1234567 51 - 100 of 1025
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Olstrup, Henrik
    et al.
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, 500 90, Estonia; Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, 205 80, Sweden..
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, 205 80 Malmö, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Hung
    Environmental Administration in Gothenburg, P.O. Box 7012, Gothenburg, 402 31, Sweden.
    Molnár, Peter
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 40530, Sweden..
    Johansson, Christer
    Atmospheric Science Unit, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden; Environment and Health Administration, SLB, P.O. Box 8136, Stockholm, 104 20, Sweden..
    Trends in air pollutants and health impacts in three Swedish cities over the past three decades2018In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, no 21, p. 15705-15723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution concentrations have been decreasing in many cities in the developed countries. We have estimated time trends and health effects associated with exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10 (particulate matter) in the Swedish cities Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö from the 1990s to 2015. Trend analyses of concentrations have been performed by using the Mann–Kendall test and the Theil–Sen method. Measured concentrations are from central monitoring stations representing urban background levels, and they are assumed to indicate changes in long-term exposure to the population. However, corrections for population exposure have been performed for NOx, O3, and PM10 in Stockholm, and for NOx in Gothenburg. For NOx and PM10, the concentrations at the central monitoring stations are shown to overestimate exposure when compared to dispersion model calculations of spatially resolved, population-weighted exposure concentrations, while the reverse applies to O3. The trends are very different for the pollutants that are studied; NOx and NO2 have been decreasing in all cities, O3 exhibits an increasing trend in all cities, and for PM10, there is a slowly decreasing trend in Stockholm, a slowly increasing trend in Gothenburg, and no significant trend in Malmö. Trends associated with NOxand NO2 are mainly attributed to local emission reductions from traffic. Long-range transport and local emissions from road traffic (non-exhaust PM emissions) and residential wood combustion are the main sources of PM10. For O3, the trends are affected by long-range transport, and there is a net removal of O3 in the cities. The increasing trends are attributed to decreased net removal, as NOx emissions have been reduced.

    Health effects in terms of changes in life expectancy are calculated based on the trends in exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10 and the relative risks associated with exposure to these pollutants. The decreased levels of NOx are estimated to increase the life expectancy by up to 11 months for Stockholm and 12 months for Gothenburg. This corresponds to up to one-fifth of the total increase in life expectancy (54–70 months) in the cities during the period of 1990–2015. Since the increased concentrations in O3 have a relatively small impact on the changes in life expectancy, the overall net effect is increased life expectancies in the cities that have been studied.

  • Tseronis, Assimakis
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    The Explicit/Implicit Distinction in Multimodal Argumentation: Comparing the Argumentative Use of Nano-Images in Scientific Journals and Science Magazines2018In: Argumentation and Inference: Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Argumentation, Fribourg 2017 Volume II / [ed] Steve Oswald & Didier Maillat, College Publications, 2018, p. 821-842Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between explicatures and implicatures as well as their varying degrees of strength acknowledged within Relevance Theory can help to capture the complex meaningmaking processes underlying the interpretation of multimoda ltexts as instances of argumentation. These pragmatic insights will be used to compare the ways in which arguments about the revolutionary character and societal impact of nanotechnology are constructed by computer-generated images of the nanoscale on the covers of scientific journals and science magazines.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The presence of the past: a life course approach to the social determinants of health and health inequalities in northern Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positioned at the intersection between the social and life course epidemiological sub-fields, this thesis builds on the idea that the health implications of life and living conditions can extend over years and decades before becoming expressed in the population patterns of ill-health. The overall purpose was to assess how multiple types of social determinants of health across the life course may contribute to ill-health and health inequalities in midlife. Several gaps in knowledge served as the basis for four research questions that focused on: 1) the intermediate role of socio-economic, material and psychosocial factors in young adulthood, in the long-term association between adolescent socio-economic position and midlife ill-health; 2) the implications of poor social capital in adolescence and accumulated over the life course for midlife ill-health; 3) the consequences of intra-generational social mobility for midlife ill-health and 4) the contribution of socio-economic, material and psychosocial circumstances in adolescence, young adulthood and middle-age to midlife neighbourhood deprivation inequalities in ill-health.

    Methods: The setting of the thesis is Sweden spanning over nearly three decades, from the early 1980s and until the mid-2010s. With information drawn from the Northern Swedish Cohort the study population consists of 1,083 pupils (506 girls and 577 boys) who attended, or should have attended, the last year of compulsory school in 1981. The data used came from questionnaires answered by the participants in the follow-ups at the ages of 16 (in 1981), 21 (in 1986), 30 (in 1995) and 42 (in 2007). The attrition rate was low with 1,010 out of the 1,071 students who were alive over the 26-years participated in all waves (94.3%). Data was also included from the Swedish registers for the same ages as the surveys on the participants’ neighbourhoods and sociodemographic characteristics on all other residents in these areas. The health outcome was functional somatic symptoms, referring to the occurrence of common physical complaints such as musculoskeletal pain, headache, palpitations and fatigue. To capture various social determinants of health, socio-economic, material and psychosocial factors were operationalised as main exposures. The research questions were analysed using: 1) path analysis, 2) multiple linear regression, 3) diagonal reference models and 4) a decomposition analysis.

    Results: With regard to the four research questions, the results firstly indicated that the long-term association between adolescent socio-economic position and midlife ill-health was linked by socio-economic position in young adulthood and further via material and psychosocial factors in middle-age. Secondly, that poor social capital in adolescence also could play a role in the development of adult illhealth, but that this influence seem to be largely dependent on recent or current conditions in adulthood. Thirdly, that downward mobility in the socio-economic hierarchy during middle-age may have little to no health implications, while upward movements could have a small positive effect on health. Fourthly, that ill-health was concentrated in more socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods and that this inequality was to a small extent attributed to conditions in earlier life period and mainly to factors in adulthood.

    Conclusions: Based on patterns cutting across the original research questions, the findings from this thesis indicate broadly that socio-economic, material and psychosocial conditions may be meaningful for midlife ill-health and health disparities, jointly and independently from each other. The results also suggests that determinants in the present on the surface appear to be more important for midlife ill-health and health inequalities than those of the past, but at the same time that life circumstances in the earlier life course may not be irrelevant. Rather than representing permanent or resilient health implications, however, the long-term influence of adolescent conditions seem to reflect mainly social processes that are conditional on recent or concurrent adult factors. In sum, the results indicate that a continuum of various life and living conditions may be a key phenomenon underlying ill-health and health disparities in midlife. Specifically, this thesis illustrates how the past may become part of the present through the accumulation and chains of unfavourable circumstances over the life course and conversely, how the present health reflects and embodies a life-long past.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 13:00 Astrid Fagreus lecture hall (A103), Umeå
    Zare, Aman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Regulation of gene expression in fruit flies: how does it start, and will it be remembered?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most distinctive features of eukaryotic chromosomes is the bundling of DNA together with functionally associated RNA and proteins in chromatin. This allows huge amounts of DNA to be packed inside the very tiny space of the nucleus, and alterations in the structure of chromatin enable access to the DNA for transcription (“reading” genes by production of RNA copies). Much of the current knowledge of chromatin structure and regulation comes from studies of Drosophila melanogaster. When the chromatin structure is open the transcription of a gene can start after recruitment of the necessary factors. The main enzyme for gene transcription is Polymerase II (Pol II). For successful gene transcription, Pol II must not only be recruited to the gene’s promoter, but also escape from a pausing state which occurs soon after transcription initiation. CBP/P300 is one of the co-activators involved in transcriptional activation. In the studies this thesis is based upon, my colleagues and I (hereafter we) discovered a new function for CBP in transcription activation. Using high throughput sequencing techniques, we found that CBP directly stimulates recruitment of Pol II to promoters, and facilitates its release from the paused state, enabling progression to the elongation stage of transcription.

    For cells to remember their identity following division during development, the transcriptional state of genes must be transmitted. Intensively studied players involved in this memory are the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, responsible for maintaining the repressed state of important developmental genes. The core members are Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2), which are recruited in flies through poorly known mechanisms to target genes by so-called Polycomb response elements (PREs). Using Drosophila mutant cell lines, we showed that (in contrast to previous models) some PREs can recruit PRC1 even when PRC2 is absent. We also observed that at many PREs, PRC1 is needed for recruitment of PRC2 and concluded that targeting PRC complexes to PREs is a much more flexible and variable process than previously thought.

    Some phenotypic effects of environmental changes can be transferred to subsequent generations. Previous efforts to identify the mechanisms involved have focused on material (mainly, but not only, DNA) transferred through germ cells. However, organisms’ microbiomes are also transferred to the next generation. Thus, to investigate possible contributions of microbiomes to such transfer, we used fruit flies as the microbiomes they inherit can be easily controlled. We altered some parents’ environmental conditions by lowering the temperature, then grew offspring that received microbiomes from cold-treated and control parents in control conditions and compared their transcriptional patterns. Our results suggest that most of the crosstalk between the microbiome and the fly happens in the gut, and that further investigation of this previously unsuspected mode of inheritance is warranted.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 13:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Bay, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Being physically active as an adult with congenital heart disease2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to advances in medical and surgical care adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing and aging population, that now outnumbers the children with CHD. In general, adults with CHD have reduced aerobic exercise capacity and nearly half of the patients do not reach current recommendations on physical activity. It is known that a low level of physical activity is associated with an increased risk for acquired cardiovascular disease. Studies has shown that adults with CHD are at the same, or even higher risk as the general population, for developing acquired cardiovascular disease.

    Aim: The overall aim was to explore physical activity in adults with CHD with respect to associated factors, exercise self-efficacy and their own experiences.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four papers. Paper I included 471 adults with CHD from three tertiary care centres in Sweden. The participants completed questionnaires measuring patient reported outcomes (e.g. SF-12) including physical activity level. Paper II was based on data from 79 adults with CHD from two tertiary care centers in Sweden and 42 matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy and quality of life, wore an activity monitor during four consecutive days and performed muscle endurance tests. Paper I and II were of cross-sectional design and analyses were done using logistic regression. In paper III and IV data were collected through structured interviews for 14 participants. They were asked about their experiences of being physically active (paper III), what they considered as physical activities, and their experiences of enablers and barriers to physical activity (paper IV). Qualitative content analysis was used in papers III and IV.

    Results: Physical activity level (paper I) and exercise self-efficacy (paper II) were strongly associated with age where those over 40 years had a lower level of physical activity and lower exercise self-efficacy. Further, in paper I, it appeared that patient reported outcomes from SF-12 were strongly associated with physical activity level. In paper II, exercise self-efficacy was associated with performance in a muscle endurance tests. Paper III revealed an overall theme – It´s like balancing on a slackline that illustrates how adults with CHD described themselves in relation to physical activity. This overall theme consisted of four themes: (1) Being an adventurer – enjoying the challenges of physical activity; (2) Being a realist – adapting to physical ability; (3) Being a non-doer – lacking prerequisites for physical activity and (4) Being an outsider – feeling excluded depending on physical ability. In paper IV, the analysis revealed a description of what adults with CHD consider to be physical activity and considered as enablers and barriers for physical activity. Four categories appeared; physical aspects, psychological aspects, psychosocial aspects and environmental aspects. In the psychosocial aspect, social support and encouragement in childhood to be physically active and no restrictions from e.g. parents, teachers and health care increased physical activity in adulthood.

    Conclusions: Age, social support and accepting physical limitations seem to have an important impact regarding physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy. In contrast, the complexity of CHD and other medical factors appear to be of less importance for adults with CHD in relation to physical activity. In order to support adults with CHD to increase their physical activity and reach their full potential, it is important to explore and consider the various aspects that may affect physical activity in this population.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 09:15 N430, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) based on optical frequency combs is an excellent spectroscopic tool as it provides broadband molecular spectra with high spectral resolution and an absolutely calibrated frequency scale. Moreover, the equidistant comb mode structure enables efficient coupling of the comb to enhancement cavities, yielding high detection sensitivity. This thesis focuses on further advances in comb-based FTS to improve its performance and extend its capabilities for broadband precision spectroscopy, particularly in terms of i) spectral resolution, ii) accuracy and precision of molecular parameters as well as concentrations retrieved from fitting models to spectra, and iii) species selectivity.

    To improve the spectral resolution we developed a new methodology to acquire and analyze comb-based FTS signals that yields spectra with a resolution limited by the comb linewidth rather than the optical path difference of the FTS, referred to as the sub-nominal resolution method. This method enables measurements of narrow features, e.g. low-pressure absorption spectra and modes of enhancement cavities, with frequency scale accuracy and precision provided by the comb. Using the technique we measured low-pressure spectra of the entire 3ν13 carbon dioxide (CO2) band at 1575 nm with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and precision to observe collision narrowing of the absorption lineshape, which was for the first time with a comb-based spectroscopic technique. This allowed retrieval of spectral line parameters for this CO2 band using the speed-dependent Voigt profile.

    Using the sub-nominal resolution method, we measured the transmission modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity over 15 THz of bandwidth with kHz resolution and characterized the cavity modes in terms of their center frequency, linewidth, and amplitude. From the mode center frequencies, we retrieved the group delay dispersion of cavity mirror coatings and intracavity gas with an unprecedented combination of spectral bandwidth and resolution. By measuring both the mode broadening and frequency shift simultaneously we performed broadband cavity-enhanced complex refractive index spectroscopy (CE-CRIS), which allows for simultaneous and calibration-free assessment of the absorption and dispersion spectra of intracavity gas. In this first demonstration we measured the absorption and dispersion spectra of three combination bands of CO2 in the 1525 to 1620 nm range.

    Another comb-based FTS technique is noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), which combines phase modulation and cavity-enhancement to obtain broadband and highly sensitive absorption spectra. In this thesis we improved the NICE-OFCS technique in terms of stability, sensitivity and modeling of the NICE-OFCS signal. We implemented a model of the NICE-OFCS signal with multiline fitting for assessment of gas concentration. We also identified the optimum operating conditions of the NICE-OFCS systems for accurate gas concentration assessment.

    Finally, to improve the species selectivity we combined comb-based FTS with the Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) technique. In this first demonstration of optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy (OFC-FRS), we measured background and interference-free spectra of the entire Q- and R-branches of the fundamental vibrational band of nitric oxide at 5.3 μm showing good agreement with the theoretical model.

  • Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-29 10:00 O124, Halmstad
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Social Networking Sites – Consumers’ assessment of the value of advertisements (Extended Model)2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the identified shortcomings in the earlier studies of consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and the relative importance of explaining advertisement value, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to develop and empirically test a conceptual framework that can advance knowledge and increase our understanding of how online consumers assess the value of advertisements on social networking sites. In reference to this purpose, this doctoral dissertation has sought to answer the following overarching research question: What are the relevant variables that predict online consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and how do these variables affect their assessment?

    To achieve the purpose of this study and to answer its overarching research question, a mixed method approach was used, adapting both quantitative and qualitative methods. A sequential explanatory strategy using mixed methods was the primary approach used to explain and interpret the quantitative results, by collecting and analyzing follow-up qualitative data. Consequently, this study started by doing a systematic literature review to identify the related factors, followed by a conceptual study to provide an extended conceptual framework that connected consumer beliefs to their sources of gratifications from using SNSs. That conceptual framework was partially examined in three survey papers to test the effects of its five belief factors (information value, entertainment value, irritation value, interactivity value, and credibility value) on assesments of advertisement value on SNSs. The three survey papers found that these five belief factors have significant effects on assessments of advertisement value on social networking sites. However, those effects varied according to consumers’ cultural backgrounds. The three survey papers were then followed by a qualitative focus group study to give a deeper explanation, and to discover the underlying reasons behind consumers’ assessment of advertisement value. That focus group study confirmed the role of culture in assessing the value of advertisements, and it gave deeper explanations behind the reasons for that variance in assessments of advertisement value within the context of social networking sites from one research population to another. In general, this study contributes to the understanding of consumers’ assessments of advertisements on social networking sites. It offers a new approach by connecting consumers’ gratifications from using social networking sites to their assessment of advertisement value. In turn, it helps to reflect a number of valuable insights that can be utilized by both researchers and marketers in order to understand how the addressed factors enhance consumers’ assessments by testing the contribution of credibility, interactivity value, social influence, pre-purchase search motivation, and cultural backgrounds, in addition to previously tested variables: information value, entertainment value, and irritation value.

  • Dabbaghchian, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Arnela, Marc
    GTM Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Guasch, Oriol
    GTM Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain.
    Reconstruction of vocal tract geometries from biomechanical simulations2018In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 2040-7939, E-ISSN 2040-7947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical imaging techniques are usually utilized to acquire the vocal tract geometry in 3D, which may then be used, eg, for acoustic/fluid simulation. As an alternative, such a geometry may also be acquired from a biomechanical simulation, which allows to alter the anatomy and/or articulation to study a variety of configurations. In a biomechanical model, each physical structure is described by its geometry and its properties (such as mass, stiffness, and muscles). In such a model, the vocal tract itself does not have an explicit representation, since it is a cavity rather than a physical structure. Instead, its geometry is defined implicitly by all the structures surrounding the cavity, and such an implicit representation may not be suitable for visualization or for acoustic/fluid simulation. In this work, we propose a method to reconstruct the vocal tract geometry at each time step during the biomechanical simulation. Complexity of the problem, which arises from model alignment artifacts, is addressed by the proposed method. In addition to the main cavity, other small cavities, including the piriform fossa, the sublingual cavity, and the interdental space, can be reconstructed. These cavities may appear or disappear by the position of the larynx, the mandible, and the tongue. To illustrate our method, various static and temporal geometries of the vocal tract are reconstructed and visualized. As a proof of concept, the reconstructed geometries of three cardinal vowels are further used in an acoustic simulation, and the corresponding transfer functions are derived.

  • Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large interest in the possibilities in storing produced energy that is not needed at that particular moment or to store energy when the cost for production of electricity is low. For this reason, different types of energy storage systems are used. With a fast development of new technologies and new forms of application for energy storage systems, it is important to also study the existing and potential risks with these types of systems.

    This prestudy describes the field, its risks and needs for research. It focuses on risks associated with fire, including explosions and when relevant the production of toxic gases. Although the main focus of the prestudy is different types of energy storage systems, the report contains information also on risks associated with storage of solid biofuels and waste. This means that the report contains information on risks and needs for research for batteries, hydrogen, biogas, liquified gases, biofuels and waste.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-11 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Fiebig, Florian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Active Memory Processing on Multiple Time-scales in Simulated Cortical Networks with Hebbian Plasticity2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines declarative memory function, and its underlying neural activity and mechanisms in simulated cortical networks. The included simulation models utilize and synthesize proposed universal computational principles of the brain, such as the modularity of cortical circuit organization, attractor network theory, and Hebbian synaptic plasticity, along with selected biophysical detail from the involved brain areas to implement functional models of known cortical memory systems. The models hypothesize relations between neural activity, brain area interactions, and cognitive memory functions such as sleep-dependent memory consolidation, or specific working memory tasks. In particular, this work addresses the acutely relevant research question if recently described fast forms of Hebbian synaptic plasticity are a possible mechanism behind working memory. The proposed models specifically challenge the “persistent activity hypothesis of working memory”, an established but increasingly questioned paradigm in working memory theory. The proposed alternative is a novel synaptic working memory model that is arguably more defensible than the existing paradigm as it can better explain memory function and important aspects of working memory-linked activity (such as the role of long-term memory in working memory tasks), while simultaneously matching experimental data from behavioral memory testing and important evidence from electrode recordings.

  • Dabbaghchian, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Nilsson, Isak
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    From Tongue Movement Data to Muscle Activation – A Preliminary Study of Artisynth's Inverse Modelling2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the muscle activations during speech production is an important part of developing a comprehensive biomechanical model of speech production. Although there are some direct ways, like Electromyography, for measuring muscle activations, these methods usually are highly invasive and sometimes not reliable. They are more over impossible to use for all muscles. In this study we therefore explore an indirect way to estimate tongue muscle activations during speech production by combining Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) measurements of tongue movements and the inverse modeling in Artisynth. With EMA we measure the time-changing 3D positions of four sensors attached to the tongue surface for a Swedish female subject producing vowel-vowel and vowelconsonant-vowel (VCV) sequences. The measured sensor positions are used as target points for corresponding virtual sensors introduced in the tongue model of Artisynth’s inverse modelling framework, which computes one possible combination of muscle activations that results in the observed sequence of tongue articulations. We present resynthesized tongue movements in the Artisynth model and verify the results by comparing the calculated muscle activations with literature.

  • Lund, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Fischer, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Outnyttjat ensilage till förnybar energi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large amounts of unutilized silage from agriculture and from municipalities that harvest meadows and grasslands. This biomass is a disposal problem and a cost. At the same time, there are biogas plants which have an increased demand for substrates that do not compete with the production of feed and food. Unutilized silage can be an excellent biogas substrate provided it is effectively pretreated. This study is conducted as a case study of Jordberga Biogas plant in Skåne (in the south of Sweden), although the results of the project are applicable to other regions in Sweden where unutilized silage exists. The project aim was to study a 20 % replacement

    of today’s crop-based substrates in Jordberga biogas plant with unutilized silage from agriculture and municipalities. The project has been conducted by RISE Agrifood and Bioscience in collaboration with the German Biomass Research Center (Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum, DBFZ), Gasum, County Administrative Board of Skåne and Fogda Farm.

    The project was divided into three parts. In the first part the amounts of different types of unutilized silage was estimated, from arable land and forage areas at municipalities and County Administrative Boards, for the area around the Gasum Biogas plant in Jordberga, and for Sweden in total. In a second part the adequate technique for pretreatment was identified and tested in practical trials on different types of unutilized silage. In the third part cost calculations were done for the disintegration of the unutilized silage.

    The study showed that the largest potential for unutilized silage is from forage production. The area of meadows is much less with much lower yield. An assumption was made that 5% of the total amount of unutilized silage bales are available for biogas production. Project calculations showed that 35% of these must be used to substitute 20% of the crop based substrates at Jordberga. Depending on the quality and biogas yield, 12-23 ton DM is needed per day.

    Based on earlier studies and experiences from the project group, three machines were chosen for the practical tests to disintegrate silage bales; Rot Grind, RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. Roto Grind and I-GRIND used hammermill technique whereas RS CutMaster

    used knife rotors for disintegration. All three machines managed to disintegrate silage bales with DM-content varying from 40-70% DM. The particle length after disintegration was analyzed and a visual estimation of the effect on particle structure was made. Particle size after disintegration was the same for Roto Grind and RS CutMaster whereas it was considerable longer for I-GRIND. Disintegration worked better on silage with lower DM content regarding both particle size and structure for all tested machines.

    Based on the test results RS CutMaster had higher total disintegration costs compared with Roto Grind and I-GRIND. The differences in costs was mainly due to lower measured capacity of RS CutMaster, and higher depreciation and maintenance costs of both RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. To lower the costs to same level as Roto Grind and I-GRIND, RS CutMaster would need approximately 40% higher capacity than measured in the tests.

  • Thandlam, Venugopal
    et al.
    Department of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.
    K, Venkatramana
    The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India.
    Enhancing Vertical Resolution Of Satellite Atmospheric Profile Data: A Machine Learning Approach2018In: International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407, Vol. 6, p. 542-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a statistical approach using the Artificial neural networks (ANN) to improve the vertical resolution of tropospheric relative humidity profiles (RH) from 20 pressure levels to 171 pressure levels. The model is based on an unconventional method in which we used the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System Radio Occultation(GPS RO) data and the corresponding observed values of RH data. The model was developed using 3 years COSMIC daily data during 2007-2009 over the north Indian Ocean and produced high vertical resolution (171 pressure levels) output data from the coarse resolution inputs(20 pressure levels). We achieved the best performance in generating high vertical resolution data with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient(CC) of greater than 0.94 and scatter index (SI) of less than 0.1throughout all pressure levels. Thus, the present approach is an efficient method to achieve the better vertical resolution of RH data from geostationary satellites.

  • Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New domestic biofuel boilers must meet the Ecodesign Directive by 2020. In a market survey from 2014, none of 11 tested pellet boilers did meet all requirements, clearly indicating a developmental need. In the present project boiler manufacturers and research institutes have collaborated in response to the combustion engineering challenges.

    For pellet boilers, the biggest challenge with the Ecodesign Directive is that performance is largely calculated from partial load operation (low load). Previously, performance has only been determined at nominal load and the design has been optimized accordingly. In this project, tests have been run with two modern pellet boilers that have different types of pellet burner: one with horizontal burner tube and one with an underfeed burner cup. The results show that sufficient combustion performance could be maintained at partial load with both burner types. However, the tube burner exhibited significantly lower emissions at partial loads, probably due to the combustion zone in this burner being protected from heat radiation exchange with cooling boiler walls. A rather extensive work was laid down to provide the cup burner with a protective collar that would protect the combustion zone. However, it did not result in any significant improvement, probably because the supply of secondary air did not become optimal. A more extensive work is required to develop an optimal burner design of this type.

    For wood log boilers, it is a challenge to comply with the NOx requirements of the Ecodesign Directive of 200 mg / Nm³. A variety of temperature measurements in a wood log boiler resulted in the exclusion of thermal NOx formation. The boiler was fitted with a flue gas recirculation system, but it did not reduce the NOx emission. Then different varieties of wood fuels were tested. The NOx emission could be reduced to meet the requirement using barked birch wood. Chemical analyzes showed that the birch bark contained 0.49% nitrogen compared to 0.09% in the stock. Spruce logs also gave low NOx emissions, but that fuel resulted in increased CO and OGC emissions. For wood log boilers to meet the requirements for CO, OGC and dust, optimization is required under the wood's final combustion phase. At this stage, emissions are at its highest, due to the decreasing heat output while the airflow tends to cool down the flue gas faster than the combustible gases burn out. The optical particle measurement showed a clear correlation between dust and CO in the flue gas. If the boiler meets the CO limit, there are good chances that the requirement for particles also will be met.

    The efficiency specified in the Ecodesign Directive is calculated based on the fuel's higher heating value. In addition, some loss factors are subtracted. This implies that the boiler must not have unnecessarily large heat losses or excessive electricity consumption to meet the requirements. Measurements showed that the biggest loss occurs with the heat in the flue gas. The second largest loss is heat from the boiler body. For the efficiency, the importance of a well-insulated boiler body increases in the case of partial loads. The two pellet boilers used in the project were well suited to meet the eco-directive directive's efficiency requirements.

  • Flytta föremål: tillståndsdokumentation2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att undvika osäkerhet om hur skador uppkommer på föremål är det viktigt att dokumentera föremålens tillstånd, exempelvis före och efter en förflyttning. Det är oftast en konservator somupprättar en tillståndsrapport, men det är många som arbetar med museiföremål som utförtillståndskontroller. Detta Vårda väl-blad är ett av fyra om att flytta föremål, och riktar sig till digsom hanterar föremål i samlingar.

  • Flytta föremål: planering2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor del av de skador som uppkommer på föremål i museisamlingar sker i samband med att föremålen hanteras, flyttas och transporteras. Förflyttning av konst- och kulturarvsobjekt behöver planeras väl för att minska risken för skador. Detta Vårda väl-blad riktar sig till dig som packar,transporterar och vårdar föremål i samlingar och är ett av fyra Vårda väl-blad om att flytta föremål.

  • Flytta föremål: packning2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föremål och konst som finns i museisamlingar kan behöva packas, exempelvis inför transport eller för att skyddas mot föroreningar vid ombyggnation. Det här är ett av fyra Vårda väl-blad om att flytta föremål, och riktar sig till dig som arbetar med att packa. Här ges förslag på vad som kan vara bra att tänka på före, under och efter packningen.

  • Flytta föremål: transport2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här Vårda väl-bladet riktar sig till dig som planerar för och bokar transport av museiföremål och är ett av fyra Vårda väl-blad om att flytta föremål. Här ges förslag på vad som kan vara bra att tänka på kring logistik, val av transportsätt och val av speditör.

  • Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik , Örebro Universitet.
    Hammar, Karl
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH, Datateknik och informatik.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SmartEnv Ontology in E-care@home2018In: SSN 2018 - Semantic Sensor Networks Workshop: Proceedings of the 9th International Semantic Sensor Networks Workshopco-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018) / [ed] Maxime Lefrançois, Raúl Garcia Castro, Amélie Gyrard, Kerry Taylor, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2213, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper we briefly introduce SmartEnv ontology which relies on SEmantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and is used to represent different aspects of smart and sensorized environments. We will also talk about E-carehome project aiming at providing an IoT-based health-care system for elderly people at their homes. Furthermore, we refer to the role of SmartEnv in Ecarehome and how it needs to be further extended to achieve semantic interoperability as one of the challenges in development of autonomous health care systems at home.

  • Lindberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Alfthan, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Yang, Li
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Mechanical performance of polymer powder bed fused objects: FEM simulation and verification2018In: Additive manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 24, p. 577-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) enables the designing and producing of complex geometries in a layer-by-layer approach. The layered structure leads to anisotropic behaviour in the material. To accommodate anisotropic behaviour, geometrical optimization is needed so that the 3D printed object meets the pre-set strength and quality requirements. In this article a material description for polymer powder bed fused also or selective laser sintered (SLS) PA12 (Nylon-12), which is a common 3D printing plastic, was investigated, using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The Material Model parameters were obtained by matching them to the test results of multipurpose test specimens (dumb-bells or dog bones) and the model was then used to simulate/predict the mechanical performance of the SLS printed lower-leg prosthesis components, pylon and support. For verification purposes, two FEM designs for a support were SLS printed together with additional test specimens in order to validate the used Material Model. The SLS printed prosthesis pieces were tested according to ISO 10328 Standard. The FEM simulations, together with the Material Model, was found to give good estimations for the location of a failure and its load. It was also noted that there were significant variations among individual SLS printed test specimens, which impacted on the material parameters and the FEM simulations. Hence, to enable reliable FEM simulations for the designing of 3D printed products, better control of the SLS process with regards to porosity, pore morphology and pore distribution is needed.

  • Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers university of technology, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Technological development for sustainability: The role of network management in the innovation policy mix2018In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the key role of actor networks in progressing new sustainable technologies, there is a shortage of conceptual knowledge on how policy can help strengthen collaborative practices in such networks. The objective of this paper is to analyze the roles of such policies – so-called network management – throughout the entire technological development processes. The analysis draws on the public management and sustainability transitions literatures, and discusses how various network characteristics could affect the development of sustainable technologies, including how different categories of network management strategies could be deployed to influence actor collaborations. The paper's main contribution is an analytical framework that addresses the changing roles of network management at the interface between various phases of the technological development process, illustrated with the empirical case of advanced biorefinery technology development in Sweden. Furthermore, the analysis also addresses some challenges that policy makers are likely to encounter when pursuing network management strategies, and identifies a number of negative consequences of ignoring such instruments in the innovation policy mix. The latter include inefficient actor role-taking, the emergence of small, ineffective and competing actor networks in similar technological fields, and a shortage of interpretative knowledge.

  • Att städa i föremålsmagasin2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta Vårda väl-blad ger en bild av hur städning av ett föremålsmagasin kan gå till, vad som är viktigt att tänka på vid utformningen av städrutiner samt hur ett städschema kan se ut. Det riktar sig till alla som förvaltar och ansvarar för föremålsmagasin. 

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Melin, Gustav
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

  • Holgersson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mälarporten, termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystemet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Mälarporten har en storskalig förändring påbörjats. Området har tidigare bestått av gamla, till viss del nedlagda industrier, och kommer till stor del ersättas med bostäder, men också i viss mån kontor. Energi- och effektbehovet i området kommer att förändras mot tidigare vilket innebär att även fjärrvärmesystemet behöver förnyas. Vidare är det troligt att fjärrvärmenätet kommer arbeta med lägre temperaturer då nya fastigheter är av lågenergityp.

    Uppdraget i denna studie är att komplettera Mälarenergis arbete kring det kommande fjärrvärmenätet i området Mälarporten, Västerås med en kort utredning av termiska lager. Studien syftar till att öka kunskapen kring termiska lagers funktion i fjärrvärmenät inför ombyggnationen av fjärrvärmenätet i Mälarporten. Övergripande belyses teknik, viktiga parametrar och nuläget.

    Det finns flera tillämpningar på termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystem. Dels för att utjämna dygnsvariationerna i lasten i nätet, men också variationen över säsong. Vidare finns potential att använda ett termiskt lager i områden där det inte är möjligt med höga termiska effektuttag.

    De flesta installerade lagren idag är av typen sensibla lager men utvecklingen av latenta och termokemiska lager går fort. De latenta lagren är mer tillämpbara än de termokemiska som mestadels befinner sig på forskningsstadiet. Ett exempel på latent lager är snö vilket tillämpas idag i Sundsvall för fjärrkyla. En positiv bieffekt är att ett sådant lager kan underlätta rening av smältvattnet i en stad.

    Både KTH och Chalmers bedriver forskning för att utveckla latenta lagers tillämpningar i fjärrvärme/fjärrkylasystem. Det borde också vara intressant för Mälarenergi att titta närmare på SaltX installation i Berlin samt borrhålslagret i Linköping och befintliga groplager i Malung och Danmark.

  • Hultengren, Svante
    Växter och djur i Västra Götalands odlingslandskap: - utvecklingen under de senaste 30 åren2016Report (Other academic)
  • Norberg, Lisbet
    et al.
    Stjernberg Forsberg, Lovisa
    Utlakning från jordbruksmark i Västra Götalands län: Utvärdering av undersökningar 1988‐20152018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport sammanställs och utvärderas de data som har samlats in från typområdenaO14 och O17 i Västra Götalands län inom miljöövervakningsprogrammetUtlakning från jordbruksmark. I områdenas vattendrag har det sedan25-30 år tillbaka genomförts kontinuerliga flödesmätningar samt analyser avflera olika kemiska parametrar, bl.a. kväve och fosfor. Vissa år har också uppgifterom odling och odlingsåtgärder samlats in från lantbrukarna i områdena.Typområde O14:

    •Området består av 71 % åkermark och 23 % skog. Jorden domineras av lättleraoch i området odlas främst spannmål och vall. Åkermarken plöjs främstpå hösten.

    •Långtidsmedel för totalkvävehalten i vattendraget är 4,9 mg/l. Från områdettransporteras årligen i genomsnitt 14 kg totalkväve per hektar, varav åkermarkenberäknas stå för ca 94 %. Koncentrationen och transporten av kvävei bäckvattnet har en tydlig nedåtgående trend under mätperioden.

    •Långtidsmedel för totalfosforhalten i vattendraget är 0,17 mg/l. Från områdettransporteras årligen i genomsnitt 0,53 kg totalfosfor per hektar, varavåkermarken beräknas stå för cirka 88 % och enskilda avlopp för ca 9 %.Transporten av total- och fosfatfosfor från området minskade under denförsta halvan av mätperioden, medan transporten av partikulär fosfor harökat under hela mätperioden.

    •Vid en jämförelse mellan odlingsinventeringarna utförda år 2015 och 2006ses en del förändringar, däribland minskad andel fånggröda och ökade skördar.Även gödslingen tycks ha förändrats, vilket har inneburit en högre tillförselav kväve och en mindre tillförsel av fosfor till åkermarken år 2015jämfört med tidigare inventerade år. Dessutom användes mer stallgödsel år2015 jämfört med tidigare.Typområde O17:

    •Området består av 55 % åkermark och 37 % skog. Jordarna är lättare än i typområdeO14 och domineras av finmo och sand. I området odlas främstspannmål och vall.

    •Långtidsmedel för totalkvävehalten i vattendraget är 3,3 mg/l. Från områdettransporteras årligen i genomsnitt 10 kg totalkväve per hektar, varav åkermarkenberäknas stå för ca 88 % och skogsmarken för ca 9 %. Koncentrationenoch transporten av kväve i bäckvattnet har en tydlig nedåtgående trendunder mätperioden.

    •Långtidsmedel för totalfosforhalten i vattendraget är 0,06 mg/l. Från områdettransporteras årligen i genomsnitt 0,19 kg totalfosfor per hektar, varavåkermarken beräknas stå för ca 70 % och enskilda avlopp för ca 20 %. Detfinns statistiska indikationer på att både transporten och koncentrationen av- 6 -fosfatfosfor har minskat under den andra halvan av mätperioden, medan partikulärfosfor inte uppvisar någon trend.

    •Vid en jämförelse mellan odlingsinventeringarna utförda år 2006 och 2015ses en del förändringar, däribland minskad andel fånggröda, ökade skördarsamt ökad andel höstplöjning. Det finns även en skillnad i gödsling mellanåren, som innebär en högre tillförsel av kväve år 2015 jämfört med tidigareinventerade år. Siffrorna för år 2015 är dock osäkra, eftersom nästan 30 %av åkermarken i typområde O17 inte inventerades detta år.

    Det var i vissa fall svårt att förklara trender i kontinuerliga kemdata med hjälpav sporadiskt insamlade odlingsuppgifter. I båda områdena syntes exempelvisminskande trender i kvävehalter, trots ökad kvävegödsling och minskad andelfånggröda år 2015 jämfört med 2006. De högre skördarna år 2015 i båda områdena,samt den högre andelen vall i typområde O14, skulle däremot kunna varabidragande orsaker till minskande kvävehalter. Osäkerheten är dock stor och utvärderingenfokuserar därför mer på förändringar i data över tid än på sambandmellan olika parametrar.

  • Enoksson, Bodil
    et al.
    Loman, Jon
    Dvärgmusen i Västra Götaland: Populationsundersökningar 1985-20022004Report (Other academic)
  • Broman, Emil
    et al.
    Lind, Emma
    Hävd i slåtterängar: Miljöövervakning i Västra Götalands län 20172018Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-12-05 10:15 L111, Sundsvall
    Lavassani, Mehrzad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Reliable Information Exchange in IIoT: Investigation into the Role of Data and Data-Driven Modelling2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the tangible building block for the realisation of the fourth industrial revolution. It should improve productivity, efficiency and reliability of industrial automation systems, leading to revenue growth in industrial scenarios. IIoT needs to encompass various disciplines and technologies to constitute an operable and harmonious system. One essential requirement for a system to exhibit such behaviour is reliable exchange of information. In industrial automation, the information life-cycle starts at the field level, with data collected by sensors, and ends at the enterprise level, where that data is processed into knowledge for business decision making. In IIoT, the process of knowledge discovery is expected to start in the lower layers of the automation hierarchy, and to cover the data exchange between the connected smart objects to perform collaborative tasks.

    This thesis aims to assist the comprehension of the processes for information exchange in IIoT-enabled industrial automation- in particular, how reliable exchange of information can be performed by communication systems at field level given an underlying wireless sensor technology, and how data analytics can complement the processes of various levels of the automation hierarchy. Furthermore, this work explores how an IIoT monitoring system can be designed and developed.

    The communication reliability is addressed by proposing a redundancy-based medium access control protocol for mission-critical applications, and analysing its performance regarding real-time and deterministic delivery. The importance of the data and the benefits of data analytics for various levels of the automation hierarchy are examined by suggesting data-driven methods for visualisation, centralised system modelling and distributed data streams modelling. The design and development of an IIoT monitoring system are addressed by proposing a novel three-layer framework that incorporates wireless sensor, fog, and cloud technologies. Moreover, an IIoT testbed system is developed to realise the proposed framework.

    The outcome of this study suggests that redundancy-based mechanisms improve communication reliability. However, they can also introduce drawbacks, such as poor link utilisation and limited scalability, in the context of IIoT. Data-driven methods result in enhanced readability of visualisation, and reduced necessity of the ground truth in system modelling. The results illustrate that distributed modelling can lower the negative effect of the redundancy-based mechanisms on link utilisation, by reducing the up-link traffic. Mathematical analysis reveals that introducing fog layer in the IIoT framework removes the single point of failure and enhances scalability, while meeting the latency requirements of the monitoring application. Finally, the experiment results show that the IIoT testbed works adequately and can serve for the future development and deployment of IIoT applications.

  • Stasiulyte, Vidmina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Aesthetics of the Invisible: Foundations for Sonic Fashion2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aural experience and sound thinking, in contrast to visual experience and image thinking, change the fundamental manifestation and perception of a dressed body: from looking and being seen to listening and being heard. Looking at and listening to a body that is wearing high heels are fundamentally different experiences. Although sound is an element of dress and identity, the visual sense is predominant in fashion and fashion education, and fashion is essentially understood to be a system of visual components. As an alternative to this dominant focus on the visual, this research investigates the sonic aspects of fashion, approaching them as largely unexplored and potentially interesting ontological alternatives with which to create an understanding of fashion that goes beyond visual stimuli.

    The primary aim of the research presented in this thesis was to develop an introductory programme for sonic fashion that suggests a shift in focus – from visual perception and appearance to sonic. The programme consists primarily of ontological theory components: methods, tool-shifters, terms, definitions, and categories.

    The research was conducted through investigations of sonic dress and sonic expressions, which were approached as interactions between the body and dress that occur during the act of wearing. Sonic aspects were explored on a fundamental level – i.e. the natural (physical) sounds of dress – in a manner that is relatively unprecedented in the fashion field, and so the research was experimental and speculative.

    Knowledge regarding sonic expressions was collected using sound-based thinking in the form of listening/sounding research artefacts, which raised ontological questions; What is a sonic silhouette? How a sonic silhouette is created?

    The research was conducted by exploring, recording, and systematising sounds arising from body-dress and dress-dress interactions, as well as speculative experimental workshops with students and case study involving people with differing seeing abilities.More generally, the research broadens our conception of fashion aesthetics by presenting a new direction for the fashion design field; a non-visual aesthetic that is based on sonic expression, wherein sound is considered to be a design/design thinking material and an alternative way of defining a silhouette.

  • Broman, Emil
    et al.
    Lind, Emma
    Hävd i slåtterängar: Miljöövervakning i Västra Götalands län 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • Claesson, Christina
    et al.
    Wendel, Jenny
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Hävd i slåtterängar: Miljöövervakning i Västra Götalands län 20152016Report (Other academic)
  • Wendel, Jenny
    et al.
    Claesson, Christina
    Nylinder, Josefine
    Bengtsson, Ola
    Hävd i slåtterängar: - miljöövervakning i Västra Götalands län 20132014Report (Other academic)
  • Chrysanthidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST). Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Fiebig, Florian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST). Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, Edinburgh University, EH8 9AB Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Lansner, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST). Department of Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introducing double bouquet cells into a modular cortical associative memory modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an electrophysiological model of double bouquet cells and integrate them into an established cortical columnar microcircuit model that has previously been used as a spiking attractor model for memory. Learning in that model relies on a Bayesian-Hebbian learning rule to condition recurrent connectivity between pyramidal cells. We here demonstrate that the inclusion of a biophysically plausible double bouquet cell model can solve earlier concerns about learning rules that simultaneously learn excitation and inhibition and might thus violate Dale's Principle. We show that learning ability and resulting effective connectivity between functional columns of previous network models is preserved when pyramidal synapses onto double-bouquet cells are plastic under the same Hebbian-Bayesian learning rule. The proposed architecture draws on experimental evidence on double bouquet cells and effectively solves the problem of duplexed learning of inhibition and excitation by replacing recurrent inhibition between pyramidal cells in functional columns of different stimulus selectivity with a plastic disynaptic pathway. We thus show that the resulting change to the microcircuit architecture improves the model's biological plausibility without otherwise impacting the models spiking activity, basic operation, and learning abilities.

  • Fiebig, Florian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Herman, Pawel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Lansner, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST). Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Swed.
    An Indexing Theory for Working Memory based on Fast Hebbian PlasticityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) is a key component of human memory and cognitive function. Computational models have been used to uncover the underlying neural mechanisms. However, these studies have mostly focused on the short-term memory aspects of WM and neglected the equally important role of interactions between short- and long-term memory (STM, LTM). Here, we concentrate on these interactions within the framework of our new computational model of WM, which accounts for three cortical patches in macaque brain, corresponding to networks in prefrontal cortex (PFC) together with parieto-temporal cortical areas. In particular, we propose a cortical indexing theory that explains how PFC could associate, maintain and update multi-modal LTM representations. Our simulation results demonstrate how simultaneous, brief multi-modal memory cues could build a temporary joint memory representation linked via an "index" in the prefrontal cortex by means of fast Hebbian synaptic plasticity. The latter can then activate spontaneously and thereby reactivate the associated long-term representations. Cueing one long-term memory item rapidly pattern-completes the associated un-cued item via prefrontal cortex. The STM network updates flexibly as new stimuli arrive thereby gradually over-writing older representations. In a wider context, this WM model suggests a novel explanation for "variable binding", a long-standing and fundamental phenomenon in cognitive neuroscience, which is still poorly understood in terms of detailed neural mechanisms.

  • Bengtsson, Ola
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Vikki
    Lindholm, Mattias
    Slåtterängar i Västra Götalands län: Resultat av övervakning 2000-20062009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following report is a compilation of the vegetation analysis whichhas been carried out in a selection of traditionally cut hay meadows in theCounty of Västra Götaland in 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. In theyears 2004 to 2006, 10 permanent plots and an additional 20 sites randomlyselected from the existing County database of meadows were surveyedannually. In each site a quadrat 10m x 10m was placed in an area that wasconsidered to be "representative" for that meadow. In this larger quadrat,10 smaller quadrats 1 m2 were marked out according to a pre-preparedrandom pattern. The vegetation in these smaller squares was recorded usingthe sampling method known as the species-area method or relevé method.In each quadrat of 1 m2 the coverage of dead plant material was recordedaccording to scale of four.For the analysis, the plants recorded were divided into the followingecological groups: method of pollination, life form (according to Raunkier)and plant type (herb, grass, sedge etc.). The species recorded were treated aspresence/absence per small quadrat (1 m2). Analysis of species richness wascarried out by comparing the average (number of species/m2) per quadratfor each site. As a comparison, analysis of the ecological grouping of speciesaccording to Ekstam, 1992 was also carried out. Changes over time wereanalysed using linear regression analysis. The differences between managedand unmanaged meadows were analysed using 2-way ANOVA, withmanagement and soil moisture as factors.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-06 10:00 Robergssalen, ingång 40, Uppsala
    Nilsen, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Gentian AS.
    Avian antibodies applied in particle enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay: Developement of serum/plasma calprotectin immunoassay and its clinical performance as a marker for bacterial infections2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Calprotectin is a cytosolic protein in the granulocytes, consisting of S100A8 and S100A9. On the site of inflammation, the neutrophils release the cytosol as an inflammatory response. The circulating calprotectin concentration increases and can therefore be used as marker for neutrophil activation and inflammation.

    To raise specific antibodies, it is crucial to immunize with pure calprotectin antigen. We purified calprotectin from human granulocytes by ion-exchange chromatography, dialysed it towards saline and concentrated it to required levels, suited for immunisation of the hens. The purified antigen solutions were assigned concentration values by the Biuret method and the purity was checked by SDS PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. The yield was approximately 2 mg purified antigens per unit of 450 ml blood.

    A prototype calprotectin particle enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay was developed from the purified antigen and the affinity purified antibodies. The antigen was spiked into PBS to prepare calibrators and controls. The antibodies were coated to latex particles to prepare immunoparticles. The performance of the immunoassay was technically tested on a clinical chemistry analyser. LoQ, antigen excess, linearity, precision and calibration stability met the pre-set criteria.

    In the production process of immunoparticles there are several factors affecting the performance of the assay. Investigating eight factors applying a Taguchi L12 screening, we experienced that conductivity and pH of conjugate buffer, coating grade and conductivity of dialysis buffer II affected the sensitivity and antigen excess the most.

    The assay was used to measure clinical samples. Serum samples from elderly people aged 70+ were collected. Only patients with no infections were included to establish a reference interval for this patient group. The reference interval in serum was 0.3 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L for both genders. Furthermore, the plasma calprotectin immunoassay was tested clinically on critically ill patients to assess the ability of plasma calprotectin as an early marker for detection of bacterial infections. It showed promising results. Calprotectin was a better predictive marker for sepsis than procalcitonin and white blood cell count. Because some patients with an inflammation have low numbers of granulocytes, we examined the correlation between white blood cell count and the calprotectin levels in a group of patients with an inflammation. There was a weak correlation between the number of white blood cells and calprotectin concentration.

  • Stenmark, Magnus
    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar i Västra Götalands län, 20172018Report (Other academic)
  • Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Consumer Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Personality traits and Internet usage across generation cohorts: Insights from a nationally representative study2018In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between personality and Internet usage have usually used small and non-representative samples. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the Five Factor Model of Personality and Internet usage in a large nationally representative Swedish sample (N = 1694). Neuroticism was negatively associated with overall Internet usage, whereas extraversion and openness to experience were shown to be positively associated with overall Internet usage. However, exploring these associations across categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts revealed some other interesting patterns. Specifically, neuroticism was negatively associated with using the Internet for activities relating to information and duties but not for leisure and social activities. Extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities among DotNets (born 1977–1999), whereas among Dutifuls (born 1910–1945) and Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities. Openness to experience was positively associated with Internet usage but only among Baby Boomers. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of Internet usage only for DotNets and GenXers (born 1965–1976). In these cohorts, conscientiousness was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities but negatively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities. Apparently, understanding the relationship between personality and Internet usage is not possible without considering the modifying role of categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed in detail.

  • Stenmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Jonsson, Charlotte
    Hallqvist, Joel
    Åhlén Mulio, Sandra
    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar i Västra Götalands län - 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-12-06 13:15
    Batool, Tahira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Heparan sulfate dependent cell signaling and associated pathophysiology: Implications in tumorigenesis and embryogenesis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) consist of a protein core to which several linear, negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS) chains are covalently attached. HSPGs are expressed on the cell surface and in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) where they have diverse biological functions, for example co-receptor functions. The diverse functions of HS are linked to structural variability of the polysaccharide. In this thesis, I investigated HS structure-function relationship by using different cell and animal models of one HS-biosynthetic enzyme, glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) and one enzyme responsible for post synthetic modification, heparanase.

    Deletion of Hsepi in mice resulted in neonatal lethality, with multiple organ defects, indicating the importance of HS in embryogenesis. Up-regulated expression of heparanase is found in most human tumor tissues, correlating with increased metastatic potential and decreased survival of cancer patients.

    In the first project, I focused on the effects of HS on cancer associated cell signaling and found that heparanase overexpression attenuated TGF-β1 stimulated Smad phosphorylation in tumor cells because of increased sulfation degree and turnover rate of HS.

    Heparanase role in cancer progression has led to clinical trials where inhibition of heparanase activity is currently being evaluated as a potential cancer treatment. Heparin, a HS-related polysaccharide, is being used to inhibit heparanase activity. In my second project, we studied the effect of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells (A2780cis). LMWH treatment of A2780cis cells reduced Wnt-activity in these cells and consequently reduce the drug resistance.

    In paper III, we continued exploring the HS/heparanase role in cancer by using heparanase overexpressing mice (Hpa-tg). We found Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC2) cells showed faster growth, bigger tumors and more metastasis in the Hpa-tg mice as compared to wild-type (WT) mice, because of suppressed antitumor immunity in the Hpa-tg mice.

    In paper IV and V, we studied the structure-function relationship of HS by using Hsepi-/- mice model. Hsepi-/- results in HS-chains lacking IdoA, which makes the chain rigid and consequently affects its co-receptor function. Skeletal malformation in Hsepi-/- mice, led us in paper IV to investigate bone morphogenic protein (BMP), an important signal molecule during embryogenesis and known to interact with HS. We found upregulation of a number of BMPs and expression of P-smad1/5/8, but reduced expression of inhibitory Smads and Gremlin1 in the Hsepi-/- MEF cells. The study indicated that the developmental defects in Hsepi mice could be contributed by a higher BMP signaling. In paper V we investigated the lung of the Hsepi-/- mice. The distal lung of 17.5 days old embryos remained populated by epithelial tubules, because of impaired differentiation of type I cells of the lungs. Potential mechanisms behind the failure of type I cell formation was identified to be reduced vascularization and a sustained signaling of Smad pathways.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-04 09:15 2446, ITC, Uppsala
    Ceballos, Germán
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Understanding Task Parallelism: Providing insight into scheduling, memory, and performance for CPUs and Graphics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing the performance of computer systems while making them more energy efficient is vital for future developments in engineering, medicine, entertainment, etc. However, the increasing complexity of software, hardware, and their interactions makes this task difficult. Software developers have to deal with complex memory architectures such as multilevel caches on modern CPUs and keeping thousands of cores busy in GPUs, which makes the programming process harder.

    Task-based programming provides high-level abstractions to simplify the development process. In this model, independent tasks (functions) are submitted to a runtime system, which orchestrates their execution across hardware resources. This approach has become popular and successful because the runtime can distribute the workload across hardware resources automatically, and has the potential to optimize the execution to minimize data movement (e.g., being aware of the cache hierarchy).

    However, to build better runtime systems, we now need to understand bottlenecks in the performance of current and future multicore architectures. Unfortunately, since most current work was designed for sequential or thread-based workloads, there is an overall lack of tools and methods to gain insight about the execution of these applications, allowing both the runtime and the programmers to detect potential optimizations.

    In this thesis, we address this lack of tools by providing fast, accurate and mathematically-sound models to understand the execution of task-based applications. In particular, we center these models around three key aspects of the execution: memory behavior (data locality), scheduling, and performance. Our contributions provide insight into the interplay between the schedule's behavior, data reuse through the cache hierarchy, and the resulting performance. These contributions lay the groundwork for improving runtime systems. We first apply these methods to analyze a diverse set of CPU applications, and then leverage them to one of the most common workloads in current systems: graphics rendering on GPUs.

  • Stenmark, Magnus
    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar - Resultat från 2015 års övervakning och syntes för åren 2010-2015.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras och diskuteras den miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar som genomförts i Västra Götalands län under sex års följd 2010-2015. Arbetet har utförts på 71 platser spridda i länet. Metoden har varit färgskålar för fångst av gaddsteklar och pollinatörsslingor. Under miljöövervakningen påträffades totalt 295 arter av gaddsteklar, vilket är 63 % av den kända artstocken av gaddsteklar i länet (N=467). I genomsnitt påträffades 26±11 (±SD) arter av gaddsteklar på varje plats. Miljöövervakningen bidrog till att kunskapen om länets gaddsteklar ökade väsentligt. I jämförelse med all samlad kunskap om länets gaddstekelfauna bidrog den aktuella miljöövervakningen 2010-2015 med ca 22 % av observationstillfällena och med ca 30 arter som observerades för första gången i länet varav tre var rödlistade. Den systematiska miljöövervakningen som utförts i länet är en viktig grund för framtida ekologiska studier. En analys av datasetet 2010-2015 pekar på att flera arter går tillbaka, även om några arter också under senare tid verkar ha etablerat sig i länet. Bland de rödlistade arterna finns 28 arter som tidigare noterats för länet och som inte kunnat observeras under miljöövervakningen 2010-2015 och inte heller i någon annan inventering registrerad på artportalen under åren 2000-2015. Drygt hälften av dessa 28 arter har bedömts som utgångna från länet. Orsakerna till att gaddstekelarter hotas i länet är minskad hävd av torrmarker och igenväxning med vårtbjörk, asp, gran och tall i odlingslandskapet. Förändringarna i odlingslandskapet har också lett till färre markblottor som ofta upprätthåller torrmarksflora och är boområden för de marklevande gaddstekelarterna. Också skogslandskapet genomgår en stor förändring som försämrar möjligheterna för en artrik gaddstekelfauna. Förtätning av trädbestånd, minskat skogsbete och minskad brandfrekvens gör troligen att skogsbiotoper får en lägre artrikedom av gaddsteklar jämfört med mitten av förra seklet.

  • Stenmark, Magnus
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Västra Götalands län.
    Miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar - Resultat 20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras och diskuteras den miljöövervakning av gaddsteklar som genomförts i Västra Götalands län under 2013. Miljöövervakningen utfördes på 11 platser: 3 i Västergötland, 1 i Dalsland och 7 i Bohuslän. Metoden har varit färgskålar och pollinatörsslingor. Färgskålarna har aktivt samlat gaddsteklar under två tvåveckorsperioder under juni respektive juli. Pollinatörsslingorna utfördes på i huvudsak åkervädd och kartlade frekvens och taxa av alla blombesökare. Under miljöövervakningen påträffades totalt 120 arter av gaddsteklar; vilket är 28 % av den kända artstocken av gaddsteklar i länet.Under färgskålsinventeringen påträffades totalt 116 arter av gaddsteklar och i genomsnitt 25±9 (±SD) arter på varje plats. Jämfört med tidigare års miljöövervakning påträffades lika många arter som det genomsnittliga antalet per plats, men färre individer. De undersökta ekorutorna 2013 dominerades till stor del av karg hed och andra kustbundna (6 av 11 ekorutor) biotoper.Färgskålsinventeringen under 2013 kompletterar de tre tidigare årens miljöövervakning i länet och ger bra underlag för jämförelser mellan biotoper, regioner och tidsperioder. Bland de 21 arter som påträffades under 2013 men som inte tidigare påträffats under miljöövervakningen (2010-2012) fanns både sällsynta och spridda arter. Bland de sällsynta fanns sandstekelnPodalonia affinis, taggmurarbi Hoplosmia spinulosa, backhumla Bombus humilis och hedfiltbi Epeolus cruciger. Dessa ovanliga arter har en mer eller mindre tydlig koppling till de bohusländska blomrika, kustnära hedarna. Bland de vanliga arterna som tidigare inte registrerats fanns bland andra sälgsandbi, taksnyltgeting och småullbi. Sälgsandbi är aktivt under försommar, taksnyltgeting parasitisk och småullbi födospecialiserad och är alla utbredda och vanliga i länet, men har av slumpen inte påträffats tidigare.De 11 pollinatörsslingor som genomfördes registrerade 347 blombesök av insekter och andra blombesökare. De flesta besök tillhörde humlor (91 besök), fjärilar (81 besök) och skalbaggar (57 besök). Totalt registrerade pollinatörsslingorna 50 taxa bland alla besökargrupper. Jämfört med tidigare år var humlor och fjärilar mer vanliga.

  • Appelqvist, Thomas
    Gaddsteklar i Västra Götalands län - miljöövervakning 20112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands län har Pro Natura genomförtmiljöövervakning av gaddsteklar och pollinatörer på tio lokaler i Västra Götalandslän. Lokalerna var placerade i varsitt ekonomiskt kartblad spridda över länet.Kartbladen var utslumpade bland de som hade sand eller grus i jordartskarteringensamt minst ett hävdat objekt från ängs- och hagmarksinventeringen. För varjekartblad gjordes en bedömning av ortofoto på skärm för att hitta lämpligaundersökningsplatser. Småskaligt odlingslandskap, naturliga fodermarker, sandochgrusförekomst, närhet till vattendrag och kuperat landskap var kriterier som imöjligaste mån kombinerades.För gaddstekelövervakningen användes på varje lokal 3 gula plasthinkar under tvåperioder på sommaren. Det insamlade materialet sorterades och artbestämdes. Ifärgskålsmaterialet fanns arter av 35 vildbin, 16 grävsteklar, en solitärgeting, 10vägsteklar, 2 guldsteklar och 2 myrsteklar. Detta innebär att 66 olika gaddsteklarbestämdes från lokalerna med den metoden.På varje lokal med omnejd genomfördes också en pollinatörsslinga. Denna metodgår ut på att registrera kvantitet och kvalitet av blombesökare på viktigasubstratväxter. En pollinatörsslinga är en 500-1 000 m lång vandring i likartadmiljö där blombesökare och deras beteende på ett exakt antal (500 st)blomställningar registreras. I denna studie utfördes pollinatörsslingorna pååkervädd Knautia arvensis, ängsvädd Succisa pratensis, flockfibbla Hieraciumumbellatum och foderkäringtand Lotus corniculatus ssp sativus. När resultatet frånden sk 500-metoden adderas till färgskålsundersökningen så noterades sammanlagt74 olika gaddsteklar varav 43 var vildbin. Tre gaddsteklar finns med på rödlistan,nämligen Andrena marginata (VU), klöverhumla Bombus distinguendus (NT) ochTiphia minuta (NT). Dessutom noterades en rödlistad fjäril – allmänmetallvingesvärmare, Adscita statices (NT) – som en bifångst.Detta resultat kan sägas vara synnerligt magert och det beror till största delen på attde utvalda lokalerna hade mindre bra förutsättningar för att hysa gaddsteklar – detfanns helt enkelt för dåligt med både sand och åkervädd i de utslumpade rutorna.Vid en lokal förstördes dessutom de uppsatta fällorna på ett systematiskt sätt.

  • Eggestrand, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Pedagogical approaches for RE:Source2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Kusetogullari, Hüseyin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, S-37141 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Unsupervised Text Binarization in Handwritten Historical Documents Using k-Means Clustering2018In: PROCEEDINGS OF SAI INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (INTELLISYS) 2016, VOL 2 / [ed] Bi, Y Kapoor, S Bhatia, R, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2018, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique for unsupervised text binarization in handwritten historical documents using k-means clustering. In the text binarization problem, there are many challenges such as noise, faint characters and bleed-through and it is necessary to overcome these tasks to increase the correct detection rate. To overcome these problems, preprocessing strategy is first used to enhance the contrast to improve faint characters and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to ignore the noise and other artifacts in the handwritten historical documents. After that, the enhanced image is normalized which will be used in the postprocessing part of the proposed method. The handwritten binarization image is achieved by partitioning the normalized pixel values of the handwritten image into two clusters using k-means clustering with k = 2 and then assigning each normalized pixel to the one of the two clusters by using the minimum Euclidean distance between the normalized pixels intensity and mean normalized pixel value of the clusters. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:00 Universitetshuset, sal X, Uppsala
    Kihlberg, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Gränslösa anspråk: Offentliga möten och skapandet av det internationella, 1840–18602018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first congresses that claimed to be “international” without involving state representatives took place in the middle of the nineteenth century. In this dissertation these public meetings, with participants from many countries in Europe and America, are described as mediated events related to a specific imaginary of the public sphere. Three cases are studied in detail: two antislavery conventions that were held in London in the 1840s, a series of peace congresses that took place in Brussels, Paris, Frankfurt and London between 1848 and 1851, and four international philanthropic congresses organised in the same cities during the second half of the 1850s and in the first years of the 1860s.

    The aim of the dissertation is to show that these meetings were arranged as a new form of international actors, and how different media were used to accomplish this. These early international meetings were part of a dynamic culture of public speaking in Europe in the nineteenth century, but they were also closely connected to the development of new forms of printed media. In the dissertation the meetings are analysed as multimedia events, as constellations of speech, image and text. The focus is not primarily on how the meetings transmitted information, but rather on the means by which they created legitimacy, participation and identification.

    I demonstrate that the logic of the meetings was closely tied to what can be called the mobilisation of reform elites, in the sense that the organisers both presented support from such collectives, and at the same time tried to activate audiences and get them to identify as belonging to these groups. In this respect the investigation relies on a discussion of mediated publics and political representation, notably the theory of representative claims developed by the political theorist Michael Saward. As a general conclusion, I argue that this way of mobilising reform elites was central to the new type of internationality created through these meetings.

  • Eklund Heinonen, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Lennartson-Hokkanen, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Nord, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Mer än bara text och ord”: Akademiskt skrivande i utbildningar i socialt arbete och sociologi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was initiated by the Department of Sociology at Uppsala University and aims to investigate how the department helps its students to develop academic literacies. Another aim is to provide suggestions on how the department can develop teaching practices in order to integrate writing within its courses. In the report, we have examined course designs, learning outcomes and writing instructions. In addition, we have interviewed teachers and analyzed students’ texts. The report is concluded by some general suggestions on how the department can continue to support the students’ academic literacies.