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  • Södling, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Nerheim, Signild
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Statistisk metodik för beräkning av extrema havsvattenstånd2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som ett led i arbetet att förbättra metoderna för planeringsunderlag gällande extrema havsvattenstånd har SMHI gjort en inventering av statistiska metoder för extremvärdesanalys. Metoderna är vanligt förekommande när olika dimensioneringsunderlag tas fram. För att ta fram statistik med hög tillförlitlighet för händelser som har låg sannolikhet (hög återkomsttid) har dock metoderna begränsad användning.

    Tre huvudsakliga metoder har applicerats på SMHI:s havsvattenståndsdata. Den mest vanliga, Blockmaximum-metoden, används vanligtvis på årshögsta vattenstånd. POT – metoden (Peak Over Threshold), använder fler data och är inte lika vanlig. I Norge används en variant av POT – metoden, den så kallade ACER-metoden (Average Conditional Exceedance Rate). Den är mycket lämplig för att ta fram värden för lägre återkomsttider, och är förhållandevis robust när data läggs till vartefter.

    Metodernas lämplighet och känslighet utvärderades för extrema havsvattenstånd, alltså havsvattenstånd med höga återkomsttider(låg sannolikhet). Slutsatsen är att det inte går att välja en metod som överlägsen den andra, och att kunskap om den aktuella platsens oceanografiska förhållanden behövs för att utvärdera resultatens rimlighet. I alla analyser av extrema havsvattenstånd är det viktigt att beakta datakvalité och dataseriens längd. Resultat bör redovisas med konfidensintervall.

    Blockmaximum-metoden testades med olika fördelningar. Gumbel-fördelning visar sig kunna ge orimliga nivåer för vattenståndsextremer och rekommenderas därför inte. GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) och Log-normal fördelning används med fördel i kombination.POT-metoder tar till vara fler händelser än de riktigt extrema, men resultaten som ges har väldigt stora konfidensintervall som växer för låg sannolikhet. Om tröskeln sätts för låg är det inte extremvattenstånd som utvärderas.

    Som en följd av denna analys bestämdes att andra metoder behöver tas fram för att studera de högsta havsvattenstånden längs Sveriges kust. I Schöld m.fl. (2017) redovisas hur man kan gå till väga för att ta fram högsta beräknade havsvattenstånd utifrån befintliga data.

  • Schöld, Sofie
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hellström, Sverker
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ivarsson, Cajsa-Lisa
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Lindow, Helma
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nerheim, Signild
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Södling, Johan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vattenståndsdynamik längs Sveriges kust2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att skapa ett samhälle väl anpassat till dagens och framtidens havsnivåer behövs besluts- och planeringsunderlag. Skyddsåtgärder och designnivåer för kustskydd är högaktuella frågor och många aktörer är intresserade av information kring potentiella maxnivåer för vattenstånd på olika tidshorisonter. SMHI har därför analyserat de mätdataserier för havsvattenstånd som idag finns tillgängliga från stationer längs Sveriges kust. Det primära syftet var att ta fram en metod för att beräkna det högsta möjliga havsvattenståndet vid mätstationer längs Sveriges kust. Metoden beskrivs i Schöld m.fl.(2017).

    I föreliggande rapport beskrivs allmänt havsnivåer, mätdata, modeller och de resultat som erhölls från olika analyser av mätdata. Mätstationerna indelades i åtta olika kustområden inom vilka vattenståndet samvarierar. Det väder och de specifika stormbanor, som under de senaste 40 åren orsakat de högsta stormfloderna på olika platser längs den svenska kusten kartlades, och vattenståndsdynamiken vid olika mätstationer studerades.

    Kortvariga höjningar av vattenståndet undersöktes, både med avseende på kraftiga vattenståndshöjningar orsakade av passerande väderssystem och med avseende på förhöjda utgångslägen, som i sin tur kan bidra till att stormfloder blir extra höga.

    Det högsta beräknade havsvattenstånd som presenteras är de högsta möjliga stormfloder som skulle kunna inträffa baserat på empiriska analyser av mätdata vid de olika stationerna. Kända extrema händelser, som ägt rum före det att vattenståndet började registreras, ingår inte eftersom de inte har kunnat kvantifieras. Framtida förändringar av medelvattenståndet orsakade av den globala klimatförändringen behandlas inte i denna rapport.

    Resultaten från studien visar att vattennivåerna i Östersjön generellt blir som högst i Bottenviken och i de södra delarna. De höga vattenstånden i större delen av Östersjön är inte lika höga som på västkusten och i Öresund. I Östersjön förefaller också utgångsläget, havsnivån före stormen, utgöra en större del av den resulterande vattenståndshöjningen. Vid flera stationer i de centrala delarna av Östersjön är havsnivån före storm i stort sett hälften av det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet. Längs västkusten är istället de nettohöjningar som orsakas av rena stormeffekter den viktigaste stormflodskomponenten. Lokala förhållanden, till exempel om stationen är belägen vid en öppen, rak kust eller inne i en vik, påverkar hur högt vattenståndet kan förväntas bli på en viss plats.

    Analyserna visar att stormfloder skulle kunna bli omkring 20-40 cm högre än hittills observerade maximala nivåer i olika kustområden. En osäkerhetsmarginal på runt +15 cm är lämplig att addera, särskilt i de områden där tidvatten förekommer.

  • Eklund, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Stensen, Katarina
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Alavi, Ghasem
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Jacobsson, Karin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sveriges stora sjöar idag och i framtiden. Klimatets påverkan på Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren och Hjälmaren. Kunskapssammanställning februari 2018.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs den klimatrelaterade problematiken kring landets fyra största sjöar i ett tidsperspektiv fram till 2100. Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren och Hjälmaren är mycket olika till sin karaktär, men vissa gemensamma problem finns. Av sjöarna är det Vänern som har de största problemen i dagens klimat och fram till slutet av detta sekel, medan Mälaren troligtvis är den sjö som kommer få störst problem i ett längre tidsperspektiv.

    Klimatförändringarna medför bland annat förändrade vattennivåer, förändrade vattenflöden, ökande vattentemperatur, minskad istäckning och havsnivåhöjning vilket ger konsekvenser för olika intressen runt sjöarna.

    En gemensam svårighet för klimatanpassning kring de stora sjöarna är att det inte är tydligt vem som ska ta ansvar och kostnader för klimatanpassningsåtgärder. Detta är ett hinder för att komma vidare med de problem som idag finns för Vänern och för den långsiktiga klimatanpassningen av Mälaren, bortom detta sekel.

    Gemensamt för sjöarna är också att det finns behov av ytterligare underlag kring:

    • Samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser av klimatförändringarna för sjöarna
    • Analyser av hur ekosystemen i de enskilda sjöarna påverkas av varmare vatten och kortare perioder med is.
    • Modellering av hur råvattenkvaliteten förändras i framtiden.
    • Mer observationer för att fånga upp klimateffekter i sjöarna.

    Till varje sjö har en referensgrupp bestående av representanter för olika intressen kring sjöarna bildats. Mycket av det som beskrivs i rapporten är underlag som tagits fram inom ramen för projektet och frågeställningar som kommit upp under möten med referensgrupperna, men även befintlig litteratur har använts.

  • Nerheim, Signild
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Schöld, Sofie
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjöström, Åsa
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Framtida havsnivåer i Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges kustområden drabbas ibland av tillfälliga översvämningar i samband med stormar eller då kraftiga lågtryck passerar. Översvämningar kan orsaka allvarliga samhällsstörningar och vatteninträngning i byggnader kan ge upphov till stora kostnader. Den pågående globala uppvärmningen, med stigande havsnivåer som följd, aktualiserar frågan om hur vattenståndet kring svenska kusten kan förändras, idag och i framtiden. Havet stiger och det kommer att pågå under hundratals eller kanske till och med tusentals år framöver.

    SMHI startade 2015 ett projekt för att beskriva havsnivåer längs svenska kusten i dagens och framtidens klimat. Projektet har levererat:

    • Beräknade medelvattenstånd för hela Sveriges kust för år 2050 och år 2100 utifrån tre olika framtida klimatscenarier.
    • En visningstjänst för framtida medelvattenstånd.
    • En beskrivning av hur höga havsvattenstånd kan beräknas för en specifik plats.
    • Höga vattenstånd för SMHI:s mätstationer samt en visualisering av dessa.
    • En översikt över statistisk metodik.
    • En vägledning för utvärdering av lokala effekter.
    • En beskrivning av kända högvattenhändelser i olika kustområden och parametrar och processer relaterade till dessa.

    Denna rapport presenterar en översikt över resultaten som tagits fram i projektet och avslutas med en beskrivning av hur framtidens höga havsnivåer kan bedömas i planeringssyfte. SMHI har i rapporten inte tagit ställning till vilket klimatscenario eller vilken tidshorisont som är mest lämpligt att använda för samhällsplanering. Detta måste bestämmas i ett situationsspecifikt sammanhang där risk och kostnader beaktas. SMHI vill betona att även om år 2100 ofta anges som slutår för klimatscenarier, så kommer havets nivå att fortsätta att stiga längre än så.

    Rapporten summerar resultat från övriga rapporter som framtagits inom projektet. För ytterligare detaljer hänvisas till dessa (se Förord).

  • Olsson, Jonas
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Eronn, Anna
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Simonsson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Södling, Johan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Yang, Wei
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Extremregn i nuvarande och framtida klimat Analyser av observationer och framtidsscenarier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har främst omfattat analyser av extrem korttidsnederbörd i observationer från SMHIs nät av automatiska meteorologiska stationer. Även analyser av korttidsnederbörd från kommunala mätare, manuella meteorologiska stationer, väderradar och klimatmodeller har genomförts. De huvudsakliga slutsatserna från detta uppdrag kan sammanfattas enligt följande.

    • En regionalisering av extrem korttidsnederbörd (skyfall) i Sverige gav fyra regioner: sydvästra (SV), sydöstra (SÖ), mellersta (M) och norra (N) Sverige. Ytterligare indelning kan göras men i denna studie prioriterades att ha regioner av denna storleksordning för att få ett ordentligt underlag för regional statistik. Regionaliseringen gäller enbart korttidsnederbörd, upp till maximalt 12 tim varaktighet.
    • Den regionala statistiken uppvisar tämligen distinkta geografiska skillnader, med högst värden i region SV och lägst i region N. Det är inte förvånande att vårt avlånga land uppvisar regionala skillnader då varmare och fuktigare luftmassor förekommer mer i söder än i norr, och därmed ökar förutsättningarna för intensiv nederbörd. Den regionala statistiken överensstämmer överlag väl med motsvarande statistik i våra grannländer.
    • Under perioden 1996-2017 finns inga tydliga tidsmässiga tendenser vad gäller skyfallens storlek och frekvens i de olika regionerna, utan dessa ligger överlag på en konstant nivå. Inte heller extrem dygnsnederbörd sedan 1900 uppvisar några tydliga tendenser på regional nivå. På nationell nivå indikeras en svag ökning av dels landets högsta årliga nederbörd sedan 1881, dels förekomsten av stora, utbredda 2-dygnsregn sedan 1961.
    • Skyfallsstatistik baserad på nederbördsobservationer från väderradar som justerats mot interpolerade stationsdata (HIPRAD) överensstämmer väl med stationsbaserad statistik för korta varaktigheter (upp till 2 tim) i södra Sverige. För längre varaktigheter och i mellersta och norra Sverige överskattar HIPRAD regnvolymerna.
    • Analyser av de senaste klimatmodellerna (Euro-CORDEX) indikerar en underskattning av extrema regnvolymer för korta varaktigheter (1 tim) men överlag en realistisk beskrivning av observerad skyfallsstatistik. Den framtida ökningen av volymerna beräknas ligga mellan 10% och 40% beroende på tidshorisont och koncentration av växthusgaser, vilket överlag ligger nära tidigare bedömningar.

    Både för bedömningen av regionala skillnader och historiska klimateffekter är det av största vikt att bibehålla, eller ännu hellre utöka, observationerna av korttidsnederbörd i Sverige. Nederbördsmätning via alternativa tekniker bör kunna användas i allt högre utsträckning framöver för förbättrad kunskap och statistik. Väderradar är redan etablerat och den digitala utvecklingen öppnar även möjligheter till insamling av nederbördsdata och relaterad information via mobilmaster, uppkopplade privata väderstationer, sociala medier, etc. Denna utveckling måste bevakas, utvärderas och i största möjliga utsträckning utnyttjas.

  • Krause, J.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seebacher, F.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Domenici, P.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Wilson, A. D. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marras, S.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Svendsen, M. B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Strömbom, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA..
    Steffensen, J. F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Krause, S.
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Viblanc, P. E.
    Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Couillaud, P.
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Licence Sci & Technol, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Bach, P.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Sabarros, P. S.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Zaslansky, P.
    Charite, Julius Wolff Inst Biomechan & Musculoskeletal Reg, Philippstr 13,Haus 11, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Kurvers, R. H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rat, Lentzeallee 94, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Injury-mediated decrease in locomotor performance increases predation risk in schooling fish2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1727, article id 20160232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and front of groups. We investigated these predictions in sardine (Sardinella aurita) schools under attack from group hunting sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) in the open ocean. Sailfish approached sardine schools about equally often from the front and rear, but prior to attack there was a chasing period in which sardines attempted to swim away from the predator. Consequently, all sailfish attacks were directed at the rear and peripheral positions of the school, resulting in higher predation risk for individuals at these positions. During attacks, sailfish slash at sardines with their bill causing prey injury including scale removal and tissue damage. Sardines injured in previous attacks were more often found in the rear half of the school than in the front half. Moreover, injured fish had lower tail-beat frequencies and lagged behind uninjured fish. Injuries inflicted by sailfish bills may, therefore, hinder prey swimming speed and drive spatial sorting in prey schools through passive self-assortment. We found only partial support for the theoretical predictions from current predator-prey models, highlighting the importance of incorporating more realistic predator-prey dynamics into these models. This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'.

  • Norlin, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Parekh, Vishal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Edlund, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    The ATPase activity of Asna1/TRC40 is required for pancreatic progenitor cell survival2018In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 145, no 1, article id dev154468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asna1, also known as TRC40, is implicated in the delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in vesicle-mediated transport, and in chaperoning unfolded proteins during oxidative stress/ATP depletion. Here, we show that Asna1 inactivation in pancreatic progenitor cells leads to redistribution of the Golgi TA SNARE proteins syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 6, Golgi fragmentation, and accumulation of cytosolic p62(+) puncta. Asna(1-/-) multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) selectively activate integrated stress response signaling and undergo apoptosis, thereby disrupting endocrine and acinar cell differentiation, resulting in pancreatic agenesis. Rescue experiments implicate the Asna1 ATPase activity and a CXXC di-cysteine motif in ensuring Golgi integrity, syntaxin 5 localization and MPC survival. Ex vivo inhibition of retrograde transport reproduces the perturbed Golgi morphology, and syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 6 expression, whereas modulation of p53 activity, using PFT-alpha and Nutlin-3, prevents or reproduces apoptosis in Asna1-deficient and wild-type MPCs, respectively. These findings support a role for the Asna1 ATPase activity in ensuring the survival of pancreatic MPCs, possibly by counteracting p53-mediated apoptosis.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    George, Asha
    Paina, Ligia
    Waiswa, Peter
    Bumba, Ahmed
    Mulekwa, Godfrey
    Nakiganda-Busiku, Dinah
    Lyagoba, Moses
    Naiga, Harriet
    Putan, Mary
    Kulwenza, Agatha
    Ajeani, Judith
    Kakaire-Kirunda, Ayub
    Makumbi, Fred
    Atuyambe, Lynn
    Okui, Olico
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Effect of a participatory multisectoral maternal and newborn intervention on maternal health service utilization and newborn care practices: a quasi-experimental study in three rural Ugandan districts2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1363506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The MANIFEST study in eastern Uganda employed a participatory multisectoral approach to reduce barriers to access to maternal and newborn care services.

    Objectives: This study analyses the effect of the intervention on the utilization of maternal and newborn services and care practices.

    Methods: The quasi-experimental pre- and post-comparison design had two main components: community mobilization and empowerment, and health provider capacity building. The primary outcomes were utilization of antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care, and newborn care practices. Baseline (n = 2237) and endline (n = 1946) data were collected from women of reproductive age. The data was analysed using difference in differences (DiD) analysis and logistic regression.

    Results: The DiD results revealed an 8% difference in early ANC attendance (p < 0.01) and facility delivery (p < 0.01). Facility delivery increased from 66% to 73% in the intervention area, but remained unchanged in the comparison area (64% vs 63%, p < 0.01). The DiD results also demonstrated a 20% difference in clean cord care (p < 0.001) and an 8% difference in delayed bathing (p < 0.001). The intervention elements that predicted facility delivery were attending ANC four times [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.171.74] and saving for maternal health (aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.39-3.21). Facility delivery and village health team (VHT) home visits were key predictors for clean cord care and skin-to-skin care.

    Conclusions: The multisectoral approach had positive effects on early ANC attendance, facility deliveries and newborn care practices. Community resources such as VHTs and savings are crucial to maternal and newborn outcomes and should be supported. VHT-led health education should incorporate practical measures that enable families to save and access transport services to enhance adequate preparation for birth.

  • Prát, Tomáš
    et al.
    Hajný, Jakub
    Grunewald, Wim
    Vasileva, Mina
    Molnár, Gergely
    Tejos, Ricardo
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sauer, Michael
    Friml, Jiří
    WRKY23 is a component of the transcriptional network mediating auxin feedback on PIN polarity2018In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e1007177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auxin is unique among plant hormones due to its directional transport that is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN auxin transporters at the plasma membrane. The canalization hypothesis proposes that the auxin feedback on its polar flow is a crucial, plant-specific mechanism mediating multiple self-organizing developmental processes. Here, we used the auxin effect on the PIN polar localization in Arabidopsis thaliana roots as a proxy for the auxin feedback on the PIN polarity during canalization. We performed microarray experiments to find regulators of this process that act downstream of auxin. We identified genes that were transcriptionally regulated by auxin in an AXR3/IAA17-and ARF7/ARF19-dependent manner. Besides the known components of the PIN polarity, such as PID and PIP5K kinases, a number of potential new regulators were detected, among which the WRKY23 transcription factor, which was characterized in more detail. Gain-and loss-of-function mutants confirmed a role for WRKY23 in mediating the auxin effect on the PIN polarity. Accordingly, processes requiring auxin-mediated PIN polarity rearrangements, such as vascular tissue development during leaf venation, showed a higher WRKY23 expression and required the WRKY23 activity. Our results provide initial insights into the auxin transcriptional network acting upstream of PIN polarization and, potentially, canalization-mediated plant development.

  • Namazzi, Gertrude
    et al.
    Okuga, Monica
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University, School of Public Health (MakSPH), Kampala, Uganda.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Kakaire, Ayub
    Namutamba, Sarah
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Waiswa, Peter
    Working with community health workers to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes: implementation and scale-up lessons from eastern Uganda2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1345495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Preventable maternal and newborn deaths can be averted through simple evidence-based interventions, such as the use of community health workers (CHWs), also known in Uganda as village health teams. However, the CHW strategy faces implementation challenges regarding training packages, supervision, and motivation.

    Objectives: This paper explores knowledge levels of CHWs, describes the coverage of home visits, and shares lessons learnt from setting up and implementing the CHW strategy.

    Methods: The CHWs were trained to conduct four home visits: two during pregnancy and two after delivery. The aim of the visits was to promote birth preparedness and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services. Mixed methods of data collection were employed. Quantitative data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0 to determine the level and predictors of CHW knowledge of MNH. Qualitative data from 10 key informants and 15 CHW interviews were thematically analyzed to assess the implementation experiences.

    Results: CHWs' knowledge of MNH improved from 41.3% to 77.4% after training, and to 79.9% 1 year post-training. However, knowledge of newborn danger signs declined from 85.5% after training to 58.9% 1 year later. The main predictors of CHW knowledge were age (>= 35 years) and post-primary level of education. The level of coverage of at least one CHW visit to pregnant and newly delivered mothers was 57.3%. Notably, CHW reports complemented the facility-based health information. CHWs formed associations, which improved teamwork, reporting, and general performance, and thus maintained low dropout rates at 3.6%. Challenges included dissatisfaction with the quarterly transport refund of 6 USD and lack of means of transportation such as bicycles.

    Conclusions: CHWs are an important resource in community-based health information and improving demand for MNH services. However, the CHW training and supervision models require strengthening for improved performance. Local solutions regarding CHW motivation are necessary for sustainability.

  • Mutebi, Aloysius
    et al.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Bua, John
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Nammazi, Gertrude
    Paina, Ligia
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Characteristics of community savings groups in rural Eastern Uganda: opportunities for improving access to maternal health services2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1347363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rural populations in Uganda have limited access to formal financial Institutions, but a growing majority belong to saving groups. These saving groups could have the potential to improve household income and access to health services.

    Objective: To understand organizational characteristics, benefits and challenges, of savings groups in rural Uganda.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. Data on the characteristics of community-based savings groups (CBSGs) were collected from 247 CBSG leaders in the districts of Kamuli, Kibukuand Pallisa using self-administered open-ended questionnaires. To triangulate the findings, we conducted in-depth interviews with seven CBSG leaders. Descriptive quantitative and content analysis for qualitative data was undertaken respectively.

    Results: Almost a quarter of the savings groups had 5-14 members and slightly more than half of the saving groups had 15-30 members. Ninety-three percent of the CBSGs indicated electing their management committees democratically to select the group leaders and held meetings at least once a week. Eighty-nine percent of the CBSGs had used metallic boxes to keep their money, while 10% of the CBSGs kept their money using mobile money and banks, respectively. The main reasons for the formation of CBSGs were to increase household income, developing the community and saving for emergencies. The most common challenges associated with CBSG management included high illiteracy (35%) among the leaders, irregular attendance of meetings (22%), and lack of training on management and leadership (19%). The qualitative findings agreed with the quantitative findings and served to triangulate the main results.

    Conclusions: Saving groups in Uganda have the basic required structures; however, challenges exist in relation to training and management of the groups and their assets. The government and development partners should work together to provide technical support to the groups.

  • Peng, Xiao P.
    et al.
    Lim, Shelly
    Li, Shibai
    Marjavaara, Lisette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zhao, Xiaolan
    Acute Smc5/6 depletion reveals its primary role in rDNA replication by restraining recombination at fork pausing sites2018In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e1007129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smc5/6, a member of the conserved SMC family of complexes, is essential for growth in most organisms. Its exact functions in a mitotic cell cycle are controversial, as chronic Smc5/6 loss-of-function alleles produce varying phenotypes. To circumvent this issue, we acutely depleted Smc5/6 in budding yeast and determined the first cell cycle consequences of Smc5/6 removal. We found a striking primary defect in replication of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array. Each rDNA repeat contains a programmed replication fork barrier (RFB) established by the Fob1 protein. Fob1 removal improves rDNA replication in Smc5/6 depleted cells, implicating Smc5/6 in the management of programmed fork pausing. A similar improvement is achieved by removing the DNA helicase Mph1 whose recombinogenic activity can be inhibited by Smc5/6 under DNA damage conditions. DNA 2D gel analyses further show that Smc5/6 loss increases recombination structures at RFB regions; moreover, mph1 Delta and fob1 Delta similarly reduce this accumulation. These findings point to an important mitotic role for Smc5/6 in restraining recombination events when protein barriers in rDNA stall replication forks. As rDNA maintenance influences multiple essential cellular processes, Smc5/6 likely links rDNA stability to overall mitotic growth.

  • Oussi, Ninos
    et al.
    Loukas, Constantinos
    Kjellin, Ann
    Lahanas, Vasileios
    Georgiou, Konstantinos
    Henningsohn, Lars
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Georgiou, Evangelos
    Enochsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Video analysis in basic skills training: a way to expand the value and use of BlackBox training?2018In: Surgical Endoscopy, ISSN 0930-2794, E-ISSN 1432-2218, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Basic skills training in laparoscopic high-fidelity simulators (LHFS) improves laparoscopic skills. However, since LHFS are expensive, their availability is limited. The aim of this study was to assess whether automated video analysis of low-cost BlackBox laparoscopic training could provide an alternative to LHFS in basic skills training.

    Methods: Medical students volunteered to participate during their surgical semester at the Karolinska University Hospital. After written informed consent, they performed two laparoscopic tasks (PEG-transfer and precision-cutting) on a BlackBox trainer. All tasks were videotaped and sent to MPLSC for automated video analysis, generating two parameters (Pl and Prtcl_tot) that assess the total motion activity. The students then carried out final tests on the MIST-VR simulator. This study was a European collaboration among two simulation centers, located in Sweden and Greece, within the framework of ACS-AEI.

    Results: 31 students (19 females and 12 males), mean age of 26.2 +/- 0.8 years, participated in the study. However, since two of the students completed only one of the three MIST-VR tasks, they were excluded. The three MIST-VR scores showed significant positive correlations to both the Pl variable in the automated video analysis of the PEG-transfer (RSquare 0.48, P < 0.0001; 0.34, P = 0.0009; 0.45, P < 0.0001, respectively) as well as to the Prtcl_tot variable in that same exercise (RSquare 0.42, P = 0.0002; 0.29, P = 0.0024; 0.45, P < 0.0001). However, the correlations were exclusively shown in the group with less PC gaming experience as well as in the female group.

    Conclusion: Automated video analysis provides accurate results in line with those of the validated MIST-VR. We believe that a more frequent use of automated video analysis could provide an extended value to cost-efficient laparoscopic BlackBox training. However, since there are gender-specific as well as PC gaming experience differences, this should be taken in account regarding the value of automated video analysis.

  • Ingemann, Christine
    A scoping review: Well-being among indigenous children and youth in the Arctic – with a focus on Sami and Greenland Inuit2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young people from the Inuit and Sami populations in the Nordic countries can be identified as a vulnerable group. Young Sami and Inuit experience a higher degree of violence, abuse, suicidal thoughts and suicide rates compared to their peers in the majority populations in the Nordic countries. Their living conditions are in most cases influenced by a limited access to welfare benefits such as the healthcare system, social services and educational opportunities. Career prospects in the Arctic region are also narrow compared to the more densely populated and central regions in the Nordic countries. In order to understand and act upon the challenges the populations face, an in-depth and systematic review of the existing literature and experiences of children’s and youth’s well-being and their existing living conditions in the Arctic Region is essential.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-14 09:00 A1:111a
    Umer, Husen Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Computational Modelling of Gene Regulation in Cancer: Coding the noncoding genome2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have enabled quantification of processes within and around us. The information stored within our body converts into petabytes of data. Processing and learning from such data requires comprehensive computational programs and software systems. We developed software programs to systematically investigate the process of gene regulation in the human genome. Gene regulation is a complex process where several genomic elements control expression of a gene through recruiting many transcription factor (TF) proteins. The TFs recognize specific DNA sequences known as motifs. DNA mutations in regulatory elements and particularly in TF motifs may cause gene deregulation. Therefore, defining the landscape of regulatory elements and their roles in cancer and complex diseases is of major importance.

    We developed an algorithm (tfNet) to identify regulatory elements based on transcription factor binding sites. tfNet identified nearly 144,000 regulatory elements in five human cell lines. Investigating the elements we identified TF interaction networks and enrichment of many GWAS SNPs. We also defined the regulatory landscape for other conditions and species. Next, we investigated the role of regulatory elements in cancer. Cancer is initiated and developed by genetic aberrations in the genome. Genetic changes that are present in a cancer genome are obtained through whole genome sequencing technologies. We analyzed somatic mutations that had been detected in 326 whole genomes of liver cancer patients. Our results indicated 907 candidate mutations affecting TF motifs. Genome wide alignment of the mutated motifs revealed a significant enrichment of mutations in a highly conserved position of the CTCF motif. Gene expression analysis exhibited disruption of topologically associated domains in the mutated samples. We also confirmed the mutational pattern in pancreatic, gastric and esophagus cancers. Finally, enrichment of cancer associated gene sets and pathways suggested great role of noncoding mutations in cancer.

    To systematically analyze DNA mutations in TF motifs, we developed an online database system (funMotifs). Publicly available datasets were collected for thousands experiments. The datasets were integrated using a logistic regression model. Functionality annotations and scores for motifs of 519 TFs were derived. The database allows for identification of variants affecting functional motifs in a selected tissue type. Finally, a comprehensive analysis was performed to identify mutations overlapping functional TF motifs in 37 cancer types. Somatic mutations from a pan-cancer cohort of 2,515 cancer whole genomes were investigated. A significant enrichment of mutations in the CpG site of the CEBPB motif was identified. Overall, 10,806 mutated regulatory elements were identified including 406 highly recurrent ones. Genes associated to the mutated elements were highly enriched for cancer-related pathways. Our analyses provide further insights onto the role of regulatory elements and their impacts on cancer development.

  • Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

  • Staffas, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Evaluation of Transformative Learning Circles: A learning model2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-03-07 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Fu, Qiliang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Wood Nanotechnologies for Transparency, Fire Retardancy and Liquid Separation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, wood nanotechnologies for transparent, fire-retardant and hydrophobic/lipophilic wood have been developed. There are two main parts; wood template preparation/processing concepts and materials design using these templates.

    In the wood template processing part, highly porous nanostructured wood templates are prepared. Relationships between processes and material structures are studied. Three chemical treatment methods are used. Lignin and/or chromophores are removed from cell wall, so that nanoscale pores are formed in the cell wall. For preparation of transparent wood, a lignin-retaining method improves physical properties of the template. The pore structures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption measurement of specific surface area. The compositions of the templates are characterized. Compared with native wood, these templates have nanoscale porosity which provides opportunity for new types of wood modification.

    In the materials design part, wood nanotechnologies are used for transparent wood as well as for hydrophobic/lipophilic and fire-retardant wood. Two main strategies are used: i) nanoparticles are embedded inside the cell wall; ii) polymers are impregnated in lumen space, and sometimes also inside the cell wall. The transparent wood is prepared by MMA monomer/oligomer impregnation of lumen space. MMA has similar refractive index to the delignified template, so that scattering is reduced and transparent wood with favorable optical and mechanical properties is obtained. The structure and functional properties are studied. Laminated transparent plywood is designed to modify mechanical properties. Transparent wood and transparent plywood are demonstrated in applications combining loading-bearing properties with optical performance such as luminescent properties.

    The highly porous wood template cell walls are also impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay or epoxy/amine solutions to modify the cell wall and form nanostructured biocomposites. The structure and properties of the two materials are investigated; wood/clay hybrids for flame-retardancy and wood/epoxy biocomposites for oil/water separation.

  • Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    A clip-on electroosmotic pump for oscillating flow in microfluidic cell culture devices2018In: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4982, E-ISSN 1613-4990, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in microfluidic devices put a high demand on small, robust and reliable pumps suitable for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a compact, low-cost, directly attachable (clip-on) electroosmotic pump that couples with standard Luer connectors on a microfluidic device. The pump is easy to make and consists of a porous polycarbonate membrane and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The soft electrode and membrane materials make it possible to incorporate the pump into a standard syringe filter holder, which in turn can be attached to commercial chips. The pump is less than half the size of the microscope slide used for many commercial lab-on-a-chip devices, meaning that these pumps can be used to control fluid flow in individual reactors in highly parallelized chemistry and biology experiments. Flow rates at various electric current and device dimensions are reported. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the pump for biological experiments by exposing endothelial cells to oscillating shear stress (up to 5 dyn/cm2) and by controlling the movement of both micro- and macroparticles, generating steady or oscillatory flow rates up to ± 400 μL/min.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    EvaLuation Using Cardiac Insertable Devices And TelephonE in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (ELUCIDATE HCM) – rationale and design: a prospective observational study on incidence of arrhythmias in Sweden2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 12, article id e019541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous disease associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) mainly due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation even though life-threatening bradycardia occurs. Risk stratification takes several variables into consideration including non-sustained VT (NSVT). An implantable cardioverter defibrillator effectively prevents SCD. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common among patients with HCM and warrants anticoagulation even without conventional risk factors according to European guidelines. Routinely, the evaluation of arrhythmias using a 48-hour ambulatory external monitor takes place every 6-24 months if patients do not report palpitations. The remaining time the potential burden arrhythmia is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess NSVT and AF incidence during 18 months by an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM).

    Methods: Adult patients, aged 18-65 years, with a validated diagnosis of HCM are eligible for the study. The study sample is planned to include 30 patients. A Confirm Rx is implanted at the level of the fourth rib on the left side subcutaneously after local anaesthesia. The application for monitoring is installed in the patients' smartphone and symptoms registered by the patient activation and VT detection programmed as 160 bpm during >= 8 intervals. An AF episode is recorded based on >= 2 min duration. Bradycardia is recorded at <= 40 bpm or pause >= 3.0 s. The patients are followed during 18 months before explant.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Committee in Umea (protocol number 2017/13-31). The study protocol, including variables and prespecified research questions, the study was registered at Clinical Trial Registration NCT03259113. Each patient is informed about the study in both oral and written form by a physician and included after written consent.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm, Sweden
    Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Towards the enhanced applicability of cold mix asphalt:: An experimental study focusing on surface free energies and the breaking and coalescence of bitumen emulsions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental, social and economic sustainability of our infrastructure network is clearly of paramount importance to the road-engineering sector as well to society at large. Sustainable road materials and reduced transport of those materials therefore play a significant role. Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology could be one of the better options for the road industry to explore more thoroughly. Given its lower start-up and equipment installation costs, lower energy consumption and reduced environmental impact, CMA should offer a reliable alternative to some of the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) or Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) options. As CMA is not a new technology, there are many reasons why this material is not currently being used as extensively as it might be. Though risk adverseness of the market may be partly to blame for this, a number of technical challenges and uncertainties related to material behavior are certainly responsible. This thesis has addressed some of the important technical challenges, aiming to provide more guidance in material selection and design, and prediction of the behavior of emulsion-based CMAs. To do so, this research has focused on aspects of the correct formulation of the bitumen emulsions, how to select the correct combinations of material components, and how to control the breaking and coalescence processes in bitumen emulsions better, resulting in usable and predictable adhesive and cohesive bond strengths. Though most of the laboratory and modeling choices that were made in this thesis are based on theoretical considerations, the main contribution is the test protocol development. The systematic surface free energy measurements of the material components, combined with the test set-up to monitor controllably the breaking and coalescence behavior of bitumen droplets in an emulsified environment, gives a new way to approach the design of CMA. It is recommended that future research is focused on taking the developed protocols as a basis for enhanced mix design and making a direct link to validated long-term mechanical properties on the asphalt mixture scale.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 13:00 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Diabetes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to further advance the field of diabetes research there is a great need for establishing validated non-invasive quantitative techniques to study the pancreas and other tissues of importance for blood glucose regulation. The general aim of this thesis was to explore magnetic resonance techniques and positron emission tomography as such tools.

    In paper I pancreatic perfusion under basal conditions and in response to glucose in nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic individuals was studied with [15O]H2O PET/CT. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were found to have reduced basal pancreatic perfusion and a severely impaired pancreatic and splanchnic perfusion response to intravenous glucose stimulation.

    In paper II four groups of subjects at different stages of type 2 diabetes development and a control group of individuals without diabetes were examined with PET/CT and MRI. The [11C]5-HTP uptake in pancreas was hypothesized to correlate with remaining functional capacity of the β-cells. The progressive loss of β-cell function indicated by metabolic testing was not mirrored by a decrease in [11C]5-HTP tracer accumulation in the pancreas. This provides evidence of retained islet mass despite decreased β-cell function, indicating that β-cell dysfunction or dedifferentiation, and not necessarily endocrine cell loss, constitutes a major cause of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes.

    In paper III the feasibility of using ex-vivo MR spectroscopy for assessment of viability of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation was studied. It was found that 31P-MRS may provide quantitative parameters for evaluating graft viability ex vivo, and is a promising tool for objective non-invasive assessment of the quality of human pancreas grafts.

    In paper IV the Imiomics method for automatic image analysis was validated in whole-body [18F]-FDG PET/MR images in subjects with varying degree of insulin resistance. Imiomics was found to provide association screening and timesaving analysis of whole-body data and detected differences in glucose uptake and tissue composition between subjects on voxel-level. However, it did not show complete correlation with traditional volume of interest based tissue analysis in a small cohort.

  • Azevedo, Thales
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Engelund, Oluf Tang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Ambitwistor formulations of R2 gravity and (DF)2 gauge theories2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 11, article id 052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider D-dimensional amplitudes in R-2 gravities (conformal gravity in D = 4) and in the recently introduced (DF)(2) gauge theory, from the perspective of the CHY formulae and ambitwistor string theory. These theories are related through the BCJ double-copy construction, and the (DF)(2) gauge theory obeys color-kinematics duality. We work out the worldsheet details of these theories and show that they admit a formulation as integrals on the support of the scattering equations, or alternatively, as ambitwistor string theories. For gravity, this generalizes the work done by Berkovits and Witten on conformal gravity to D dimensions. The ambitwistor is also interpreted as a D-dimensional generalization of Witten's twistor string (SYM + conformal supergravity). As part of our ambitwistor investigation, we discover another (DF)(2) gauge theory containing a photon that couples to Einstein gravity. This theory can provide an alternative KLT description of Einstein gravity compared to the usual Yang-Mills squared.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 13:00 A1:107a, Uppsala
    Klaesson, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Development of DNA-based methods for analysis of protein interactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a method for detection of protein interactions, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and individual proteins that allows information about their localization in a cell or tissue to be extracted. The method is based on oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies (proximity probes) that upon binding of two epitopes in close proximity give rise to an amplifiable DNA circle. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is used to create a DNA bundle of over a thousand repeats to which fluorescently labeled detection oligonucleotides are hybridized. This thesis is focused on improving the existing in situ PLA method and on developing new approaches for detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and PTMs in situ in cells and tissues.

    In paper I, a new enzyme-independent method capable of in situ detection of protein-protein interactions was developed. The method combined the proximity requirement of in situ PLA and the amplification of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) creating a proximity-dependent initiation of hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR). Circumventing the need for enzymes resulted in a cost-efficient method that is less sensitive to storing conditions.

    Paper II addresses the problem of irregularly formed RCA products that can appear to be split into several fluorescent objects. A compaction oligonucleotide system was designed to crosslink the DNA bundle with itself and thereby reduce the size and increase the brightness of each individual RCA product.

    In paper III, the conventional in situ PLA was redesigned to increase the detection efficiency of protein interactions and PTMs in situ. The new set of proximity probes was designed to have circularization oligonucleotides incorporated that were unfolded through enzymatic digestion. The UnFold in situ PLA was able to generate more signals and had a higher sensitivity than the conventional in situ PLA.

    In paper IV, an oligonucleotide system able to generate signals for individual proteins (A or B) and their interaction (A and B) in a molecular Boolean (MolBoolean) protein analysis was designed. The MolBoolean design was able to generate signals detecting both individual proteins and their interaction in situ.  

  • Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Effects of surfactants and adhesion promoters on the bitumen-minerals interfacial bond during breaking of bitumen emulsionsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology has been the subject of research for many decades due to its proven environmental and economic benefits. However, issues relating to its mechanical performance still need to be investigated in order to understand the breaking mechanisms of bitumen emulsions and the surface chemistry involved. Bitumen emulsions are designed to break in a controlled manner to achieve the required level of performance for producing good quality cold asphalt mixtures. In this work, experiments on the coalescence of two bitumen droplets were carried out on a selected grade of Nynas bitumen. In an emulsion environment, the cohesion between bitumen droplets as well as their adhesion to a mineral surface was investigated. The cohesion and adhesion properties were analyzed by varying selected surfactant types and adhesion promoters in the water phase. The research showed that the presence of emulsifiers (with concentrations above the critical micelle concentration) in the water phase inhibits the adhesion of bitumen droplets to the mineral surface. However, a very small addition (0.02%) of adhesion promoter reverses the situation completely, and adhesion is dominant rather than cohesion. Moreover, the kinetics of the coalescence process is strongly controlled by the water phase temperature.

  • Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Investigating effects of salts on the coalescence process in bitumen emulsionsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The breaking and coalescence process in bitumen emulsions during their application strongly influences the resulting long-term mechanical performance of the cold mix asphalt. This phase separation process is affected by physico-chemical changes at the bitumen/water interface. This paper describes the effects of addition of different salts on the destabilization of bitumen emulsions. This study is limited mainly to cationic rapid setting (CRS) bitumen emulsions and salts which are very commonly added to these emulsions as a stabilizer. However, a few samples with non-ionic emulsifiers were also prepared and analyzed comparatively to understand the electrostatic force balance with varying concentrations of selected salts. The experimental part includes a bitumen droplet relaxation test, droplet size distribution measurement, microscopy, and evaluation of physico-chemical properties of prepared soap solutions e.g. interfacial tension and density measurements. Some experiments on the effect of selected water-soluble organic solvents on the coalescence process were also carried out. The results showed that coalescence was delayed after the addition of salts, while the water soluble organic solvents proved not to affect the emulsion significantly. 

  • Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Modelling coalescence process during breaking of bitumen emulsions2016In: / [ed] International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), 2016, p. 1-12, article id Paper 61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold mix bitumen emulsion technology is getting a lot of focus by the road industries since a few decades due to the diminished environmental impacts and reduced energy associated with it. The durability and mechanical performance of cold asphalt mixtures very much depend on the breaking, coalescence and phase separation processes in bitumen emulsions; however, the exact nature of the breaking mechanism of bitumen emulsion is not completely understood today. During coalescence or relaxation process, two bitumen droplets are completely fused into a unique spherical droplet and their kinetic is usually recorded in terms of time, denoted as relaxation time or τrelaxation.  In this work, a two dimensional Phase Field model was used to simulate the coalescence process of two bitumen droplets in water phase. The numerical model is based on Finite Element Method and solves Navier-Stokes system of equations coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation. The model predictions are validated by direct comparison with the experimental measurements performed in our previous work. Moreover, the study was extended to the small size (order μm) bitumen droplets which are difficult to produce and handle via experimental methods.  

  • Hjelm, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bard, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Apelqvist, Jan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    A qualitative study of developing beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant African women with gestational diabetes living in Sweden2018In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 18, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with health risks for both mother and child, and is particularly relevant to migrant women and women of African origin. With todays extensive global migration, contact with the new society and health system confronts the migrants culture of origin with the culture of the host country. The question is whether immigrants patterns of beliefs about health, illness, and health-related behaviour change over time, as no previous studies have been found on this topic. The purpose was to explore development over time, during and after pregnancy, of beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant women with GDM born in Africa living in Sweden, and study the influence on self-care and care seeking. Methods: Qualitative prospective study. Semi-structured interviews, with 9 women (23-40 years), on three different occasions: during pregnancy (gestational weeks 34-38), and 3 and 14 months after delivery managed at an in-hospital diabetes specialist clinic in Sweden. Results: Beliefs were rather stable over time and mainly related to individual and social factors. GDM was perceived as a transient condition as health professionals had informed about it, which made them calm. None, except one, expressed worries about relapse and the health of the baby. Instead women worried about being unable to live an ordinary life and being bound to lifestyle changes, particularly diet, developing diabetes and needing insulin injections. Over time knowledge of appropriate diet improved, although no advice was experienced given by the clinic after delivery. The healthcare model was perceived as well functioning with easy access but regular follow-ups were requested as many (decreasing over time) were unsure whether they still had GDM and lacked information about GDM and diet. During pregnancy information was also requested about the healthcare system before/after delivery. Conclusions: Beliefs changed to a limited extent prospectively, indicated low risk awareness, limited knowledge of GDM, irrelevant worries about future health, and being unable to live a normal life, associated with problematic lifestyle changes. Beliefs about the seriousness of GDM in health professionals influenced patients beliefs and health-related behaviour. The healthcare organisation urgently needs to be improved to deliver appropriate and timely information through competent staff.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bua, John
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Waiswa, Peter
    Makumbi, Fred
    Atuyambe, Lynn
    Ajeani, Judith
    George, Asha
    Mutebi, Aloysuis
    Kakaire, Ayub
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Paina, Ligia
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Maternal and neonatal implementation for equitable systems: a study design paper2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1346925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence on effective ways of improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes is widely available. The challenge that most low-income countries grapple with is implementation at scale and sustainability. Objectives: The study aimed at improving access to quality maternal and neonatal health services in a sustainable manner by using a participatory action research approach.

    Methods: The study consisted of a quasi-experimental design, with a participatory action research approach to implementation in three rural districts (Pallisa, Kibuku and Kamuli) in Eastern Uganda. The intervention had two main components; namely, community empowerment for comprehensive birth preparedness, and health provider and management capacity-building. We collected data using both quantitative and qualitative methods using household and facility-level structured surveys, record reviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. We purposively selected the participants for the qualitative data collection, while for the surveys we interviewed all eligible participants in the sampled households and health facilities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data, while the difference in difference analysis was used to measure the effect of the intervention. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.

    Conclusions: This study was implemented to generate evidence on how to increase access to quality maternal and newborn health services in a sustainable manner using a multisectoral participatory approach.

  • Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    et al.
    Akulume, Martha
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Bua, John
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Balancing the cost of leaving with the cost of living: drivers of long-term retention of health workers: an explorative study in three rural districts in Eastern Uganda2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1345494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health worker retention in rural and underserved areas remains a persisting problem in many low and middle income countries, and this directly affects the quality of health services offered.

    Objective: This paper explores the drivers of long-term retention and describes health worker coping mechanisms in rural Uganda.

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study explored the factors that motivated health workers to stay, in three rural districts of Uganda: Kamuli, Pallisa, and Kibuku. In-depth interviews conducted among health workers who have been retained for at least 10 years explored factors motivating the health workers to stay within the district, opportunities, and the benefits of staying.

    Results: Twenty-one health workers participated. Ten of them male and 11 female with the age range of 33-51 years. The mean duration of stay among the participants was 13, 15, and 26 years for Kamuli, Kibuku, and Pallisa respectively. Long-term retention was related to personal factors, such as having family ties, community ties, and opportunities to invest. The decentralization policy and pension benefits also kept workers in place. Opportunities for promotion or leadership motivated long stay only if they came with financial benefits. Workload reportedly increased over the years, but staffing and emoluments had not increased. Multiple job, family support, and community support helped health workers cope with the costs of living, and holding a secure pensionable government job was valued more highly than seeking uncertain job opportunities elsewhere.

    Conclusion: The interplay between the costs of leaving and the benefit of staying is demonstrated. Family proximity, community ties, job security, and pension enhance staying, while higher costs of living and an unpredictable employment market make leaving risky. Health workers should be able to access investment opportunities in order to cope with inadequate remuneration. Promotions and leadership opportunities only motivate if accompanied by financial benefits.

  • Cossu, Rosa Maria
    et al.
    Casola, Claudio
    Giacomello, Stefania
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Section of Population Epigenetics and Epigenomics, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Ecology and Genetics: Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden; Uppsala Multidisciplinary Center for Advanced Computational Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zuccolo, Andrea
    LTR Retrotransposons Show Low Levels of Unequal Recombination and High Rates of Intraelement Gene Conversion in Large Plant Genomes2017In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 3449-3462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulat on and removal of transposable elements (TEs) is a major driver of genome size evolution in eukaryotes. In plants, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) represent the majority of TEs and form most of the nuclear DNA in large genomes. Unequal recombination (UR) between LTRs leads to removal of intervening sequence and formation of solo-LTRs. UR is a major mechanism of LTR-RT removal in many angiosperms, but our understanding of LTR-RT-associated recombination within the large, LTR-RT-rich genomes of conifers is quite limited. We employ a novel read based methodology to estimate the relative rates of LTR-RT-associated UR within the genomes of four conifer and seven angiosperm species. We found the lowest rates of UR in the largest genomes studied, conifers and the angiosperm maize. Recombination may also resolve as gene conversion, which does not remove sequence, so we analyzed LTR-RT-associated gene conversion events (GCEs) in Norway spruce and six angiosperms. Opposite the trend for UR, we found the highest rates of GCEs in Norway spruce and maize. Unlike previous work in angiosperms, we found no evidence that rates of UR correlate with retroelement structural features in the conifers, suggesting that another process is suppressing UR in these species. Recent results from diverse eukaryotes indicate that heterochromatin affects the resolution of recombination, by favoring gene conversion over crossing-over, similar to our observation of opposed rates of UR and GCEs. Control of LTR-RT proliferation via formation of heterochromatin would be a likely step toward large genomes in eukaryotes carrying high LTR-RT content.

  • Askelöf, Ulrica
    et al.
    Andersson, Ola
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Fasth, Anders
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Pettersson, Karin
    Westgren, Magnus
    Wiklund, Ingela E.
    Götherström, Cecilia
    Wait a minute?: An observational cohort study comparing iron stores in healthy Swedish infants at 4 months of age after 10-, 60-and 180-second umbilical cord clamping2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 12, article id e017215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable stem cell source used for transplantation. Immediate umbilical cord (UC) clamping is widely practised, but delayed UC clamping is increasingly advocated to reduce possible infant anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate an intermediate UC clamping time point and to evaluate iron status at the age of 4 months in infants who had the UC clamped after 60 s and compare the results with immediate and late UC clamping.

    Design: Prospective observational study with two historical controls.

    Setting: A university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and a county hospital in Halland, Sweden.

    Methods: Iron status was assessed at 4 months in 200 prospectively recruited term infants whose UC was clamped 60 s after birth. The newborn baby was held below the uterine level for the first 30 s before placing the infant on the mother's abdomen for additional 30 s. The results were compared with data from a previously conducted randomised controlled trial including infants subjected to UC clamping at <= 10 s (n= 200) or >= 180 s (n= 200) after delivery.

    Results: After adjustment for age differences at the time of follow- up, serum ferritin concentrations were 77, 103 and 114 mu g/L in the 10, 60 and 180 s groups, respectively. The adjusted ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the 60 s group compared with the 10 s group (P=0.002), while the difference between the 60 and 180 s groups was not significant (P=0.29).

    Conclusion: In this study of healthy term infants, 60 s UC clamping with 30 s lowering of the baby below the uterine level resulted in higher serum ferritin concentrations at 4 months compared with 10 s UC clamping. The results suggest that delaying the UC clamping for 60 s reduces the risk for iron deficiency.

  • Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Taxes and Household Labor Supply: Estimating Distributional Effects of Nonlinear Prices on Multidimensional Choice2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for distributional regression of joint multidimensional choice on nonlinear prices departing from a household model of labor supply that focuses on tax policy effects. Our distribution functions are derived under minimal theoretical assumptions and have a simple structure. We allow distribution-free estimation, collective decisionmaking, and identification based on tax reforms. In our empirical application on U.S. panel data from 1980 to 2006, we provide a deepened understanding of how the configuration of the tax system affects the distribution of transitions between combinations of spouse labor supply. We also quantify biases from commonly imposed restrictions.

  • Janson, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Warnke, Lutz
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Math, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Univ Cambridge Peterhouse, Cambridge CB2 1RD, England..
    On the critical probability in percolation2018In: Electronic Journal of Probability, ISSN 1083-6489, E-ISSN 1083-6489, Vol. 23, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For percolation on finite transitive graphs, Nachmias and Peres suggested a characterization of the critical probability based on the logarithmic derivative of the susceptibility. As a first test-case, we study their suggestion for the Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n,p), and confirm that the logarithmic derivative has the desired properties: (i) its maximizer lies inside the critical window p = 1/n + Theta(n(-4/3)), and (ii) the inverse of its maximum value coincides with the Theta(n(-4/3))-width of the critical window. We also prove that the maximizer is not located at p = 1/n or p = 1/(n - 1), refuting a speculation of Peres.

  • Song, Jie
    et al.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    TGFβ activates PI3K-AKT signaling via TRAF62017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 59, p. 99205-99206Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wahlman, Thomas
    Ramböll.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ekdahl, Peter
    Ramböll.
    Ny teknik för vägytemätning: tvärprofil och spårdjup2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The condition of the national coated road network is measured annually in Sweden and Finland. The measuring technology has been unchanged over a long period of time, which has its benefits. As the measurements are performed using the same technology, trends and measurement series are retained without any disruption. In addition, the technology currently used is reliable and can be procured at a price level that has fallen rather than risen over the years. The principal area of use for condition measurement is to provide maintenance work with an objective basis for the planning of surfacing, but when it is found that current objective condition data can only explain between 40 and 75 percent (depending on class of traffic) of the action actually taken on the road network, consideration must be given to whether new condition data need to be added. The information that is lacking is thought to be information on surface damage and cracks. This requires new measuring technology.

    If new technology will be adopted, for the collection of condition data, the dependability of the basic measured quantities must be ensured before new options and measured quantities are examined. This study is therefore focused only on transverse-profile measurement and measures of unevenness in the transverse direction (rut depth and ridge height).

    The study has examined two of the leading new technologies that operate with scanning lasers, LCMS from Pavemetrics and PPF from Fraunhofer. The outcome of the study shows that the technology is good, and that accuracy and repeatability are comparable to the present-day point-laser systems. It is also deemed possible to retain criteria and requirements for the procurement of measurement services when the new technology is used

  • Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bua, John
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Waiswa, Peter
    Effect of a participatory multisectoral maternal and newborn intervention on birth preparedness and knowledge of maternal and newborn danger signs among women in Eastern Uganda: a quasi-experiment study2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1362826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and adequate birth preparedness (BP) are critical for improving maternal services utilization.

    Objectives: This study assessed the effect of a participatory multi-sectoral maternal and newborn intervention on BP and knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in Eastern Uganda.

    Methods: The Maternal and Neonatal Implementation for Equitable Systems (MANIFEST) study was implemented in three districts from 2013 to 2015 using a quasi-experimental pre-post comparison design. Data were collected from women who delivered in the last 12 months. Difference-in-differences (DiD) and generalized linear modelling analysis were used to assess the effect of the intervention on BP practices and knowledge of obstetric danger signs.

    Results: The overall BP practices increased after the intervention (DiD = 5, p < 0.05). The increase was significant in both intervention and comparison areas (7-39% vs. 7-36%, respectively), with a slightly higher increase in the intervention area. Individual savings, group savings, and identification of a transporter increased in both intervention and comparison area (7-69% vs. 10-64%, 0-11% vs. 0-5%, and 9-14% vs. 9-13%, respectively). The intervention significantly increased the knowledge of at least three obstetric danger signs (DiD = 31%) and knowledge of at least two newborn danger signs (DiD = 21%). Having knowledge of at least three BP components and attending community dialogue meetings increased the odds of BP practices and obstetric danger signs' knowledge, respectively. Village health teams' home visits, intervention area residence, and being in the 25+ age group increased the odds of both BP practices and obstetric danger signs' knowledge.

    Conclusions: The intervention resulted in a modest increase in BP practices and knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Multiple strategies targeting women, in particular the adolescent group, are needed to promote behavior change for improved BP and knowledge of obstetric danger signs.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Paina, Ligia
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Jane, Pacuto
    Tumuhairwe, Juliet
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.
    'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1347311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health.

    Objectives: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups.

    Methods: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically.

    Results: Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution.

    Conclusions: Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  • Stensen, Katarina
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Tengdelius Brunell, Johanna
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Andersson, Elinor
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Eklund, Anna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vattentemperaturer och is i Mälaren Beräkningar för dagens och framtidens klimatförhållanden2018Report (Other academic)
  • Schöld, Sofie
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ivarsson, Cajsa-Lisa
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Nerheim, Signild
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Södling, Johan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Beräkning av högsta vattenstånd längs Sveriges kust2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten redovisas hur en metod framtagits för att kunna skatta de allra högsta havsvattenstånd som kan uppträda vid de mätstationer för havsvattenstånd som finns längs Sveriges kust. Metoden är generell och principerna kan därför tillämpas på mätdataserier från olika platser. För att kunna tillämpa metoden måste dock mätdataserien ha en viss minimilängd och tidsupplösning. Resultaten som tas fram är empiriska, vilket betyder att de baseras på tillgängliga mätdata.

    I analysen delades data upp i två delar; det genomsnittliga vattenståndet före en högvattenhändelse och nettohöjningen under en högvattenhändelse. Dessa delar benämns havsnivå före storm respektive nettohöjning, i enlighet med:

    stormflod = havsnivå före storm + nettohöjning

    Nivån på stormfloden är det högsta uppmätta havsvattenståndet under respektive högvattenhändelse. I analysen har även högvattenhändelser som inte förknippas med stormar inkluderats. Många av de högsta stormfloderna har inträffat när havsnivån före storm är förhöjd jämfört med medelvattenståndet, framförallt i stora delar av Östersjön. I analysen ingår samtliga högvattenhändelser från vilka det finns tillgänglig mätdata, även sådana som startat från ett lågt utgångsläge.

    I analysen indelades mätstationerna i olika kustområden och samvariationen mellan mätstationerna undersöktes. För varje enskild station, där havsvattenstånd observeras, har högsta havsnivå före storm och högsta nettohöjning framtagits. Den högsta havsnivån före storm som uppmätts inom kustområdet bedömdes gälla för alla mätstationer inom området. Det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet definierades som kustområdets högsta havsnivå före storm plus mätstationens högsta nettohöjning.

    Tidvatteneffekten har inte beaktats särskilt, utan är i viss mån inkluderad i nettohöjningen. Denna förenkling beskrivs närmare i Schöld m fl. (2017).

    Analysen visade att:

    • samvariationen inom kustområden är mycket hög för vanligt förekommande vattenstånd.
    • högvattenhändelser förekommer oftare i vissa kustområden.
    • de högsta vattenstånden kan variera mycket, även mellan stationer inom samma kustområde.
    • havsnivån före storm är en mer betydande stormflodskomponent i Östersjön och mindre betydande i Skagerrak-Kattegatt.
    • havsnivån före storm behöver identifieras så att den inte är påverkad av själva stormhändelsen.
    • det är lämpligt att uppdatera det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet regelbundet,särskilt efter att nya rekordhöga stormfloder inträffat.

    Vi valde att definiera havsnivån före storm som ett medelvärde över sju dygn, 48 timmar före stormflodens maximum. Metodiken avser nivåer ovanpå ett gällande medelvattenstånd. Framtida förändringar av medelvattenståndet orsakade av den globala klimatförändringen behandlas inte i denna rapport. Tillämpningen av metoden i ett framtida klimat beskrivs i Nerheim m fl. (2017).

  • Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kväveoxid-och kvävedioxidhalter i Umeå: sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mätning av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har utförts med diffusionsprovtagare vid två tillfällen (sommartid respektive vintertid) på 41 platser i Umeå tätort under 2017. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt sjutton mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 25 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla sjutton tillfällen.

    De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2017 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (21 μg/m3 respektive 51 μg/m3). NOx-halten vintertid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (134 μg/m3) medan halten vid sommarmätningen var högst vid Östra Kyrkogatan, mittemot simhallen Navet (56 μg/m3).

  • Varsani, A.
    et al.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Sergeev, V. A.
    St Petersburg State Univ, Earths Phys Dept, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Owen, C. J.
    UCL, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England..
    Petrukovich, A. A.
    RAS, Space Res Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Yao, Z.
    Space Sci Technol & Astrophys Res Inst, Liege, Belgium..
    Nakamura, T. K. M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Kubyshkina, M. V.
    St Petersburg State Univ, Earths Phys Dept, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Sotirelis, T.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Baltimore, MA 21218 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Genestreti, K. J.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Vörös, Z.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria.;Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Phys, Graz, Austria..
    Andriopoulou, M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP, EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Coffey, V. N.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP, EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Ergun, R.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Simultaneous Remote Observations of Intense Reconnection Effects by DMSP and MMS Spacecraft During a Storm Time Substorm2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 11, p. 10891-10909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a magnetic storm on 23 June 2015, several very intense substorms took place, with signatures observed by multiple spacecraft including DMSP and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). At the time of interest, DMSP F18 crossed inbound through a poleward expanding auroral bulge boundary at 23.5 h magnetic local time (MLT), while MMS was located duskward of 22 h MLT during an inward crossing of the expanding plasma sheet boundary. The two spacecraft observed a consistent set of signatures as they simultaneously crossed the reconnection separatrix layer during this very intense reconnection event. These include (1) energy dispersion of the energetic ions and electrons traveling earthward, accompanied with high electron energies in the vicinity of the separatrix; (2) energy dispersion of polar rain electrons, with a high-energy cutoff; and (3) intense inward convection of the magnetic field lines at the MMS location. The high temporal resolution measurements by MMS provide unprecedented observations of the outermost electron boundary layer. We discuss the relevance of the energy dispersion of the electrons, and their pitch angle distribution, to the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer. The results indicate that the underlying magnetotail magnetic reconnection process was an intrinsically impulsive and the active X-line was located relatively close to the Earth, approximately at 16-18 R-E.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 MA 624, Huddinge
    Kuflu, Rahel
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    Bröder emellan: Identitetsformering i det koloniserade Eritrea2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation study examines individual and collective identity formation in Eritrea during the first period of Italian colonialism (1890-1916). Drawing on an African-centered theoretical framework, my analysis of identity formation centers on the interplay between colonial and patriarchal structures, in relations formed between African evangelical reformists and Swedish missionaries. The study is African-centered in the sense that it mainly focuses on African agency, while at the same time acknowledging the local context. Additionally, the theoretical framework is heavily informed by theories of black diasporic identity formation. While this means that I rely on contemporary theoretical formulations to examine the past, I argue that the afro-diasporic concepts that I draw on, are not always necessarily time and place bound, and thus allow for the exploration of black/African identity, in ways that have the capacity to advance theory-building in the present.

    The source materials consist of reports and minutes written by Swedish missionaries in the field, as well as letters written by members of the mission board in Stockholm. These sources include a multitude of accounts of verbal exchanges and actions carried out by Africans whom these writers encountered, and are therefore used (solely) for this purpose of accessing this information. Other sources used are letters penned by African evangelists hired by the Swedish missionaries. Thus, the letters are rather unique as the evangelists speak directly to their white supervisors in these letters.

    The findings of this study show that both colonial and local patriarchal structures influenced the identity formation of the evangelists and other Africans who attended Swedish missionary schools. While focusing on maintaining their masculinity, most men ended up being trapped within the dualistic worldview of colonialism.

  • Brandhorst, Heide
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England..
    Johnson, Paul R. V.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.;Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Brandhorst, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England..
    Quantifying the Effects of Different Neutral Proteases on Human Islet Integrity2017In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1733-1741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient islet release from the pancreas requires the combination of collagenase, neutral protease (cNP), or thermolysin (TL). Recently, it has been shown that clostripain (CP) may also contribute to efficient islet release from the human pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these proteases on human islet integrity in a prospective approach. Islets were isolated from the pancreas of 10 brain-dead human organ donors. Purified islets were precultured for 3 to 4 d at 37 degrees C to ensure that preparations were cleared of predamaged islets, and only integral islets were subjected to 90 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in Hank's balanced salt solution supplemented with cNP, TL, or CP. The protease concentrations were calculated for a pancreas of 100 g trimmed weight utilizing 120 dimethyl-casein units of cNP, 70,000 caseinase units of TL, or 200 benzoyl-Larginine- ethyl-ester units of CP (1x). These activities were then increased both 5 x and 10 x. After subsequent 24-h culture in enzyme-free culture medium, treated islets were assessed and normalized to sham-treated controls. Compared with controls and CP, islet yield was significantly reduced by using the 5 x activity of cNP and TL, inducing also fragmentation and DNA release. Viability significantly decreased not until adding the 1 x activity of cNP, 5 x activity of TL, or 10 x activity of CP. Although mitochondrial function was significantly lowered by 1 x cNP and 5 x TL, CP did not affect mitochondria at any concentration. cNP-and TL-incubated islets significantly lost intracellular insulin already at 1 x activity, while the 10 x activity of CP had to be added to observe a similar effect. cNP and TL have a similar toxic potency regarding islet integrity. CP also induces adverse effects on islets, but the toxic threshold is generally higher. We hypothesize that CP can serve as supplementary protease to minimize cNP or TL activity for efficient pancreas digestion.

  • Hannestad, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanometer-scale molecular organization in lipid membranes studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.2018In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 03B408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of lipid membranes plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes at different length scales. Herein, the authors present a procedure based on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to characterize the nanometer-scale ordering of lipids in lipid membrane structures on surfaces. While ToF-SIMS is a powerful tool for label-free analysis of lipid-containing samples, its limited spatial resolution prevents in-depth knowledge of how lipid properties affect the molecular assembly of the membrane. The authors overcome this limitation by measuring the formation of lipid dimers, originating in the same nanometer-sized primary ion impact areas. The lipid dimers reflect the local lipid environment and thus allow us to characterize the membrane miscibility on the nanometer level. Using this technique, the authors show that the chemical properties of the constituting lipids are critical for the structure and organization of the membrane on both the nanometer and micrometer length scales. Our results show that even at lipid surface compositions favoring two-phase systems, lipids are still extracted from solid, gel phase, domains into the surrounding fluid supported lipid bilayer surrounding the gel phase domains. The technique offers a means to obtain detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and organization of lipid membranes with potential application in systems where labeling is not possible, such as cell-derived supported lipid bilayers.

  • Hjalmarsson, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Nikolaidou, Zoe
    Södertörns högskola, Svenska.
    Sköldvall, Kajsa
    Södertörns högskola, Svenska.
    Eklund Heinonen, Maria
    Uppsala universitet.
    "Fan va grymma vi är" - effekter av ämnesintegrerad undervisning i akademiskt skrivande2017In: Språk och norm. Language and norms: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016. Papers from the ASLA Symposium at Uppsala University 21-22 April, 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard; Ulla Melander Marttala; Maria Westman, Uppsala: ASLA: Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap , 2017, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hjalmarsson, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Humlesjö, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Ett lärande bibliotek – och dess möjligheter2009In: En bok om böcker och bibliotek: tillägnad Louise Brunes / [ed] Erland Jansson, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2009, p. 121-131Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Grönvall, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Hjalmarsson, Jan
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Bildning för vår tids bibliotek2014In: Att växa som människa: om bildningens traditioner och praktiker / [ed] Anders Burman, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, p. 301-319Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Rydell, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    New legislation on organizational and social work environment: A case study2017In: Conference Proceedings: 48th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, 12th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Organizing for High Performance, July 31-August 3, 2017, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2017, p. 109-114Conference paper (Refereed)