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  • Sayahi, Faez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Betongindustri AB, Stockholm.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Sverige AB, Gothenburg.
    Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete: Influence of Test Methods2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic shrinkage cracking can become problematic especially in concrete elements with high surface to volume ratio such as slabs and pavements. In this paper two test methods commonly used when studying the phenomenon have been evaluated; ring test method (NORDTEST-method NT Build 433) developed in NTNU/SINTEF by Johansen and Dahl in order to study the effect of different materials and constituents on the cracking tendency at macro-level, and ASTM C 1579, mainly designed in order to map the influence of fibres. During this research, influence of coarse aggregate content on plastic shrinkage cracking of self-compacting concrete (SCC) was studied. Preliminary results show same tendencies with the two methods i.e. a lower plastic shrinkage tendency with higher amount of coarse aggregates.

  • Sayahi, Faez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Self-Compacting Concrete2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic shrinkage cracking is a mechanical phenomenon that occurs in the first few hours after casting the concrete in its mould. It is commonly believed that rapid and excessive moisture loss of the fresh concrete, mainly due to evaporation, plays a decisive role in the early age shrinkage. However, it is not always possible to justify all the plastic shrinkage incidents based on water evaporation solely. Instead, it seems that and interconnected correlation between evaporation, capillary pressure and hydration rate may offer better explanation. In this paper effect of water-cement (w/c) ratio on plastic shrinkage cracking of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is investigates. Four recipes with different w/c ratios (0.38, 0.45, 0.55 and 0.67) are tested by using Ring test method (NT BUILD 433). During the experiments evaporation, capillary pressure and internal temperature of the specimens were recorded from 60 minutes after casting up to 18 hours, at which the length and width of the cracks were measured. The results show lower risk of cracking when w/c ratio is between 0.45 to 0.55. However, the specimens with 0.38 and 0.67 w/c ratio experienced higher cracking tendency, especially the latter, in which severe cracking was observed.

  • Hellsten, Sofie V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Eriksson, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The neuronal and astrocytic protein SLC38A10 transports glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate, suggesting a role in neurotransmission2017In: FEBS Open Bio, E-ISSN 2211-5463, Vol. 7, no 6, 730-746 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices. SLC38A10 immunostaining was abundant in mouse brain using a custom-made anti-SLC38A10 antibody and colocalization of SLC38A10 immunoreactivity with markers for neurons and astrocytes was detected. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes overexpressing SLC38A10, we show that SLC38A10 mediates bidirectional transport of L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-glutamate, and D-aspartate, and efflux of L-serine. This profile mostly resembles system A members of the SLC38 family. In conclusion, the bidirectional transport of glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate by SLC38A10, and the immunostaining detected in neurons and astrocytes, suggest that SLC38A10 plays a role in pathways involved in neurotransmission.

  • Durrieu, Lucía
    et al.
    IFIByNE, DFBMC, FCEN, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentine.
    Johansson, Rikard
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bush, Alan
    IFIByNE, DFBMC, FCEN, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentine.
    Janzén, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gollvik, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering.
    Colman-Lerner, Alejandro
    IFIByNE, DFBMC, FCEN, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentine.
    Quantification of nuclear transport in single cells2014In: bioRxiv, 001768Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of nuclear transport is a key cellular function involved in many central processes, such as gene expression regulation and signal transduction. Rates of protein movement between cellular compartments can be measured by FRAP. However, no standard and reliable methods to calculate transport rates exist. Here we introduce a method to extract import and export rates, suitable for noisy single cell data. This method consists of microscope procedures, routines for data processing, an ODE model to fit to the data, and algorithms for parameter optimization and error estimation. Using this method, we successfully measured import and export rates in individual yeast. For YFP, average transport rates were 0.15 sec-1. We estimated confidence intervals for these parameters through likelihood profile analysis. We found large cell-to-cell variation (CV = 0.79) in these rates, suggesting a hitherto unknown source of cellular heterogeneity. Given the passive nature of YFP diffusion, we attribute this variation to large differences among cells in the number or quality of nuclear pores. Owing to its broad applicability and sensitivity, this method will allow deeper mechanistic insight into nuclear transport processes and into the largely unstudied cell-to-cell variation in kinetic rates.

  • Persson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering Department of Structural and Architectual Engineering Division, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Interface stresses in concrete bridge deck overlays subjected to differentialshrinkage2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete overlays on bridge decks are expected to be more durable as compared with the more common asphalt solution. Besides stresses due to traffic load and temperature variations at service, the overlays are exposed to stresses due to long term shrinkage. Of interest is to evaluate the concrete overlay due to the shrinkage induced stresses at the composite interface. Three strategies have been employed to gain knowledge on the stresses; 1) use of non-destructive test systems via field observations, 2) a numerical study on a concrete composite slab tested in laboratory, 3) recordings of realistic shrinkage and climate data on a reference bridge using vibrating strain gauges and humidity probes in the newly cast concrete overlay. The data were used as input data for a linear elastic finite element model. This article demonstrates this last phase of the work.

  • Lundh, Anna Hampson
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Curtin University.
    Användning av tillgängliga medier: En forskningsöversikt2017Report (Other academic)
  • Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagström, Mirjam
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyanlända barn och den svenska mottagningsstrukturen: Röster om hösten 2015 och en kunskapsöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten riktar blicken mot den svenska mottagningen av nyanlända barn (0-18 år) under hösten 2015. Migrationsver­kets statistik visar att av de drygt 160 000 flyktingar som sökte asyl i Sverige 2015 var knappt hälften under 18 år, ca 70 000. Av dessa var i sin tur hälften ensam­kommande barn, drygt 35 000. I jämförelse med året innan fyrdubblades antalet asylsökande ensamkom­mande barn och antal barn som anlände med sina föräldrar eller andra vårdnadshavare fördubblades.

    När barn (0–18 år) söker asyl i Sverige, med eller utan föräldrar, möter de en komplex mottagnings­struktur bestående av verksamheter från alla sektorer i samhället: den offentliga sektorn som återfinns på stat-, landstings- och kommunal nivå; det civila samhället samt den privata sektorn, eftersom delar av det offentliga välfärdssystemet omfattar upphandlade tjänster. En viktig utgångspunkt för rapporten är att mottagningsstrukturen omfattar skilda verksam­hetsområden som skola och utbildning, socialtjänst, asylprövning, hälso- och sjukvård samt civilsamhället. Dessa olika delar i samhället lyder under skilda styr­ningsmekanismer, vilket ställer höga krav på samord­ning och samverkan mellan de olika delarna.

    Till följd av den exceptionella ökningen av asyl­sökande under hösten 2015 ökade trycket på mottag­ningsstrukturen och de problem och utmaningar som uppstod hanterades på skilda sätt med olika framgång. Det finns viktiga lärdomar och viktig erfarenhet att ta tillvara på från den aktuella perioden, som grund för att utveckla och förbättra mottagningen. Det är ambitionen med denna rapport.

    Med avstamp i den exceptionella situationen syftar rapporten till att sätta ljuset på mottagningsstrukturen för nyanlända barn med, särskilt fokus på hösten 2015. Ett övergripande syfte är att identifiera problem och utmaningar som aktualiserats inom och mellan olika verksamhetsområden involverade i mottagningen av nyanlända barn. Vidare belyser rapporten vilka konsekvenser detta får för barnen. Rapporten ställer följande tre frågor: Hur uppfattade myndigheter, välfärdens aktörer och ideella organisationer att mot­tagandet av nyanlända barn hanterades under hösten 2015? Hur ser kunskapsläget ut när det gäller de vill­kor och processer som styr och påverkar mottagandet av nyanlända barn? Vilka slutsatser kan dras ifråga om mottagningsstrukturens kapacitet att förhålla sig till nyanlända barns olika förutsättningar och behov?

    Den första frågan besvaras via en intervjustudie, den andra besvaras genom en kunskapsöversikt. Intervjuerna har genomförts med aktörer involverade i mottagandet, som representerar olika verksam­hetsområden, från fyra olika kommuner. På basis av resultat från intervjuerna och kunskapsöversiktens genomgång av tidigare forskning har en rad utma­ningar identifierats och diskuterats utifrån frågor om vad det innebär och vilka konsekvenserna blir för nyanlända barn utifrån deras olika förutsättningar och behov.

    Ett övergripande resultat från intervjustudien är att tack vare ett stort engagemang och högt ansvars­tagande från aktörernas sida från olika delar av mottagningsstrukturen, har arbetet i det stora hela fungerat bra. Verksamheter och rutiner har anpassats och förändrats utifrån de krav som de större grup­perna av nyanlända barn medförde. Många lyfter också hur viktigt det var att få ett tydligt stöd och klara riktlinjer från ledningshåll för att på ett flexibelt sätt kunna anpassa resurser och insatser. Vidare är det många som värjer sig mot en problemfixering och efterlyser ett förhållningssätt som möjliggör flexibla lösningar som så långt möjligt skapar goda villkor för de nyanlända barnen. Men höstens intensiva situation har också bidragit till att ett antal problemområden och utmaningar har identifierats av de intervjuade, som på olika sätt präglar det svenska mottagandet av nyanlända barn.

    Sju utmaningar

    Rapporten har valt att lyfta och diskutera dessa utmaningar genom att både relatera dem till tidigare forskning (vad vi vet) och att synliggöra behov av forskning (vad vi behöver veta mer om).

    Hantera effekter av väntetider och osäkerhet

    En övergripande och omfattande utmaning är att hantera effekterna av den väntan och osäkerhet som asylprocessen medför för nyanlända barn. De långa väntetiderna i ankomstboende innebär för de ensam­kommande barnen en fördröjning med att få en god man, som vidare påverkade möjligheterna att skapa ett stabilt boende. Vidare har de långa väntetiderna inneburit försenad skolplacering för många barn i skolåldern, också när vistelsekommun fastställts och boende etablerats, eftersom det rådde brist på lärare och lokaler. Generellt sett är nyanlända barn en sårbar grupp, till följd av krig och uppbrott och en instabil tillvaro som flykting. Tidigare forskning har pekat på vikten av skolplacering som en trygghetsfaktor. Likaså är struktur och förutsägbarhet i vardagslivet av vikt för att barnen ska kunna hantera oro och osäkerhet. I intervjuerna framhålls särskilt hur de barn som anlände med höstens flyktinggrupper uppvisade många tecken på mental ohälsa, vilket inte följdes upp då den typ av stöd som krävdes inte fanns tillgängligt. Väntetider präglar alla asylsökande och nyanlända barns liv, men till följd av att så många flyktingar kom hösten 2015 blev väntetiderna extra långa. Vad som ytterligare utmanar situationen med många barn som befinner sig i situationer med osäkra tidsramar och väntetider är förslaget om den tillfälliga lagstiftning som kraftigt begränsar möjligheten att få permanenta uppehållstillstånd. Väntan riskerar att permanentas för nyanlända barn i mottagningsstrukturen, vilket förhindrar långsiktig planering inför framtiden.

    Minimera risk för utanförskap

    En andra utmaning består i att motverka risken för att nyanlända barn jämfört med andra jämnåriga lever i en parallell vardag på grund av en fördröjd och försvårad integrationsprocess. Asylsökande barn i de lägre åldrarna respektive de äldre tonåringarna har inte rätt till förskola respektive gymnasieutbildning i samma utsträckning som andra barn i Sverige, vilket innebär ökad risk för marginalisering. Vidare tenderar nyanlända elever att i stor utsträckning placeras i förberedande undervisning separerade från övriga elever på skolorna, vilket tidigare forskning visar får negativa konsekvenser såväl pedagogiskt som socialt. När ljuset riktas mot mottagningsstrukturen som helhet framträder bilden av en parallell vardag för gruppen nyanlända barn och ungdomar i jämförelse med deras jämnåriga i Sverige. Ju längre tid en sådan parallell vardag fortgår, desto svårare är det att bryta utanförskap, vilket i nästa steg innebär utmaning nummer tre.

    Skapa gränsöverskridande synsätt på integration

    Denna utmaning består i att utveckla integrations­arbetet på ett sätt som motverkar att integration uppfattas som anpassning och istället inbjuder till gränsöverskridande synsätt. Integration som mål är ett begrepp som behöver definieras i relation till sammanhang och verksamhet, inklusive en öppenhet för de nyanlända barnens och ungdomarnas eget perspektiv.

    Motverka att nyanlända barn i familj faller mellan stolarna

    En fjärde utmaning rör mottagandet av nyanlända barn i familj det vill säga de som har sina föräldrar eller släktingar med sig vid ankomsten, som legala vårdnadshavare. I jämförelse med ensamkommande barn framstår barn i familj som en mer utsatt grupp i relation till mottagningsstrukturen. Det finns större risk att de faller mellan stolarna när det gäller insatser som skola och hälsovård. I stora delar blir föräldrar­nas kapacitet att orientera sig och kräva insatser för barnen avgörande. Eftersom många familjer med barn bor i eget boende under asyltiden ökar avståndet mel­lan familjen och de välfärdsinsatser som är tillgängliga för alla barn i Sverige, oavsett migrationsstatus. Det är ett problem som blev särskilt påtagligt under hösten 2015 då många familjer inte heller gavs möjlighet till enskilda mottagningssamtal med handläggare på Migrationsverket, där just information om utbildning och vård förmedlas. Mot den bakgrunden kan man hävda att det finns en mer sammansatt organisation för ensamkommande asylsökande barn i jämförelse med asylsökande barn i familj, vilket blir tydligt när mottagningsstrukturen utsätts för hårdare press. Det finns fastställda samverkansmål och ansvarsfördel­ning på nationell nivå som rör omhändertagandet av ensamkommande barn, vilket återspeglas i det kommunala mottagandet som har pågått sedan 2006 när kommunerna fick en utökat ansvar för asylsö­kande ensamkommande barn och ungdomar. Trots en rad problem i mottagandet av ensamkommande barn, med boenden och gode män, så finns det aktörer som bär ett formellt ansvar för att gruppen får sina rättigheter uppfyllda och som kan ställas till svars när hanteringen brister. När det gäller asylsökande barn i familj läggs ansvaret på barnens föräldrar eller andra vuxna runt familjerna, som måste navigera i ett för många nytt och komplext välfärdssystem. Det går utifrån detta att likna mottagningen av ensamkom­mande asylsökande barn mer vid ett system, där alla delar arbetar mot gemensamma mål, i jämförelse med mottagningen av asylsökande barn i familj.

    Öka samverkan mellan det offentliga och det civila samhället

    Den femte utmaningen har på många håll redan påvisats och rör vikten av ökad samverkan mellan det offentliga och det civila samhället. Höstens erfaren­heter pekar tydligt ut betydelsen av den flexibilitet och rörlighet som karaktäriserar frivilliga insatser för nyanlända barn, vidare den viktiga roll som civila samhället kan komma att spela för ett utvecklat inte­grationsarbete. En viktig fråga att hantera och vidare belysa är de hinder som uppmärksammas i tillträde för nyanlända barn inom framförallt idrottens ordi­narie verksamheter. Detta för att politiska mål om

    delaktighet och mötesplatser inom civilsamhällets organisationer och idrotten ska förverkligas.

    Hantera otydlig ansvarsfördelning

    En sjätte utmaning består i att hantera den situation som uppstår till följd av ett långt drivet beställar-ut­förar-system i kommunerna. De ensamkommande barnen har rätt till skola och god man i vistelsekom­munen, där ett boende är upphandlat av anvisnings­kommunen, vars ansvar för omsorg och boende kvarstår. Ansvarsfördelning kan bli otydlig och barn i svåra situationer kan hamna i kläm.

    Olika aktörer har olika villkor att förhålla sig till

    Den sista utmaningen består i att hantera det faktum att mottagandet utgör en struktur snarare än ett system. Respektive verksamhet har mål som styr deras arbete och som regleras i lagar och förordningar. Det krävs samverkan som på ett tydligt sätt förhåller sig till de skilda villkor som styr respektive verksam­hetsområde med särskilt fokus på ansvarsfördelning. Därför måste den samverkan som krävs på ett tydligt sätt förhålla sig till dels de skilda villkor som styr verksamhetsområdena, dels utveckla former för att formulera en tydlig ansvarsfördelning som grund för samverkan.

    Det krävs samverkan som på ett tydligt sätt förhåller sig till de skilda villkor som styr respektive verksamhetsområde med särskilt fokus på ansvarsför­delning. När en sådan samverkan uppnås finns större möjligheter att tillgodose barns rättigheter.

  • Hösthagen, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. anders.hosthagen@ltu.se.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Thermal Crack Risk Estimations of Concrete Walls: Temperature and Strain Measurements Correlated to the Equivalent Restraint Method2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Self-induced non-elastic deformations in hardening concrete, caused by restrained volume changes due to thermal dilatation and moisture deformations, often leads to cracking. In crack risk analyses, determination of the degree of restraint is vital. One model to estimate the restraint and calculate the thermal crack risk is the Equivalent Restraint Method, ERM. The method has previously been analyzed but needs to be further examined and validated. Recordings of tunnel sections were performed and compared to calculated values by ERM. Satisfying correlation between theoretically estimated and observed temperatures, strains and time of through cracking was achieve which is promising for future implementation and testing of the method.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 10:15 K3, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward the Optimization of Low-temperature Solution-based Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures for Device Applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs) of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) such as nanorods (NRs) have recently attracted considerable research attention due to their potential for the development of optoelectronic devices such as ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The potential of ZnO NRs in all these applications, however, would require synthesis of high crystal quality ZnO NRs with precise control over the optical and electronic properties. It is known that the optical and electronic properties of ZnO NRs are mostly influenced by the presence of native (intrinsic) and impurities (extrinsic) defects. Therefore, understanding the nature of these intrinsic and extrinsic defects and their spatial distribution is critical for optimizing the optical and electronic properties of ZnO NRs. However, identifying the origin of such defects is a complicated matter, especially for NSs, where the information on anisotropy is usually lost due to the lack of coherent orientation.

    Thus, the aim of this thesis is towards the optimization of the lowtemperature solution-based synthesis of ZnO NRs for device applications. In this connection, we first started with investigating the effect of the precursor solution stirring durations on the deep level defects concentration and their spatial distribution along the ZnO NRs. Then, by choosing the optimal stirring time, we studied the influence of ZnO seeding layer precursor’s types, and its molar ratios on the density of interface defects. The findings of these investigations were used to demonstrate ZnO NRs-based heterojunction LEDs. The ability to tune the point defects along the NRs enabled us further to incorporate cobalt (Co) ions into the ZnO NRs crystal lattice, where these ions could occupy the vacancies or interstitial defects through substitutional or interstitial doping. Following this, high crystal quality vertically welloriented ZnO NRs have been demonstrated by incorporating a small amount of Co into the ZnO crystal lattice. Finally, the influence of Co ions incorporation on the reduction of core-defects (CDs) in ZnO NRs was systematically examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  • Jonsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisering och styrning av kommunal VA-verksamhet: En studie av förmågor, brister och förbättringspotential2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten beskriver vilka förmågor och brister som svenska kommuner uppvisar när det gäller att utveckla långsiktiga planer, strategier och proces­ser för sin VA-verksamhet. Den förklarar vilka orsaker som ligger bakom dessa förmågor och brister, och den presentera kommunernas förbättrings­potential på det här området.

    Många kommunala VA-organisationer har brister när det gäller att orga­nisera och styra sin VA-verksamhet så att den långsiktigt kan ge medbor­garna säker dricksvattenförsörjning och avloppsvattenrening som uppfyller miljökraven.

    Den studie som rapporten bygger på har genomförts av Robert Jonsson vid Linköpings universitet, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier (CKS). Reflektioner och slutsatser baseras dels på tidigare studier om kommunernas utmaningar och hur de har försökt lösa dessa genom att hitta alternativ till förvaltningsformen, dels på fallstudier av tre VA-organisationer: Skel­lefteå med traditionell VA-förvaltning, Laxå Vatten AB som är ett kom­munalt bolag, samt NSVA (Nordvästra Skånes Vatten och Avlopp) som är ett kommunalt driftbolag med sex kommuner som delägare (Bjuv, Båstad, Helsingborg, Landskrona, Svalöv och Åstorp). De här tre organisationerna valdes dels därför att de i Svenskt Vattens hållbarhetsindex 2015 visade upp både förmågor och brister, dels därför att de var intresserade av att delta i interaktiv forskning.

    Fallstudierna visar att två interna förhållanden är särskilt viktiga för VA-verksamhetens långsiktiga hållbarhet: aktivt ägarskap samt persona­lens motivation och kompetens. Det aktiva ägarskapet ska se till att VA-verksamheten bedrivs i enlighet med god ekonomisk hushållning. Både den politiska och den administrativa ledningen ska skapa förutsättningar för att VA-verksamheten kan bedrivas på ett långsiktigt hållbart sätt. Utan moti­verad och kunnig driftpersonal samt personal med strategisk kompetens blir detta svårt. Studien visar att den strategiska kompetensen inte alltid har prioriterats, vilket har medfört problem med underhållet av befintliga anläggningstillgångar och med strategisk planering. Fokus har då i stället hamnat på den dagliga driften.

    Studien visar på betydelsen av prioriteringar. När både den politiska och den administrativa ledningen prioriterar underhåll i enlighet med god eko­nomisk hushållning och hållbar samhällsbyggnad skapas förutsättningar för att hitta former för en långsiktigt hållbar organisering och styrning av kom­munal VA-verksamhet. Rapportens budskap är att kommunerna var och en på sitt sätt måste skapa förutsättningar för aktivt ägarskap och för strategisk planering. Utan aktivt ägarskap som ser till att det finns nödvändiga finan­siella och personella resurser och förmåga att planera strategiskt tappas fokus på långsiktigt hållbar VA-verksamhet. Fallstudierna av både Laxå Vatten AB och NSVA visar att kommunalt VA i framtiden blir mer regionalt orienterat och att samarbete mellan kommuner ger förbättrad strategisk kompetens och större möjlighet att genomföra nödvändiga investeringar.

  • Tamil Alagan, Nageswaran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Textured insert for improved heat extraction in combination with high-pressure cooling in turning of superalloys2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat generated in a machining process is a common and critical obstacle faced in today's machining industries. The heat generated in the cutting zone has a direct negative influence on the tool life which, in turn contributes to increase the manufacturing costs. Especially, in machining of Heat Resistant Super Alloys, HRSA this is a very limiting factor. HRSA are capable of retaining their mechanical strength and hardness at elevated temperatures. This property is advantageous in the application in e.g. aero-engines but also a disadvantage, since it also lowers the machinability significantly. This work is an attempt to improve the heat transfer from the cutting zone, which would lead to an increase in the tool life. To achieve this goal, the cutting tool has been modified to create an improved interface between the coolant and tool in the high-temperature areas. Two generations of inserts have been designed and investigated. Firstly, an insert with surface texture features has been created with the purpose of increasing the available surface area for heat dissipation: First generation, Gen I. Secondly, a GenII was designed as a further improvement of Gen I. Here, several channel features on the rake face were added, reaching out from the contact zone to the near proximity of the cutting edge. This with the purpose of improving access of the coolant closer to the cutting edge. The experiments were conducted in facing operations of Alloy 718 with uncoated round carbide inserts. All experiments were carried out with high-pressure coolant assistance, with a pressure of 16 MPa on the rake face and 8 MPa on the flankface, respectively.The two generations of inserts, Gen I and Gen II, were experimentally evaluated by tool wear analysis in comparison with a regular insert. The results shows that the tool life increased significantly for the Gen I insert, compared to a catastrophic failure of the regular insert at the same conditions. Regarding the Gen II insert,an increase in tool life by approximately 30 to 40 percent compared to Gen I insert was observed.

  • Jamalpour, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Li, Xiujuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Cavelier, Lucia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Mostoslavsky, Gustavo
    Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Boston University..
    Höglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Welsh, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Tumor SHB gene expression affects disease characteristics in human acute myeloid leukemia2017In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 39, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The mouse Shb gene coding for the Src Homology 2-domain containing adapter protein B has recently been placed in context of BCRABL1-induced myeloid leukemia in mice and the current study was performed in order to relate SHB to human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: Publicly available AML databases were mined for SHB gene expression and patient survival. SHB gene expression was determined in the Uppsala cohort of AML patients by qPCR. Cell proliferation was determined after SHB gene knockdown in leukemic cell lines. Results: Despite a low frequency of SHB gene mutations, many tumors overexpressed SHB mRNA compared with normal myeloid blood cells. AML patients with tumors expressing low SHB mRNA displayed longer survival times. A subgroup of AML exhibiting a favorable prognosis, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a PMLRARA translocation, expressed less SHB mRNA than AML tumors in general. When examining genes co-expressed with SHB in AML tumors, four other genes (PAX5, HDAC7, BCORL1, TET1) related to leukemia were identified. A network consisting of these genes plus SHB was identified that relates to certain phenotypic characteristics, such as immune cell, vascular and apoptotic features. SHB knockdown in the APL PMLRARA cell line NB4 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line MM6 adversely affected proliferation, linking SHB gene expression to tumor cell expansion and consequently to patient survival. Conclusions: It is concluded that tumor SHB gene expression relates to AML survival and its subgroup APL. Moreover, this gene is included in a network of genes that plays a role for an AML phenotype exhibiting certain immune cell, vascular and apoptotic characteristics.

  • Danielsson, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Att skapa multimodala texter: Del 7 i läslyftsmodulen Från vardagsspråk till ämnesspråk, årskurs F-92017Other (Other academic)
  • Utdanning, arbeid og integrering i Norden: – Kartlegging av godkjenningsordninger for utenlandske utdanninger, yrkeskvalifikasjoner og kompletterende utdanninger. Delrapport 12017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Forskning viser at inkludering i utdanning og arbeidsliv er en av de beste måtene å integrere innvandrere i samfunnet på. Effektive godkjenningsordninger for søkere med utenlandsk utdanning og yrkeskvalifikasjoner er et viktig tiltak i denne sammenheng, både for personer som ønsker å studere eller arbeide i et annet land, samt for arbeidsgivere og næringsliv som etterspør kvalifisert arbeidskraft. Den globale flyktningkrisen har aktualisert behovet for slike godkjenningsordninger.

    Denne rapporten kartlegger de overordnede trekkene i de nordiske landenes system for henholdsvis godkjenning av utenlandsk utdanning, godkjenning av utenlandske yrkeskvalifikasjoner for lovregulerte yrker, samt system for kompletterende utdanning (delrapport 1), og analyserer og gir råd om nordisk samarbeid på området (delrapport 2).

    Kartleggingen er gjennomført av Rambøll Management Consulting på oppdrag av Nordisk ministerråd og det norske formannskapet i Ministerrådet for utdanning og forskning (MR-U) i 2017.

  • Utdanning, arbeid og integrering i Norden: – Kartlegging av godkjenningsordninger for utenlandske utdanninger, yrkeskvalifikasjoner og kompletterende utdanninger. Delrapport 22017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Forskning viser at inkludering i utdanning og arbeidsliv er en av de beste måtene å integrere innvandrere i samfunnet på. Effektive godkjenningsordninger for søkere med utenlandsk utdanning og yrkeskvalifikasjoner er et viktig tiltak i denne sammenheng, både for personer som ønsker å studere eller arbeide i et annet land, samt for arbeidsgivere og næringsliv som etterspør kvalifisert arbeidskraft. Den globale flyktningkrisen har aktualisert behovet for slike godkjenningsordninger.

    Denne rapporten kartlegger de overordnede trekkene i de nordiske landenes system for henholdsvis godkjenning av utenlandsk utdanning, godkjenning av utenlandske yrkeskvalifikasjoner for lovregulerte yrker, samt system for kompletterende utdanning (delrapport 1), og analyserer og gir råd om nordisk samarbeid på området (delrapport 2).

    Kartleggingen er gjennomført av Rambøll Management Consulting på oppdrag av Nordisk ministerråd og det norske formannskapet i Ministerrådet for utdanning og forskning (MR-U) i 2017.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 13:00 N420, Umeå
    Fodor, Szabolcs
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Towards semi-automation of forestry cranes: automated trajectory planning and active vibration damping2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests represent one of the biggest terrestrial ecosystems of Earth, that can produce important raw renewable materials such as wood with the help of sun, air and water. To efficiently extract these raw materials, the tree harvesting process is highly mechanized in developed countries, meaning that advanced forestry machines are continuously used to fell, to process and to transport the logs and biomass obtained from the forests. However, working with these machines is demanding both mentally and physically, which are known factors to negatively affect operator productivity. Mental fatigue is mostly due to the manual operation of the on-board knuckleboom crane, which requires advanced cognitive work with two joystick levers, while the most serious physical strains arise from cabin vibrations. These vibrations are generated from knuckleboom crane vibrations as a result of aggressive manual operation.

    To enhance operator workload, well-being, and to increase productivity of the logging process, semi-automation functions are suggested, which are supervised automatic executions of specific work elements. Some of the related issues are addressed in the current thesis. Therefore, the content is divided into: (1) the design and development of a semi-automation function focused only on the base joint actuator (slewing actuator) of a knuckleboom crane, and (2) active vibration damping solutions to treat crane structure vibrations induced by the main lift cylinder (inner boom actuator). The considered reference machine is a downsized knuckleboom crane of a forwarder machine, which is used to pick up log assortments from a harvesting site.

    The proposed semi-automation function presented in the first part could be beneficial for operators to use during log loading/unloading scenarios. It consists from a closed-loop position control architecture, to which smooth reference slewing trajectories are provided by a trajectory planner that is automated via operator commands. The used trajectory generation algorithms are taken from conventional robotics and adapted to semi-automation context with proposed modifications that can be customizable by operators.

    Further, the proposed active vibration damping solutions are aimed to reduce vibrations of the knuckleboom crane excited by the inner boom actuator due to aggressive manual commands. First, a popular input shaping control technique combined with a practical switching logic was investigated to deal with the excited payload oscillations. This technique proved to be useful with a fixed crane pose, however it did not provide much robustness in terms of different link configurations. To tackle this problem an H2-optimal controller is developed, which is active in the pressure feedback-loop and its solely purpose is to damp the same payload oscillations. During the design process, operator commands are treated and explained from input disturbance viewpoint.

    All of the hypothesis throughout this thesis were verified with extensive experimental studies using the reference machine.

  • Danielsson, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Att möta och tolka multimodala texter: Del 6 i läslyftsmodulen Från vardagsspråk till ämnesspråk, årskurs F-92017Other (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 13:00 Hörsal B, 9 tr, Umeå
    Doohan, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Surviving a major bus crash: experiences from the crash and five years after2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Major road traffic crashes (RTCs) can have a significant impact on the survivors, their family, and their friends, as well as on emergency personnel, volunteers, and others involved. However, survivors’ perspectives are rare or missing in research on major RTCs in Sweden. A comprehensive understanding of the survivors and their experiences is also lacking. By studying what it is like to survive a major RTC, the care and support provided to survivors can be adapted and improved.

    The overall aim is to broaden the understanding of the short- and long-term consequences and experiences of surviving a major bus crash.

    Methods The contexts are two bus crashes that occurred in Sweden, in February 2007 and December 2014. In total, the participants are 110 out of the 112 survivors, and the data is collected through telephone interviews, official reports, and medical records at one month, three months, and five years after the crashes. Analysis methods include qualitative content analysis, descriptive statistics, thematic analysis, and mixed methods research analysis.

    Results One month after the crash, most of the survivors were experiencing minor or major physical and/or psychological stress in their everyday lives (Study I). Four main findings were identified regarding their experiences of immediate care (Study II): prehospital discomfort, lack of compassionate care, dissatisfaction with crisis support, and satisfactory initial care and support. The importance of compassion and being close to others was also highlighted. Five years after the bus crash in Rasbo (Study III), survivors were still struggling with physical injuries and mental problems. Other long-term consequences were a lasting sense of connectedness among fellow passengers, a gratitude for life, as well as feelings of distress in traffic, especially in regard to buses. The main findings from study IV indicated that injury severity did not seem to affect mental health, and that social aspects were important to the recovery process. There was an interconnection among survivors in which they seemed to be linked to each other’s recovery.

    Conclusion A strong need for short- and long-term social and psychological support in terms of compassion and community is evident in all the studies. The survivors ought to be acknowledged as capable and having the resources to contribute to their own and their fellow survivors’ recovery and health. There is a need for greater understanding of how different the survivors are, with each one of them having various physical, psychological, social, and existential needs. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 10:00 KB.E3.03 (Stora hörsalen, Carl Kempe-salen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Näsström, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Diagnosis of acute and chronic enteric fever using metabolomics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enteric (or typhoid) fever is a systemic infection mainly caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A. The disease is common in areas with poor water quality and insufficient sanitation. Humans are the only reservoir for transmission of the disease. The presence of asymptomatic chronic carriers is a complicating factor for the transmission. There are major limitations regarding the current diagnostic methods both for acute infection and chronic carriage. Metabolomics is a methodology studying metabolites in biological systems under influence of environmental or physiological perturbations. It has been applied to study several infectious diseases, with the goal of detecting diagnostic biomarkers. In this thesis, a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, including chemometric bioinformatics techniques for data analysis, has been used to evaluate the potential of metabolite biomarker patterns for diagnosis of enteric fever at different stages of the disease.

    In Paper I, metabolite patterns related to acute enteric fever were investigated. Human plasma samples from patients in Nepal with culture-confirmed S. Typhi or S. Paratyphi A infection were compared to afebrile controls. A metabolite pattern discriminating between acute enteric fever and afebrile controls, as well as between the two causative agents of enteric fever was detected. The strength of using a panel of metabolites instead of single metabolites as biomarkers was also highlighted. In Paper II, metabolite patterns for acute enteric fever, this time focusing only on S. Typhi infections, were investigated. Human plasma from patients in Bangladesh with culture-positive or -negative but clinically suspected S. Typhi infection were compared to febrile controls. Differences were found in metabolite patterns between the culture-positive S. Typhi group and the febrile controls with a heterogeneity among the suspected S. Typhi samples. Consistencies in metabolite patterns were found to the results from Paper I. In addition, a validation cohort with culture-positive S. Typhi samples and a control group including patients with malaria and infections caused by other pathogens was analysed. Differences in metabolite patterns were detected between S. Typhi samples and all controls as well as between S. Typhi and malaria. Consistencies in metabolite patterns were found to the primary Bangladeshi cohort and the Nepali cohort from Paper I. Paper III focused on chronic Salmonella carriers. Human plasma samples from patients in Nepal undergoing cholecystectomy with confirmed S. Typhi or S. Paratyphi A gallbladder carriage were compared to non-carriage controls. The Salmonella carriage samples were distinguished from the non-carriage controls and differential signatures were also found between the S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A carriage samples. Comparing metabolites found during chronic carriage and acute enteric fever (in Paper I) resulted in a panel of metabolites significant only during chronic carriage. This work has contributed to highlight the potential of using metabolomics as a tool to find diagnostic biomarker patterns associated with different stages of enteric fever.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Forced repatriation of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children: towards an interagency model2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Not all children seeking asylum without parents or other relatives are entitled to residence permits. In the last few years, more than one in four unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children have been forced to repatriate, either to their home country or to a transit country. Mostly the children refuse to leave the country voluntarily, and it becomes a forced repatriation. Five actors collaborate in the Swedish child forced repatriation process: social workers, staff at care homes, police officers, Swedish Migration Board officers and legal guardians. When a child is forced to repatriate, the Swedish workers involved must consider two different demands. The first demand requires dignified repatriation, which is incorporated from the European Union’s (EU’s) Return Directive into Swedish Aliens Act. The second demand requires that the repatriation process be conducted efficiently, which means that a higher number of repatriation cases must be processed. The fact that the same professionals have different and seemingly contradictory requirements places high demands on the involved collaborators. Two professionals have a legal responsibility for the children until the last minute before they leave Sweden: social workers and police officers. That makes them key actors in forced repatriation, as they carry most of the responsibility in the process. Further, they often work with children who are afraid what will happen when they return to their home country and often express their fear through powerful emotions. Being responsible and obliged to carry out the government’s decision, despite forcing children to leave a safe country, may evoke negative emotional and mental stress for the professionals involved in forced repatriation.

    Aim The overall aim of this study is to explore and analyse forced repatriation workers’ collaboration and perceived mental health, with special focus on social workers and police officers in the Swedish context.

    Materials and methods The study combines a qualitative and quantitative research design in order to shed light at both a deep and general level on forced repatriation. In qualitative substudy I, a qualitative case study methodology was used in one municipality in a middle-sized city in Sweden. The municipality had a contract regarding the reception of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children iv with the Swedish Migration Board. The municipality in focus has a population of more than 100,000 inhabitants. The city in which the data were collected has developed a refugee reception system where unaccompanied asylumseeking refugee children are resettled and await a final decision regarding their permit applications. This situation made it possible to recruit participants who had worked with unaccompanied refugee children without a permit. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 20 social workers, staff at care homes, police officers, Swedish Migration Board officers and legal guardians. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. In quantitative substudies II, III and IV, a national survey of social workers (n = 380) and police officers (n = 714), with and without experience of forced repatriation, was conducted. The questionnaires included sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control Questionnaire, Interview Schedule for Social Interaction, Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the 12- item General Mental Health Questionnaire. Factor analysis, correlational analysis, and univariate and multivariable regression models were used to analyse the data.

    Results The qualitative results in substudy I showed low levels of collaboration among the actors (social workers, staff at care homes, police officers, Swedish Migration Board officers and legal guardians) and the use of different strategies to manage their work tasks. Some of them used a teamwork pattern, showing an understanding of the different roles in forced repatriation, and were willing to compromise for the sake of collaboration. Others tended to isolate themselves from interaction and acted on the basis of personal preference, and some tended to behave sensitively, withdraw and become passive observers rather than active partners in the forced repatriation. The quantitative results in substudy II showed that poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude and marital status were predictors among police officers. Substudy III showed that both social workers and police officers reported relatively high access to social support. Furthermore, police officers working in forced repatriation with low levels of satisfaction with social interaction and close emotional support increased the odds of psychological disturbances. In substudy IV, social workers used more escape avoidance, distancing and positive-reappraisal coping, whereas police officers used more planful problem solving and self-controlling coping. Additionally, social workers with experience in forced repatriation used more planful problem solving than those without experience.

    Conclusions In order to create the most dignified forced repatriation, based on human dignity, for unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children and with healthy actors, a forced repatriation system needs: overall statutory national guidance, interagency collaboration, actors working within a teamworking pattern, forced repatriation workers with reasonable job demands and decision latitude, with a high level of social support and adaptive coping strategies. The point of departure for an interagency model is that it is impossible to change the circumstances of the asylum process, but it is possible to make the system more functional and better adapted to both the children’s needs and those of the professionals who are set to handle the children. A centre for unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children, consisting of all actors involved in the children’s asylum process sitting under the same roof, at the governmental level (Swedish Migration Board, the police authority) and municipality level (social services, board of legal guardians), can meet all requirements.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 10:00 Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Österlind, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Strävan efter samhällsförbättring: idrottspolitiska problematiseringar och lösningsstrategier för formandet av den nyttiga idrotten och den idrottande individen2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport and sport participation is generally believed to positively contribute to society and individuals and have become important to welfare policy in the westernised world. Simultaneously, there has been an increased political and academic interest in turning sport policy, sport and sport participation into a relevant object of study and evaluation. The overall aim of this dissertation is to develop knowledge on contemporary sport policy and evaluation in relation to ideas about the social significance of sport and sport participation. The purpose is to critically examine how sport policy evaluations, their problematisations and solution proposals help to shape particular images of the good society, good sports and the ideal sport participant. Three research questions are posed: (1) Through what ways of thinking, speaking and knowing are societal and sport policy problems, goals and ideals defined? (2) Through what techniques, methods and strategies are solutions proposed to solve the problems and achieve desired goals and ideals? (3) How are different types of individual and collective (non-)soughtafter subjectivities anticipated and shaped? Drawing on the concept of governmentality, the study focuses on the governing of sport's and the sport participant's conduct, the political problematisations and rationalities regarding this conduct, and the strategies proposed to enhance this conduct. The governmental role of evaluation, knowledge production and scientific expertise is given specific attention. The gradual shifts in governmental rationalities and technologies, from a social form of governing to an advanced liberal form of governing, in the Swedish welfare state provide an overall framework of the study. Two kinds of empirical materials are analysed. First, final reports of sport political government Commissions of inquiries, published in the Swedish Government Official Reports (SOU) from 1922-2008, are analysed. Second, reports of sport political evaluations, published by the Swedish Research Council for Sport Science (CIF) from 2011-2015, are analysed. The analysis reported on in article 1 shows that citizens' 'good' and 'healthy' behaviour and bodies are a focus of problematisation throughout the studied period. In relation to this, sport is seen as an important tool and solution. Parallel to the increased critique of sport in contemporary times, a neo-liberal governmentality is embraced which in turn affects how 'problems' and 'solutions' are thought of in individualistic and rational ways. The analysis reported on in article 2 shows that the 2008 government Commission adopted two main 'problematics'. The democratic problematic concerned a commitment to issues of democracy and equality of opportunities and specified a particular problem of sport; sport excludes rather than includes. The health problematic concerned a commitment to issues of public health and physical activity and focused on a particular problem of the population: people are physically inactive and unhealthy. The argument being proposed in article 2 is that these two problematics construct the ‘problem’ of sport and the sport (non)participant in specific ways, drawing on particular forms of knowledge and discourse, with certain implications for the judgements made and the solutions proposed by the Commission. The analysis reported on in article 3 demonstrates three strategies of evaluation and governing: strategies of representation; deliberation; and reflexivity. The argument being proposed in article 3 is that these three strategies draw on different yet overlapping forms and methods of knowledge about sport participation and thereby also produce different (non-)sport participant subject positions. The analysis reported on in article 4 offers an alternative theoretical conceptualisation, based on governmentality, of the Swedish sports model and shows how sport policy, governing and power can be seen in the light of shifting forms of governmental rationality (i.e. governing from a social point of view to an advanced liberal way of governing). In conclusion, the analyses provided in the thesis as a whole suggest that processes of societal and political improvement in contemporary political governing of sport and sport participation, involves particular images of the good society, good sports and the ideal sport participant.

  • Kronholm, Tryggve
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 41-42 (1992-1993)1993Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-10-26 10:15 Agardhsalen, 11D 257, Karlstad
    Netz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    First things first - think before you decide: The how, what and who of idea screening2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates decision-making activities leading to the initial selection of which new ideas should be selected for further development or rejected. This process, often referred to as idea screening, is described as being one of the most important, but also challenging, tasks to master during the entire innovation process. There are two main reasons for this: Firstly, not all ideas are good and secondly no firm has the resources to develop every single idea proposed to it. Thus, it is important to be careful when initially deciding which ideas are to be selected and developed into future possible innovations in order to eliminate weak ideas and retain those that have a substantial chance of becoming successful. 

    Two alternative decision-making approaches are explored in the thesis (the intuitive and rational approaches). In the thesis, the concept of intuition during the screening of product and service ideas is demystified. The empirical findings show that decision-makers utilize five main underlying criteria when intuitively assessing ideas. Of these, the findings indicate user-value to be the most important one, or at least the criterion that most assessors emphasize when making intuitive decisions. The findings presented in the thesis increase our understanding of the use of rational and holistic intuitive decision-making when screening ideas during the Front End Innovation phase, as well as questioning the traditional view of intuition, as a decision-making tool that is only reliable if applied by those with a vast amount of experience and expertise. The reported findings indicate that, for example, users with an understanding of the idea context are able to intuitively identify the ideas that decision-making experts identify as the top (best) ones. Hence, managers faced with a situation where they are being inundated with new ideas can turn to non-experts for help.

  • Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlberg, Catarina
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Pierre
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Improved system design of an emergency department through simulation-based multiobjective-optimization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare facilities, and especially emergency departments (ED), are usually characterized by its complexity due to the variability and stochastic nature of the processes involved in the system. The combination of different flows of patients, staff and resources also increments the complexity of this kind of facilities. In order to increase its efficiency, many researchers have proposed discrete-event simulation (DES) as a powerful improvement tool. However, DES can be a limited approach in the case a simulation model has too many combinations of input parameters, complex correlations between the input and output parameters and different objective functions. Hence, to find the best configuration of a complex system, an approach combining DES and meta-heuristic optimization becomes an even more powerful improvement technique. Simulation-based multiobjective-optimization (SMO) is a promising approach to generate multiple trade-off solutions particularly when multiple conflicting objectives exist within a complex system. The generated solutions provide decision makers with feasible and optimal alternatives to improve, modify or design healthcare systems. The aim of this paper is to present the work done at the ED of the regional Hospital of Skövde in Sweden, where SMO implemented in modeFromtier has been successfully applied. The result and methodology present a successful approach for decision makers in healthcare systems to reduce the waiting time of patients saving considerable time, money and resources.

  • Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Internet of Things, Factory of Things and Industry 4.0 in Manufacturing: Current and Future Implementations2017In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5–7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK / [ed] James Gao, Mohammed El Souri, Simeon Keates, IOS Press, 2017, 221-226 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the currently rapidly changing industrialized world, globalization,product customization and automation are playing an imposing role in thedevelopment of the manufacturing sector. Nowadays, the innovative concepts ofThe Internet of Things, Factory of Things and Industry 4.0 are aimed torevolutionize the way technology can help improve production around the world.While in some international corporations these concepts are being deeply studiedand are starting to be implemented, also in middle-size and large manufacturers itis clear they could contribute with many advantages; however, skepticism anduncertainty are still present among managers and stakeholders. In this paper, thecurrent and coming state-of-the-art technology and implementation of the Factoryof Things paradigm are presented and examples of the current implementation inglobal manufacturing companies are analyzed. Additionally, this article willdiscuss the potential implementation of this Industry 4.0 in a large manufacturer,and how it can help increase the control and efficiency of production, materialflows, internal logistics and production planning.

  • van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Pär
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lindqvister, Towe
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Olson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure reslience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017In: Proceedings May 21-24, 2017 ISCRAM 2017: Agility is comming Mines Albi. / [ed] Tina Comes, Frederick Benaben, Chihab Hamachi, Matthieu Lauras and Auriel Montarna, Albi: ISCRAM SOCIETY , 2017, Vol. 14, 281-292 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. A deeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quickly understand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigating actions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascading effects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, government institutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts reveal seven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1) Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are more vulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5) Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for critical infrastructures across many actors. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Zhao, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Mobile Antenna Systems for 4G and 5G Applications with User Body Interaction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis, the user body effect on antennas in a mobile terminal is discussed. In order to overcome the degradation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) performance due to the user body effect, a quad-elements MIMO antenna array which can mitigate the body effect through an adaptive antenna switching method is introduced for 4G mobile terminals. In addition, various bezel MIMO antennas that are robust to the impedance mismatching caused by the user effect have also been presented.

    The study of user body effect is later extended to frequency bands at 15 GHz and 28 GHz for future 5G communication systems. The results reveal that a human body will cause a significant shadowing loss, which will be a critical loss in 5G cellular networks.

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of a mobile terminal is also studied in this thesis. Below 6 GHz, the simultaneous transmission specific absorption rate (SAR) for MIMO antennas is the primary concern due to its complicated assessment procedures. Above 6 GHz, the free space power density is adopted as the basic parameter of exposure limits globally, and preliminary studies have been presented to address major challenges in EMF exposure assessment for 5G mobile terminals. 

  • Prytz, Erik
    et al.
    Old Dominion University, USA.
    Scerbo, Mark
    Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, USA.
    Rebecca, Kennedy
    Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, USA.
    Spatial Judgments from Different Vantage Points: A Different Perspective2011In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2011, Vol. 55, 1274-1278 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Todorovic (2008) reported that there are systematic errors in the perception of 3-D space when viewing 2-D linear perspective drawings depending on the observer’s vantage point. Because Todorovic’s findings were restricted to the horizontal plane, the current study was designed to determine whether the magnitude of these errors would be similar in the vertical plane. Participants viewed a 2D image containing rows of columns aligned on parallel converging lines receding to a vanishing point. They were asked to judge where in the physical room the next column should be placed. The results support Todorovic (2008) in that systematic deviations in the spatial judgments depended on vantage point for both the horizontal and vertical planes. However, the pattern of deviation differed between the two planes. While judgments in both planes failed to compensate adequately for the vantage point shift, the vertical plane induced greater distortions of the stimulus image itself within each vantage point.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-26 09:45 Q2, Stockholm
    Malmström, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Efficient Methods to Calculate Mutual Coupling between Generic Antennas on Large Platforms2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents research on methods for calculating the mutual coupling between antennas. The mutual coupling between antennas is a measure of the amount of energy transmitted from one antenna that is received by another, and is a key parameter when installing antennas on platforms, such as aircraft. To avoid interference between systems connected to the antennas, the mutual coupling should be as low as possible. The risk for interference can be minimized in several ways; by designing the systems to be resistant to interference or to install the antennas in a way that makes the coupling between antennas low. This thesis focuses on the latter.

    Electromagnetic problems, such as finding the mutual coupling between antennas, can be calculated in simulations using commercial software. On large platforms, simulations become very computationally intensive. This thesis examines ways to efficiently calculate the mutual coupling between antennas on large platforms. The intention has been to develop methods that can be used in practical situations.

    One possible way to increase efficiency is to use appropriate approximations that simplify calculations. Two approximations have been evaluated; approximate wave propagation model and equivalent representations of antennas. Both of these approximations have the potential to reduced computation times, but suffer from the fact that the size of the errors introduced is not predictable. This contributes to an uncertainty in estimating the coupling between antennas that make them less interesting to use in applications. The reaction theorem, that describes the coupling as an interaction of electromagnetic fields, has been very useful in this work. Two novel formulations of the theorem have been derived that decompose fields into scattered components. It is shown that some of the components do not affect the reaction. The reaction theorem and the derived formulations have been used in two applications. The first application shows practical possibilities to calculate mutual impedance between two antennas installed on a common platform. It is also shown how the reaction theorem can be used to visualize coupling paths, which show how the coupling between the antennas is spatially distributed.

    The second application of the reaction theorem suggests an effective method for antenna placement on platforms that minimize the mutual impedance between antennas. The method enables field data to be reused, which significantly reduces the calculation time. Both suggested applications post-process electromagnetic field data. The field data can be determined with commercial software.

    The main results in this thesis are described in five articles and conference contributions that are or will be published in international scientific journals or at international conferences.

  • Nygren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching and learning the mindset of the digital historian and more: Scaffolding students’ critical skills in the digital humanities2017In: DHN 2017: Digital humaniora i Norden/ Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Jacobsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Larsson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winso, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Leptin independently predicts development of sepsis and its outcome2017In: Journal of Inflammation, ISSN 1476-9255, E-ISSN 1476-9255, Vol. 14, 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and obesity is related to the clinical outcome. The underlying reasons are incompletely understood, but the adipocyte derived hormones leptin and adiponectin may be involved.

    Methods: Patients aged 18 years or more with documented first time sepsis events were included in a nested case-referent study if they had participated in previous health surveys. Two matched referents free of known sepsis were identified. Circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were determined in stored plasma, and their impact on a future sepsis event and its outcome was evaluated.

    Results: We identified 152 patients (62% women) with a sepsis event and a previous participation in a health survey. Eighty-three % had also blood samples from the acute event. Hyperleptinemia at health survey associated with a future sepsis event (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04-3.00) and with hospital death. After adjustment for BMI leptin remained associated with sepsis in men, but not in women. High levels in the acute phase associated with increased risk for in hospital death in women (OR 4.18, 95% CI 1.17-15.00), while being protective in men (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.48). Furthermore, leptin increased more from baseline to the acute phase in men than in women. Adiponectin did not predict sepsis and did not relate to outcome.

    Conclusions: Hyperleptinemia independently predicted the development of sepsis and an unfavourable outcome in men, and inertia in the acute response related to worse outcome.

  • Fromell, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Yang, Yi
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Berglin, Mattias
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;RISE Res Inst Sweden Chem Mat & Surfaces, S-50115 Boras, Sweden..
    Elwing, Hans
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Absence of conformational change in complement factor 3 and factor XII adsorbed to acrylate polymers is related to a high degree of polymer backbone flexibility2017In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 12, no 2, 02D417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous investigations, the authors have examined the adsorption of albumin, immunoglobulin, and fibrinogen to a series of acrylate polymers with different backbone and side-group flexibility. The authors showed that protein adsorption to acrylates with high flexibility, such as poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA), tends to preserve native conformation. In the present study, the authors have continued this work by examining the conformational changes that occur during the binding of complement factor 3 (C3) and coagulation factor XII (FXII). Native C3 adsorbed readily to all solid surfaces tested, including a series of acrylate surfaces of varying backbone flexibility. However, a monoclonal antibody recognizing a "hidden" epitope of C3 (only exposed during C3 activation or denaturation) bound to the C3 on the rigid acrylate surfaces or on polystyrene (also rigid), but not to C3 on the flexible PLMA, indicating that varying degrees of conformational change had occurred with binding to different surfaces. Similarly, FXII was activated only on the rigid poly(butyl methacrylate) surface, as assessed by the formation of FXIIa-antithrombin (AT) complexes; in contrast, it remained in its native form on the flexible PLMA surface. The authors also found that water wettability hysteresis, defined as the difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, was highest for the PLMA surface, indicating that a dynamic change in the interface polymer structure may help protect the adsorbed protein from conformational changes and denaturation.

  • Nerudová, Danuše
    et al.
    Mendel University in Brno.
    Schratzenstaller, Margit
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Solilová, Veronika
    Mendel University in Brno.
    The Financial Transactions Tax as Tax-based Own Resource for the EU Budget2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Key Findings

    • A broad-based financial transactions tax presents itself as a suitable instrument to simultaneously raise revenues and curb highly speculative and potentially destabilising short-term financial transactions.
    • The introduction of an FTT within Enhanced Cooperation in the EU may serve as a pilot, representing the first step towards an EU-wide implementation.
    • Under a Brexit scenario, an FTT introduced by a “Coalition of the Willing” including 10 EU Member States could yield € 4 to € 33 billion.
    • The FTT is an interesting option for tax-based own resources partially substituting current own resources to finance the EU budget, allowing Member States to cut their national contributions to the EU budget and thus creating budgetary space to cut national taxes more harmful for growth and employment (in particular the high taxes on labour).
  • Surowiec, Izabella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Orikiiriza, Judy
    Lindquist, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Magambo, Jimmy
    Muhinda, Charles
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The oxylipin and endocannabidome responses in acute phase Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children2017In: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 16, 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism.

    Methods: Detection of oxylipins and endocannabinoids from plasma samples from forty children with uncomplicated and severe malaria as well as twenty controls was done after solid phase extraction followed by chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The stable isotope dilution method was used for compound quantification. Data analysis was done with multivariate (principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA (R)) and univariate approaches (receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, t tests, correlation analysis).

    Results: Forty different oxylipin and thirteen endocannabinoid metabolites were detected in the studied samples, with one oxylipin (thromboxane B2, TXB2) in significantly lower levels and four endocannabinoids (OEA, PEA, DEA and EPEA) at significantly higher levels in infected individuals as compared to controls according to t test analysis with Bonferroni correction. Three oxylipins (13-HODE, 9-HODE and 13-oxo-ODE) were higher in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria cases according to the results from multivariate analysis. Observed changes in oxylipin levels can be connected to activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolic pathways in malaria infected individuals compared to controls, and related to increased levels of all linoleic acid oxylipins in severe patients compared to uncomplicated ones. The endocannabinoids were extremely responsive to malaria infection with majority of this class of molecules found at higher levels in infected individuals compared to controls.

    Conclusions: It was possible to detect oxylipin and endocannabinoid molecules that can be potential biomarkers for differentiation between malaria infected individuals and controls and between different classes of malaria. Metabolic pathways that could be targeted towards an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of malaria were also pinpointed.

  • Flodström, Eje
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjödin, Åke
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Uppdatering av utsläpp till luft från arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap för Sveriges internationella rapportering2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges rapportering av utsläpp till luft till Klimatkonventionen (UNFCCC) samt till Konventionen om gränsöverskridande luftföroreningar (CLRTAP) har under de ca fem senaste åren i fallet arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap till stora delar vilat på en genomgripande "bottom-up" inventering utförd av IVL under 1999 avseende 1997 års utsläpp. Till viss del är därmed svenska officiella utsläppsdata för denna sektor föråldrade. Föreliggande projekts syfte har varit att, med utgångspunkt från den förra inventeringen från 1999, göra en uppdatering av de nationella utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap, där hänsyn tas till bl a:

    • förändringar i bestånd och andra aktivitetsrelaterade data (t ex driftstider) sedan den förra inventeringen, reella sådana eller genom att ny kunskap på området tagits fram

    • införandet av avgaskrav inom EU på dieselmotorer i arbetsfordon stegvis från 1999

    • ny kunskap om emissionsfaktorer för arbetsfordon och arbetsredskap

    Baserat på den förra inventeringen från 1999 har inom föreliggande projekt nya "bottom-up"-beräkningar av de nationella utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsmaskiner utförts för åren 1998 och 2002. Utifrån dessa har sedan de årsvisa utsläppen från arbetsfordon och arbetsmaskiner för hela perioden 1990-2002 räknats om för samtliga de ämnen som idag redovisas avseende utsläpp relaterade till diesel- och bensinanvändning inom den mobila sektorn i Sveriges internationella rapportering (CO2 inkl bränsleförbrukning CH4, N2O, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, NH3,samt partiklarform av TSP, PM10och PM2.5). För de nya "bottom up"-beräkningarna har för aktuella uppgifter på bestånd av arbetsfordon uppdelade på näringsgren i hög grad utnyttjats statistik tillgänglig via trafikregistret kombinerat med företagsregistret. För uppgifter om fordonsbestånd och aktivitetsdata avseende arbetsredskap (gräsklippare och trimmers) har för första gången utnyttjats SCB's OMNIBUS-undersökning - som riktas mot svenska hushåll - med gott resultat.

    Jämfört med inventeringen från 1999 har i den nya inventeringen utsläppen av CO2 minskat marginellt (ca 3%), utsläppen av NOx, CH4 och N2O minskat i betydande omfattning, främst till följd av ändrad (förbättrad) beräkningsmetodik, medan utsläppen av NMVOC och partiklar ökat till följd av nya emissionsfaktorer.

    Kunskapen om - såväl som modeller och verktyg för beräkningar av - utsläppen från arbetsmaskiner och arbetsredskap är jämförelsevis fortfarande begränsad, och osäkerheterna i de beräknade utsläppen får bedömas som relativt stora. Det föreligger ett stort behov av förbättrad statistik avseende bestånd och aktivitetsdata, men också ett forskningsbehov, för att kunna uppnå bättre precision i nationella utsläppsberäkningar. Oaktat detta ger rapporten förslag på hur man utan större insatser kan uppdatera de framtida utsläppsberäkningarna avsedda för Sveriges internationella rapportering, så att de speglar framtida förändringar i såväl bestånd som i emissionsprestanda.

  • Eriksson, Marianne
    et al.
    SCB.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utsläpp av fosfor från enskilda avlopp: Slutrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Skatteverkets fastighetstaxeringsregister finns det i Sverige 744 863 fastigheter med enskilt wc-avlopp. En stor del av dessa, 294 197, har egentliga Östersjön som slutlig mottagare för sina föroreningar. För de flesta föroreningar utgör inte enskilda avlopp en stor källa men för fosfor, som har stor betydelse för Östersjöns ekologiska status, visar beräkningar (Brandt, M., Ejhed, H., 2002) att enskilda avlopp står för en betydande del av belastningen.

    Detta projekt visar att genom att ta bort fosfater ur tvätt- och rengöringsmedel skulle utgående belastning av fosfor från de enskilda wc-avloppen minska med ca 20%, vilket motsvarar ca 20 ton per år för egentliga Östersjöns avrinningsområde och 50 ton per år totalt för hela Sverige.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 09:30 B7:101a, BMC, Uppsala
    Yan, Jiajie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Regenerable Organochalcogen Antioxidants: An Explorative Study2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect organic materials from damages caused by autoxidation, an oxidation process that occurs under normal aerobic conditions. In this thesis, novel multifunctional organoselenium and organotellurium antioxidants were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in search for compounds with better radical-trapping capacity, regenerability, and hydroperoxide-decomposing ability.

    Selenium was incorporated into ebselenols and hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophenes and tellurium into diaryl disulfides and aryltellurophenols. All newly developed antioxidants were evaluated in a chlorobenzene/water two-phase lipid peroxidation system containing suitable co-antioxidants in the aqueous phase. Ebselenol carrying a hydroxyl group (OH) ortho to selenium showed a two-fold longer inhibition time than the reference α-tocopherol in the presence of aqueous-phase ascorbic acid. 2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]selenophenes carrying a 5- or 7-OH outperformed α-tocopherol both when it comes to radical-trapping capacity and regenerability. Alkyltellurothiophenols, in situ formed from their corresponding disulfides by tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, were also efficient regenerable radical-trapping antioxidants. The consumption of N-acetylcysteine in the water phase was followed and found to be limiting for the duration of the inhibition. The hydroperoxide-decomposing ability of all organoselenium antioxidants was evaluated. Ebselenols were often better glutathione peroxidase mimics than the parent.

    In an effort to find out more about antioxidant mechanisms, aryltellurophenols carrying electron donating and electron withdrawing groups in the phenolic or aryltelluro parts were synthesized and OH bond dissociation enthalpies, BDEO-Hs, were calculated. Compounds carrying electron donating groups in the phenolic or aryltelluro part of the molecule showed the best radical-trapping capacity. Deuterium labelling experiments suggested that hydrogen atom transfer could be the rate-limiting step in the antioxidant mechanism.  

  • Söderberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Resurseffektiva städer: Framgångsrika lokala energisamarbeten2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Eriksson, Marianne
    SCB.
    Förekomst av hamnar och hamnars betydelse för fysisk påverkan på vatten: Slutrapport oktober 20042004Report (Other academic)
  • Ambrus, Rares
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Bore, Nils
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Autonomous meshing, texturing and recognition of objectmodels with a mobile robot2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a system for creating object modelsfrom RGB-D views acquired autonomously by a mobile robot.We create high-quality textured meshes of the objects byapproximating the underlying geometry with a Poisson surface.Our system employs two optimization steps, first registering theviews spatially based on image features, and second aligningthe RGB images to maximize photometric consistency withrespect to the reconstructed mesh. We show that the resultingmodels can be used robustly for recognition by training aConvolutional Neural Network (CNN) on images rendered fromthe reconstructed meshes. We perform experiments on datacollected autonomously by a mobile robot both in controlledand uncontrolled scenarios. We compare quantitatively andqualitatively to previous work to validate our approach.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 10:15 ITC 2446, Uppsala
    Holmgren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Modelling of Moving Contact Lines in Two-Phase Flows2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving contact line problems appear in many natural and industrial processes. A contact line is formed where the interface between two immiscible fluids meets a solid wall. Examples from everyday life include raindrops falling on a window and water bugs resting on water surfaces. In many cases the dynamics of the contact line affects the overall behavior of the system. Industrial applications where the contact line behavior is important include gas and oil recovery in porous media, lubrication, inkjet printing and microfluidics. Computer simulations are fundamental tools to understand and predict the behavior.  

    In this thesis we look at numerical simulations of dynamic contact line problems. Despite their importance, the physics of moving contact lines is poorly understood. The standard Navier-Stokes equations together with the conventional no-slip boundary condition predicts a singularity in the shear stresses at the contact line. Atomistic processes at the contact line come into play, and it is necessary to include these processes in the model to resolve the singularity. In the case of capillary driven flows for example, it has been observed that the microscopic contact line dynamics has a large impact on the overall macroscopic flow.

    In Paper I we present a new multiscale model for numerical simulation of flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluids in the presence of moving contact points (i.e. two-dimensional problems). The paper presents a new boundary methodology based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact point velocity, and a similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface (the analytic Huh and Scriven velocity). The relation between the angle and the velocity is determined by performing separate microscopic simulations.

    The classical Huh and Scriven solution is only valid for flow over flat walls. In Paper II we use perturbation analysis to extend the solution to flow over curved walls. Paper III presents the parallel finite element solver that is used to perform the numerical experiments presented in this thesis. Finally, the new multiscale model (presented in Paper I) is applied to a relevant microfluidic research problem in Paper IV. For this problem it is very important to have a model that accurately takes the atomistic effects at contact lines into account.

  • Davoodi, Anahita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Henricson, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    A Conceptual Framework for Integration of Evidence-Based Design with Lighting Simulation Tools2017In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 7, no 4, 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lighting simulation tools has been growing over the past years which has improved lighting analysis. While computer simulations have proven to be a viable tool for analyzing lighting in physical environments, they have difficulty in assessing the effects of light on occupant’s perception. Evidence-based design (EBD) is a design method that is gaining traction in building design due to its strength in providing means to assess the effects of built environments on humans. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for integrating EBD with lighting simulation tools. Based on a literature review, it was investigated how EBD and lighting simulation can be combined to provide a holistic lighting performance evaluation method. The results show that they can mutually benefit from each other. EBD makes it possible to evaluate and/or improve performance metrics by utilizing user feedback. On the other hand, performance metrics can be used for a better description of evidence, and to analyze the effects of lighting with more details. The results also show that EBD can be used to evaluate light simulations to better understand when and how they should be performed. A framework is presented for integration of lighting simulation and EBD

  • Public defence: 2017-10-26 13:00 Betula, byggnad 6M NUS (målpunkt L), Umeå
    Strömvall, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Extratumoral effects of highly aggressive prostate cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in Sweden. Most patients have slow growing tumors that will not cause them any harm within their lifetime, but some have aggressive tumors and will die from their disease. The ability of current clinical practice to predict tumor behavior and disease outcome is limited leading to both over- and undertreatment of PC patients. The men who die from their disease are those that develop metastases. It is therefore of great value to find better and more sensitive prognostic techniques, so that metastatic spread can be detected (or predicted) at an early time point, and so that appropriate treatment can be offered to each subgroup of patients. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if, and by what means, highly aggressive prostate tumors influence extratumoral tissues such as the non-malignant parts of the prostate and regional lymph nodes (LN), and also if any of our findings could be of prognostic importance. Gene- and protein expression analysis were the main methods used to address these questions. Our research group has previously introduced the expression Tumor Instructed (Indicating) Normal Tissue (TINT), and we use the term TINT-changes when referring to alterations in non-malignant tissue due to the growth of a tumor nearby or elsewhere in the body. In the Dunning rat PC-model we found that MatLyLu (MLL)-tumors, having a high metastatic ability, caused pre-metastatic TINT-changes that differ from those caused by AT1-tumors who have low metastatic ability. Prostate-TINT surrounding MLL-tumors had elevated immune cell infiltration, and gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested that biological functions promoting tumor growth and metastasis were activated in MLL- while inhibited in AT1-prostate-TINT. In the regional LNs we found signs of impaired antigen presentation, and decreased quantity of T cells in the MLL-model. One of the downregulated genes in the MLL-LNs was Siglec1 (also known as Cd169), expressed by LN resident macrophages that are important for antigen presentation. When examining metastasis-free LN tissue from PC patients we found CD169 expression to be a prognostic factor for PC-specific survival, and reduced expression was linked to an increased risk of PC-specific death. Some of our findings in prostate- and LN-TINT could be seen already when the tumors were very small suggesting that differences in TINT-changes between tumors with different metastatic capability can be detected early in tumor progression. However, before coming of use in the clinic more research is needed to better define a suitable panel of prognostic TINT-factors as well as the right time window of when to use them.

  • Gren-Eklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Kronholm, TryggveJohanson, LarsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.Utas, BoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Orientalia Suecana: An International Journal of Indological, Iranian, Semitic and Turkic Studies: Volume 43-44 (1994-1995)1995Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Berlina, Anna
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Mikkola, Nelli
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Huerta Morales, Alberto
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioenergy Development in Finland and Sweden: The cases of North Karelia, Jämtland, and Västernorrland2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper looks into rural bioenergy development in Finland and Sweden.The first chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in North Karelia in Finland. It aims at identifying the enabling factors behind the relatively successful local bioenergy development and considers how the bioenergy development has impacted sustainable local and regional development in North Karelia. The working paper is based on desk studies and interviews conducted with stakeholders in North Karelia in 2016.The second chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Jämtland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015.The third chapter provides insight into bioenergy development in Västernorrland region, Sweden. It highlights the key drivers as well as factors impeding bioenergy development, the key actors involved and bioenergy embeddedness in the community. The chapter is based on desk studies and interviews conducted in 2015–2016.This working paper is one of the outputs of the TRIBORN project: Triple Bottom Line Outcomes for Bioenergy Development and Innovation in Rural Norway. The project investigates how to increase the production of bioenergy in ways that promote sustainable rural development understood as positive economic, social and environmental outcomes. The Working Paper provided valuable input into the development of the Policy recommendations on Bioenergy and rural development in Europe (Nord­regio Policy Brief 2017:3).The TRIBORN (Securing triple bottom line outcomes from bioenergy development and innovation in rural Norway, project no 233640/E50) is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (2014-2017). Read more about the TRIBORN Project here: http://www.nibio.no/prosjekter/triborn

  • Ljungblad, Jonas
    Hök instrument AB.
    Allalou, Amin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Autoliv Development AB.
    Passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection using advanced sensor signal acquisition and fusion2017In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 18:sup1, 31-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The research objective of the present investigation is to demonstrate the present status of passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection and highlight the necessary conditions for large-scale implementation of such a system. Completely passive detection has remained a challenge mainly because of the requirements on signal resolution combined with the constraints of vehicle integration. The work is part of the Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety (DADSS) program aiming at massive deployment of alcohol sensing systems that could potentially save thousands of American lives annually.

    Method: The work reported here builds on earlier investigations, in which it has been shown that detection of alcohol vapor in the proximity of a human subject may be traced to that subject by means of simultaneous recording of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the same location. Sensors based on infrared spectroscopy were developed to detect and quantify low concentrations of alcohol and CO2. In the present investigation, alcohol and CO2 were recorded at various locations in a vehicle cabin while human subjects were performing normal in-step procedures and driving preparations. A video camera directed to the driver position was recording images of the driver's upper body parts, including the face, and the images were analyzed with respect to features of significance to the breathing behavior and breath detection, such as mouth opening and head direction.

    Results: Improvement of the sensor system with respect to signal resolution including algorithm and software development, and fusion of the sensor and camera signals was successfully implemented and tested before starting the human study. In addition, experimental tests and simulations were performed with the purpose of connecting human subject data with repeatable experimental conditions. The results include occurrence statistics of detected breaths by signal peaks of CO2 and alcohol. From the statistical data, the accuracy of breath alcohol estimation and timing related to initial driver routines (door opening, taking a seat, door closure, buckling up, etc.) can be estimated.The investigation confirmed the feasibility of passive driver breath alcohol detection using our present system. Trade-offs between timing and sensor signal resolution requirements will become critical. Further improvement of sensor resolution and system ruggedness is required before the results can be industrialized.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that a further important step toward completely passive detection of driver breath alcohol has been taken. If required, the sniffer function with alcohol detection capability can be combined with a subsequent highly accurate breath test to confirm the driver's legal status using the same sensor device. The study is relevant to crash avoidance, in particular driver monitoring systems and driver-vehicle interface design.

  • Eklund, Veronica
    et al.
    SCB.
    Lidén, Maria
    SCB.
    Asker, Christian
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Segersson, David
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Emissions from navigation and fishing including international bunkers Emissions from navigation and fishing including international: Quality assurance of emissions 1990-2010 for reporting to UNFCCC, NEC and CLRTAP2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, bottom-up estimates of emissions from domestic navigation and fish-ing have been produced. Also, fuel data in the Monthly fuel, gas and inventory statistics, used as activity data for estimating emissions from national navigation and international maritime bunkers has been analyzed. Data from other sources relating to these emissions from international bunkers has been explored and ana-lyzed.

    Conclusions

    National navigation, CRF 1A3d

    Given the completely different approaches and uncertainties that are included in models and emission factors, bottom-up estimates using Shipair seem to corre-spond quite well with estimates produced using fuel data from energy statistics. Results do not imply that there is an obvious need for revision of emissions report-ed to the UNFCCC.

    Fishing, CRF 1A4c

    The current model used produces slightly higher estimates than if using fuel data for 2007 from Swedish Board of Fisheries. Compared to bottom-up estimates using Shipair, the current model gives much higher estimates, estimates from Shipair being approximately one third. Since smaller fishing vessels are not obliged by law to have AIS transponders, one should expect the coverage of Shipair to be some-what limited. To give an estimate of how much the emissions are underestimated due to this fact, one would need to study the ship population more closely. It is also possible that the estimates for fishing based on fuel statistics are overestimated by the current model. However, since the only time series available is data on installed power for the Swedish fishing fleet used in the current model, we do not have enough information to judge whether the current time series is wrong. A revision of the time series is not possible with the current data situation. It is however clear that data should be updated and evaluated again coming years. Also, the estimates by the bottom-up approach will improve as the AIS-usage becomes more and more wide-spread, in time making it possible to perform a more complete independent validation.

    International bunkers, CRF 1C1b

    Data on international bunker fuel in the Monthly fuel, gas and inventory statistics has been found to be of excellent quality. As a consequence of that VAT is applied on national fuel consumption but not on international bunkers, all respondents to the survey are able to separate these fuel amounts with high accuracy. Fuels used for domestic and international navigation have been separated correctly and in line with IPCC Guidelines. Fluctuations in time series are to a large extent due to "spot sales". Occasional fluctuations in time series for international maritime bunkers 2

    should be expected. The increasing trend is, in addition to driving forces such as amount of goods or tonnage of the fleet, due to acquired international customers and an expansion in the fleet of lighters.

    Various data from energy statistics, transport statistics, trade statistics and fuel price statistics have been found and could be used further if additional analysis is wanted.

    Recommendations

    National navigation, CRF 1A3d

    The current methodology should be used for reporting to the UNFCCC also in the future. Estimates using Shipair should preferably be updated for 2008-2010 and also for coming years, thus producing a time series that in due time will provide more information and verification of emissions reported to the UNFCCC.

    Fishing, CRF 1A4c

    The current methodology should be used for reporting to the UNFCCC also in submission 2012. Estimates using Shipair should preferably be updated for 2008- 2010 and also for coming years, thus producing a time series that in due time will provide more information and verification of emissions reported to the UNFCCC. The current methodology should be evaluated again when the next update of the national statistics on fishing is available.

    International bunkers, CRF 1C1b

    Current data is found to be of excellent quality and should be used also in the fu-ture for reporting to the UNFCCC.

  • Nielsen, Ingeborg E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Axel C.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Erik Z.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nojgaard, Jacob K.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion: Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers2017In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 165, 179-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of refractory black carbon, such as absorption enhancement by lensing. 

  • Ek, Mats
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junestedt, Christian
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Larsson, Cajsa
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ericsson, Marianne
    SCB.
    Teknikenkät - enskilda avlopp 20092011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har givit SMED i uppdrag att genomföra en undersökning för att uppdatera uppgifter om enskilda avlopp som ett led i planering och uppföljning av åtgärder för att nå uppsatta miljömål.

    En enkät med förtryckta centrala registeruppgifter från fastighetstaxering och mantalsskrivning skickades ut till Sveriges samtliga kommuner. I enkäten efterfrågades vilken typ av avloppstekniklösning som är knuten till fastigheterna samt vilka av dessa som endast har avloppslösning för BDT-vatten. Den samlade informationen om den här typen av uppgifter är så gammal (ca 10 år) och ofullständig att det är angeläget att förnya den.

    Efter två påminnelser och utsträckt svarstid samt telefonintervjuer med utvalda kommuner, baserat på antal enskilda avlopp enligt SCB, inkom totalt 142 svar. De representerade totalt 148 kommuner, då några blanketter innehöll sammanlagda data från fler kommuner. Tyvärr innehöll många bara konstaterandet att man inte hade möjlighet att besvara enkäten. De absolut vanligaste skälen var tids- och resursbrist och att man inte hade data i en lämplig form för att ta ut de önskade uppgifterna. Det var antagligen också skälen till att vi inte fick något svar alls från 140 kommuner.

    Från totalt 102 kommuner kom svar som bedöms som mer tillförlitliga än de uppgifter som redan fanns i SMEDs register. Av dem är det dock bara 42 som har kunnat skilja på fastigheter med permanentboende och sådana för fritidsboende. I de flesta fallen var den uppdelningen inte heller fullständig, utan mer en uppskattning. En majoritet av kommunerna hade också problem att redovisa fastigheter med enbart BDT-avlopp.

    I projektet har även det mycket viktiga arbetet med att uppdatera schablonvärden för belastning och avskiljning av organiskt material (BOD och COD, i framtiden antagligen TOC), totalkväve (N-tot) och totalfosfor (P-tot) i enskilda avlopp av olika typer genomförts.

    Schablonerna ska användas för att uppskatta belastningen från enskilda avlopp i större avrinningsområden. De ska inte användas vid val av metod för rening i enskilda fall. Schablonerna har tagits fram i samråd med en grupp ledande aktörer inom området i Sverige.

    Belastningsberäkningar genomförda i projektet med användande av de nya schablonerna visar på stora skillnader jämfört med tidigare beräkningar. Med samma statistik som användes i PLC5 leder de nya schablonerna till att belastningen ökar med 21% för fosfor och 120% för kväve, vilket visar hur avgörande schablonerna är för beräkningsresultatet. Med de nya schablonerna blir den totala belastningen från enskilda avlopp i Sverige 287 ton P och 2 900 ton N jämfört med 237 ton P och 1 317 ton N enligt PLC5. Visserligen omfattar de nya beräkningarna även gemensamhetsanläggningar mellan 25-200 pe, vilka tidigare inte ingått i beräkningarna men dessa anläggningar som servar knappt 8 000 fastigheter står endast för 1,3 ton P och 45 ton kväve. Beräkningarna visar också att belastningen av fosfor har minska något pga förbättrad rening och reducerad BDT-belastning, pga fosfatfria tvättoch diskmedel. Denna förbättring ”försvinner” dock i den ökade belastning de förändrade schablonerna leder till.

  • Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Process Metallurgy Department, Swerea Mefos AB, Luleå.
    Lagerwall, Per
    Ironmaking Department, SSAB Europe, Luleå.
    Sundelin, Bo
    Strategic Production Development, SSAB Special Steels, Oxelösund.
    Orrre, Joel
    Brämming, Mats
    Process Integration Department, Swerea Mefos AB, Luleå.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Process Metallurgy Department, Swerea Mefos AB, Luleå.
    Low CO2 ironmaking in the blast furnace: Roheisenerzeugung im Hochofen mit niedrigen CO2 Emissionen2017In: Stahl und Eisen (1881), ISSN 0340-4803, Vol. 137, no 9, 29-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steel industry contributes to the global emissions of fossil CO2 by ~ 7 %, mainly related to coal and coke used in the BF. At the same time the BF is, and will be in a foreseeable future, the most energy efficient method for ore based hot metal production. Several R&D teams have investigated concepts to minimise CO2 emission as e.g. the ULCOS top gas recycling BF, high injection of H2, use of bio-mass products and HBI. In this paper these different options, and in some cases combination of these are analysed relative the BF conditions and their possible impacts on fossil CO2 emission are compared.