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  • Sundh, Josefin
    et al.
    Janson, Christer
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Linden, Anders
    Lofdahl, Claes-Goran
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Characterization of secondary care for COPD in Sweden2017In: European Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 4, 1270079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Only a selected proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are managed in secondary care. The aim of this study was to characterize disease severity, treatment and structure of secondary care for COPD in Sweden.

    Methods: Information was collected from 29 of 33 existing secondary care units of respiratory medicine in Sweden, using both individual data from 373 consecutively enrolled COPD patients with Global initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage III–IV and a structural questionnaire about available resources at the units. Patient data included exacerbations, health status assessed by COPD Assessment Test (CAT), lung function, comorbid conditions, pharmacological treatment and vaccinations. Structural data included available smoking cessation support, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training, patient education and routine follow-up after exacerbations at the respective unit. All patients were reclassified according to the GOLD 2014 group A–D classification. Multiple linear regression investigated associations of available resources with number of exacerbations and CAT score.

    Results: According to GOLD 2014, 87% of the population were GOLD D and 13% were GOLD C. Triple inhaled therapy were prescribed in 88% of the patients. Over 75% of the units had resources for smoking cessation, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, physical training and patient education. Routine follow-up after exacerbations was available in 35% of the units. Being managed at units with access to structured patient education was associated with statistically significantly fewer exacerbations (adjusted regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) −0.79 (−1.39 to −0.19), p = 0.010).

    Conclusion: Most stage III–IV COPD patients managed at secondary care respiratory units in Sweden have maximized inhaled therapy and high risk disease even when reclassified according to GOLD 2014. Most units have access to smoking cessation, rehabilitation and patient education. Patients managed at units with structured patient education have a lower exacerbation risk.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 13:15 E3, Stockholm
    Schickhofer, Lukas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Linné Flow Centre.
    Sound Generation and Propagation in the Human Upper Airways2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human upper airways embrace the source of phonation and affect the modulation of the voice, which is of vital importance for communication. Moreover, unwanted sounds may be generated in the upper airways due to elastic, collapsible parts that are susceptible to flow-induced vibration and resonance. The sound resulting from fluid-structure interaction in the upper respiratory tract, commonly known as snoring, can be an important indicator for underlying breathing disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The scope of this work is the assessment of acoustic sources and the conditions for sound being produced in the upper airways in healthy and diseased state. For the study of the vocal tract under phonation, both low- and high-order numerical methods are applied and the obtained results are compared to experimental data from collaborators. The geometries of the vocal tract are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for the different vowel pronunciations under voiced speech of a healthy male subject. Unsteady, direct compressible flow simulations using a finite volume solver are carried out for the computation of the pressure fluctuations and the associated distribution of frequency peaks as a result of the modulation through the static vocal tract. The peaks of the envelope of the far-field Fourier spectrum, which are characterising the spoken tone, are extracted and compared to the Helmholtz eigenfrequencies of the airway volume. The effect of variations of vocal fold closure, fundamental frequency, and vocal tract length on the computed acoustic signal is investigated. Thus, an estimation of the impact of vocal disorders on the ability of vowel production is attempted. A particular advantage of the presented approach is the attainment of time-resolved pressure and velocity fields of the flow, which allows for analysis of the coherent structures at the level of the vocal fold constriction, responsible for sound output during unvoiced speech. Furthermore, fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed for the study of the influence of critical parameters, such as Reynolds number of the flow or elasticity of the structure, on the onset of oscillations for a simplified model. The acoustic sources involved in the generation of the dominant frequencies of tissue vibrations are identified by application of an acoustic analogy. The obtained results of this work contribute to the development of a computational tool that assists physicians in the assessment of the airway function and the effectiveness of treatment plans prior to their application.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-04 09:30 KBE301, Lilla Hörsalen (KBC), Umeå
    Vasconcelos, Francisco Rivera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of warming and browning on benthic and pelagic ecosystem components in shallow lakes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of lakes on Earth are shallow, unproductive and located at high latitudes. These lakes are experiencing big changes due to climate change, where two environmental drivers operate simultaneously, browning and warming. How they affect lake ecosystems is not well understood. Here, I addressed this issue by using a theoretical and an experimental approach. In particular, I generated model predictions and compared them with the results of a realistic large-scale experiment, where browning and warming were manipulated in a factorial design. In addition, model outcomes were compared with data from 12 unproductive lakes sampled along a gradient of browning. Another novelty of my thesis is that it integrates benthic and pelagic food web components in the model and experimental approaches. I found that browning affected the resources availability for benthic and pelagic producers in the model and in the experiment. With browning, benthic primary producers became increasingly light limited and declined, while pelagic producers became less nutrient limited and increased. Pelagic nutrient limitation was alleviated by two non-exclusive mechanisms. Browning directly enriched the water with nutrients, and browning indirectly increased the nutrient flowing from the sediment to the pelagic habitat via suppression of benthic producers. To tease apart these two mechanisms I applied structural equation modeling (SEM). The indirect evidence by SEM suggests that both mechanisms contributed equally to the pelagic nutrient concentration in the experiment. Interestingly, a model food web with only primary producers shows similar qualitative behavior as a food web with grazers and carnivores included. This happens because carnivorous fish exert strong top-down control in the more productive habitat, which relaxes grazing pressure on primary producers and increases resource limitation in the adjacent habitat. Biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers followed the same pattern as their resources. The lake data were largely congruent with model expectations and supported the findings of the experiment. Furthermore, the model also predicted a negative relationship between total phosphorus and both primary and fish production, which was observed across the 12 lakes. Warming effects were more complex. The model predicts that warming effects should depend on browning and are expected to be strongest in the more productive of the two (benthic and pelagic) habitats. For example, at low levels of browning the biomasses of benthic algae and fish are expected to decline with warming, which was observed in the experiment. In contrast, observed warming effects at high levels of browning deviated from model expectations. The mechanisms by which browning and warming interactively affect lake food webs are still poorly understood. This thesis offers a conceptual foundation for their further study through the integration of within- and between-habitat interactions.

  • Sartoretto, Paola
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Mobilization as Communication: A Latin American contribution to the study of social movements2016In: Commons: revista de comunicación y ciudadanía digital, ISSN 2255-3401, Vol. 5, no 2, 93-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have noted the lack of interdisciplinary dialogue and research between the areas of social movements studies and that of media and communications. While social movement studies fail to fully analyse media practices and communicative processes in relation to mobilization, in media and communication the social and political aspects of mobilization are seldom taken into account when analysing communication in social movements. This apparent lack of dialogue is presented in the paper as a consequence of north-centred theorization in the fields of social movement studies and media and communication, which is addressed by spelling out the contribution of Latin American communication scholarship and a view of mobilization as anchored in communication.

  • Dreborg, Sten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Holgersson, Margareta
    Pharmacia Diagnostics.
    Möller, Christian
    University Hospital, Umeå.
    Evaluation of changes in skin reactivity by skin prick test titration: -2016In: Immunotherapy: open access, ISSN 2471-9552, Vol. 2, no 2, 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parallel line bioassay (PLBA) has been acknowledged being the gold standard for estimation of changes in skin reactivity during (immuno-)therapy.

    Objective: To study changes in skin prick test (SPT) estimated by skin prick test titration, wheal area and sum of wheal areas in relation to PLBA.

    Methods: Data from a published immunotherapy trial using skin titration with half 10 log steps were evaluated using endpoint titration, wheal areas, histamine equivalent allergen concentration using PLBA as gold standard.

    Results: Endpoint titration and PLBA correlated (r=0.76) and the slope of the correlation, b (0.8) was not significantly different from 1, i.e. expressed the same result, were interchangeable. Furthermore, the result was expressed in change in allergen concentration, Ca. The area of all wheals and the area of the wheal induced by the highest concentration also correlated, but to a lesser degree (b=0.36 and 0.41, respectively), to PLBA significantly different from 1, i.e. did not express the same result.

    Conclusions: Estimation of the SPT during therapy expressed as change in endpoint concentration correlated to changes by PLBA. However, earlier described simple methods, expressing the change in skin sensitivity as change in histamine equivalent concentration, should be preferred.

  • Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm stad.
    En profession utan funktion eller en profession i mellanrummet mellan skola och akademi?: En studie om forskarutbildade lärares syn på sin utbildning och vad som hände därefter2017Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:00 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Englund, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hodgkin Lymphoma in children, adolescents and young adults2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a heterogeneous condition varying from engaging one single lymph node site to a widespread condition. The prognosis with contemporary treatment is excellent for the vast majority. However, the treatment might cause severe late adverse effects in a proportion of the affected individuals.

    We evaluated all children and adolescents diagnosed in Sweden and registered in the Swedish Childhood Cancer Register over a period of 25 years. The incidence has been stable and the overall survival (OS) is very good, comparable to the best results in the world. Approximately ten percent encountered a relapse, but even after relapse the chances of survival were good. During the study period there were no detectable changes in survival estimates. The use of radiotherapy has decreased.

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and numbers of eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages in the tumors were investigated in 98 cases. Young children were more likely to express EBV. In patients with advanced disease the mast cell and macrophage counts were higher and they also had more affected laboratory parameters. Patients with Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma did not express EBV in the tumor, had significantly lower numbers of eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages and less affected laboratory parameters compared to classical HL.

    Outcome and clinical presentation were investigated in a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults in Sweden and Denmark and treatment in pediatric and adult departments was compared. OS and event-free survival (EFS) did not differ between the three age groups nor between pediatric and adult treatment. However, the Danish pediatric patients had lower EFS, which corresponded to less use of radiotherapy. Adolescents and young adults shared similar characteristics, while children presented differently with less advanced disease and male preponderance.

    Hospitalization rates and outpatient visits after end of treatment were evaluated to see whether the excess need of resources described in the literature is evenly distributed among the survivors or whether it is limited to a smaller group. Most of the patients had a low burden of health care use and the relapsing patients were the main drivers of the excess need.

  • Enthoven, Paul
    et al.
    Molander, Peter
    Oberg, Birgitta
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gerdle, Bjorn
    DO PAIN CHARACTERISTICS GUIDE SELECTION FOR MULTIMODAL PAIN REHABILITATION?2017In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 49, no 2, 161-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine whether self-reported pain measures are associated with selection for multimodal or multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MMR) and whether this selection is influenced by sex. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Subjects: A total of 1,226 women and 464 men with chronic pain conditions from 2 university hospitals. Methods: Drawing from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP), data on pain, psychological symptoms, function, health, and activity/participation were collected. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate association of pain measures with selection for MMR (no/yes) after multidisciplinary assessment. Covariates were: age, educational level, anxiety, depression, working status, and several pain measures. Results: High pain intensity in the previous week (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.99) and high pain severity (Multidimensional Pain Inventory) (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74-0.95) were negatively associated with selection for MMR, whereas higher number of pain quadrants was positively associated with selection for MMR. Similar results were obtained for women, but none of the measures was predictive for men. Conclusion: This practice-based study showed that higher scores on self-reported pain were not associated with selection for MMR, and in women there was a negative association for higher pain intensity and pain severity. Thus, other factors than pain determine whether patients are selected for MMR.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 13:15 Skoogsalen, Uppsala
    Lilja, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    [18F]Flutemetamol PET image processing, visualization and quantification targeting clinical routine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is alone responsible for 60-70% of all cases of dementia. Though sharing clinical symptoms with other types of dementia, the hallmarks of AD are the abundance of extracellular depositions of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyper phosphorylated tau proteins and synaptic depletion. The onset of the physiological hallmarks may precede clinical symptoms with a decade or more, and once clinical symptoms occur it may be difficult to separate AD from other types of dementia based on clinical symptoms alone. Since the introduction of radiolabeled Aβ tracer substances for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging it is possible to image the Aβ depositions in-vivo, strengthening the confidence in the diagnosis. Because the accumulation of Aβ may occur years before the first clinical symptoms are shown and even reach a plateau, Aβ PET imaging may not be feasible for disease progress monitoring. However, a negative scan may be used to rule out AD as the underlying cause to the clinical symptoms. It may also be used as a predictor to evaluate the risk of developing AD in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as monitoring potential effects of anti-amyloid drugs.Though currently validated for dichotomous visual assessment only, there is evidence to suggest that quantification of Aβ PET images may reduce inter-reader variability and aid in the monitoring of treatment effects from anti-amyloid drugs.The aim of this thesis was to refine existing methods and develop new ones for processing, quantification and visualization of Aβ PET images to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of potential treatment of AD in clinical routine. Specifically, the focus for this thesis has been to find a way to fully automatically quantify and visualize a patient’s Aβ PET image in such way that it is presented in a uniform way and show how it relates to what is considered normal. To achieve the aim of the thesis registration algorithms, providing the means to register a patient’s Aβ PET image to a common stereotactic space avoiding the bias of different uptake patterns for Aβ- and Aβ+ images, a suitable region atlas and a 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D SSP) method, capable of projecting cortical activity onto the surface of a 3D model of the brain without sampling white matter, were developed and evaluated.The material for development and testing comprised 724 individual amyloid PET brain images from six distinct cohorts, ranging from healthy volunteers to definite AD. The new methods could be implemented in a fully automated workflow and were found to be highly accurate, when tested by comparisons to Standards of Truth, such as defining regional uptake from PET images co-registered to magnetic resonance images, post-mortem histopathology and the visual consensus diagnosis of imaging experts.

  • Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 656 53 Brno, Czech Republic; Institut de Génétique Moléculaire, Université Paris 7, Hôpital St. Louis, 75010 Paris, France.
    Laurell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. Department of Surgical Sciences/ENT, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gene expression changes in tumor free tongue tissue adjacent to tongue squamous cell carcinoma2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 12, 19389-19402 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the high frequency of loco-regional recurrences, which could be explained by changes in the field surrounding the tumor, patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck show poor survival. Here we identified a total of 554 genes as dysregulated in clinically tumor free tongue tissue in patients with tongue tumors when compared to healthy control tongue tissue. Among the top dysregulated genes when comparing control and tumor free tissue were those involved in apoptosis (CIDEC, MUC1, ZBTB16, PRNP, ECT2), immune response (IFI27) and differentiation (KRT36). Data suggest that these are important findings which can aid in earlier diagnosis of tumor development, a relapse or a novel squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, in the absence of histological signs of a tumor.

  • Romar, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Frisk, Alexandra
    The Influence of Occupational Socialization on Novice Teachers' Practical Knowledge, Confidence and Teaching in Physical Education2017In: Qualitative Research in Education, ISSN 2014-6418, Vol. 6, no 1, 86-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to examine the influence of occupational socialization on three novice physical education teachers' practical knowledge, confidence in teaching content and enacted pedagogical practices. This study involved three novice teachers who taught in Finnish primary schools. Data sources included nonparticipant lesson observations and semi-structured in-depth teacher interviews. The analysis occurred in two phases. Initially, we created a case narrative for each teacher with respect to the research questions through an inductive process that integrated the occupational socialization theory. For the second phase, a cross-case analysis was completed to provide a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the data set. Each teacher's occupational socialization experiences influenced their teaching confidence, planning practices and enacted pedagogical actions. In addition, the teacher education program experience extended their practical knowledge and was evident in their PE teaching. Therefore, in designing the pedagogical structure in teacher education, it is essential to consider pre-service teachers' experiences about teaching, schooling, sport and physical education and thereby strengthen their knowledge and skills of how to teach physical education and provide students with quality learning experiences.

  • Berglund, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature, Sociology of Literature.
    Rec. Torbjörn Forslid, Jon Helgason, Lisbeth Larsson, Christian Lenemark, Anders Ohlsson & Ann Steiner, Höstens böcker. Litterära värdeförhandlingar 2013, Makadam: Göteborg & Stockholm, 20152016In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, Vol. 137, 297-302 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Hahn, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Företag. Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB.
    Wester, Kjell
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Företag. Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB.
    Satellitbaserad övervakning av våtmarker: Slutrapport sydöstra Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En satellitbaserad metodik för att identifiera snabba vegetationsförändringar i våtmarker har använts för att hitta områden med förändringsindikation. Undersökningsområdet, sydöstra Sverige, består av Gotlands, Kalmar, Stockholms, Södermanlands, Uppsala, Västmanlands och Östergötlands län. Projektet drivs inom ramen för den nationella miljöövervakningen och är tänkt att genomföras enligt ett löpande schema över landet fördelat på olika undersökningsområden.

    Under perioden 2015-2016 utfördes "Satellitbaserad övervakning av våtmarker" i sydöstra Sverige. Den satellitbaserade övervakningen är utformad för att upptäcka markanvändningsrelaterade förändringar i öppna myrar i form av ökad biomassa/igenväxning. Till förändringsanalysen för en tidsperiod används två set av satellitdata, ett från en äldre tidpunkt "1999" (satellitdata främst från 1999 men även från 1997) och ett från en senare tidpunkt "2009" (satellitdata främst från 2009 men även från 2007 och 2010).

    Förändrade områden delas in i två förändringsklasser; potentiell och säker förändringsindikation med en minsta karteringsenhet på 0,5 ha. Förändringsklasserna ger en direkt indikation på styrkan och omfattningen av förändringen. Förändringsklassningen redovisas även som förändringskartor: andel säker förändringsindikation per analyserad öppen myr presenterade inom olika områdes- eller regionindelningar. Exempel på intressanta områdesindelningar som redovisas är indexrutor 10km och delavrinningsområden.

    Undersökningsområdet, d.v.s. "Öppen myr"-mask med undantag för fjällen, omfattar totalt ca 90 100 ha. Det analyserbara området, d.v.s. undersökningsområdet med undantag för moln m.m., motsvarar ca 90 % av det totala undersökningsområdet. Av det totala analyserbara området visade 1 180 ha (1,46 %) säker förändringsindikation och 850 ha (1,06 %) potentiell förändringsindikation.

    Utvärderingen, som utfördes med hjälp av flygbildstolkning och fältbesök, visar att överensstämmelsen för de 141 slumpmässigt valda förändringsindikationsytorna ligger minst på 64 % och max på 91 %. Motsvarande överensstämmelse för de 47 slumpmässigt valda referensytorna ligger minst på 60 % och max på 85 %.

    I utvärderingen dokumenteras alla ingrepp/orsaker som syns i ytorna och inom en 500 meter buffertzon. De ingrepp/orsaker som bedömdes vara mest relevanta för respektive utvärderingsyta fördelade sig enligt följande: Dikning (41 %), Vattennivåfluktuationer (16 %), Annan orsak (12 %), Sjösänkning (11 %) och torvtäkt (6 %).

    Viktiga användningsområden är till exempel vid uppföljningen av skyddade områden och för att visa på skillnader mellan olika våtmarkstyper. Områden med stor andel förändring kan också vara ett underlag inför restaureringar av våtmarker.

  • Kang, Jung Koo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. The Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Eco-evolution in size-structured ecosystems: simulation case study of rapid morphological changes in alewife2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the last 300 years, interactions between alewives and zooplankton communities in several lakes in the U.S. have caused the alewives' morphology to transition rapidly from anadromous to landlocked. Lakes with landlocked alewives contain smaller-bodied zooplankton than those without alewives. Landlocked adult alewives display smaller body sizes, narrower gapes, smaller inter-gill-raker spacings, reach maturity at an earlier age, and are less fecund than anadromous alewives. Additionally, landlocked alewives consume pelagic prey exclusively throughout their lives whereas anadromous alewives make an ontogenetic transition from pelagic to littoral prey. These rapid, well-documented changes in the alewives' morphology provide important insights into the morphological evolution of fish. Predicting the morphological evolution of fish is crucial for fisheries and ecosystem management, but the involvement of multiple trophic interactions make predictions difficult. To obtain an improved understanding of rapid morphological change in fish, we developed an individual-based model that simulated rapid changes in the body size and gill-raker count of a fish species in a hypothetical, size-structured prey community. Model parameter values were based mainly on data from empirical studies on alewives. We adopted a functional trait approach; consequently, the model explicitly describes the relationships between prey body size, alewife body size, and alewife gill-raker count. We sought to answer two questions: ( 1) How does the impact of alewife populations on prey feed back to impact alewife size and gill raker number under several alternative scenarios? ( 2) Will the trajectory of the landlocked alewives' morphological evolution change after 150-300 years in freshwater? 

    Results: Over the first 250 years, the alewives' numbers of gill-rakers only increased when reductions in their body size substantially improved their ability to forage for small prey. Additionally, alewives' gill- raker counts increased more rapidly as the adverse effects of narrow gill- raker spacings on foraging for large prey weremade less severe. For the first150- 250 years, alewives' growth decreased monotonically, and their gill- raker number increased monotonically. After the first 150-250 years, however, the alewives exhibited multiple evolutionary morphological trajectories in different trophic settings. In several of these settings, their evolutionary trajectories even reversed after the first 150-250 years. 

    Conclusions: Alewives affected the abundance and morphology of their prey, which in turn changed the abundance and morphology of the alewives. Complex low-trophic-level interactions can alter the abundance and characteristics of alewives. This study suggests that the current morphology of recently (similar to 300 years)-landlocked alewives may not represent an evolutionarily stable state.

  • Svenson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wikström, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Long leukocyte telomere length in prostate cancer patients at diagnosis is associated with poor metastasis-free and cancer-specific survival2017In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 39, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have suggested that leukocyte telomere length is associated with risk of developing prostate cancer. Investigations of leukocyte telomere length as a prognostic factor in prostate cancer are, however, lacking. In this study, leukocyte telomere length was investigated both as a risk marker, comparing control subjects and patient risk groups (based on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, tumor differentiation, and tumor stage), and as a prognostic marker for metastasis-free and cancer-specific survival. Relative telomere length was measured by a well-established quantitative polymerase chain reaction method in 415 consecutively sampled individuals. Statistical evaluation included 162 control subjects without cancer development during follow-up and 110 untreated patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer at the time of blood draw. Leukocyte telomere length did not differ significantly between control subjects and patients, or between patient risk groups. Interestingly, however, and in line with our previous results in breast and kidney cancer patients, relative telomere length at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor. Patients with long leukocyte telomeres (>= median) had a significantly worse prostate cancer-specific and metastasisfree survival compared to patients with short telomere length. In contrast, for patients who died of other causes than prostate cancer, long relative telomere length was not coupled to shorter survival time. To our knowledge, these results are novel and give further strength to our hypothesis that leukocyte telomere length might be used as a prognostic marker in malignancy.

  • Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    En förskola för alla?: Rationaliteten bakom den svenska förskolans expansion2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Anne Berg, Esbjörn Larsson, Madeleine Michaëlsson, Johannes Westberg & Andreas Åkerlund, Uppsala: Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED , 2017, 211-232 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Edquist, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studiecirkeln – en demokratisk revolution?2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 139-162 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lippman, Sheri A.
    et al.
    Pettifor, Audrey
    Rebombo, Dumisani
    Julien, Aimee
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Dufour, Mi-Suk Kang
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson
    Neilands, Torsten B.
    Twine, Rhian
    Gottert, Ann
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Sanne, Ian
    Peacock, Dean
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Evaluation of the Tsima community mobilization intervention to improve engagement in HIV testing and care in South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial2017In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 12, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV transmission can be decreased substantially by reducing the burden of undiagnosed HIV infection and expanding early and consistent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Treatment as prevention (TasP) has been proposed as key to ending the HIV epidemic. To activate TasP in high prevalence countries, like South Africa, communities must be motivated to know their status, engage in care, and remain in care. Community mobilization (CM) has the potential to significantly increase uptake testing, linkage to and retention in care by addressing the primary social barriers to engagement with HIV care-including poor understanding of HIV care; fear and stigma associated with infection, clinic attendance and disclosure; lack of social support; and gender norms that deter men from accessing care. Methods/design: Using a cluster randomized trial design, we are implementing a 3-year-theory-based CM intervention and comparing gains in HIV testing, linkage, and retention in care among individuals residing in 8 intervention communities to that of individuals residing in 7 control communities. Eligible communities include 15 villages within a health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa, that were not exposed to previous CM efforts. CM activities conducted in the 8 intervention villages map onto six mobilization domains that comprise the key components for community mobilization around HIV prevention. To evaluate the intervention, we will link a clinic-based electronic clinical tracking system in all area clinics to the HDSS longitudinal census data, thus creating an open, population-based cohort with over 30,000 18-49-year-old residents. We will estimate the marginal effect of the intervention on individual outcomes using generalized estimating equations. In addition, we will evaluate CM processes by conducting baseline and endline surveys among a random sample of 1200 community residents at each time point to monitor intervention exposure and community level change using validated measures of CM. Discussion: Given the known importance of community social factors with regard to uptake of testing and HIV care, and the lack of rigorously evaluated community-level interventions effective in improving testing uptake, linkage and retention, the proposed study will yield much needed data to understand the potential of CM to improve the prevention and care cascade. Further, our work in developing a CM framework and domain measures will permit validation of a CM conceptual framework and process, which should prove valuable for community programming in Africa.

  • Westberg, Johannes
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, EsbjörnUppsala universitet.Berg, AnneUppsala universitet.Michaëlsson, MadeleineUppsala universitet.Åkerlund, AndreasUppsala universitet.
    Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet revolution avser i allmänhet en omvälvande eller grundläggande förändring som, i jämförelse med långsammare processer, sker under en kortare tid. I utbildningshistoriska sammanhang är ordet revolution användbart eftersom det riktar fokus på de övergripande och omvälvande förändringar som karaktäriserat utbildningsväsendet under de senaste trehundra åren. I vår bok presenteras analyser av ett brett urval av förändringar inom det svenska utbildningsväsendet. Antologin inkluderar kapitel om förändringar i 1800-talets skola och utbildning, däribland införandet av Läsebok för folkskolan, arbetarorganisationers fostran av demokrater, och en kritisk analys av föreställningen om 1800-talets skola som en del av en demokratiseringsprocess. Dessutom ges inblickar i 1900-talets utbildningsrevolutioner med kapitel som ägnar sig åt allt från rökrutans införande, den Nya matematiken, förskolesektorns expansion och 1990-talets utbildningsreformer.Boken har publicerats för att ge en översikt över den omfattande utbildningshistoriska forskningsmiljö som vuxit fram i Uppsala under de senaste tio åren. Den riktar sig till såväl den utbildningshistoriskt intresserade läsaren, som till en bredare historisk och utbildningsvetenskaplig läsekrets.

  • Vishnubhotla, Sai Datta
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Supplementary Material of: "An insight into the capabilities of professionals and teams in agile software development - A systematic literature review"2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This document contains the supplementary material regarding the systematic literature review titled: "An insight into the capabilities of professionals and teams in agile software development" 

  • Bogl, Leonie H.
    et al.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Finland and University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Finland and University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood?: A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts2017In: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs.

    Methods: The data were derived from COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese.

    Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI: 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance.

    Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  • Munkhammar, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mattsson, Lars
    Nordita, Stockholms University.
    Rydén, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Polynomial probability distribution estimation using the method of moments2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, 1-14 p., e0174573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest a procedure for estimating Nth degree polynomial approximations to unknown (or known) probability density functions (PDFs) based on N statistical moments from each distribution. The procedure is based on the method of moments and is setup algorithmically to aid applicability and to ensure rigor in use. In order to show applicability, polynomial PDF approximations are obtained for the distribution families Normal, Log-Normal, Weibull as well as for a bimodal Weibull distribution and a data set of anonymized household electricity use. The results are compared with results for traditional PDF series expansion methods of Gram–Charlier type. It is concluded that this procedure is a comparatively simple procedure that could be used when traditional distribution families are not applicable or when polynomial expansions of probability distributions might be considered useful approximations. In particular this approach is practical for calculating convolutions of distributions, since such operations become integrals of polynomial expressions. Finally, in order to show an advanced applicability of the method, it is shown to be useful for approximating solutions to the Smoluchowski equation.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-04 13:00 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Björk, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Aspects of Vitamin D: Prevalence of deficiency and impact on musculoskeletal parameters2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin D is central in calcium turnover, and adequate levels are important for skeletal health. It is not clear how large contributions from food and sunlight are in Swedish primary care patients, considering the low radiation of UVB in Sweden and fortification of some foods, and whether differences exist between patients of immigrant and Swedish origin. Increasing incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures is a major global health problem. Genetic variations in metabolising enzymes and in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) have also been shown to be of importance to the overall effect of vitamin D. Polymorphic variation in the gene CYP2R1 encoding the 25-hydroxylase has previously been reported to correlate with circulating levels of 25(OH)D3. Results of association studies between genetic variants of the VDR and muscle strength, as well as falls have been contradictory.

    The purposes of this thesis were to examine possible differences in plasma-25(OH)D3 levels and intake of vitamin D between Swedish and immigrant female primary care patients, to estimate what foods contribute the most, and to identify contributors to vitamin D status (Paper I-II). Furthermore, the relationship between polymorphisms in the CYP2R1 gene and levels of 25(OH)D3 as well as other biochemical parameters (parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23) of skeletal homeostasis, bone mineral density and incidence of fractures was investigated (Paper III). Also, the association between genetic variations in the gene for the vitamin D receptor and measures of muscle strength, physical performance and falls (Paper IV), was investigated by using data from a Swedish multicenter study of elderly men (MrOS).

    Most important results: Vitamin D deficiency was common, with significant difference between Swedish born and immigrant patients (Paper I). Food intake of vitamin D is associated with circulating vitamin D, but the factors most strongly affecting vitamin D levels were reported sun holiday and origin (Paper II). CYP2R1 polymorphisms are associated with circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 and bone mineral density (Paper III). VDR genetic variants do not appear to have a direct effect on muscle strength or physical performance and incidence of falls in elderly Swedish men (Paper IV).

  • Toren, K.
    et al.
    Bake, B.
    Olin, A-C
    Engstrom, G.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Vikgren, J.
    Hedner, J.
    Brandberg, J.
    Persson, H. L.
    Skold, C. M.
    Rosengren, A.
    Bergstrom, G.
    Janson, C.
    Measures of bronchodilator response of FEV1, FVC and SVC in a Swedish general population sample aged 50-64 years, the SCAPIS Pilot Study2017In: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 12, 973-980 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data are lacking from general population studies on how to define changes in lung function after bronchodilation. This study aimed to analyze different measures of bronchodilator response of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and slow vital capacity (SVC). Materials and methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study (SCAPIS) Pilot study. This analysis comprised 1,050 participants aged 50-64 years from the general population. Participants were investigated using a questionnaire, and FEV1, FVC and SVC were recorded before and 15 minutes after inhalation of 400 mu g of salbutamol. A bronchodilator response was defined as the relative change from baseline value expressed as the difference in units of percent predicted normal. Predictors of bronchodilator responses were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio below lower limit of normal (LLN) before bronchodilation, and COPD was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio below LLN after bronchodilation. Physician-diagnosed asthma was defined as an affirmative answer to " Have you ever had asthma diagnosed by a physician?". Asymptomatic never-smokers were defined as those not reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, physician-diagnosed COPD or emphysema, current wheeze or chronic bronchitis and being a lifelong never-smoker. Results: Among all subjects, the greatest bronchodilator responses (FEV1, FVC and SVC) were found in subjects with asthma or COPD. The upper 95th percentile of bronchodilator responses in asymptomatic never-smokers was 8.7% for FEV1, 4.2% for FVC and 5.0% for SVC. The bronchodilator responses were similar between men and women. In a multiple linear regression model comprising all asymptomatic never-smokers, the bronchodilator response of FEV1 was significantly associated with airway obstruction and height. Conclusion: When the bronchodilator response in asymptomatic never-smokers is reported as the difference in units of predicted normal, significant reversibility of FEV1, FVC and SVC to bronchodilators is 9%, 4% and 5%, respectively.

  • Martinsson, Johan
    et al.
    Azeem, Hafiz Abdul
    Sporre, Moa K.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ahlberg, Erik
    Ostrom, Emilie
    Kristensson, Adam
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Stenstrom, Kristina Eriksson
    Carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment using the Aethalometer model - evaluation by radiocarbon and levoglucosan analysis at a rural background site in southern Sweden2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 6, 4265-4281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Crochemore, Louise
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Ramos, Maria-Helena
    Pappenberger, Florian
    Perrin, Charles
    Seasonal streamflow forecasting by conditioning climatology with precipitation indices2017In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, no 3, 1573-1591 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-06-13 12:00 Aula Perez Pulgar, Madrid, Spain
    Izadkhast, Seyedmahdi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they are able to quickly control their active power using electronic power converters. However, to evaluate the impact of PEVs on PFC, one should either carry out complex and time consuming simulation involving a large number of PEVs or formulate and develop aggregate models which could efficiently reduce simulation complexity and time while maintaining accuracy.

    This thesis proposes aggregate models of PEVs for PFC. The final aggregate model has been developed gradually through the following steps. First of all, an aggregate model of PEVs for the PFC has been developed where various technical characteristics of PEVs such as operating modes (i.e., idle, disconnected, and charging) and PEV’s state of charge have been formulated and incorporated. Secondly, some technical characteristics of distribution networks have been added to the previous aggregate model of PEVs for the PFC. For this purpose, the power consumed in the network during PFC as well as the maximum allowed current of the lines and transformers have been taken into account. Thirdly, the frequency stability margins of power systems including PEVs have been evaluated and a strategy to design the frequency-droop controller of PEVs for PFC has been described. The controller designed guaranties similar stability margins, in the worst case scenario, to those of the system without PEVs. Finally, a method to evaluate the positive economic impact of PEVs participation in PFC has been proposed.

  • Kahnert, Michael
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, Emma
    How much information do extinction and backscattering measurements contain about the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol?2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 5, 3423-3444 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Carlund, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kouremeti, Natalia
    Kazadzis, Stelios
    Grobner, Julian
    Aerosol optical depth determination in the UV using a four-channel precision filter radiometer2017In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 10, no 3, 905-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:15 B42, Uppsala
    Brolin, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Growth hormone in the brain: Focus on cognitive function2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive impairments are an increasing health problem worldwide. In the developed countries, the average life expectancy has dramatically increased over the last decades, and with an elderly population more cases of cognitive impairments appear. Age, genetics, and different medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, and substance use disorders may all contribute to declined cognitive ability. Physiological functions also decrease with increasing age, as does the activity of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Interestingly, both GH and IGF-1 are recognized for their neuroprotective effects and cognitive enhancement. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of the somatotrophic axis (i.e. GH/IGF-1 axis) in rodents with cognitive deficiencies induced by diabetes or long-term drug exposure. For the first time cognitive impairments were characterized in diabetic mice using a spatial learning and memory task called the Barnes maze (BM). In diabetic mice, impaired learning in the BM was associated with decreased expression of the GH receptor (GHR) in the frontal cortex, a region important for e.g. working memory. Treatment with GH reversed certain cognitive impairments seen in diabetic animals. In rats treated with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a significant decrease of Igf1 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex was observed. This observation may explain the impaired cognitive function previously seen following GHB administration. Furthermore, rats exposed to chronic morphine delivered in mini-osmotic pumps displayed memory impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM), an effect that seems to be associated with the composition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex in the frontal cortex. In conclusion, the result strengthens the evidence for GH being a cognitive enhancer. Moreover, the result within this thesis identifies the frontal cortex as an important brain region, where gene expression related to the somatotrophic system is affected in rodents with cognitive impairments. The thesis especially emphasizes the importance of the local somatotrophic system in the brain with regard to cognitive function.

  • Åkerlund, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lära från Väst efter revolutionerna i Öst: Kunskapsöverföring som svenskt bistånd i Östersjöregionen mellan 1989 och 20042017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 249-266 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Dahlgren, K.
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg, Emergency Care, Umea, Sweden..
    Holzmann, M. J.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Emergency Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wandelld, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Family Med, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Hasselstrom, J.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Family Med, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ruge, T.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg, Emergency Care, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    The use of a Swedish telephone medical advice service by the elderly - a population-based study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 1, 98-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study aimed to describe contact made by the elderly to Sweden's nationwide medical helpline, Healthcare Guide 1177 by Phone (HGP). Other objectives were to study potential gender differences and the association between different HGP referral levels and acute visits to hospital-based emergency departments and acute visits to primary care centres. Design: De-identified data from recorded calls to HGP was extracted for analysis (n=7477 for the oldest age group). Information about acute visits to emergency departments and to primary care reception was extracted from the patient administration system.Setting: Vasterbotten County, Sweden.Subjects: Patients over 80 years.Main outcome measures: Calling and visiting frequencies for different age groups as well as reasons for contact and individual recommendations. Results: The utilisation rate of the telephone advice service for the oldest age group was high, with an incidence rate of 533 per 1000 person-years. Women had a 1.17 times higher incidence rate compared with men. The most common reason for contact was drug-related questions (17% of all contacts). Calls that were recommended to care by a medical specialist correlated with total emergency department visits (r=0.30, p<0.05) and calls that were given advice correlated with acute primary healthcare visits (r=0.38, p=0.005). Conclusion: The high utilisation of the telephone advice service by the elderly gives the telephone advice service a unique ability to function as a gatekeeper to further healthcare. Our data suggest that with the telephone advice service's present guidelines, a significant proportion of all calls are being directed to further medical help. The high frequency of drug-related questions raises concerns about the elderly's medication regimens.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 10:15 Ihresalen, Uppsala
    Sahlée, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Språket och skolämnet svenska som andraspråk: Om elevers språk och skolans språksyn2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the school subject Swedish as a second language was established in the Swedish school system in the mid-1990s, the organization of the subject has varied widely across schools, and the outcomes have been poor. This thesis investigates these problems linguistically. The main objective is to explore the school subject Swedish as a second language in relation to the language of students taking the subject. Another aim of this thesis is to illuminate the complex relation between the Swedish language and the use and conception of Swedish as a second language. A critique of the concept of ‘language’ and of language attitudes in the school context is a recurring theme in the thesis.

    The thesis contains four papers addressing different aspects of the school subject Swedish as a second language. Paper I examines texts and oral presentations from a group of students born in Sweden, analyzing their language from a normative, mainly grammatical, perspective. Paper II develops a model for analyzing text as activity. In Paper III, the model from paper II is applied to analyze students’ narrative texts written as responses to an assignment, focusing on texts that received failing grades. Papers I and III include comparisons with Swedish as a language and as a school subject. Paper IV, finally, analyzes views of language in policy documents.

    One critical result of the thesis is the identification of a need for a raised awareness about language in schools and society. In the current situation it is hard to establish a discrete boundary dividing the language of students in the subject Swedish as a second language from the language of students in the subject Swedish, but differences can be observed, which in some sense resonates well with the definition of the subject given by the policy documents. Swedish as a second language in schools can be vaguely defined as Swedish with non-Swedish or foreign markers. The vague definition of the subject and the many linguistic conditions built into the subject entail that Swedish as a second language does not seem well-suited for anyone. Employing a combination of a traditional and an alternative view of language, as proposed in this thesis, may be a fruitful way to accommodate all students.

  • Rask-Andersen, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Löwenheim, Hubert
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Otolaryngol, Innsbruck, Austria.;Med Campus Univ Oldenburg Sch Med & Hlth Sci, European Med Sch, Oldenburg, Germany.;Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Res Ctr Neurosensory Sci, Oldenburg, Germany.;Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Tubingen Hearing Res Ctr, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, DE-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Mueller, Marcus
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Otolaryngol, Innsbruck, Austria.;Med Campus Univ Oldenburg Sch Med & Hlth Sci, European Med Sch, Oldenburg, Germany.;Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Res Ctr Neurosensory Sci, Oldenburg, Germany.;Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Tubingen Hearing Res Ctr, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, DE-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Pfaller, Kristian
    Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Cluster Excellence Hearing4all, Oldenburg, Germany..
    Schrott-Fischer, Annelies
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Inst Anat & Histol, Dept Histol & Mol Cell Biol, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Glueckert, Rudolf
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Inst Anat & Histol, Dept Histol & Mol Cell Biol, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Supernumerary human hair cells-signs of regeneration or impaired development?: A field emission scanning electron microscopy study2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, 11-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current attempts to regenerate cochlear sensorineural structures motivate further inspection of the human organ of hearing. Here, we analyzed the supernumerary inner hair cell (sIHC), a possible sign of regeneration and cell replacement. Methods: Human cochleae were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; maximum resolution 2 nm) obtained from individuals aged 44, 48, and 58 years with normal sensorineural pure-tone average (PTA) thresholds (PTA < 20 dB). The wasted tissue was harvested during trans-cochlear approaches and immediately fixed for ultrastructural analysis. Results: All specimens exhibited sIHCs at all turns except at the extreme lower basal turn. In one specimen, it was possible to image and count the inner hair cells (IHCs) along the cochlea representing the 0.2 kHz-8 kHz region according to the Greenwood place/frequency scale. In a region with 2,321 IHCs, there were 120 scattered one-cell losses or 'gaps' (5%). Forty-two sIHCs were present facing the modiolus. Thirty-eight percent of the sIHCs were located near a 'gap' in the IHC row (+/- 6 IHCs). Conclusions: The prevalence of ectopic inner hair cells was higher than expected. The morphology and placement could reflect a certain ongoing regeneration. Further molecular studies are needed to verify if the regenerative capacity of the human auditory periphery might have been underestimated.

  • Millischer, V
    et al.
    Erhardt, S
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Forsell, Y
    Lavebratt, C
    Twelve-week physical exercise does not have a long-lasting effect on kynurenines in plasma of depressed patients2017In: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 13, 967-972 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans.

    Materials and methods: Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities. The patients were part of the Regassa study.

    Results: No differences in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA or in their ratio could be detected between before and after training. No effect of the intensity group could be observed. No correlation with the improvement in cardiovascular fitness (Åstrand score) or the improvement in mood (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score) could be observed.

    Limitations: As the Regassa study is based on an intention-to-treat protocol, the exact time and the exact intensity of the physical exercise are not known. Analyses of pulse data as well as personal interviews, however, were used to control the exercise protocols. Furthermore, the observations reflect chronic changes.

    Conclusion: Physical exercise positively affects mood and cardiovascular fitness, but does not lead to long-lasting changes in plasma levels of kynurenine and KYNA in patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression.

  • Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärarkrav och ekonomisk styrning: 1990-talets utbildningsreformer i ljuset avvälfärdsstatens förvandling2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 233-247 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Hultqvist, Greta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Syvänen, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Fang, Xiaotian T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bivalent Brain Shuttle Increases Antibody Uptake by Monovalent Binding to the Transferrin Receptor2017In: Theranostics, ISSN 1838-7640, E-ISSN 1838-7640, Vol. 7, no 2, 308-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an obstacle for antibody passage into the brain, impeding the development of immunotherapy and antibody-based diagnostics for brain disorders. In the present study, we have developed a brain shuttle for active transport of antibodies across the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis. We have thus recombinantly fused two single-chain variable fragments (scFv) of the transferrin receptor (TfR) antibody 8D3 to the light chains of mAb158, an antibody selectively binding to A beta protofibrils, which are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the two TfR binders, a monovalent interaction with TfR was achieved due to the short linkers that sterically hinder bivalent binding to the TfR dimer. The design enabled efficient receptor-mediated brain uptake of the fusion protein. Two hours after administration, brain concentrations were 2-3% of the injected dose per gram brain, comparable to small molecular drugs and 80-fold higher than unmodified mAb158. After three days, fusion protein concentrations in AD transgenic mouse brains were 9-fold higher than in wild type mice, demonstrating high in vivo specificity. Thus, our innovative recombinant design markedly increases mAb158 brain uptake, which makes it a strong candidate for improved Aa immunotherapy and as a PET radioligand for early diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effect in AD. Moreover, this approach could be applied to any target within the brain.

  • Prytz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nya matematiken – revolutionen som uteblev: En reform i övergången från centraliserad tilldecentraliserad styrning av skolan, 1960–19802017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring. / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 189-210 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Ludviksdottir, Dora
    et al.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Allergy, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Valtysdottir, Sigridur Th.
    Univ Hosp, Ctr Rheumatol Res, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hällgren, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gudbjornsson, Bjorn
    Univ Hosp, Ctr Rheumatol Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Eight-year follow-up of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, 51-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate in a longitudinal study the influence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) on lung function in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Methods: Lung function was studied over an eight-year period in 15 patients who fulfilled the Copenhagen criteria for primary Sjogren's syndrome and who were covered in our earlier published study on AHR in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Standard spirometry and measurements of lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DLCO), and AHR to methacholine were performed. Results: A significant decline over time was found in total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and expiratory midflows (FEF50). A sign of small airway obstruction (decrease in FEF50) at entry correlated with VC at follow-up (r = .8, P < .003), and the individual change in FEF50 during the observation period correlated with the individual change in VC (r = .6, P < .05). Six patients had increased AHR, and three of them had decreased DLCO. Six of the patients progressively reduced DLCO over time, and five of them had spirometric signs of increased small airway obstruction. Conclusions: During this eight-year follow-up we observed that one-third of the patients with pSS developed a significant reduction in lung function. Our findings suggest that small airways obstruction and AHR are associated with reduction of VC and development of impaired DLCO as a sign of interstitial lung disease in this group of patients.

  • Mattlar, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inbördeskriget som historiedidaktiskt dilemma: – en analys av gestaltningar av det finskainbördeskriget i finsk- och svenskspråkiga historieläroböcker 1960–20112017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 163-188 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Larsson, Germund
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rökningens revolution: – från förbud till rökruta2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berb, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 119-137 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 E3, Stockholm
    Kucheev, Yury
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Shooting Stars: The Value of Ranked Analysts' Recommendations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial analysts play a key role in collecting, processing and disseminating information for the stock market. Selecting the best analysts among thousands of analysts is an important task for investors that determines future investment profitability. Extensive research has been dedicated to finding the best analysts of the market based on various criteria for different clienteles. The state of the art approach in this process has developed into so-called Star Rankings with lists of top analysts who have previously outperformed their peers. How useful are such star rankings? Do the recommendations of stars have higher investment value than the recommendations of non-stars (i.e., recommendations of Stars “shoot” more precisely before and after selection)? Or do star rankings simply represent the past performance that will regress to the mean in the future (i.e., in reality, Shooting Stars are not stars and quickly disappear from the sky)?

    The aim of this Ph.D. thesis is to empirically investigate the performance of sell-side analysts’ recommendations by focusing on a group of star analysts. This thesis comprises four papers that address two overarching questions. (1) Do star rankings capture any true skill, and, thus, can investors rely on the rankings? (Papers I and II) (2) How do market conditions impact star analysts? (Papers III and IV)

    Paper I examines the profitability persistence of the investment recommendations from analysts who are listed in the four different star rankings of Institutional Investor magazine, StarMine’s “Top Earnings Estimators”, “Top Stock Pickers” and The Wall Street Journal and shows the predictive power of each evaluation methodology. By investigating the precision of the signals that the various methodologies use in determining who the stars are, the study distinguishes between the star-selection methodologies that capture short-term stock-picking profitability and the methodologies that emphasize the more persistent skills of star analysts. As a result, this study documents that there are star-selection methods that select analysts based on more enduring analyst skills, and, thus, the performance of these methods’ stars persists even after ranking announcements. The results indicate that the choice of analyst ranking is economically important in making investment decisions.

    Paper II investigates the structure of the portfolios that are built on the recommendations of sell-side analysts and confirms that the abnormal returns are explained primarily by analysts’ stock-picking ability and only partially by the effect of over-weight in small-cap stocks. The study examines the number of stocks in the portfolios and the weights that are assigned to market-cap size deciles and GICS sectors and performs an attribution analysis that identifies the sources of overall value-added performance.

    Paper III examines the differences in seasonal patterns in the expected returns on target prices between star and non-star analysts. Although the market returns in the sample period do not possess any of the investigated seasonal effects, the results show that both groups of analysts, stars and non-stars, exhibit seasonal patterns and issue more optimistic target prices during the summer, with non-stars being more optimistic than stars. Interestingly, the results show that analysts are highly optimistic in May, which contradicts the adage “Sell in May and go away” but is consistent with the notion of a trade-generating hypothesis: since analysts face a conflict of interests, they may issue biased recommendations and target prices to generate a trade. A detailed analysis reveals that the optimism cycle is related to the calendar of companies’ earnings announcements rather than the market-specific effects.

    Paper IV discusses how a shift in economic conditions affects the competitiveness of sell-side analysts. The focus is on the changes that were triggered by the financial crisis of 2007-2009 and a post-crisis “uncertainty” period from 2010-2013. The study follows Bagnoli et al. (2008) in using a change in the turnover of rankings as a measure of a transformation in analysts’ competitive advantages. Paper IV extends their research and documents how different ranking systems capture analysts’ ability to handle changes in the economic environment. The results show that market conditions impact analyst groups differently, depending on the group’s competitive advantages.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:00 Hörsal E04, byggnad 6E, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Lundberg, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Molecular understanding of KRAS- and BRAF-mutated colorectal cancers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy in both men and women, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. One frequently mutated pathway involved in oncogenesis in CRC is the RAS/RAF/MAP kinase pathway. Oncogenic activation of KRAS and BRAF occur in 30‒40% and 5‒15% of all CRCs, respectively, and the mutations are mutually exclusive. Even though KRAS and BRAF are known to act in the same pathway, KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs have different clinical and histopathological features. For example, BRAF mutation in CRC is tightly linked to microsatellite instability (MSI) and a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), which is not seen in KRAS-mutated tumours. BRAF-mutated CRCs are also more often found in right-sided tumours. However, the underlying molecular reasons for these differences have not yet been defined.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate molecular differences between KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs to understand how KRAS and BRAF mutations differentially affect tumour progression. We used an in vitro cell culture system to explore molecular differences between KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs and verified our findings using CRC tissue specimens from the Colorectal Cancer in Umeå Study (CRUMS).

    We found that BRAF mutation, but not KRAS mutation, was associated with expression of the stem cell factor SOX2. Furthermore, SOX2 was found to be correlated to a poor patient prognosis, especially in BRAF-mutated cancers. We further investigated the role of BRAF in regulation of SOX2 expression and found that SOX2 is at least partly regulated by BRAF in vitro. We continued by investigating the functional role of SOX2 in CRC and found that SOX2-expressing cells shared several characteristics with cancer stem cells, and also had down-regulated expression of the intestinal epithelial marker CDX2. There was a strong correlation between loss of CDX2 expression and poor patient prognosis, and patients with SOX2 expression were found to have a particularly poor prognosis when CDX2 levels were down-regulated. In conclusion, in these studies we identified a subgroup of BRAF-mutated CRCs with a particularly poor prognosis, and having a cancer stem cell-like appearance with increased expression of SOX2 and decreased expression of CDX2.

    Tumour progression is regulated by interactions with cells of the immune system. We found that BRAF-mutated CRCs were more highly infiltrated by Th1 lymphocytes than BRAF wild-type tumours, while the opposite was true for KRAS-mutated CRCs. Interestingly, we found that part of this difference is probably caused by differences in secreted chemokines and cytokines between KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs, stimulating different arms of the immune response.

    Altered levels of expression of miRNAs have been seen in several malignancies, including CRC. We found that BRAF- and KRAS-mutated CRCs showed miRNA signatures different from those of wild-type CRCs, but the expression of miRNAs did not distinguish KRAS-mutated tumours from BRAF-mutated tumours.

    In summary, our findings have revealed possible molecular differences between KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs that may explain some of the differences in their clinical and histopathological behaviour.

  • Björklund, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Playing to learn or learning as a prerequisite to play?: an example of mathematical learning content2017In: NERA 2017 Abstracts: Learning and education – material conditions and consequences: 23-25 March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2017, 125Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Rajan, Kanna
    et al.
    Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Towards a science of integrated AI and Robotics2017In: Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0004-3702, E-ISSN 1872-7921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early promise of the impact of machine intelligence did not involve the partitioning of the nascent field of Artificial Intelligence. The founders of AI envisioned the notion of embedded intelligence as being conjoined between perception, reasoning and actuation. Yet over the years the fields of AI and Robotics drifted apart. Practitioners of AI focused on problems and algorithms abstracted from the real world. Roboticists, generally with a background in mechanical and electrical engineering, concentrated on sensori-motor functions. That divergence is slowly being bridged with the maturity of both fields and with the growing interest in autonomous systems. This special issue brings together the state of the art and practice of the emergent field of integrated AI and Robotics, and highlights the key areas along which this current evolution of machine intelligence is heading.

  • Söderquist, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Melatonin and its receptors in the normal human gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Melatonin, “the hormone of darkness” is well known to regulate sleep and circadian rhythm. However, melatonin is also present in numerous peripheral tissues and the number of actions assigned to this neurohormone is growing steadily. Based on animal studies, it has been proposed that gastrointestinal melatonin is produced in enterochromaffin cells.

    The aims were to characterise the expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2 in normal human gastrointestinal tract and pancreas as well as in tumours derived from enterochromaffin cells, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NET), using immunohistochemistry. Melatonin and receptor expression was furthermore compared to clinical symptoms, tumour prognostic factors and treatment response.

    In enterochromaffin cells from normal gastrointestinal tissue and in SI-NETs a strong immunoreactivity (IR) for melatonin and MT2 was found, while MT1 IR was low or absent. Melatonin, MT1 and MT2 IR was also seen in the large intestinal epithelium of normal gastrointestinal tract and in pancreatic islets, although the expression of MT1 in pancreatic tissue varied. Analyses of mRNA data confirmed the expression of the enzymes needed for melatonin synthesis as well as MT1 and MT2 in small intestine and pancreas.

    The intensity of melatonin IR in SI-NETs correlated to lower proliferation index and less symptoms of diarrhoea, which is well in line with the proposed actions of melatonin described in nimal studies. The intensity of MT2 IR was generally lower in metastases than in primary tumours. Plasma levels of melatonin in patients with SI-NETs and disease stabilisation/remission were reduced after treatment and higher levels were associated with nausea.

    In conclusion, melatonin and its receptors are present in the normal human gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and in SI-NETs. Melatonin IR intensity in tumours correlated significantly to less diarrhoea and to lower proliferation index. Plasma levels of melatonin in patients with SI-NETs were reduced with treatment response, indicating a possible tumour-derived origin of circulating melatonin levels.

    These results are in agreement with the suggested actions of melatonin on gastrointestinal motility and tumour growth.

  • Dahlberg, Therese
    Stockholm University of the Arts, The Department for Acting.
    DOKUMENTATION: RÖRELSELEKTOR ALEKSANDRA CZARNECKI PLAUDES ARBETEMAGISTERPROGRAMMET FRÅN TROJA TILL VERDUN 2013 – 20142014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag som dokumenterat Aleksandras arbete heter Therese Dahlberg. Jag följde Aleksandras arbete med hennes studenter under första hälften av höstterminen 2013.Arbetet tog studenterna och Aleksandra på en resa till Belgien och Frankrike men framför allt har de färdatspå minnets vägar. Med kollektiv trafik. Det kollektiva minnets färdmedel.Jag har följt med som en nyfiken medresenär. Jag har använt kameran för att fånga bilder, videofilmen för attfånga skeenden och pennan för att fånga reflektioner. Detta är den skriftliga delen med utvalda fotografieroch till de flesta passager finns ytterligare bilder och dessutom rörligt material. Dokumentationen är tänktsom en uppsamling av material inför Aleksandras fortsatta arbete i hennes konstnärliga utvecklingsprojekt –Kroppen som instrument - På spaning efter nya kroppsliga kompetenser.

  • Edgren, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kungsådran av den lilla läroanstaltens bildning: – 1870-talets pedagogiska förväntningar på Läsebok för folkskolan2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 95-118 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Gottlieb, Halina
    et al.
    Stockholm University of the Arts, The Film and Media Department. V4M VISIONS FOR MUSEUMS.
    Henningsson, Paul
    Stockholm University of the Arts, The Film and Media Department.
    Digitala medier för besökare på museer2004 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • Berg, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    En demokratisk revolution: De tidiga arbetarorganisationerna och formandet av demokrater från 1840-tal till 1880-tal2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 61-93 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)