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  • Disputas: 2018-03-07 13:15 Lilla Jadwigasalen 12:108, Gävle
    Haga, Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Psychological consequences of moral labelling in the built environment2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is strongly linked to human behavior and technologies, and many of the barriers to sustainable behavior are rather psychological than technological. More sustainable technologies and food products have been introduced to combat climate change, most often labeled with morally loaded labels such as “organic” or “environmentally friendly”. The purpose of this thesis was, first, to gain knowledge into the psychological consequences of the introduction of eco-friendly technologies in the built environment, specifically how labeling these products “eco-friendly” influences perception and performance; secondly, to identify underlying psychological mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. Study 1 showed that participants generally prefer the taste of consumables labeled eco-friendly compared to conventional labeled alternatives, but the study also found that the label-effect is limited to certain products and certain judgmental dimensions. Results in this study also showed that people believe that eco-labeled products have positive effects on mental abilities. In Study 2 and 3, the focus was to study the effects of eco-labeling in the built environment on performance in cognitively demanding tasks, such as color discrimination and proofreading. At this point, the eco-label effect had been shown across a wide range of products like food, water, and office technologies, and been generalized to a wide range of judgmental dimensions and behaviors (i.e. taste, nutrition health benefits, comfortableness, and mental performance). In Study 4, results showed that eco-labeling can have effects also on behavior that arguably have very little to do with the labeling itself, by showing that social perception of photographed persons can also depend on the labeling of desktop lamps. A consistent finding across the studies was also that individual differences in environmental concern modulated the magnitude of the effect. The magnitude was larger in people with higher concern for the environment.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 10:15 ACAS, Hus A, Linköping
    Norman, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fatigue of Heavy-Vehicle Engine Materials: Damage Mechanisms, Laboratory Experiments and Life Estimation2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing demands on sustainability exerted by end-costumers and policy makers, heavyvehicle manufacturers are urged to increase the engine efficiency in order to reduce the exhaust gas emission. However, increasing the efficiency is also associated with an elevated fatigue rate of the materials constituting the engine parts, which consequently reduces the engine service life. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to confront the expected increase by studying the fatigue behaviour and damage mechanisms of the materials typically employed in heavy-vehicle diesel engines. With this knowledge, this work seeks to guide the development of new heavy-vehicle engine materials, as well as to develop improved life estimation methods designated to assist the mechanical design of durable heavy-vehicle engines.

    In essence, a large set of thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and combined thermomechanical and high-cycle fatigue (TMF-HCF) tests is conducted at engine load conditions on laboratory specimens of lamellar, compacted and spheroidal graphite iron. In this way, the fatigue performance and associated damage mechanisms are investigated. In particular, a new fatigue property is identified, the TMF-HCF threshold, which quantifies how resistant a material is to superimposed high-cycle fatigue.

    The damage mechanism at low temperatures (≲500°C) is confirmed to consist of the initiation, propagation and coalescence of numerous microcracks. Based on this, a successful fatigue life estimation model is formulated, allowing accurate estimations of TMF and TMF-HCF tests on smooth specimens, and TMF tests on notched specimens. In the latter case, the microcrack growth behaviour in non-uniform cyclic stress fields and its implications for life estimation are clarified. At elevated temperatures (≳500°C), surface oxidation is shown to govern the fatigue performance of cast iron grades intended for exhaust manifolds. It is observed that oxide intrusions are induced, from which surface fatigue cracks are initiated. Consequently, an optimal material at these conditions should have a low oxide growth rate and few casting defects at the surface, as these factors are found to stimulate the growth of intrusion.  

  • Lindkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Precontractile optical response during excitation-contraction in human muscle revealed by non-invasive high-speed spatiotemporal NIR measurement2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During muscle contraction the excitation-contraction process mediates the neural input and mechanical output. Proper muscle function and body locomotion depends on the status of the elements in the same process. However, non-invasive and in-vivo methods to study this are not available. Here we show the existence of an optical response occurring during the excitation-contraction process in human biceps brachii muscle. We developed a non-invasive instrument from a photodiode array and light emitting diodes to detect spatially propagating (similar to 5 m/s) and precontractile (similar to 6 ms onset) optical signals closely related to the action potential during electrostimulation. Although this phenomenon was observed 60 years ago on isolated frog muscle cells in the lab, it has not been shown in-vivo before now. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for a new category in-vivo studies, characterising alterations in the excitation-contraction process in patients with neuromuscular disease and to monitor effects of therapy.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-14 10:15 Seminarierummet, KTH Hållfasthetslära, 100 44 Stockholm
    Everitt, Carl-Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.), Hållfasthetslära (Avd.).
    Initiation of rolling contact fatigue from asperities in elastohydrodynamic lubricated contacts2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contacts are utilized in many technical applications, both in bearings and in the contact between gear teeth. These components are often highly loaded, which makes them susceptible to suffer from rolling contact fatigue. This work focuses on the rolling contact fatigue mechanism of pitting. In order to attain a better understanding of why pitting initiates and grows, detailed simulations of rolling contacts have been performed. In particular the contact between two gears in a truck retarder was here used as a case study. The investigated contact experienced elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions since the load was high enough to causes the surfaces in contact to deform and the viscosity of the lubricant to increase significantly.

    In Paper A it was investigated if surface irregularities in the size of the surface roughness are large enough to cause surface initiated fatigue. The investigation focused on the pitch line since small surface initiated pits were found here even though there was no slip present. Since there were pits present at the pitch line, it is important that the theories of pitting can explain the development of pits also in the absence of slip. The conclusion of the work was that surface irregularities of the size of normal surface roughness are enough to cause surface initiated fatigue at the pitch line.

    In Paper B it was investigated why pits are more likely to initiate in the dedendum of pinion gears than in the addendum. In both areas slip is present but in different directions. In the dedendum the friction from slip is against the rolling direction which enhances the risk for pitting. The investigation was performed by studying the effect of the temperature rise in the contact caused by the slip. The conclusion drawn was that the temperature rise in the contact explained why pitting was more common in the dedendum than in the addendum.

  • Ejlertsson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Heijbel, Bodil
    Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: a questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees2018Inngår i: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 155-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees.

    METHOD: Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (1 = 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (1 = 0.25) and work experiences (1 = 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work.

    CONCLUSION: Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recoverystrategies in the workplace.

  • Golub, Koraljka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV).
    [ Review of ] Tatjana Aparac-Jelušić : Digital Libraries for Cultural Heritage : Development, Outcomes, and Challenges from European Perspectives2018Inngår i: Vjesnik Bibliotekara Hrvatske, ISSN 0507-1925, E-ISSN 1334-6938Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-14 13:27 M311, Stockholm
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    An evaluation of biodiesel policies: The case of palm oil agro-industry in Indonesia2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil palm has flourished as an economically vital crop in Indonesia given its use in both food and non-food products (including biodiesel) for domestic and export markets. However, the expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia is controversial. While the crop generates fiscal earnings for the country, and regular income streams for farmers and companies, oil palm plantation expansion is claimed to cause deforestation, environmental degradation and biodiversity losses. At the same time, there is a national target to reduce GHG emissions from land use change and the production of palm oil. Climate change mitigation goals also include ambitious targets to blend biodiesel with fossil diesel in various economic sectors.

    This thesis looks at the palm oil agro-industry, from oil palm plantation to crude palm oil (CPO) production, and CPO based biodiesel production. It proposes a policy evaluation to verify policy implications in relation to the issue of land use allocation, and the poor profitability in palm oil biodiesel production. The overarching objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of prevailing policies used to promote the palm oil agro-industry for biodiesel production in Indonesia.

    The thesis is framed by policy research and ex-post policy evaluation. The focus is on the process of policy formulation and implementation, rather than outcome evaluation. Two specific analytical frameworks are used to answer the research questions while addressing the criteria of effectiveness in policy evaluation: (i) policy coherence analysis and (ii) life cycle cost analysis. Qualitative indicators are used to measure the coherence of biofuel policy with other sectoral policies (agriculture, climate and forestry) in relation to land allocation. Quantitative economic indicators are used to compare the costs and benefits of conventional palm oil biodiesel production with a biorefinery conceptual plant.

    There are valuable lessons to be learnt from this policy evaluation. The results indicate areas in which policy effectiveness can be improved. For land allocation, adjustments and improvements in policy formulation and implementation are crucial. Uncertainties when it comes to the allocation of land to meet multi sectoral policy goals are to be addressed by clarifying land use definitions and categories, which should be backed up by consistent land use definitions in various policy documents. The dual land classification presently applied should move towards a single land classification, linking actual landscape coverage and the legal status of the land. Policy information and guidance across sectoral policies should be compiled in a single database. Such a publicly available database would help enhance the efficiency of land allocation for multiple policy purposes. More importantly, the formulation of biodiesel policy has to engage various sectoral policies that compete for the same resources.

    The biorefinery conceptual plant allows the reduction of government subsidies, while also providing a pathway to enhance the use of renewable energy and reduce GHG emissions. Policies have been designed to enhance plant profits through the improved utilisation of biomass residues in the palm oil mill for energy generation and composting. However, the low implementation rate of policies indicates the need to improve the effectiveness of policy implementation, and therefore the need for better monitoring processes, and possibly more stringent consequences for non-compliance.

  • Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Looney, Erin
    Jensen, Mallory
    Lai, Barry
    Rinio, Markus
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, nr 5, s. 055705-1-055705-6, artikkel-id 055705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

  • Moinian, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholm University.
    Dorls, Patrick
    Umeå University.
    Mother tongue language teaching with digital tablets in early childhood education: a question of social inclusion and equity2016Inngår i: He Kupu, ISSN 1179-6812, E-ISSN 1179-6812, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literacy in the twenty-first century is changing to become more multicultural, multilingual and multimodal as people are using more digital technologies in their everyday lives. This article reports on what these changing conceptions of literacy mean for mother tongue teaching by exploring why, how and when mother tongue teachers in preschools use digital technologies. Regarding literacy as a social practice, the article focuses on emerging patterns in the use of digital tablets in a large Swedish municipality, providing empirical data (questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews) from mother tongue teachers working together with hundreds of children aged 1-6 at preschools. The study found significant differences in the levels of digital technologies used among mother tongue teachers. What seems to matter is whether or not the teachers themselves are frequent and engaged users of digital technologies in their own everyday lives. Most of the teachers reported that they are integrating digital technologies in their teaching even though they have officially a restricted access to digital devices. Teachers expressed a desire to use the digital tablet as a tool to access and create knowledge by creating an opportunity for innovation, specifically for language groups that are not represented in the majority context of teaching materials or not suitable for a secularized society due to, for example, religious or political differences. The article concludes by stating that digital tablets are convenient mother tongue teaching tools but that teachers are asking for policies that can point the way as to how to implement digital resources, since tablets offer social inclusion and equity but also involve ethical dilemmas.

  • Pöppel, Ludmila
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Dobrovol'skij, Dmitrij
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Constructions in Parallel Corpora:A Quantitative Approach2017Inngår i: Computational and Corpus-Based Phraseology: Second International Conference, Europhras 2017London, UK, November 13–14, 2017 Proceedings / [ed] Ruslan Mitkov, Springer Publishing Company, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the present study is to find an adequate methodfor the quantitative analysis of empirical data obtained from parallel corpora.Such a task is particularly important in the case of fixed constructions possessingsome degree of idiomaticity and language specificity. Our data consist of theRussian construction дeлo в тoм, чтo and its parallels in English, German andSwedish. This construction, which appears to present no difficulty for translationinto other languages, is in fact, language-specific when compared with otherlanguages. It displays a large number of different parallels (translation equivalents)in other languages, and possesses a complex semantic structure. Theconfiguration of semantic elements comprising the content plane of this constructionis unique. The empirical data have been collected from the corpusquery system Sketch Engine, subcorpus OPUS2 Russian, and the RussianNational Corpus (RNC). We propose to use the Herfindahl index as a tool forquantitative analysis in order to measure the degree of uniformity in the frequencydistribution of the various translations of the construction under investigation.This tool is not universal and does not enable us to answer all thequestions that arise in connection with determining the specificity of languageunits. However, it clearly helps to obtain more objective results and to refine thequantitative analysis of idiomatic constructions on the basis of corpus data.

  • Pöppel, Ludmila
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Конструкция возьми и + Vimp: корпусное исследование2017Inngår i: Slovo, ISSN 2001–7395, nr 58, s. 50-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of the study is the construction [возьми и + Vimp] and its variants in the functionof a narrative imperative. Purely semantically, this construction can be considered a partialrealization of [взять и + V], which permits various grammatical forms. It is not describedseparately in dictionaries, but appears only in the zone of illustrative examples as a realizationof the construction [взять и + V]. Formally, [возьми и + Vimp] in the meaning of a narrativeimperative is homonymous with the genuine imperative and occupies an intermediate positionbetween the construction [взять и + V] and an ordinary imperative, which cannot help but bereflected in its semantics. Studies and lexicographical sources have not treated questionsconcerning the filler of the Vimp slot, but note only that it requires a perfective verb. Usingmaterials from the main RNC corpus and the subcorpus ruTenTen of Sketch Engine, the goalof the present investigation is to identify and empirically substantiate some usage preferencesfor filling this slot. The findings of the corpus analysis allow us to identify a number ofpreferences for filling the Vimp slot. The most frequent filler of the Vimp slot is verbs ofspeaking. In this group, the verb скажи is the clear leader. Another frequent filler of the Vimpslot is verbs meaning ‘death’.

  • Hallgren, Christoffer
    Assessment of green power production in Antarctica2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, fossil fuels have been the energy source to power research stations in Antarctica. With increasing awareness of climate change and local environmental effects associated with use of fossil fuels, the demand for replacement green energy power supply have increased rapidly.

    In this article, the potential for wind and solar power in Antarctica is assessed. The study is based on 34 years of reanalysis data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) focusing on the location for the experiment ARIANNA (Antarctic Ross Ice-Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array). Results are compared with the stations Mawson and Princess Elisabeth, where wind and solar power already is operational, and with the Amundsen-Scott station.

    The average wind speed for the ARIANNA site is around 7.5 m/s during winter and 6.0 m/s during summer. Comparing with Princess Elisabeth, the average wind speed is approximately 5 m/s lower.

    The generally low wind speeds at the ARIANNA site suggest that wind turbines with a low cut-in speed should be used. The strong influence from katabatic winds make wind direction persistent, which is preferable.

    The potential for solar power production at ARIANNA is expected to be 10% lower comparing with Princess Elisabeth.

  • Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise.

    Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT.

    Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%.

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of the O2 deficit may be possible using data from only one submaximal stage in combination with the GE/EC method.

  • Gustavsson, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vad krävs för att liberalismen inte skall gå förlorad?2018Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 120, nr 1, s. 97-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    High abundances of Gonyostomum semen in brown water lakes are associated with high concentrations of iron: Fluorescence and abosrbance data2018Dataset
  • Bohman, Anders
    Stockholms konstnärliga högskola, Institutionen för film och media.
    Hur formen påverkar oss: en reflektion över ett konstnärligt utvecklingsprojekt2018 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta konstnärliga utvecklingsprojekt är sprunget ur mina erfarenheter som praktiserande filmfotograf och den del av processen som handlar om ”grading” (färdigställandet av färgsättningen). Ibland uppstår en frustration av att ett arbete inte får det utrymme som krävs för att uppnå ett bra resultat. Processen att skapa en långfilm /TV-serie är relativt lång och inte sällan kan det ta upp till ett och halvt år från en idé till en färdig film. Besluten om den slutgiltiga ”looken” (det visuella uttrycket) på filmen görs ofta i all hast när klippning och ljudläggning är klar. Producenten behöver snabbt ha klart en färdig kopia (eller DCP/Digital Cinema Package) till den utsatta deadlinen för distribution, säljmaterial eller en festival. Det är ofta då man som fotograf upptäcker de små misstagen som har gjorts i val av tagningar under klippningen. Det kan handla om små störande rörelser i ett klipp, statister som ser in i kameran, skuggor och ljusförändringar, klaffmisstag och misstag i mask och kostym. Detta har inte uppmärksammats i klipprummets ogradade, lilla monitorbild därför att misstagen inte är synliga förrän graden är gjord.

    En annan komplexitet är när regissör och klippare inte har sett eller vågat använda det bildberättande som finns i materialet därför att de inte har upplevt bildens hela potential. Det kan bero på att att de har arbetat med blaskiga, ogradade och lågupplösta klippversioner av exempelvis mörka scener eller stora bilder. I dessa versioner är de svåra att läsa av och sammantaget kan det resultera i att man inte ser potentialen för gestaltande scenerier eller större bilder. Det leder i sin tur till fler konventionella val än vad ett utforskande filmiskt val kan uttrycka och berätta.

    Mot bakgrund av detta har jag formulerat fyra frågor att undersöka i mitt projekt:

    1. Vilka visuella målsättningar definieras i början av en produktion?

    2. Hur kan alla i en produktion bli delaktiga de visuella riktlinjerna?

    3. Hur kommunicerar vi den visuella strukturen under den skapande processen?

    4. Kan det finnas ett samförstånd om vilket visuellt uttryck som är att föredra?

     

    Projektet har fått titeln Hur formen påverkar oss. Jag har i projektet klippt ihop en fristående två minuters sekvens ur långfilmen Sophelikoptern, i vilken jag var filmfotograf. Sekvensen är inte en hel berättelse utan vald för sitt konstnärliga uttryck. Den har därefter färgkorrigerats i fem varianter av olika kolorister. Mitt syfte har varit att se hur de skilda uttrycken i koloreringen kan upplevas. Forskningsfrågorna har varit min utgångspunkt i det praktiska arbetet med färgkorrigeringen av bilderna. Det har resulterat i fem olika lookar med unika visuella uttryck, skapade av koloristerna i samarbete med mig. Jag har presenterat resultaten dels i min undervisning på

    Stockholms Dramatiska Högskola (StDH), dels vid filmfestivalen i Nordkap och dels på föreläsningar för Föreningen för Svenska Filmfotografer (fsf). I samband med mina presentationer framställde jag en enkät riktad till yrkesverksamma filmfotografer. Frågorna handlade om vilka erfarenheter de hade av att arbeta med färgkollorering. Enkätens syfte var att få en så tydlig översikt som möjligt av hur arbetssituationen med färgkorrigering ser ut för svensk TV och film idag. Min analys av enkätsvaren och resultaten av projektet i sin helhet har jag sammanställt i ett utbildningsmaterial. I materialet fokuserar jag på hur färger kan upplevas och om de skillnader i upplevelser som kan uppstå i olika kulturella kontexter. Jag skriver om hur vissa visuella uttryck kan bli förborgade i en generation eller i olika sociala grupper. Bild- och färgspråk kan variera såväl mellan grupper som mellan generationer. Dessa olika språk förändras fortare än vad vi är medvetna om genom det dagliga rika flödet av bildberättande. Jag lyfter också frågor om vad habituering gör med vårt berättande vilket handlar om hur snabbt vi vänjer oss vid en ett speciellt visuellt uttryck? Det kan ofta räcka med ett par minuter för oss som åskådare att vänja oss vid en viss stil av filmiskt berättande. Det leder till frågan om vilken påverkan färger har på det filmiska berättandet? Och hur vi kan använda kunskapen om detta för att rytmisera ett berättande? I mitt resonemang om färger hänvisar jag bland annat till boken Goethe färglära 1 och Newtons första experiment 2 med prismat. I Pehr Sällströms Goethes färglära (2014) finns ett tankeväckande citat av konstnären Vasilij Kandinsky:

    Vi måste lyssna till den klang som färgen väcker i vår själ. Och vi måste göra detta öppet, så hängiven, så osjälviskt, att vi med övertygelse kan konstatera, att det är färgen som talar till oss, att vi fått erfara något av dess väsen.P E R S Ä L L S T R Ö M , G O E T H E S F Ä R G L Ä R A , 2 0 1 4

  • Disputas: 2018-03-05 10:15 Haldasalen, Halmstad
    Marques Marinho, Marco Antonio
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Array Processing Techniques for Direction of Arrival Estimation, Communications, and Localization in Vehicular and Wireless Sensor Networks2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Array signal processing in wireless communication has been a topic of interest in research for over three decades. In the fourth generation (4G) of the wireless communication systems, also known as Long Term Evolution (LTE), multi antenna systems have been adopted according to the Release 9 of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). For the fifth generation (5G) of the wireless communication systems, hundreds of antennas should be incorporated to the devices in a massive multi-user Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. The presence of multiple antennas provides array gain, diversity gain, spatial gain, and interference reduction. Furthermore, arrays enable spatial filtering and parameter estimation, which can be used to help solve problems that could not previously be addressed from a signal processing perspective. The aim of this thesis is to bridge some gaps between signal processing theory and real world applications. Array processing techniques traditionally assume an ideal array. Therefore, in order to exploit such techniques, a robust set of methods for array interpolation are fundamental and are developed in this work. In this dissertation, novel methods for array interpolation are presented and their performance in real world scenarios is evaluated. Problems in the field of wireless sensor networks and vehicular networks are also addressed from an array signal processing perspective. Signal processing concepts are implemented in the context of a wireless sensor network. These concepts provide a level of synchronization sufficient for distributed multi antenna communication to be applied, resulting in improved lifetime and improved overall network behaviour. Array signal processing methods are proposed to solve the problem of radio based localization in vehicular network scenarios with applications in road safety and pedestrian protection.

  • Jansson, David
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Deadly exceptionalisms, or, would you rather be crushed by a moral superpower or a military superpower?2018Inngår i: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I consider the ways in which nationalism in both the U.S. and Sweden relies on notions of exceptionalism, and I discuss what this means materially for their own populations and for the world. The analysis consists of two lines of attack against both these assumptions of exceptionalism – one focusing on psychological processes and the other political economy processes. I examine the historical development of the ideas of U.S. and Swedish exceptionalism, and consider the roles of ignorance, denial, and projection in maintaining these problematic ideas. Through the use of a materialist definition of racism, I show how the nationalist ideology of exceptionalism in these two cases harms the well-being of their own citizens as well as citizens of other states. I argue that a combination of the psychological and political economy approaches are necessary if we are to both understand the power and impact of exceptionalism as a nationalist ideology and to be able to effectively work against their tendency to “crush” marginalized groups.

  • Toming, Kaire
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Univ Tartu, Estonian Marine Inst, Maealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia.;Estonian Univ Life Sci, Ctr Limnol, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE-51014 Tartu, Estonia.
    Kutser, Tiit
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Marine Inst, Maealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Uiboupin, Rivo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Marine Syst, Sch Sci, Akad Rd 15a, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Arikas, Age
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Marine Syst, Sch Sci, Akad Rd 15a, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Vahter, Kaimo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Marine Syst, Sch Sci, Akad Rd 15a, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Paavel, Birgot
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Marine Inst, Maealuse 14, EE-12618 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Mapping Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument Imagery in the Baltic Sea2017Inngår i: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikkel-id 1070Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The launch of Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board Sentinel-3A in 2016 is the beginning of a new era in long time, continuous, high frequency water quality monitoring of coastal waters. Therefore, there is a strong need to validate the OLCI products to be sure that the technical capabilities provided will be used in the best possible way in water quality monitoring and research. The Baltic Sea is an optically complex waterbody where many ocean colour products, performing well in other waterbodies, fail. We tested the performance of standard Case-2 Regional/Coast Colour (C2RCC) processing chain in retrieving water reflectance, inherent optical properties (IOPs), and water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, total suspended matter (TSM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Baltic Sea. The reflectance spectra produced by the C2RCC are realistic in both shape and magnitude. However, the IOPs, and consequently the water quality parameters estimated by the C2RCC, did not have correlation with in situ data. On the other hand, some tested empirical remote sensing algorithms performed well in retrieving chlorophyll a, TSM, CDOM and Secchi depth from the reflectance produced by the C2RCC. This suggests that the atmospheric correction part of the processor performs relatively well while IOP retrieval part of the neural network needs extensive training with actual IOP data before it can produce reasonable estimates for the Baltic Sea.

  • Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Fjellström, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Arkeologisk undersökning av lämningar invid Raä 62 i Påtåker, Sollentuna socken, Uppland maj 20162016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Alonso, Fabiola
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vogel, Dorian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Johansson, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hemm, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. rthwestern Switzerland FHNW, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Electric Field Comparison between Microelectrode Recording and Deep Brain Stimulation Systems: A Simulation Study2018Inngår i: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 8, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies primarily on the localization of the implanted electrode. Its final position can be chosen based on the results of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) and stimulation tests. The optimal position often differs from the final one selected for chronic stimulation with the DBS electrode. The aim of the study was to investigate, using finite element method (FEM) modeling and simulations, whether lead design, electrical setup, and operating modes induce differences in electric field (EF) distribution and in consequence, the clinical outcome. Finite element models of a MER system and a chronic DBS lead were developed. Simulations of the EF were performed for homogenous and patient-specific brain models to evaluate the influence of grounding (guide tube vs. stimulator case), parallel MER leads, and non-active DBS contacts. Results showed that the EF is deformed depending on the distance between the guide tube and stimulating contact. Several parallel MER leads and the presence of the non-active DBS contacts influence the EF distribution. The DBS EF volume can cover the intraoperatively produced EF, but can also extend to other anatomical areas. In conclusion, EF deformations between stimulation tests and DBS should be taken into consideration as they can alter the clinical outcome

  • Lundberg, Mary
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Methods used in the everyday practice of construction projects for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many construction practitioners and researchers would agree that acquiring the knowledge created in construction projects is a prerequisite for organizational learning and improved practice. This applies also to continuous improvement by a lean strategy. Various technological tools and methods for knowledge acquisition have been proposed, but their success depends on acknowledging the involved individuals and on the interaction between project actors, i.e. embracing the principle of respect for people in a lean strategy. A systematic literature review to identify methods used in the everyday practice in construction projects for the sharing and transfer of tacit knowledge has been performed.

    Findings indicate that a combination of technological and social methods are used for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer in construction projects. Social methods such as workshops, different kinds of often informal face-to-face meetings, various forms of reviews, mentorships, and site visits, are commonly used for sharing and transfer of tacit knowledge. Therefore, these methods which also often involve different actors should form part of a lean construction strategy.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-22 10:00 M102, Sundsvall
    Rahman, Hafizur
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Modifying kraft pulping to produce a softwood pulp requiring less energy in tissue paper production2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Modification of softwood kraft pulp by the addition of either polysulfide (PS) or sodium borohydride (NaBH4) has been shown to increase the pulp yield due to a higher retention of glucomannan.  The pulps with higher yield gave a paper with higher tensile index than reference pulp, especially at lower degrees of refining. The higher yield pulps also showed a greater porosity of the fibre wall, indicating an increase in the swelling potential of the fibres. This can lead to increased fibre flexibility and increased joint strength between the fibres and to the higher handsheet tensile index. However, the swelling increase associated with the higher hemicellulose content could also make dewatering more challenging because of the higher water retention of the pulp. The results of this study show however that the positive influence of the increase in yield (fewer fibres and a more open sheet structure) dominates over the negative influence of the higher hemicellulose content on the dewatering properties, especially at lower refining energy levels. Studies simulating full-scale tissue machine dewatering conditions showed that pulps with a higher yield and a higher hemicellulose content had a higher tensile index at the same dryness. Moreover, the same dryness level was achieved in a shorter dwell-time. A given tensile index was also achieved with less refining energy.

    Increasing the yield and hemicellulose content by the addition of either an oxidizing or a reducing agent in the softwood kraft pulping process thus has a potential for giving high quality fibres for tissue paper production with less refining energy and lower drying energy costs.

     

  • Disputas: 2018-03-08 10:00 B1, Stockholm
    Vieira, Tiago
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial. VTI.
    Tyre-road Interaction: a holistic approach to noise and rolling resistance2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy dissipation, fuel consumption, real-estate property prices and health issues are some of the aspects related to the tyre/pavement interaction and its functional properties of rolling resistance and noise. The first two aspects are affected by the tyre/road interaction as energy is dissipated mostly by hysteretic losses as the tyre is subjected to dynamic deformations when contacting the pavement surface. The other effect of this contact system that is analysed in this thesis is noise. Excessive noise exposure leads to a decrease in real-estate property values and even health issues such as increased blood pressure, sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment in children, among others.

    To mitigate such issues, a good understanding of the underlying causes is crucial and therefore a holistic approach was used to analyse the contact interaction in a more comprehensive way, encompassing the pavement, tyre, environmental and contact media (contaminations). Both noise and rolling resistance were analysed after subjecting the contact system to controlled interventions in one variable while maintaining the other variables constant and then comparing to a reference condition. In the first part of the investigative work, different tyres were tested while maintaining the pavement, environment and contact media constant, allowing an evaluation of the impact of winter tyres on noise and rolling resistance. In the second part, an intervention in the pavement was applied while maintaining the other variables constant. allowing an evaluation of the impact of surface grinding on noise and rolling resistance.

    The first part quantified how noisier studded tyres are in comparison to non-studded tyres, yet no substantial difference in rolling resistance was found. The second part revealed the potential of the horizontal grinding to reduce noise and rolling resistance, having a limitation, on the duration of such effects, especially for Swedish roads where studded tyres are used.

  • Göransson, Nils-Gunnar
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Viman, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Avnötningsbeständighet för högkvalitativa slitlagerbeläggningar: slitagemätningar i VTI:s provvägsmaskin (PVM) och jämförelser med laboratorietester enligt Prall2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högkvalitativa beläggningsmassor samlades in vid produktion under beläggningssäsongerna 2009– 2013, däribland gummiasfalt samt referensbeläggning (ofta använd av VTI med ”Skärlundagranit” som ballast). Slitageprovning med avseende på avnötning från dubbdäck utfördes i VTI:s cirkulära Provvägsmaskin (PVM) i tre omgångar. Även provning enligt Prallmetoden (EN 12697/16) utfördes för att kontrollera överenstämmelsen mellan de olika provningssätten. I några fall har avnötningen även kontrollerats på platser där de aktuella beläggningarna utförts som slitlager. Dessa mätningar har utförts inom andra uppdrag vid VTI, varefter resultaten blivit tillgängliga för jämförelser.

    Varje enskilt test omfattade 14 beläggningstyper inklusive referensbeläggning fördelade på 28 provplattor i en PVM-ring. Provplattorna tillverkades i laboratoriemiljö. Vid tillverkningen av plattor kompletterades med en extra platta per beläggningstyp för laboratorieprovningar (tillverkning av 3 plattor per beläggningstyp det vill säga 42 plattor per ring). Plattorna karaktäriseras som normalplatta för PVM-test med en tjocklek av ca 40 millimeter.

    Varje test startade med däck som ”körts in” cirka 500 kilometer, monterade på personbil under näst intill identiska omgivande förhållanden. Däck, av samma fabrikat, för fyra testomgångar (4*4=16) köptes in vid samma tillfälle och delades upp slumpmässigt mellan ringarna.

    Slitagetesterna i PVM pågick tills ett linjärt slitageförlopp uppnåddes, dock minst 200 000 och högst cirka 300 000 varv. Uppföljningen utfördes genom slitage-/ beständighetsmätning med VTI:s Laserprofilometer av samtliga 28 provplattor per ring.

  • Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lovsjö, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Analytical sociology and computational social science2018Inngår i: Journal of Computational Social Science, ISSN 2432-2717, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 3-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology focuses on social interactions among individuals and the hard-to-predict aggregate outcomes they bring about. It seeks to identify generalizable mechanisms giving rise to emergent properties of social systems which, in turn, feed back on individual decision-making. This research program benefits from computational tools such as agent-based simulations, machine learning, and large-scale web experiments, and has considerable overlap with the nascent field of computational social science. By providing relevant analytical tools to rigorously address sociology’s core questions, computational social science has the potential to advance sociology in a similar way that the introduction of econometrics advanced economics during the last half century. Computational social scientists from computer science and physics often see as their main task to establish empirical regularities which they view as “social laws.” From the perspective of the social sciences, references to social laws appear unfounded and misplaced, however, and in this article we outline how analytical sociology, with its theory-grounded approach to computational social science, can help to move the field forward from mere descriptions and predictions to the explanation of social phenomena.

  • Singh, Sarbjeet
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Majumdar, Arnab
    The Lloyd's Register Foundation Transport Risk Management Centre Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London London, UK.
    Kyriakidis, Miltos
    ETH Zurich, Future Resilient Systems, Singapore ETH Centre, Singapore .
    Incorporating Human Reliability Analysis to enhance Maintenance Audits: The Case of Rail Bogie Maintenance2017Inngår i: International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, ISSN 2153-2648, E-ISSN 2153-2648, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human errors occurring during railway maintenance activities can significantly reduce the availability of equipment. Identification of potential human errors, their causes and prediction of the associated probabilities are important stages in order to manage such errors. This paper investigates the probability of human error during the maintenance of railway bogies. A case study examines technicians performing maintenance on the disc brake assembly unit, wheel set, and bogie frame under various error producing conditions in a railway maintenance workshop in Luleå, Sweden. The Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) is employed to determine the probability of human error occurring during each of the maintenance tasks, while fault tree analysis is used to define the potential errors throughout the maintenance process. The probability of a technician committing an error during the maintenance of the disc brake assembly, wheel set, and bogie frame is found to be 0.20, 0.039 and 0.021 respectively, with the human error probability (HEP) for the entire bogie 0.24. Time pressure, ability to detect and perceive problems, over-riding information, the need to make decisions and mismatches between the operator and designer’s model turn out to be major contributors to human error. These findings can help maintenance management personnel to better understand the error producing conditions that may lead to errors and in turn serve as an input to modify policies and guidelines for railway maintenance tasks.

  • Ekström, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Resp Med & Allergol, Lund, Sweden..
    Sundh, Josefin
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Dept Resp Med, Orebro, Sweden..
    Schiöler, Linus
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sect Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Inst Med, Wallenberg Lab,Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergström, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Inst Med, Wallenberg Lab,Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Angerås, Oskar
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Inst Med, Wallenberg Lab,Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hedner, Jan
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Dept Internal Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Brandberg, John
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Radiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bake, Björn
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Resp Med & Allergol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Toren, Kjell
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sect Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Absolute lung size and the sex difference in breathlessness in the general population2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id e0190876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breathlessness is associated with major adverse health outcomes and is twice as common in women as men in the general population. We evaluated whether this is related to their lower absolute lung volumes.

    Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the population-based Swedish CardioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) Pilot, including static spirometry and diffusing capacity (n = 1,013; 49% women). Breathlessness was measured using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale and analyzed using ordinal logistic regression adjusting for age, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, chronic airway limitation, asthma, chronic bronchitis, depression and anxiety in all models.

    Results: Breathlessness was twice as common in women as in men; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.66). Lower absolute lung volumes were associated with increased breathlessness prevalence in both men and women. The sex difference in breathlessness was unchanged when adjusting for lung function in %predicted, but disappeared when controlling for absolute values of total lung capacity (OR 1.12; 0.59-2.15), inspiratory capacity (OR 1.26; 0.68-2.35), forced vital capacity (OR 0.84; 0.42-1.66), forced expiratory volume in one second (OR 0.70; 0.36-1.35) or lung diffusing capacity (OR 1.07; 0.58-1.97).

    Conclusion: In the general population, the markedly higher prevalence of breathlessness in women is related to their smaller absolute lung volumes.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Moradi Nour, Zeinab
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik, Fysiokemisk strömningsmekanik.
    Numerical study of dynamics of mass-emitting particles in multi-phase flow2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended particles can be found in wide range of industrial applications such as food industry, mining industry and energy conversion processes. Depending on flow cases which particles are involved, different dynamics and motions are expected from suspended particles. In addition, it is well-known that existence of particles alters the configuration of surrounding flow.

    Fuel particles are expected to be found to gasify or evaporate in energy conversion processes . Burning (or combustion) of a fuel particle results in the production of a thin film of gas on the surface of the particle. The flow around the particle and existence of the thin film due to the combustion, might be the source of changes in particle-particle interaction, particle interaction with the surrounding fluid and walls. In order to investigate these phenomena, we apply a radial outflow boundary condition on the surface of particles to resemble gasification/evaporation of solid particles or droplet fuels.

    To study the effect of outflow from the surface of particles, we consider two generic cases; particles in shear flow and sedimentation of particles. These cases have been studied thoroughly in literature in which both behavior of the particle and pattern of the surrounding flow has been investigated. This provides us an opportunity to analyze our results against these well studied cases. In agreement with previous studies, it is observed that the radial outflow results to a decrease in drag and lift forces and an increase in pressure on the surface of the particle. Thence, a growth in maximum velocity of settling spherical particle and a decay in angular velocity of rotating particle by increasing outflow rate can be observed. Furthermore, a general hindering effect in particles interaction is detected. Considering the configuration of the background flow, different flow streamlines lead to different particle trajectories in a simple shear flow, in existence of outflow from the surface of particles.

    In the last part of the thesis we consider 3D simulations of three-phase flow (gas-liquid-particle) in which particle and bubble are moving under external forces and interacting with each other. In this case, we apply a non-wetting boundary condition on the surface of solid particle. A compound consist of a particle entrapped inside a bubble, preforms different behaviors depending on the competition between gravitational and surface tension induced forces.

    Regarding the numerical method, we apply a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) together with momentum exchange approach in order to couple particle and fluid. However, to capture phase interfaces in simulation of three-phase flows, a pseudo-potential method is considered . 

  • Hermansson, Ruth S.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Reproduktionsbiologi. Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Reproduktionsbiologi.
    Hoxell, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna.
    Lindström, Annika K
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna. Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Clin Res Ctr, Orebro, Sweden..
    HPV prevalence and HPV-related dysplasia in elderly women2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id e0189300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Sweden, where screening ends at the age of 60, about 30% of the cervical cancer cases occur in women older than 60. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV and cervical dysplasia in women of 60 years and above.

    Patients and methods: From September 2013 until June 2015, 1051 women aged 60-89 years (mean 68 years) were sampled for an HPV test when attending an outpatient gynecology clinic. Women with positive results had a second HPV test and liquid based cytology (LBC), after 3.5 months on average. Those with a positive second HPV test were examined by colposcopy, and biopsy and a sample for LBC was obtained.

    Results: The prevalence of HPV was 4.1%, (95% CI 3.0-5.5, n = 43) at the first test, and at the second test 2.6% remained positive (95% CI 1.7-3.8, n = 27). The majority of women positive in both HPV tests, had dysplasia in histology, 81.5% (22/27) (4 CIN 2-0.4%, 18 CIN 1-1.7%). HPV-related dysplasia was found in 2.1%, (95% CI 1.3-3.2,n = 22) of the 1051 women. Four of the 22 women with positive HPV tests also had abnormal cytology, one ASCUS and three CIN 1. No cancer or glandular dysplasia was detected.

    Conclusion: A significant proportion of elderly women were found to have a persistent cervical HPV infection. Among them there was a high prevalence of CIN diagnosed by histology. The HPV test showed high sensitivity and specificity in detecting CIN in elderly women, while cytology showed extremely low sensitivity.

  • Trouche, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychol, New Haven, CT USA..
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS). Lund Univ, Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Hall, Lars
    Lund Univ, Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Mercier, Hugo
    CNRS, Inst Sci Cognit Marc Jeannerod, Bron, France..
    Vigilant conservatism in evaluating communicated information2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id e0188825Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the absence of other information, people put more weight on their own opinion than on the opinion of others: they are conservative. Several proximal mechanisms have been suggested to account for this finding. One of these mechanisms is that people cannot access reasons for other people's opinions, but they can access the reasons for their own opinions-whether they are the actual reasons that led them to hold the opinions (rational access to reasons), or post-hoc constructions (biased access to reasons). In four experiments, participants were asked to provide an opinion, and then faced with another participant's opinion and asked if they wanted to revise their initial opinion. Some questions were manipulated so that the advice participants were receiving was in fact their own opinion, while what they thought was their own opinion was in fact not. In all experiments, the participants were consistently biased towards what they thought was their own opinion, showing that conservativeness cannot be explained by rational access to reasons, which should have favored the advice. One experiment revealed that conservativeness was not decreased under time pressure, suggesting that biased access to reasons is an unlikely explanation for conservativeness. The experiments also suggest that repetition plays a role in advice taking, with repeated opinions being granted more weight than non-fluent opinions. Our results are not consistent with any of the established proximal explanations for conservatism. Instead, we suggest an ultimate explanation-vigilant conservatism-that sees conservatism as adaptive since receivers should be wary of senders' interests, as they rarely perfectly converge with theirs.

  • Bulanova, Daria
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Ianevski, Aleksandr
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Bugai, Andrii
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Biochem & Dev Biol, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Akimov, Yevhen
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kuivanen, Suvi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol, Haartmaninkatu 3, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Paavilainen, Henrik
    Univ Turku, Dept Virol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Kakkola, Laura
    Univ Turku, Dept Virol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Nandania, Jatin
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Turunen, Laura
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Ohman, Tiina
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Biotechnol, Valimotie 7, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Ala-Hongisto, Hanna
    Biomed Funct Genom Unit FuGU, Helsinki 00290, Helsinki, Finland..
    Pesonen, Hanna M.
    Biomed Funct Genom Unit FuGU, Helsinki 00290, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kuisma, Marika S.
    Biomed Funct Genom Unit FuGU, Helsinki 00290, Helsinki, Finland..
    Honkimaa, Anni
    Univ Tampere, Dept Virol, Tampere 33520, Finland..
    Walton, Emma L.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, N-7028 Trondheim, Norway..
    Oksenych, Valentyn
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, N-7028 Trondheim, Norway..
    Lorey, Martina B.
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Rheumatol, Helsinki 00290, Finland..
    Guschin, Dmitry
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Shim, Jungmin
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Kim, Jinhee
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Than, Thoa T.
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Chang, So Young
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Hukkanen, Veijo
    Univ Turku, Dept Virol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Kulesskiy, Evgeny
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Marjomaki, Varpu S.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Nanosci Ctr, Jyvaskyla 40500, Finland..
    Julkunen, Ilkka
    Univ Turku, Dept Virol, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Nyman, Tuula A.
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Biotechnol, Valimotie 7, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Univ Oslo, Dept Immunol, N-0424 Oslo, Norway..
    Matikainen, Sampsa
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Rheumatol, Helsinki 00290, Finland..
    Saarela, Jani S.
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Sane, Famara
    Univ Lille, CHU Lille, Lab Virol, EA3610, F-59037 Lille, France..
    Hober, Didier
    Univ Lille, CHU Lille, Lab Virol, EA3610, F-59037 Lille, France..
    Gabriel, Guelsah
    Leibniz Inst Expt Virol, Heinrich Pette Inst, D-20251 Hamburg, Germany..
    De Brabander, Jef K.
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, Dept Biochem, Dallas, TX 75390 USA..
    Martikainen, Miika
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Windisch, Marc P.
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Min, Ji-Young
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea..
    Bruzzone, Roberto
    Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea.;Univ Hong Kong, Sch Publ Hlth, HKU Pasteur Res Pole, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Inst Pasteur, Dept Cell Biol & Infect, F-75015 Paris, France..
    Aittokallio, Tero
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Vaha-Koskela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Vapalahti, Olli
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol & Immunol, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Vet Biosci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Pulk, Arto
    Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Velagapudi, Vidya
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kainov, Denis E.
    Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Inst Mol Med Finland, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, N-7028 Trondheim, Norway.;Inst Pasteur Korea, Gyeonggi Do 13488, South Korea.;Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Antiviral Properties of Chemical Inhibitors of Cellular Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins2017Inngår i: Viruses, ISSN 1999-4915, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikkel-id 271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Viral diseases remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral diseases, new treatments are urgently needed. Here we show that small-molecules, which inhibit cellular anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins (Bcl-2i), induced the premature death of cells infected with different RNA or DNA viruses, whereas, at the same concentrations, no toxicity was observed in mock-infected cells. Moreover, these compounds limited viral replication and spread. Surprisingly, Bcl-2i also induced the premature apoptosis of cells transfected with viral RNA or plasmid DNA but not of mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that Bcl-2i sensitizes cells containing foreign RNA or DNA to apoptosis. A comparison of the toxicity, antiviral activity, and side effects of six Bcl-2i allowed us to select A-1155463 as an antiviral lead candidate. Thus, our results pave the way for the further development of Bcl-2i for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.

  • Leidenhag, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Tros- och livsåskådningsvetenskap, Religionsfilosofi.
    Christian Materialism and the Quest for Human Personhood2017Inngår i: Perichoresis. The Theological Journal of Emanuel University, ISSN 1224-984X, E-ISSN 2284-7308, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 83-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a critical exploration of philosopher Kevin Corcoran's proposed Christian Materialism. Corcoran's constitution view claims that we human persons are constituted by our bodies without being identical with the bodies that constitute us. I will critically evaluate this view and argue that Corcoran has not successfully managed to ground a first-person perspective and intentional states in materialism. Moreover, Corcoran's property dualism about mental states and the idea of the causally efficacy of such states seem incompatible with materialism. Corcoran's view of imago Dei is also explored and evaluated. Towards the end of the paper I put forward a brief defense of dualism in light of Corcoran's critique.

  • Liu, Wei
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Brännström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Glueckert, Rudolf
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Schrott-Fischer, Annelies
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Molnar, Matyas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pacholsky, Dirk
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pfaller, Kristian
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Molecular composition and distribution of gap junctions in the sensory epithelium of the human cochlea a super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) study2017Inngår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, nr 3, s. 160-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes the Connexin26 (Cx26) protein, are the most common cause of childhood hearing loss in American and European populations. The cochlea contains a gap junction (GJ) network in the sensory epithelium and two connective tissue networks in the lateral wall and spiral limbus. The syncytia contain the GJ proteins beta 2 (GJB2/Cx26) and beta 6 (GJB6/Cx30). Our knowledge of their expression in humans is insufficient due to the limited availability of tissue. Here, we sought to establish the molecular arrangement of GJs in the epithelial network of the human cochlea using surgically obtained samples. Methods: We analyzed Cx26 and Cx30 expression in GJ networks in well-preserved adult human auditory sensory epithelium using confocal, electron, and super -resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM). Results: Cx30 plaques (<5 mu m) dominated, while Cx26 plaques were subtle and appeared as 'mini junctions' (2-300 nm). 3-D volume rendering of Z-stacks and orthogonal projections from single optical sections suggested that the GJs are homomeric/homotypic and consist of assemblies of identical GJs composed of either Cx26 or Cx30. Occasionally, the two protein types were co-expressed, suggesting functional cooperation. Conclusions: Establishing the molecular composition and distribution of the GJ networks in the human cochlea may increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of Cx-related hearing loss. This information may also assist in developing future strategies to treat genetic hearing loss.

  • Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Healthcare Dev, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cars, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmström, Rickard E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wettermark, Björn
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Dept Healthcare Dev, Stockholm, Sweden..
    von Euler, Mia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Persistence with dimethyl fumarate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study2018Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 219-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe patients initiating dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and measure persistence with DMF, discontinuation, and switching in treatment-na < ve DMF patients and patients switching to DMF from other multiple sclerosis disease-modifying treatments (DMTs).

    Methods: A population-based cohort study of all Stockholm County residents initiating DMF from 9 May 2014 until 31 May 2017. All data were derived from a regional database that collects individual-level data on healthcare and drug utilization of all residents. The study outcomes were persistence with DMF and DMF discontinuation and switching to other DMTs. Persistence was measured as the number of days until either DMF discontinuation (treatment gap ae<yen> 60 days) or switching to another DMT.

    Results: The study included 400 patients (median follow-up = 2.5 years). The majority had previously been treated with other DMTs (61%). Throughout the follow-up period, 124 patients (31%) discontinued DMF and 114 patients (29%) switched treatment. Overall, 34% of patients initiating DMF stopped treatment within 1 year and only 43% of patients remained on DMF at 2 years from treatment initiation.

    Conclusions: DMF had a rapid market uptake likely due to high expectations held by both patients and clinicians. However, persistence with DMF in routine clinical practice was found to be low.

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Utvärdering av Krondroppsnätet ur ett regionalt perspektiv: Förstudie2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En förstudie av främst regionala behov när det gäller miljöövervakning av lufthalter, atmosfäriskt nedfall och markvattenkemi inom Krondroppsnätet har genomförts. I förstudien har även en enkätundersökning ingått. Studien, som finansierats av Naturvårdsverket via Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län, omfattar alla deltagande län inom Krondroppsnätet. Förstudien utgör en del av en kommande större gemensam nationell och regional utvärdering av bl.a. Krondroppsnätet.

    Krondroppsnätets medlemmar utgörs av luftvårdsförbund, länsstyrelser, Naturvårdsverket samt några enskilda företag. Dessa olika kategorier av medlemmar har i viss mån olika inriktningar och målsättningar vad gäller deltagande i Krondroppsnätet. Generella kriterier med mätplatser inom Krondroppsnätet innefattar bl.a.:

    • Det bör finnas ett större antal mätplatser per areal i områden där gradienten av luftföroreningsbelastning är som störst.
    • Mätplatserna bör omfatta olika naturtyper, främst inriktat mot olika trädslag. Trädslagen är även nära sammankopplade med olika jordmåner.
    • Variationer i markens jordart, det vill säga kornstorleksfördelningen, och dess innehåll av mineraler bör täckas in.
    • Långa tidsserier är värdefulla för att bedöma förändringar över tiden, samt upptäcka tillfälliga händelser.

    I rapporten diskuteras även Krondroppsnätets mätningars betydelse för den regional (och nationella) miljöövervakningen inom främst miljömålen Ingen övergödning och Bara naturlig försurning. Vidare diskuteras förbättringsförslag med avseende på den regionala indikatorsuppföljningen (indikatorerna; nedfall av svavel och nedfall av kväve) av ovan nämnda miljömål, där Krondroppsnätets mätningar har en avgörande roll. Förbättringen avser att avsevärt förbättra beräkningen av det länsvisa nedfallet samt förbättra beskrivningen av den geografiska variationen av svavel- och kvävenedfall i de olika länen.

    Nuvarande mätplatser inom Krondroppsnätet beskrivs i detalj, baserat på en geografisk indelning i sju regioner Regionsindelningen är framtagen inom ett Naturvårdsverksfinansierat forskningsprogram, CLEO, för att spegla skillnader över landet vad gäller föroreningsbelastning, klimat och skogliga egenskaper. Mätplatserna har klassificerats utifrån påverkan och tillstånd baserat på försurning och kvävebelastning. Information ges även om någon/några mätplatser historiskt visat sig vara betydelsefulla för att indikera olika tillfälliga händelser, exempelvis skogsbränder, vulkanutbrottet eller större stormar. Alla nu aktiva mätplatser inom Krondroppsnätet bedöms fylla en viktig roll för den regionala miljöövervakningen. De flesta mätplatserna fyller även en viktig roll utifrån ett nationellt miljöövervakningsperspektiv.

    En statistisk analys har gjorts av trender under tidsserien 1996/97-2015/16. Vidare har den geografiska variationen av deposition och markvattenkemi inom och mellan olika CLEO-regioner, baserat på data från de fem senaste åren, analyserats.

    En enkät har skickats ut till alla regionala aktörer med frågor om mätmetodik och provtagning, vad data används till samt vilka frågor som är viktiga i den kommande utvärderingen 2018. Svaren kan sammanfattas enligt följande:

    • Länen är intresserade av att följa upp en mängd frågor rörande miljötillståndet i länet. De absolut viktigaste användningsområdena för Krondroppsnätets mätningar är: regionala miljömålsbedömningar, uppföljning av tillståndet i miljön i länet, uppföljning av försurning/övergödning, stöd för utvärdering av annan typ av miljöövervakning och som underlag för planering och uppföljning av kalkningsåtgärder.
    • En majoritet av aktörerna tycker det är viktigt att fortsätta mäta samtliga parametrar för lufthalter, i nederbörden över öppet fält, i krondropp och i markvatten. Även mätningarna av torrdeposition med strängprovtagarna anses viktiga.
    • Aktörerna i de olika länen ser dessutom samordningsvinster och ytterligare användningsområden för data från Krondroppsnätet, bl.a. för kalkningsunderlag och uppföljning, men även som stöd för utvärdering av annan typ av miljöövervakning.
    • Frågor som är viktiga att fokusera på i den kommande utvärderingen 2018 gäller organisatoriska, finansiella, behovsanpassade och framtida viktiga frågeställningar inom miljöområdet där resultaten kan komma att spela stor roll.
  • Milton, Freja
    et al.
    Goodpoint AB.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Goodpoint AB.
    Persson, Anna
    Goodpoint AB.
    Zinks spridning i miljön - En litteraturstudie2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc is one of our most common and most occurring metals. The metal is very useful and is used to prevent corrosion. Zinc is toxic for water living organisms when it occurs in concentrations over 20 μg/l. The metal affects the aquatic organism’s reproduction, survival and growth negatively. It is especially young individuals and embryos who will be affected by enhanced concentrations of zinc. The toxicity for zinc is determined by its bioavailability and is affected by its metal form, pH, redox ratio, DOC etc.

    The largest emissions of zinc occur to water followed by emissions to air. Within both categories diffuse emission is most dominated. The biggest zinc emission source is leakages from wooded ground followed by atmospheric deposition on the water surface. Industries is the greatest point source. The leakage from wooded ground is derived from atmospheric deposition of zinc.

    This report has chosen to focus and examine three types of human activities who causes zinc emissions. The activities which has been chosen for more extensive studies are artificial turfs with rubber granulates, traffic related emissions and emissions from goods. The traffic causes zinc emissions around the roads and the pollutant is usually not spread far from the road. Locally high levels of zinc along the roadside can therefore occur. Galvanized goods are believed to be a major secondary emission source even in places other than the traffic environment.

    Negative effects on aquatic or soil environment due to enhanced concentrations of zinc in Sweden is considered low. Generally, the chemical status in surface water in watercourses are good. Despite this, the risk of environment impact due to zinc should not be underestimated. Zinc have been accumulated in the soil for a long time. If the soil or sediments characteristics changes it could lead to devastating effects on nearby recipients.

  • Tataru, Paula
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Bioinformat Res Ctr, CF Mollers Alle 8, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Mollion, Maeva
    Aarhus Univ, Bioinformat Res Ctr, CF Mollers Alle 8, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Univ Montpellier, Inst Sci Evolut Montpellier, CNRS, Inst Rech Dev,Ecole Prat Hautes Etud, F-3095 Montpellier, France..
    Bataillon, Thomas
    Aarhus Univ, Bioinformat Res Ctr, CF Mollers Alle 8, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Inference of Distribution of Fitness Effects and Proportion of Adaptive Substitutions from Polymorphism Data2017Inngår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 207, nr 3, s. 1103-1119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) encompasses the fraction of deleterious, neutral, and beneficial mutations. It conditions the evolutionary trajectory of populations, as well as the rate of adaptive molecular evolution (alpha). Inferring DFE and a from patterns of polymorphism, as given through the site frequency spectrum (SFS) and divergence data, has been a longstanding goal of evolutionary genetics. A widespread assumption shared by previous inference methods is that beneficial mutations only contribute negligibly to the polymorphism data. Hence, a DFE comprising only deleterious mutations tends to be estimated from SFS data, and alpha is then predicted by contrasting the SFS with divergence data from an outgroup. We develop a hierarchical probabilistic framework that extends previous methods to infer DFE and alpha from polymorphism data alone. We use extensive simulations to examine the performance of our method. While an outgroup is still needed to obtain an unfolded SFS, we show that both a DFE, comprising both deleterious and beneficial mutations, and alpha can be inferred without using divergence data. We also show that not accounting for the contribution of beneficial mutations to polymorphism data leads to substantially biased estimates of the DFE and alpha. We compare our framework with one of the most widely used inference methods available and apply it on a recently published chimpanzee exome data set.

  • Balaam, M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Hansen, L. K.
    Women’s health at CHI2018Inngår i: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 25, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    De pantheismi ad religionem habitu dissertatio cujus particulam primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. auctor Christophorus Jacobus Boström Bothniensis. In auditorio Gustav. die X Junii MDCCCXXIV. h. p. m. s.1824No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    De religione, moralitatis principio dissertatio, cujus particulam primam consensu ampl. facult. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Andreas Levinius Olbers stip. Med. theol., Vestrog. In auditorio Gustav. die IX Junii MDCCCXXIV. h. p. m. s.1824No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Notionum ethicarum quas formales dicunt dialexis critica cujus particulam secundam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Carolus Jacobus af Nordin Bothniensis. In auditorio Gustav. die IX Junii MDCCCXXIV. h. p. m. s.1824No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Notionum ethicarum quas formales dicunt, dialexis critica cujus particulam primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... p. p. Jon. Bernh. Runsten Bothniensis. In audit. Gustav. die III Maji MDCCCXXIII.1823No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Systematum in jure naturæ potiorum analysis sciagraphica cujus particulam primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Olavus Arrhenius stip. reg. Vermelandus. In audit. Gust. die II Junii MDCCCXXI. h. p. m. s.1821No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dissertatio academica notionem juris, quæ Fichtio originem debet, examinatura cujus particulam primam venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico p. p. Carolus Ol. Delldén stip. Stjerncr., Bothniensis. In audit. Gust. die [11 Junii] MDCCCXXI. h. a. m. s.1821No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    In jus naturæ recentiorum stricturæ quas venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside mag. Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico publice examinandas proponit Otto Reinh. af Schultén stip Terser. Vestmannus. In audit. Gust. die XVI Maji MDCCCXVIII. h. a. m. s.1818No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Commentationum Stoicarum particulam decimam sextam, venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico publice examinandam proponit Carolus Pousette stip. Stiegl. Uplandus in audit. Gustav. die VI Junii MDCCCXXI. h. p. m. s.1821No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Commentationum Stoicarum particulam decimam quintam, venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico publice examinandam proponit Olavus Udalricus Hedblad stip. Ahllöfv. Westmanno-Dalecarlus. In audit. Gust. die XXX Maji MDCCCXXI. h. p. m. s.1821No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Commentationum Stoicarum particulam decimam quartam, venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... pro gradu philosophico publice examinandam proponit Josephus Elliot stip. Nessel. Westmanno-Dalecarlus. In audit. Gust. die XXX Maji MDCCCXXI. h. a. m. s.1821No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Biberg, Nils Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Commentationum Stoicarum particulam decimam tertiam, venia ampl. fac. philos. Upsal. præside Nicol. Freder. Biberg ... publice examinandam proponit Carolus Ol. Delldén stip. Stiegl. Bothniensis. In audit. Gust. die IX Dec. MDCCCXVIII. h. a. m. s.1818No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)