxylic) beetles in boreal forest voluntary set-asides. We used a before-after control-impact experimental set-up in 15 set-asides; each assigned to one of three treatments: (1) restoration burning, (2) gap cutting and (3) no-treatment reference stands. Before treatment, abundance, species richness and assemblage composition of trapped beetles did not differ significantly among treatments. Burning resulted in a significant change in assemblage composition and increased species richness and abundance compared to reference stands. As predicted, saproxylic species known to be fire favoured increased dramatically after burning. The immediate response shows that, initially, fire favoured species are attracted from the surrounding landscape and not produced on site. Gap cutting increased the abundance of cambium consumers but had no significant effect on total species richness or assemblage composition of saproxylic beetles. The stronger effect of burning compared to gap cutting on saproxylic assemblages is probably due to the very specific conditions created by fires that attracts many disturbance-dependent species, but that at the same time disfavour some disturbance-sensitive species. By contrast, gap cutting maintained assemblage composition, increased abundances and is likely to increase species richness in the years to follow, due to elevated level of dead wood. The restoration methods applied in this study may prove particularly useful, partly because of positive effect on saproxylic beetles, but also due to the cost-efficiency of the measures; the voluntary set-asides were already established and the restoration costs fully covered by revenue from the extracted timber.

  • Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Korrekta mätningar är viktigt2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Korrekta mätvärden skyddar konsumenten och ger förutsättningar för näringslivet att konkurrera på lika villkor. Privatpersoner som köper varor, energi eller tjänster förlitar sig på att vågar, elmätare, gasmätare, taxametrar, vattenmätare, bränslepumpar, längdmått och volymmått är korrekta

    Tillverkaren av mätinstrument har alltid nytta av att planera för hur nya egenskaper och funktioner hos mätinstrumentet påverkar riskerna. Ett exempel på ny funktionalitet är hur mätinstrumenten blir en viktig del av digitaliseringen av samhället och därför kopplas upp via kommunikationsnätverk. Möjligheten till uppkoppling och delad data är positiv, men ger också nya riskkällor att ta hänsyn till vid konstruktionsarbetet.

    Det finns gemensamma europeiska regler för hur ett mätinstrument ska vara utformat, tillverkat och utvärderat. Genom direktiven ("Measuring Instrument Directive" 2014/32/EU, MID) och direktivet för icke automatiska vågar (2014/31/EU, NAWI) specificeras de grundläggande krav som gäller, samt de specifika krav som gäller för en viss instrumenttyp.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 14:00
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Experiment Design for Closed-loop System Identification with Applications in Model Predictive Control and Occupancy Estimation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    System identification concerns how to construct mathematical models ofdynamic systems based on experimental data. Typically, identification isfollowed by an application which makes use of the identified model. Forinstance, one important application of system identification is in model-basedcontrol design. In control applications it is often possible to externally excitethe system during the data collection experiment. The properties of theexciting input signal influence the quality of the identified model, and a welldesignedinput signal reduces both the required time and effort for doing theexperiment and improves the quality of the estimated model.The objective of this thesis is to develop algorithms and theory for minimumcost experiment design for system identification. In particular, anapplication-oriented framework for designing experiments is considered. Thisprocedure takes the intended model application into account when designingthe experiment. The main goal is to guarantee that the estimated modelresults in an acceptable performance for its intended application.This thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part considers thetheory of application-oriented input design, with special attention to ModelPredictive Control (MPC).We start by studying how to find a convex approximationof the set of models that results in acceptable control performance.The main contribution is using analytical methods to determine applicationsets for controllers with no closed-form control law, for instance MPC. Theapplication-oriented input design problem is then formulated in time domainto enable handling of signals constraints, which often comes from the physicallimitations on the plant and actuators. The framework is then extended toclosed-loop systems. Here two different cases are considered. The first caseassumes that the plant is controlled by a general (either linear or non-linear)but known controller. In the second case, the problem is studied for theparticular case of MPC. The main contribution here is a method to designan external stationary signal via graph theory such that the identificationrequirements and signal constraints are satisfied, simultaneously. There aredifferent sources of uncertainty in application-oriented input design. Thisproblem is investigated based on the results from risk theory and, the uncertaintyis measured, systematically. A new formulation of application-orientedinput design is proposed which is robust to available uncertainties.The second part of this thesis is devoted to study an application of systemidentification and input design in building automation. Monitoring thenumber of occupiers of a room or a building is important for more energyefficient control of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems.There exists several issues with using dedicated people counters suchas Radio-Frequency Identifications (RFIDs) and cameras. For instance, installingcameras for monitoring people may raise privacy concerns. Hence,this thesis considers the problem of estimating occupancy based on the informationalready available to HVAC systems. The occupancy estimation is firstformulated as a two-tier problem. In the first tier, the room dynamic is identifiedusing a training dataset which makes use of temporary measurements ofoccupancy. In the second tier, the identified model is employed to formulatethe occupancy estimation problem as a fused-lasso problem. The obtainedivestimator is analyzed to provide conditions under which it results in correctestimates with a guaranteed probability. The proposed method is further developedto be used as a multi-room estimator. To this end, a physics-basedmodel is identified for one room. The identified model is then adjusted forother rooms invoking the physical properties of them such as room volumeand ventilation size. However, since it might not always be possible to collectmeasurements of occupancy for the training purposes, we proceed byproposing a blind identification algorithm which estimates the room dynamicand occupancy signal, simultaneously. Finally, the application-oriented inputdesign framework is employed to study the problem of how to collect datathat is informative enough for occupancy estimation purposes. We evaluatethe effectiveness of all the proposed algorithms either by a real dataset or by simulation examples.

  • Gudnason, Asgeir
    et al.
    Adalberth, Gunnar
    Nilsson, Kjell-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Hailer, Nils P.
    Tibial component rotation around the transverse axis measured by radiostereometry predicts aseptic loosening better than maximal total point motion A follow-up of 116 total knee arthroplasties after at least 15 years2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 3, 282-287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Maximal total point motion (MTPM) measured by radiostereometry (RSA) is widely used as a predictor of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) loosening. We compared the ability of different RSA measurements at different time points to predict loosening of tibial TKA components in the long term. Patients and methods - 116 TKAs in 116 patients were included in our analysis. 16 (14.8-17.4) years after surgery, 5 tibial components had been revised due to aseptic loosening. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated in order to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of different RSA parameters at different thresholds. Results - Rotation around the transverse (x-) axis measured 2 years postoperatively had the best predictive value of all parameters, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 80%. Using a threshold of 0.8 degrees, a specificity of 85% and a sensitivity of 50% were reached. The AUC for tibial component distal translation was 79% and it was 77% for proximal translation, whereas it was only 68% for MTPM. Interpretation - Rotation of the cemented tibial component around the transverse axis, proximal translation, and distal translation are slightly better at predicting aseptic loosening than MTPM, and tibial component migration measured after 2 years gives a good prediction of aseptic loosening up to 15 years.

  • Krantz, Kristin (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Library.
    Verksamhetsberättelse Linköpings universitetsbibliotek (LiUB) 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    2016 har varit ett händelserikt år på biblioteket: Största delen av personalen på Vallabiblioteket har flyttat ut i paviljongen; magasinet Bokladan har flyttat från lokaler på Wahlbecks industriområde till Kärnhuset, campus Valla; rekrytering av en ny överbibliotekarie och helt nya typer av avtal med förlag. Samtidigt har den vanlig verksamheten fortsätt att utvecklas, med 100 % användarfokus. Det har varit ett år med utmaningar och tack vare ett stort engagemang från bibliotekets medarbetare har det blivit ett lyckat år.

  • Romenskyy, Maksym
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Body size affects the strength of social interactions and spatial organization of a schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer)2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 4, 161056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a rich variety of self-propelled particle models propose to explain the collective motion of fish and other animals, rigorous statistical comparison between models and data remains a challenge. Plausible models should be flexible enough to capture changes in the collective behaviour of animal groups at their different developmental stages and group sizes. Here, we analyse the statistical properties of schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer) through a combination of experiments and simulations. We make novel use of a Boltzmann inversion method, usually applied in molecular dynamics, to identify the effective potential of the mean force of fish interactions. Specifically, we show that larger fish have a larger repulsion zone, but stronger attraction, resulting in greater alignment in their collective motion. We model the collective dynamics of schools using a self-propelled particle model, modified to include varying particle speed and a local repulsion rule. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the fish schools are reproduced by our model, thereby capturing a number of features of the behaviour and development of schooling fish.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jessica
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Fredriksson, Lennart
    Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and an implantable defibrillator2017In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ICDs efficiently terminate life-threatening arrhythmias, but complications occur during long-term follow-up. Patients' own perspective is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to describe experiences of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with implantable defibrillators (ICDs).

    Methods: We analyzed 26 Swedish patient interviews using hermeneutics and latent content analysis.

    Results: Patients (aged 27-76 years) were limited by HCM especially if it deteriorates into heart failure. The ICD implies safety, gratitude, and is accepted as a part of the body even when inappropriate ICD shocks are encountered. Nobody regretted the implant. Both the disease and the ICD affected professional life and leisure time activities, especially at younger ages. Family support was usually strong, but sometimes resulted in overprotection, whereas health care focused on medical issues. Despite limitations, patients adapted, accepted, and managed challenges.

    Conclusion: HCM patients with ICDs reported good spirit and hope even though they had to adapt and accept limitations over time.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Mellbrand, Kajsa
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning Årsrapport 20132013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the fourth annual report of the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a nationalmonitoring programme coordinated by Lund University for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency since 2010. The programme is a partnership between the Entomological Society of Sweden, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Lund University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and the Swedish County Administration Boards. The monitoring scheme is volunteer-based and runs from April 1stto September 30thannually.Sites are visited 3-7 times per season and are surveyed using a standardized, common methodology. Two different recording methods are used in the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. One is the point site counts which cover an area with a 25 m radius for 15 min per visit. The other method is fixed-route Pollard walk transects, typically 0.5-3 km in length. These two methods enable the monitoring scheme to assess yearly changes both in the number of butterflies seen and in species composition. The fourth year’s monitoring has produced butterfly data from 162 fixed-route walks and 217 point sites, representing a 20% increase in the number of transects and a 7% increase in the number of point sites. The sites and walks are located across the whole country, from Beddingestrand in the South to Vuollerim in the North. In 2013, 269 volunteer recorders participated in the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and have counted 65967 butterflies of 91 different species. On average, 12,7 species have been observed at the point sites while 18,4 have been observed along transects. In this report, observations from 2013 of each species are shown as total counts, distribution maps, and flight period histograms. The most numerous species in 2013 was the Ringlet, followed by the Meadow Brown and the Green-veined White. Trends between 2010 and 2013 have been analysed for 90 butterfly and burnet moth species using the analytical tool TRIM. Over the period, 27 species declined and 12 increased. Trends for the remaining species were uncertain. Summarizing indices, so called indicators, have been calculated for 1) the 20 most common species and 2) the 12 Swedish grassland butterflies that are part of the European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species. Both butterfly indicators show a decline during 2012 and the grassland indicator suggests a recovery during 2013.

  • Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, 1-13 p., e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individualsfrom different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has establishedreliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends thisresearch by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey inEnglish with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive,open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulatedthat differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this aSimilarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities acrosscountries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second,within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patternsacross countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries wasless than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personalitytraits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanationfor the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Mellbrand, Kajsa
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning Årsrapport 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the fifth annual report of the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a national monitoring programme coordinated by Lund University for the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency since 2010. The programme is a partnership between the Entomological Society of Sweden, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Lund University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and the Swedish County Administration Boards. The monitoring scheme is volunteer-based and runs from April 1st to September 30th annually. Sites are visited 3-7 times per season and are surveyed using a standardized, common methodology. Two different recording methods are used in the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. One is the point site counts which cover an area with a 25 m radius for 15 min pervisit. The other method is fixed-route Pollard walk transects, typically 0.5-3 km in length. These two methods enable the monitoring scheme to assess yearly changes both in the number of butterflies seen and in species composition. The fifth year’s monitoring has produced butterfly data from 173 fixed-route walks and 262 point sites, representing a 9% increase in the number of transects and a 21% increase in the number of point sites. The sites and walks are located across the whole country, from Gislövs Läge in the South to Vuollerim in the North. In 2014, 295 volunteer recorders participated in the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and have counted 68013 butterflies of 96 different species. On average, 12.2 species have been observed at the point sites while 18.4 have been observed along transects. In this report, observations from 2014 of each species are shown as total counts, distribution maps, and flight period histograms. The most numerous species in 2014 was the Ringlet, followed by the Meadow Brown and the Brimstone. Trends between 2010 and 2014 have been analysed for 86 butterfly and burnet moth species using the analytical tool TRIM. Over the period, 28 species declined, 17 increased, and one species was stable. Trends for the remaining species were uncertain. Summarizing indices, so called indicators, have been calculated for 1) the 20 most common species and 2) the 12 Swedish grassland butterflies that are part of the European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species. Both butterfly indicators show a decline during the cold summer 2012 followed by increases in the grassland species in 2013-2014. The Common Species indicator suggests that 2011 saw the highest densities of these species so far.

  • Ashish, K. C.
    et al.
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Raaijmakers, Hendrikus
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Kim, Hyung Joon
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Singh, Chahana
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Increased immunization coverage addresses the equity gap in Nepal2017In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 95, no 4, 261-269 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare immunization coverage and equity distribution of coverage between 2001 and 2014 in Nepal. Methods We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 2001, 2006 and 2011 together with data from the 2014. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We calculated the proportion, in mean percentage, of children who had received bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, three doses of polio vaccine, three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine and measles vaccine. To measure inequities between wealth quintiles, we calculated the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) for all surveys. Findings From 2001 to 2014, the proportion of children who received all vaccines at the age of 12 months increased from 68.8% (95% confidence interval, CI: 67.5-70.1) to 82.4% (95% CI: 80.7-84.0). While coverage of BCG, DPT and measles immunization statistically increased during the study period, the proportion of children who received the third dose of polio vaccine decreased from 93.3% (95% CI: 92.7-93.9) to 88.1% (95% CI: 86.8-89.3). The poorest wealth quintile showed the greatest improvement in immunization coverage, from 58% to 77.9%, While the wealthiest quintile only improved from 84.8% to 86.0%. The SII for children who received all vaccines improved from 0.070 (95% CI: 0.061-0.078) to 0.026 (95% CI: 0.013-0.039) and RII improved from 1.13 to 1.03. Conclusion The improvement in immunization coverage between 2001 and 2014 in Nepal can mainly be attributed to the interventions targeting the disadvantaged populations.

  • Aspenberg, Per
    et al.
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Axbrink, Mats
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Kustfåglar i Gävleborg 20072009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det främsta syftet med inventeringen 2007 var att kartlägga förekomsten av häckande

    kustfåglar detta år, för att genom jämförelse med motsvarande siffror från tidigare

    inventeringar få en uppfattning om populationsutvecklingen. Andra syften var att samla in

    data om onormal fågeldöd och om olika aspekter på skötsel av skyddade områden, t ex status

    för skyltning.

     

    De kustfåglar som inventerats är främst fågelarter som är knutna till vattenmiljön, dvs

    sjöfåglar, måsar, tärnor och vadare. Därutöver inkluderades andra arter utanför dessa

    kategorier som har sin regionala utbredning begränsad till just skärgårdsmiljö (t ex

    skärpiplärka) samt gråhäger och ängspiplärka som är relativt lättinventerade arter med en

    faunistiskt intressant förekomst i skärgården.

     

    För storskarv och häger skedde (liksom 1997) en systematisk boräkning. I övrigt användes

    antalet närvarande fåglar som underlag för uppskattningar av antalet häckande par.

     

    För att tillfredsställa möjligheterna till goda jämförelser tio år bakåt i tiden användes nu,

    liksom 1997, en metodik innebärande tre räkningstillfällen. Den första räkningen var inriktad

    på sjöfåglar (men noteringar gjordes för alla observerade fåglar) och genomfördes

    tidsperioden 28 april – 13 maj. Den andra räkningen genomfördes i huvudsak 31 maj – 16

    juni. Vid båda dessa taxeringsomgångar genomkorsades länets skärgård av de två författarna

    tillsammans i en öppen båt från länsgränsen mot Uppland i söder till gränsen mot Medelpad i

    norr. Den tredje taxeringsomgången genomfördes under perioden 18 juni – 22 juli. Vid denna

    omgång, som huvudsakligen syftade till att studera reproduktion, minkpredation och onormal

    sjöfågeldöd, arbetade författarna parallellt på olika håll.

     

    En jämförelse av resultatet för 2007 med tidigare inventeringar visar exempel på arter med en

    uppseendeväckande populationsökning såväl som arter med en lika kraftig minskning inom

    länets gränser.

     

    Populationsökningarna kan bero på en ökad födotillgång till följd av eutrofiering. Även en

    förbättrad miljögiftssituation och minskad jakt kan spela in. Minskningar av populationer

    beror sannolikt på predation från framför allt mink.

     

    Resultatet kan sammanfattas i nedanstående tabell, där förändringar mellan 1997 och 2007

    samt möjliga orsaker till dessa redovisas för olika artgrupper.

     

    Artgrupp

    Trend

    Möjlig orsak

    Doppingar

    Stark ökning

    Eutrofiering

    Storskarv

    Explosionsartad ökning

    Minskad jakt, ökad   födotillgång

     

    Svanar & gäss

    Ökning

    Minskad jakt

    Simänder

    Ökning

    Eutrofiering

     

    Dykänder

    Splittrad bild

    Olika påverkan av mink

    Vadare

    Minskning (dock ej f.

    strandskata

    Eutrofiering? Mink?   Flyttning – övervintring?

    Labb

    Viss ökning

    Fler tärnor

    Skrattmås

    Ökning

    Omflyttning från   insjöar till skärgård,

    eutrofiering

    Övriga måsfåglar

    Tämligen oförändrat

     

    Fisk- och silvertärna

    Ökning

    Ökad födotillgång

    Alkfåglar

    Ökad födotillgång

    Predation från mink   och ökad födotillgång

     

    Återgivning av tabell 2 från avsnitt 6.1.2 i rapporten.

     

    Ett intryck som förstärktes under fältarbetet våren-sommaren 2007 var skillnaden mellan

    fågelrika och fågelfattiga skärgårdsavsnitt. I stort sett tycks samma geografiska skillnader som

    noterades under inventeringen 1997-1998 kvarstå.

    Resultaten visar att onormal sjöfågeldöd betingat av sjukdom och/eller toxiner endast

    förekom i mycket ringa omfattning denna sommar. Betydande ungförluster förorsakade av

    mink kunde dock dokumenteras för de markhäckande kustfåglarna och det kan konstateras att

    problemet kvarstår i tämligen oförminskad omfattning.

     

    Förslag på åtgärder för att minska hoten mot kustfåglarna inkluderar fortsatt övervakning av

    skärgårdens toppkonsumenter och miljögifter, skapa säkrare farleder och navigationssystem

    för att minska risken för oljeolyckor, fortsatt uppföljning av trutsjukan samt stimulera

    decimeringen av mink. Även hänsyn vid planering och exploatering längs kusten anses

    angeläget, liksom aktiva åtgärder för att minska igenväxningen av öppna strandängar och

    vissa fågelskär utan högre vegetation. Slutligen bör häckfågellivet i skärgårdarna undersökas

    även framöver med tanke på den förväntade klimatförändringen.

  • Aspenberg, Per
    et al.
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Kellner, Olle
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Metodstudie Kustfågelinventering 20072009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid kustfågelinventering kan ingen inventerare se alla häckande fåglar vid ett enda besök.

    Den andel av de häckande fåglarna som en viss inventerare noterar vid ett visst tillfälle kan

    kallas inventeringseffektivitet. Inventeringseffektiviteten skiljer sig mellan olika inventerare

    och varierar under säsongen och mellan arter. Dessutom finns ett inslag av slumpmässiga

    faktorer som tillfällig frånvaro av fåglar, inventerarens ”dagsform”, väder m.m.

     

    Inventeringseffektiviteten undersöktes våren-sommaren 2007 genom en serie inventeringsbesök av sju olika observatörer vid tre fågelöar i Gävlebukten, huvudsakligen under perioden 23 maj – 2 juli. Sex av observatörerna saknade direkt erfarenhet av kustfågelinventering men hade alla mycket stora erfarenheter av fältornitologi och var därmed genomgående skickliga på artbestämning.

     

    Rent generellt kan man säga att ca 70 % var ett vanligt värde på inventeringseffektiviteten.

    För de mest lättinventerade arterna (t.ex. knölsvan, roskarl, rödbena) nåddes regelmässigt ca

    90 % inventeringseffektivitet, medan det för svårinventerade arter (t.ex. gräsand, drillsnäppa)

    snarare låg på 20-30 %.

     

    Inventeringseffektiviteten minskade under studieperioden, särskilt mot slutet. Dessutom var

    det en påtaglig slumpmässig variation mellan olika inventeringsdagar under samma vecka,

    särskilt för kolonihäckande fåglar som kunde variera 10-20 procentenheter inom några dagar,

    för de tre öarna i testet. Man kan dock anta att denna korttidsvariation spelar mindre roll i en

    större inventering som sträcker sig över flera inventeringsdagar.

     

    Skillnaderna mellan de olika inventerarna var som regel 5-10 procentenheter. När det fanns

    risk för sammanblandning av arter var dock skillnaden större, särskilt för blandade fisksilvertärnekolonier. Även för änderna som är generellt svårinventerade blev det stora

    personskillnader. Skillnaderna var också mycket större för en ”ringrostig” inventerare som

    varit mindre aktiv under några år. Personskillnaderna var delvis systematiska. Det beror

    troligen dels på ovana att räkna kolonihäckande fåglar (systematisk underskattning) samt

    skillnader i bedömning av fåglarnas uppträdande (häckar anden här eller är den bara tillfällig

    gäst vid ön). Dessa skillnader accentuerar värdet av att:

     

    • använda samma inventerare helt eller delvis i manskapet mellan olika år
    • introducera nya inventerare i problematiken med att särskilja förväxlingsarter
    • koncentrera sig på ett urval av vissa arter vid ett inventeringsbesök
    • använda fotografering som dokumentationsmetod vid större vitfågelkolonier
    • styra upp fältanteckningarna med t ex strikt användning av protokoll

    Slutsatser:

    • Inventeringsresultat underskattar de verkliga populationsstorlekarna
    • Det är viktigt att inventerarna är tränade i just kustfågelinventering, och nya

    inventerare bör samkalibrera sig med mer erfarna.

    • Även med tränad personal kommer ett visst fel att kvarstå, och små

    populationsförändringar (10-20 %) är mycket svåra att säkert skilja från metodfel. För

    svårinventerade arter är metodfelet ofta avsevärt större.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografi sk uppföljning 2015 av dagfj ärilar inom habitatdirektivet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar fjärilsinventeringar utförda under 2015 inom Biogeografisk uppföljning som drivs av Naturvårdsverket. Detta var andra året med skarpa inventeringar efter flera års eftersök av dagfjärilar i fjällen och en säsongs utprovning av inventeringsmetodik. Trots kallt och ostadigt väder kunde 24 ytor inventeras och totalt noterades 12 högnordiska blåvingar på 6 ytor och 4 dvärgpärlemorfjärilar på 3 ytor. Inventeringen gav dessvärre inget fynd av fjällsilversmygare detta år. Svartfläckig blåvinge sågs med 180 individer på 26 inventerade lokaler och tillsammans med data från Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning täcktes en stor del av artens utbredningsområde. Brun gräsfjäril inventerades på 33 lokaler i Dalarna, Värmland och Västra Götaland och resulterade i totalt 392 observerade individer. Asknät- och väddnätfjäril inventeras med räkning av larvkolonier i augusti-september. På 55 lokaler som inventerades inom Biogeografisk Uppföljning noterades 2602 larvkolonier av väddnätfjäril. Asknätfjäril inventerades på en lokal i Uppsala län, 11 områden i Örebro län samt 2 lokaler i Stockholm med totalt 912 noterade kolonier. Mnemosynefjäril inventerades på 36 lokaler i Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala och Västernorrlands län med totalt 366 noterade individer. Under 2015 har också inventeringar av violett guldvinge genomförts i Jämtland där 57 individer observerades på 11 lokaler.

  • Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Cell Biol, SE-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Askari, Shlear
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Clin Res, Orebro, Sweden..
    Ahmad, Abrar
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Clin Res, Orebro, Sweden..
    Befekadu, Rahel
    Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Clin Res, Orebro, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Lab Med, Orebro, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci, Div Clin Chem, Umea, Sweden..
    Expression of claudin 1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 in colorectal cancer and its relation with CLDN DNA methylation patterns2017In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 39, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered claudin expression has been described in colon, prostatic, ovarian, and breast carcinoma. However, the role of epigenetic modifications in these genes and their role in colorectal cancer is unknown. We aimed our study to investigate whether claudin protein expression and methylation of CLDN can influence the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. A total of 31 patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma was used in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was used to study protein expression in both tumor and the adjacent nonneoplastic mucosa of claudin 1, 4, and 7. To detect the DNA methylation pattern of CLDN1, 4, and 7, genomic DNA was extracted from both the tumor and the adjacent nonneoplastic mucosa. Methylation analysis was carried out using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Cell membrane staining intensity of all claudins was found significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues when compared to paired normal mucosa (p = 0.001). For claudin 4, the percentage of cells staining positively was also significantly reduced (p = 0.04). In normal mucosa, cytoplasm showed no staining for claudins in any patient, whereas in paired colorectal cancer tissues, significant cytoplasmic staining appeared both for claudin 1 (p = 0.04) and claudin 4 (p = 0.01). Tumor samples were significantly hypomethylated in CLDN1 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that CLDN1 is significantly hypomethylated in tumor samples and that the membrane staining intensity for claudin 1, 4, and 7 is significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues than in adjacent nonneoplastic tissue. Colorectal cancer cells showed dystopic cytoplasmic location of claudins.

  • Ruhe, Zachary C.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Nguyen, Josephine Y.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Xiong, Jing
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Koskiniemi, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Beck, Christina M.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Perkins, Basil R.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.;Barnard Coll, Dept Biol, New York, NY USA..
    Low, David A.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Biomol Sci & Engn Program, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Hayes, Christopher S.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Biomol Sci & Engn Program, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    CdiA Effectors Use Modular Receptor-Binding Domains To Recognize Target Bacteria2017In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, no 2, e00290-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems encode CdiA effectors, which bind to specific receptors on neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains to suppress target cell growth. Two classes of CdiA effectors that bind distinct cell surface receptors have been identified, but the molecular basis of receptor specificity is not understood. Alignment of BamA-specific CdiAEC93 from Escherichia coli EC93 and OmpC-specific CdiA(EC536) from E. coli 536 suggests that the receptor-binding domain resides within a central region that varies between the two effectors. In support of this hypothesis, we find that CdiA(EC93) fragments containing residues Arg1358 to Phe1646 bind specifically to purified BamA. Moreover, chimeric CdiA(EC93) that carries the corresponding sequence from CdiA(EC536) is endowed with OmpC-binding activity, demonstrating that this region dictates receptor specificity. A survey of E. coli CdiA proteins reveals two additional effector classes, which presumably recognize distinct receptors. Using a genetic approach, we identify the outer membrane nucleoside transporter Tsx as the receptor for a third class of CdiA effectors. Thus, CDI systems exploit multiple outer membrane proteins to identify and engage target cells. These results underscore the modularity of CdiA proteins and suggest that novel effectors can be constructed through genetic recombination to interchange different receptor-binding domains and toxic payloads. IMPORTANCE CdiB/CdiA two-partner secretion proteins mediate interbacterial competition through the delivery of polymorphic toxin domains. This process, known as contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI), requires stable interactions between the CdiA effector protein and specific receptors on the surface of target bacteria. Here, we localize the receptor-binding domain to the central region of E. coli CdiA. Receptor-binding domains vary between CdiA proteins, and E. coli strains collectively encode at least four distinct effector classes. Further, we show that receptor specificity can be altered by exchanging receptor-binding regions, demonstrating the modularity of this domain. We propose that novel CdiA effectors are naturally generated through genetic recombination to interchange different receptor-binding domains and toxin payloads.

  • Jeong, H.
    et al.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Othman, J.
    Mutual intelligibility of Malay- and Swedish-accented English: An experimental study2017In: Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2301-9468, Vol. 7, no 1, 43-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In using English as an international language (EIL), one important issue is mutual intelligibility among EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study investigates the crosslinguistic intelligibility of Malay-accented English and Swedish-accented English, regarding the three phonetic features – word stress pattern, consonant clusters, and long vowel in particular. We prepared 15 English statements that are evidently true or false if understood, and examined to what extent the three phonetic features are related to 30 Swedish and 38 Malaysian listeners’ understandings of the statements read by a speaker from the other language group. We compared the Malaysian and Swedish listeners’ answers given with understanding as well as processing time to respond. The listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations were also analyzed. Results show that Malaysian listeners easily understood Swedish-accented English, while Swedish listeners struggled to understand Malay-accented English. The difference between the two groups of listeners seems to be closely related to the degree of the realization of the three phonetic features by the speakers as well as to the degree of the use of these features as perceptual cues by the listeners. Based on the findings, we discuss potential phonetic core features of EIL for intelligibility and some pedagogical implications for teaching English pronunciation to the learners of the language.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografi sk uppföljning 2016 av dagoch nattfj ärilar inom habitatdirektivet2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Rapporten sammanfattar fjärilsinventeringar utförda inom 2016 inom Biogeografisk Uppföljning som drivs av Naturvårdsverket. I fjällområdet kunde 64 ytor inventeras och sammanlagt noterades 80 högnordiska blåvingar på 20 ytor och 55 dvärgpärlemorfjärilar på 19 ytor. Inventeringen gav dessvärre inget fynd av fjällsilversmygare detta år. Förekomsten av tajgafjällfly undersöktes på 8 lokaler från Lycksele lappmark i söder till Torne lappmark i norr, totalt noterades 19 individer på 6 av dessa lokaler. Svartfläckig blåvinge sågs med 157 individer på 30 inventerade lokaler och tillsammans med data från Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning täcktes en stor del av artens förekomstområde. Brun gräsfjäril inventerades på 35 lokaler i Dalarna, Värmland och Västra Götaland och resulterade i totalt 552 observerade individer. Asknät- och väddnätfjäril inventeras med räkning av larvkolonier i augustiseptember. På 97 lokaler som inventerades noterades 4867 larvkolonier av väddnätfjäril. Asknätfjäril inventerades på 5 lokaler i Uppsala län, 8 områden i Örebro län samt 21 lokaler i Stockholm med totalt 870 noterade kolonier. Mnemosynefjäril inventerades på 32 lokaler i Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala och Västernorrlands län med totalt 585 noterade individer. Pilotförsök med inventeringar av apollofjäril genomfördes under 2016 i Kalmar och Södermanlands län med totalt 8 observerade individer på 13 lokaler. Violett guldvinge inventerades på 31 lokaler i Jämtland, Västernorrland och Västerbotten där totalt 26 individer inräknades. Under 2016 har också inventeringar av dårgräsfjäril genomförts på 10 lokaler fördelade i Östergötland och på Gotland. Totalt observerades 1407 individer varav 922 sågs på Gotland och resterande 485 i Östergötland.

  • Raiskila, Simo
    et al.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Axelin, Anna
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Toome, Liis
    Tallinn Childrens Hosp, Tallinn, Estonia.;Tartu Univ, Tartu, Estonia..
    Caballero, Sylvia
    Hosp Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain..
    Tandberg, Bente Silnes
    Vestre Viken Hosp Trust, Drammen Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Drammen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Montirosso, Rosario
    IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Sci Inst, Ctr Risk Infant 0 3, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy..
    Normann, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Huddinge Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westrup, Björn
    Huddinge Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Lehtonen, Liisa
    Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Parents' presence and parent-infant closeness in 11 neonatal intensive care units in six European countries vary between and within the countries2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 6, 878-888 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Little is known about the amount of physical parent-infant closeness in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and this study explored that issue in six European countries.

    Methods: The parents of 328 preterm infants were recruited in 11 NICUs in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Norway, Italy and Spain. They filled in daily diaries about how much time they spent in the NICU, in skin-to-skin contact (SSC) and holding their babies in the first two weeks of their hospitalisation.

    Results: The parents' NICU presence varied from a median of 3.3 (minimum 0.7-maximum 6.7) to 22.3 (18.7-24.0) hours per day (p < 0.001), SSC varied from 0.3 (0-1.4) to 6.6 (2.2-19.5) hours per day (p < 0.001) and holding varied from 0 (0-1.5) to 3.2 (0-7.4) hours per day (p < 0.001). Longer SSC was associated with singleton babies and more highly educated mothers. Holding the baby for longer was associated with gestational age. The most important factor supporting parent-infant closeness was the opportunity to stay overnight in the NICU. Having other children and the distance from home to the hospital had no impact on parent-infant closeness.

    Conclusion: Parents spent more time in NICUs if they could stay overnight, underlining the importance that these facilities play in establishing parent-infant closeness.

  • Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Volkova, Kristina
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Orebro Life Sci Ctr, Orebro, Sweden..
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Orebro Life Sci Ctr, Orebro, Sweden..
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala Univ, Natl Bioinformat Infrastruct Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Univ Sci Life lab, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Hallstrom, Inger Porsh
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17 alpha-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transcriptome and Behavior2017In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3, and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografi sk uppföljning 2014 av dagfj ärilar inom habitatdirektivet2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar fjärilsinventeringar utförda under 2014 inom Biogeografisk uppföljning som drivs av Naturvårdsverket. Detta var första året med skarpa inventeringar efter flera års eftersök av dagfjärilar i fjällen och en säsongs utprovning av inventeringsmetodik. Bra väderförhållanden i fjällen innebar att inventeringarna av fjällens fjärilar gick över förväntan. Således kunde 28 ytor inventeras och totalt noterades 20 högnordiska blåvingar på 7 ytor, 28 dvärgpärlemorfjärilar på 8 ytor samt 4 fjällsilversmygare på 1 yta. Svartfläckig blåvinge sågs med 188 individer på 25 inventerade lokaler och tillsammans med data från Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning täcktes en stor del av artens utbredningsområde. Brun gräsfjäril inventerades främst i Dalarna där 21 lokaler besöktes och arten påträffades på 18 av dessa med totalt 234 individer. Asknät- och väddnätfjäril inventeras med räkning av larvkolonier i augusti-september. På 50 lokaler som inventerades inom Biogeografisk uppföljning noterades 1196 larvkolonier av väddnätfjäril. Asknätfjäril inventerades på en lokal i Uppsala län samt 17 lokaler i Örebro län med totalt 358 noterade kolonier. Under året har också inventeringar av mnemosynefjäril knutits till projektet. Totalt räknades 646 individer fördelat på 26 lokaler och dellokaler.

  • Nyström, Thomas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Unit Diabet Res, Div Internal Med,Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bodegard, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Nathanson, David
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Unit Diabet Res, Div Internal Med,Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thuresson, Marcus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Capio St Gorans Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norhammar, Anna
    Statisticon AB, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Jan W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Novel oral glucose-lowering drugs are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and severe hypoglycaemia compared with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes2017In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 19, no 6, 831-841 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the association of novel oral glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs), compared with that of insulin, with risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and severe hypoglycaemia.

    Methods: During 2013 to 2014 all patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden identified as new users of novel oral GLDs, either dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (only dapagliflozin available in Sweden during the study period), with those initiating insulin as a comparison group, in the Prescribed Drug Register were included and followed in the Patient and Cause of Death Registers. The novel GLD group and insulin group were matched 1: 1 using propensity score. Cox regression models were used to estimate risks.

    Results: Of 37 603 patients, 21 758 were matched 1: 1 to novel GLD vs insulin groups, with median follow-up times of 1.51 years (16 304 patient-years) and 1.53 years (16 306 patientyears), respectively. Treatment with novel GLDs was associated with a 44% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.56 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.49-0.64]), 15% (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.73-0.99]) and 74% (0.26 [95% CI 0.12-0.57]) lower risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and hypoglycaemia, respectively, compared with insulin treatment. In separate analyses for the two novel GLDs, dapagliflozin was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality and CVD (56% [HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.70] and 49% [HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.86], respectively), while DPP-4 inhibitor treatment was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (41% [HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.51-0.67]), but not with CVD (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01).

    Conclusions: Novel oral GLD treatment was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and severe hypoglycaemia compared with insulin treatment. Dapagliflozin was associated with a lower risk of both all-cause mortality and CVD, whereas DPP-4 inhibitor treatment was only associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality.

  • Wickman, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blasius, Bernd
    Klausmeier, Christopher A.
    Ryabov, Alexey B.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Determining Selection across Heterogeneous Landscapes: A Perturbation-Based Method and Its Application to Modeling Evolution in Space2017In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 189, no 4, 381-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial structure can decisively influence the way evolutionary processes unfold. To date, several methods have been used to study evolution in spatial systems, including population genetics, quantitative genetics, moment-closure approximations, and individual-based models. Here we extend the study of spatial evolutionary dynamics to eco-evolutionary models based on reaction-diffusion equations and adaptive dynamics. Specifically, we derive expressions for the strength of directional and stabilizing/disruptive selection that apply both in continuous space and to metacommunities with symmetrical dispersal between patches. For directional selection on a quantitative trait, this yields a way to integrate local directional selection across space and determine whether the trait value will increase or decrease. The robustness of this prediction is validated against quantitative genetics. For stabilizing/disruptive selection, we show that spatial heterogeneity always contributes to disruptive selection and hence always promotes evolutionary branching. The expression for directional selection is numerically very efficient and hence lends itself to simulation studies of evolutionary community assembly. We illustrate the application and utility of the expressions for this purpose with two examples of the evolution of resource utilization. Finally, we outline the domain of applicability of reaction-diffusion equations as a modeling framework and discuss their limitations.

  • Molde, Bertil
    Språk- och folkminnesinstitutet, Svenska språknämnden.
    Tankar om språket: Språkvårdsstudier1982Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Strömbäck, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Lundman, Lars
    Karlstad Hosp, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bjorsne, Andreas
    Sahlgrenska Tech Audiologist Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Grendin, Joakim
    Ostersund Hosp, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Stjernquist-Desatnik, Anna
    Lund Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Dahlin-Redfors, Ylva
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Stapes surgery in Sweden: evaluation of a national-based register2017In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 274, no 6, 2421-2427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the National Quality Registries is to monitor the outcome of healthcare given to patients. The Swedish Quality register for otosclerosis surgery is one of the nine official national registers for ear, nose and throat diseases in Sweden. Since 2004, surgical and audiological results and patient satisfaction scores have been systematically collected from a majority of the ear, nose and throat clinics performing stapes surgery in Sweden. The results of 1688 patients who underwent primary operations for otosclerosis were evaluated for 24 out of totally 26 clinics performing stapes surgery, between 2004 and 2010. The most common surgical technique reported was stapedotomy accomplished in an overnight stay. A majority of patients experienced improved hearing, and were satisfied with the preoperative counselling. Successful surgery, defined as an ABG closure ae<currency>10 dB HL, was achieved in 69%, improvement in AC by ae<yen>20 dB in 63% and BC not worsened by more than ae<yen>5 dB in 93% of the patients. An overall low incidence of postoperative complications was reported. The outcome for ABG and BC was demonstrated to be independent of the number of operations performed by each clinic. An evaluation of the register and the results from the SQOS revealed that stapes surgery is a safe procedure with good hearing outcomes, low complication rates and a high rate of patient's satisfaction on a national level.

  • Wågberg, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Zachariah, Dave
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Schön, Thomas B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Stoica, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Prediction Performance After Learning in Gaussian Process Regression2017In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR , 2017, Vol. 54, 1264-1272 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the quantification of the prediction performance in Gaussian process regression. The standard approach is to base the prediction error bars on the theoretical predictive variance, which is a lower bound on the mean square-error (MSE). This approach, however, does not take into account that the statistical model is learned from the data. We show that this omission leads to a systematic underestimation of the prediction errors. Starting from a generalization of the Cramér-Rao bound, we derive a more accurate MSE bound which provides a measure of uncertainty for prediction of Gaussian processes. The improved bound is easily computed and we illustrate it using synthetic and real data examples.

  • Sigurd, Bengt
    Språk- och folkminnesinstitutet, Svenska språknämnden.
    De nordiska språkens framtid: Bidrag vid en konferens1977Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Lindberg, Tom
    et al.
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Wikberg, Tommy
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Preliminär rapport om översiktlig naturinventering utförd 1974 i Ovanåkers kommun1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    1. Målsättning

    Inventeringens målsättning kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    1. Registrering av redan kända naturområden son komma att bli föremål för naturvårdande åtgärder.
    2. Uppspårande av eventuella nya sådana områden.
    3. Kontroller i fält av noterade objekt och översiktlig beskrivning av dessa.
    4. Gradering av objekten enligt SNV:” Graderingen leder fram till en klassificering i riks-, Läns-och Lokalintresse för varje objekt.
  • Bråkenhielm, Sven
    Executive, Universitet, Uppsala University.
    Ivantjärnshedens vegetation1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsyftar till att ge en kort beskrivning av vegetationen inom försöksområdetIvantjärnsheden, Jädraås. Tonvikten läggs på vegetationens förändringar frånkalyta till moget bestånd. Målet är att ge en grundläggande beskrivning av hedensvegetation. En ravin finns inom området. Då ravinens vegetation indikerar eneutrofigradient tvärs över mitten av området behandlas den relativ utförligt

  • Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Skogshögskolan.
    Olofsson, Leif
    Skogshögskolan.
    Hemlingby friluftsområde Skötselplan1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under våren 1974 påbörjades detta arbete på uppdrag av Gävle kommun, fritidsnämnden. Syftet med arbetet är att efter ett grundläggande inventeringsarbete utforma en plan för Hemlingby friluftsområdes skötsel. Planen är anpassad till områdets karaktär av närströvområde, men även intressen av vetenskapligkulturell betydelse har beaktats.

    Hemlingbyanläggningen är av stor betydelse för motionsverksamheten i Gävle med ca 290000  besök per år. Anläggningen drivs av SKid- och friluftsfrämjandet. Det planlagda området omfattar ca 1 500 ha. Arbetet bygger på litteraturstudier, personkontakter och fältarbete. Området har indelats i skötselenheter med hjälp av flygbilder. Under fältarbetet har varje enhet beskrivits och skötselförslag upprättats.

    För att underlätta det praktiska handhavandet av planen har speciella målsättnings- och åtgärdsmallar konstruerats för skogsmark och impediment. Dessa har utnyttjats för flertalet skogsmarksenheter. Separata skötselförslag har gjorts för området närmast stigarna.

    Åtgärdsförslagen för jordbruksmarken gäller främst ett öppethållande av denna. För flera enheter har betning föreslagits.

    Arbetet har presenterats i fyra huvudavdelningar: inventering, analys, planläggning, kostnader.

    I inventeringsdelen har b1 a tagits upp anläggningens tillkomst och utveckling, organisation av driften och vissa data rörande friluftslivet. Vidare har här behandlats kulturhistoria, klimat, topografi, geologi, botanik, zoologi samt skogstillstånd. Av stort kulturhistoriskt intresse är de vikingagravar som finns i området.

    Analysdelen behandlar konflikter mellan ett rationellt ekonomiskt skogsbruk och friluftslivet. Möjligheterna att hålla jordbruksmarken öppen diskuteras, liksom frågor angående besökarantal, jakt m m.

    Inom området finns vissa slitagekänsliga hällpartier som bör skyddas. Orienteringar bör inte läggas över dessa. I övrigt torde inte slitaget vara något problem.

    Södra delen av inventeringsområdet består i stor utsträckning av dikade torvmarker, bevuxna med tät, homogen yngre skog. Dessa marker är mindre attraktiva ur friluftssynpunkt. Ett öppethållande av jordbruksmarken och motionsslingorna sker mest rationellt med användande av entransportabel flishugg.

    I planläggningsdelen ges skötselförslag för samtliga åtgärdsenheter.

    Kostnadsdelen omfattar b1 a kostnader för att hålla jordbruksmarken öppen. Ett par exempel på inoptimalförluster för skogsbruket presenteras.

     

    Gnejsgranit med stora fältspatsögon utgör den mest representerade bergarten i länt. Denna bergart uppträder i stora massiv. Ett bälte av kvartsit utgör berggrund vid gränsen till Västernorrland. I länets södra förekommer yngre granit, liksom i Orsa Finnmark i NW. Lågmetamorfa sedimentbergarter och massformiga, ibland skiffriga vulkanbergarter, S. K. Losgrönstenar finns inom samma område. Porfyrer sträcker sig in i flikar i detta område från Dalarna och Härjedalen. Jonisk sandsten finns Orsa Finnmark, liksom i Gävlesänkan i söder. Kambrosilurbergarter finns bara representerade som lösa block i de kvartära avlagringarna. Länets yngsta bergart är Dellenit, en andesit, som finns mellan Dellensjöarna i norr.

    Länets mest representerade jordart är, som i stort landet i övrigt, morän. Dess sammansättning är varierande, vad beträffar blockhalt och matrix. Normalblockig, sandig morän är vanligast. Moränens former är ofta i samstämmighet med den underliggande berggrundens former. Egenformer, i form av ändmoräner.m. ärsparsamt representerade. Isälvsavlagringarna är talrikt, i form av väl markerade åsryggar och deltan i HK-nivå. Under HK-nivå förekommer i åsarna ett antal sandfält med hittills ganska okänd genes. Svallmaterial förekommer ofta i de dalgångar,som i NW riktning drar inåt höglandet. Klapperfält omgärdar de höjder inom kustslätten, som har varit kraftigt exponerade, liksom öarna i det nuvarande kustbandet, Lera och främst mjäla utfyller de lägre liggande delarna av dalgångarna på kustslätten, liksom mindre områden längre in i landet. Mo blir rikligare representerad i sedimenten inom höglandet. Eoliska avlagringar är utbredda främst i södra delen av länet och i höglandet i nordväst. Sedimentslätterna är, med få undantag, torvfattiga.

    Isrörelsen har inom länet övergått från en i söder, kring Gävletrakten, mycket nordlig ritning till, kring Söderhamn, en tydlig avböjning mot NW och W. Räfflor vittnar om flera isrörelseriktningar, inalles tre , en första från WNW, en något senare från NW och en ung, främst representerad i kustzonen, från N och NE . Denna kuströrelse ställs i samband med en förmodad isoscillation i Gävletrakten.

    Den lokala undersökningen tillsammans med övriga resultat ger vid handen, att isen från en nordlig riktning i höjd med Söderhamn, ganska snabbt drar mot väster, samtidigt som iskanten dröjer i norra delen av länet. I höjd med kustslättens övergång i höglandet i W utjämnas denna rörelse, genom att recessionen hejdas i W av över HK uppdykande bergsområden. Isbrämet erhåller nu en jämnare linje i riktning SW-NE, och uppbrytningen tilltar krig kustöarna i NE. Isen ligger kvar i dalarna inåt, och i sprickor mellan bergshöjderna ansamlas stora material mängder. Isavsmältningen med dödisrester inom stora områden. Och med lateral dränering längs sprickor och tunnlar i dalsidorna.

  • Maleka, Aglaia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Entrance 78, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wenthe, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Mangsbo, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Svensson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Div Radiol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tötterman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Loskog, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ullenhag, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Entrance 78, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adenovirus-mediated CD40L gene transfer increases Teffector/Tregulatory cell ratio and upregulates death receptors in metastatic melanoma patients2017In: Journal of Translational Medicine, ISSN 1479-5876, E-ISSN 1479-5876, Vol. 15, no 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor sensitive for immunotherapy such as checkpoint blockade antibodies. Still, most patients with late stage disease do not respond, and the side effects can be severe. Stimulation of the CD40 pathway to initiate anti-tumor immunity is a promising alternative. Herein, we demonstrate immune profiling data from melanoma patients treated with an adenovirus-based CD40 ligand gene therapy (AdCD40L). Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma were collected from malignant melanoma patients (n = 15) enrolled in a phase I/IIa study investigating intratumoral delivery of AdCD40L with or without low dose cyclophosphamide. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry while plasma samples were analyzed by a multi-array proteomics. Results: All patients had an increased Teffector/Tregulatory cell ratio post therapy. Simultaneously, the death receptors TNFR1 and TRAIL-R2 were significantly up-regulated post treatment. Stem cell factor (SCF), E-selectin, and CD6 correlated to enhanced overall survival while a high level of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (gMDSCs), IL8, IL10, TGFb1, CCL4, PlGF and Fl3t ligand was highest in patients with short survival. Conclusions: AdCD40L intratumoral injection induced desirable systemic immune effects that correlated to prolonged survival. Further studies using CD40 stimulation in malignant melanoma are warranted.