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  • Sharma, Vaibhav
    et al.
    AIIMS, Dept Biophys, New Delhi, India.
    Srinivasan, Alagiri
    Jamia Hamdard, Dept Biochem, New Delhi, India.
    Roychoudhury, Ajoy
    AIIMS, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Surg, CDER, New Delhi, India.
    Rani, Komal
    AIIMS, Dept Biophys, New Delhi, India.
    Tyagi, Mitali
    AIIMS, Dept Biophys, New Delhi, India.
    Dev, Kapil
    Jamia Milia Islamia, Dept Biotechnol, New Delhi, India.
    Nikolajeff, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kumar, Saroj
    AIIMS, Dept Biophys, New Delhi, India.
    Characterization of protein extracts from different types of human teeth and insight in biomineralization2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes an efficient method for isolation and purification of protein extracts from four types of human teeth i.e. molar, premolar, canine, and incisor. Detailed structural characterization of these protein extracts was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which showed that a major fraction of the proteins present are unstructured in nature including primarily random coils in addition to the other structures like extended beta (beta) structure, poly-l-proline-type II (PPII) helix, turns, with only a small fraction constituting of ordered structures like alpha (alpha) helix and beta sheets. These resultant labile structures give the proteins the necessary flexibility that they require to interact with a variety of substrates including different ions like calcium and phosphates and for other protein-protein interactions. We also did initial studies on the mineralization of calcium phosphate with the protein extracts. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) show an increase in the size of calcium phosphate accumulation in the presence of protein extracts. We propose that protein extracts elevate the crystallization process of calcium phosphate. Our current biophysical study provides novel insights into the structural characterization of proteins from human teeth and their implications in understanding the tooth biomineralization. As per our knowledge, this is the first report which focuses on the whole protein extraction from different types of human teeth as these extracts imitate the in vivo tooth mineralization.

  • Alerstam, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bäckman, Johan
    Lund University.
    Johanna, Grönroos
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för miljö- och biovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Patrik
    Heberg, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Roine
    Lund University.
    Hypotheses and tracking results about the longest migration: the case of the arctic tern2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arctic tern Sterna paradisaea completes the longest known annual return migration on Earth, traveling between breeding sites in the northern arctic and temperate regions and survival/molt areas in the Antarctic pack‐ice zone. Salomonsen (1967, Biologiske Meddelelser, Copenhagen Danske Videnskabernes Selskab24, 1) put forward a hypothetical comprehensive interpretation of this global migration pattern, suggesting food distribution, wind patterns, sea ice distribution, and molt habits as key ecological and evolutionary determinants. We used light‐level geolocators to record 12 annual journeys by eight individuals of arctic terns breeding in the Baltic Sea. Migration cycles were evaluated in light of Salomonsen's hypotheses and compared with results from geolocator studies of arctic tern populations from Greenland, Netherlands, and Alaska. The Baltic terns completed a 50,000 km annual migration circuit, exploiting ocean regions of high productivity in the North Atlantic, Benguela Current, and the Indian Ocean between southern Africa and Australia (sometimes including the Tasman Sea). They arrived about 1 November in the Antarctic zone at far easterly longitudes (in one case even at the Ross Sea) subsequently moving westward across 120–220 degrees of longitude toward the Weddell Sea region. They departed from here in mid‐March on a fast spring migration up the Atlantic Ocean. The geolocator data revealed unexpected segregation in time and space between tern populations in the same flyway. Terns from the Baltic and Netherlands traveled earlier and to significantly more easterly longitudes in the Indian Ocean and Antarctic zone than terns from Greenland. We suggest an adaptive explanation for this pattern. The global migration system of the arctic tern offers an extraordinary possibility to understand adaptive values and constraints in complex pelagic life cycles, as determined by environmental conditions (marine productivity, wind patterns, low‐pressure trajectories, pack‐ice distribution), inherent factors (flight performance, molt, flocking), and effects of predation/piracy and competition.

  • Ablikim, M.
    et al.
    Adlarson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Biernat, Jacek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Ikegami Andersson, Walter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Johansson, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Kupsc, Andrzej
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Li, Cui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Papenbrock, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Pettersson, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Schönning, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Thorén, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Wolke, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Zou, J. H.
    Observation of psi(3686) -> p(p)over-bar phi2019In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 99, no 11, article id 112010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a data sample of 4.48 x 10(8) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, we present a first observation of psi(3686) -> p (p) over bar phi, and we measure its branching fraction to be [6.06 +/- 0.38(stat)+/- 0.48(syst)] x 10(-6). In contrast to the earlier discovery of a threshold enhancement in the p (p) over bar -mass spectrum of the channel j/psi -> gamma p (p) over bar, denoted as X(p (p) over bar), we do not find a similar enhancement in psi(3686) -> p (p) over bar phi. An upper limit of 1.82 x 10(-7) at the 90% confidence level on the branching fraction of psi(3686) -> X(p (p) over bar)phi -> p (p) over bar phi is obtained.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-12 13:00 F3, Stockholm
    Bütepage, Judith
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Generative models for action generation and action understanding2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to build intelligent machines raises the question of how to rep-resent the world to enable intelligent behavior. In nature, this representation relies onthe interplay between an organism’s sensory input and motor input. Action-perceptionloops allow many complex behaviors to arise naturally. In this work, we take these sen-sorimotor contingencies as an inspiration to build robot systems that can autonomouslyinteract with their environment and with humans. The goal is to pave the way for robotsystems that can learn motor control in an unsupervised fashion and relate their ownsensorimotor experience to observed human actions. By combining action generationand action understanding we hope to facilitate smooth and intuitive interaction betweenrobots and humans in shared work spaces.To model robot sensorimotor contingencies and human behavior we employ gen-erative models. Since generative models represent a joint distribution over relevantvariables, they are flexible enough to cover the range of tasks that we are tacklinghere. Generative models can represent variables that originate from multiple modali-ties, model temporal dynamics, incorporate latent variables and represent uncertaintyover any variable - all of which are features required to model sensorimotor contin-gencies. By using generative models, we can predict the temporal development of thevariables in the future, which is important for intelligent action selection.We present two lines of work. Firstly, we will focus on unsupervised learning ofmotor control with help of sensorimotor contingencies. Based on Gaussian Processforward models we demonstrate how the robot can execute goal-directed actions withthe help of planning techniques or reinforcement learning. Secondly, we present anumber of approaches to model human activity, ranging from pure unsupervised mo-tion prediction to including semantic action and affordance labels. Here we employdeep generative models, namely Variational Autoencoders, to model the 3D skeletalpose of humans over time and, if required, include semantic information. These twolines of work are then combined to implement physical human-robot interaction tasks.Our experiments focus on real-time applications, both when it comes to robot ex-periments and human activity modeling. Since many real-world scenarios do not haveaccess to high-end sensors, we require our models to cope with uncertainty. Additionalrequirements are data-efficient learning, because of the wear and tear of the robot andhuman involvement, online employability and operation under safety and complianceconstraints. We demonstrate how generative models of sensorimotor contingencies canhandle these requirements in our experiments satisfyingly.

  • Halvorsen, Cecilia Pegelow
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Res & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden;Sachs Children & Youth Hosp, Neonatal Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olson, Linus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;TRAC Sweden Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Araujo, Ana Catarina
    Calmark Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Calmark Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Trang Thi
    Khu, Dung T. K.
    TRAC Sweden Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam;Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Le, Ha T. T.
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam;Res Inst Child Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Hoa T. B.
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam;Res Inst Child Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Winbladh, Birger
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Res & Educ, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Nanobiotechnol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth,Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A rapid smartphone-based lactate dehydrogenase test for neonatal diagnostics at the point of care2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for detecting critical neonatal illnesses to reduce the mortality rate in newborns, especially in low-income countries, which account for 98 percent of reported neonatal deaths. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a marker of cellular damage as a result of hypoxia-ischemia in affected organs. Here, we describe and test a POC LDH test direct from whole blood to provide early indication of serious illness in the neonate. The sample-inresult- out POC platform is specifically designed to meet the needs at resource-limited settings. Plasma is separated from whole blood on filter paper with dried-down reagents for colorimetric reaction, combined with software for analysis using a smartphone. The method was clinically tested in newborns in two different settings. In a clinical cohort of newborns of Stockholm (n = 62) and Hanoi (n = 26), the value of R using Pearson's correlation test was 0.91 (p < 0.01) and the R-2 = 0.83 between the two methods. The mean LDH (+/- SD) for the reference method vs. the POC-LDH was 551 (+/- 280) U/L and 552 (+/- 249) U/L respectively, indicating the clinical value of LDH values measured in minutes with the POC was comparable with standardized laboratory analyses.

  • Sorensen, Julie
    et al.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jerdén, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dalton, James
    Sheikh, Henna
    Jenkins, Paul
    May, John
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health-Care Administrator Perspectives on Prevention Guidelines and Healthy Lifestyle Counseling in a Primary Care Setting in New York State2019In: HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH AND MANAGERIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN 2333-3928, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 2333392819862122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The incidence of chronic disease and treatment costs have been steadily increasing in the United States over the past few decades. Primary prevention and healthy lifestyle counseling have been identified as important strategies for reducing health-care costs and chronic disease prevalence. This article seeks to examine decision-makers' experiences and self-perceived roles in guideline and lifestyle counseling implementation in a primary care setting in the United States. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with administrators at a health-care network in Upstate New York and with state-level administrators, such as insurers. Decision-makers were asked to discuss prevention guidelines and healthy lifestyle counseling, as well as how they support implementation of these initiatives. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis framework and relevant sections of text were sorted using a priori codes. Results: Interviews identified numerous barriers to guideline implementation. These included the complexity and profusion of guidelines, the highly politicized nature of health-care provision, and resistance from providers who sometimes prefer to make decisions autonomously. Barriers to supporting prevention counseling included relatively time-limited patient encounters, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for counseling, lack of patient resources, and regulatory complexities. Conclusions: Our research indicates that administrators and administrative structures face barriers to supporting prevention activities such as guideline implementation and healthy lifestyle counseling in primary care settings. They also identified several solutions for addressing existing primary prevention barriers, such as relying on nurses to provide healthy lifestyle support to patients. This article provides an important assessment of institutional readiness to support primary prevention efforts.

  • Dederichs, Anne (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. DTU Technical University of Denmark.
    Zawadowska, Aleksandra (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hemmarö, Linnea (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days: Book of abstracts from the NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days 20-21 August 2019 in Copenhagen, Denmark2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is our pleasure to hand over to you this book of abstracts for the Nordic Fire & SafetyDays 2019 organized by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden in collaboration Technical University of Denmark, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Lund University, Aalto University, Luleå University, University of Stavanger, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences and Iceland University as well as VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd and Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology.We are very proud to present the abstracts of 63 Nordic and international contributions in the present book of abstracts. The work demonstrates a significant scientific depth and societal relevance. The conference is a response to the extensive interest in the areas of fire and safety engineering in the Nordic countries in the past decades. As the programme and the abstracts show, the NFSD follow up on challenges with respect to safety dealing with aspects of fire and human behaviour as well as rescue service and risk management.

    Anne S. Dederichs, RISE Research Institutes of SwedenConference chair

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Identification of Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Models Using Estimating Functions2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data-driven modeling of stochastic nonlinear systems is recognized as a very challenging problem, even when reduced to a parameter estimation problem. A main difficulty is the intractability of the likelihood function, which renders favored estimation methods, such as the maximum likelihood method, analytically intractable. During the last decade, several numerical methods have been developed to approximately solve the maximum likelihood problem. A class of algorithms that attracted considerable attention is based on sequential Monte Carlo algorithms (also known as particle filters/smoothers) and particle Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. These algorithms were able to obtain impressive results on several challenging benchmark problems; however, their application is so far limited to cases where fundamental limitations, such as the sample impoverishment and path degeneracy problems, can be avoided.

    This thesis introduces relatively simple alternative parameter estimation methods that may be used for fairly general stochastic nonlinear dynamical models. They are based on one-step-ahead predictors that are linear in the observed outputs and do not require the computations of the likelihood function. Therefore, the resulting estimators are relatively easy to compute and may be highly competitive in this regard: they are in fact defined by analytically tractable objective functions in several relevant cases. In cases where the predictors are analytically intractable due to the complexity of the model, it is possible to resort to {plain} Monte Carlo approximations. Under certain assumptions on the data and some conditions on the model, the convergence and consistency of the estimators can be established. Several numerical simulation examples and a recent real-data benchmark problem demonstrate a good performance of the proposed method, in several cases that are considered challenging, with a considerable reduction in computational time in comparison with state-of-the-art sequential Monte Carlo implementations of the ML estimator.

    Moreover, we provide some insight into the asymptotic properties of the proposed methods. We show that the accuracy of the estimators depends on the model parameterization and the shape of the unknown distribution of the outputs (via the third and fourth moments). In particular, it is shown that when the model is non-Gaussian, a prediction error method based on the Gaussian assumption is not necessarily more accurate than one based on an optimally weighted parameter-independent quadratic norm. Therefore, it is generally not obvious which method should be used. This result comes in contrast to a current belief in some of the literature on the subject. 

    Furthermore, we introduce the estimating functions approach, which was mainly developed in the statistics literature, as a generalization of the maximum likelihood and prediction error methods. We show how it may be used to systematically define optimal estimators, within a predefined class, using only a partial specification of the probabilistic model. Unless the model is Gaussian, this leads to estimators that are asymptotically uniformly more accurate than linear prediction error methods when quadratic criteria are used. Convergence and consistency are established under standard regularity and identifiability assumptions akin to those of prediction error methods.

    Finally, we consider the problem of closed-loop identification when the system is stochastic and nonlinear. A couple of scenarios given by the assumptions on the disturbances, the measurement noise and the knowledge of the feedback mechanism are considered. They include a challenging case where the feedback mechanism is completely unknown to the user. Our methods can be regarded as generalizations of some classical closed-loop identification approaches for the linear time-invariant case. We provide an asymptotic analysis of the methods, and demonstrate their properties in a simulation example.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-09 10:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Larsson, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Att översätta Lean till praktik i hälso- och sjukvården2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has been widely discussed and introduced in Sweden as well as internationally. This thesis deals with the question of how Lean has been translated from idea into practice in healthcare. It contributes to Scandinavian institutional theory, more specifically translation theory. The thesis shows how Lean is translated at the micro level, i.e. at two healthcare units that deal directly with patients. Lean is quite a broad and flexible management idea. In this thesis Lean has been specified into the central concepts of value and flow. The thesis focuses on how these concepts have been translated in healthcare, investigating the role of translators and arenas in local translation processes at the micro level. The thesis is based on a comparative case study of two healthcare units, at two different hospitals, within public healthcare. In 2009 the healthcare units started to implement Lean with the aim that they would improve patient flow and increase quality. The thesis includes a vast number of internal documents, interviews and observations. It also includes a follow-up of the two cases a few years after the initial interviews were carried out. The study presents a number of contributions. Analysis shows that the local translation process in each case resulted in a mutual adaptation between Lean and practice. Furthermore, the introduction of Lean didn´t change the work of the units completely. Lean was translated in a way that supported how the units were organized already before the introduction of Lean instead of changing them. The analysis also shows that the translation of Lean was not isolated within the healthcare units, but spilled over into and was influenced by the surrounding context, both to the private sphere and to other organizations. The findings indicate that translation is something that is going on everywhere, all the time and that the connection between the public and the private sphere, through conversations and small talk about Lean, can be a way of spreading and translating ideas. The introduction of Lean at the units started as a top-down process. But Lean was also translated horizontally to and from friends and family members who had met Lean in other contexts. The translators and arenas at the micro-level filled an important function in the way in which Lean was translated into practice in the operational core where small talk and discussions seemed to be important. But in addition to this the thesis also shows that an actor in a formal position is required to add energy and drive the work with Lean forward.

  • Wøien, Mari
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Is the coast clear?: The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalisation is impacting various facets of society and holds great potential in radically changing the ways businesses are operating. Despite these radical changes, little has been said about the impact of digitalisation on micro-, small and medium-sized businesses within the marine sector.

    To close this gap, this complimentary report, Is the coast clear? The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund is a follow-up study of Randal and Berlina’s report Governing the digital transition in Nordic regions: The human element (2019).

    The latter report was written on behalf of the Nordic thematic group for innovative and resilient regions 2017–2020, under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Civil Servants for Regional Affairs.

    The present, complimentary study on digitalisation and blue growth has been developed on behalf of the Nordic thematic working group’s member Svinesundskommittén (The Svinesund committee).

    The study explores what role digitalisation plays in the context of business development and growth in the marine sector in the Svinesund area; the different challenges and opportunities that surface in this context; and what role the Svinesund mega-region may play for the future of blue growth.

  • Svedbo Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Borg, Sixten
    Palaszewski, Bo
    Franzén, Stefan
    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia
    Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina
    Health-related quality of life and glycaemic control among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cross-sectional study2019In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related quality of life and glycaemic control are some of the central outcomes in clinical diabetes care and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related quality of life and assess its association with glycaemic control in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in a nationwide setting.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, people with type 1 (n = 2479) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2469) were selected at random without replacement from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Eligibility criteria were being aged 18–80 years with at least one registered test of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) the last 12 months. The generic 36- item Short Form version 2 (SF-36v2) was answered by 1373 (55.4%) people with type 1 diabetes and 1353 (54.8%) with type 2 diabetes.

    Results: Correlation analyses showed weak correlations between scores on the SF-36v2 and glycaemic control for both diabetes types. After the participants were divided into three groups based on their levels of HbA1c, multivariate regression analyses adjusted for demographics, other risk factors and diabetes complications showed that among participants with type 1 diabetes, the high-risk group (≥70 mmol/mol/8.6%) had statistically significantly lower means in five out of eight domains of the SF-36v2 and the mental component summary measure, as compared with the well-controlled group (< 52 mmol/mol/6.9%). Among the participants with type 2 diabetes, the high-risk group had the lowest statistically significantly means in seven domains and both summary measures.

    Conclusions: Among people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, adults with high-risk HbA1c levels have lower levels of health-related quality of life in most but not all domains of the SF-36v2. This finding was not explained by demographics, other risk factors, or diabetes complications. The weak individual-level correlations between HRQOL scores and levels of glycaemic control argues for the need to not focus exclusively on either HbA1c levels or HRQOL scores but rather on both because both are important parts of a complex, life-long, challenging condition.

  • Balachandran, Chanchal
    et al.
    The Netherlands.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University.
    Umans, Timurs
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Research environment Auditing, Organisation and Society (AOS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Business, Avdelningen för ekonomi. Jönköping University.
    National culture diversity in new venture boards: the role of founders' relational demography2019In: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract/Research Summary: This study explains the conditions underwhich new venture boards are less or more culturallydiverse in terms of their directors' country of birth. Longitudi-nal data on 5,515 Swedish ventures suggest that most direc-tors are recruited from founders' proximate social settings neighborhoods in which they reside and past workplaces and that diversity levels in these social settings strongly predict the national culture diversity in venture boards. Given the rapid internationalization of workplaces and region saround the world, this paper provides important clues regarding how culturally diverse upper echelons are being incorporated into the organizational design of new ventures.

    Managerial Summary: Most New Venture Boards exhibitlimited diversity in terms of their directors' country of birth, as they are drawn from the venture founders' network. Yet,some new venture boards are indeed born diverse. Our study reveals that founders with prior exposure to culturally diverse workplaces and residential neighborhoods are much more likely to design a culturally diverse board at founding. Given the rapid internationalization of workplaces andregions in most countries around the world, our paper provides important clues regarding how national culture diversity in top management emerges and is being incorporatedinto the organizational design of new ventures.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 13:15 sal IV, Uppsala
    Jönson Ring, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nocturnal enuresis and rapid maxillary expansion: – long-term effect, prognostic variables, respiration during sleep and quality of life2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The orthodontic technique rapid maxillary expansion (RME) has been reported to have a potentially curative effect on nocturnal enuresis (NE). The mechanism behind this is unknown but could possibly be due to placebo and/or effects on respiration during sleep. 

    Aim: This thesis aims to approach an answer to the following questions, with a randomized, placebo-controlled method: 1) Does rapid maxillary expansion have a curative effect on therapy-resistant NE? 2) Is the potential curative effect due to respiratory events that can be measured during sleep? 3) Do enuretic children have an impaired quality of life (QoL)?  

    Subjects & Methods: In study I we evaluated the QoL in enuretic children while assessing the test re-test reliability of a Swedish version of an established QoL questionnaire. Study II and IV assess respiration during sleep in children with NE; in study II comparisons are made with healthy control children and in study IV we evaluate the respiratory effects of RME. Study III is a randomized placebo-controlled study investigating whether RME is a useful therapy for NE and if the treatment effect is due to placebo.

    Results: Study I:The Swedish version of the questionnaire proved to be a reliable tool (Chronbach’s alpha 0.87) with excellent test-retest stability (ICC = 0.762). Enuresis affects the children’s QoL and interactions with peers.

    Study II:The hypopnea index (HI) and the oxygen desaturation index were both significantly higher in the enuretic children compared to the healthy controls, (p=0.04 and p=0.05) but all values fell within the normal range.

    Study III:RME resulted in a significant reduction in wet nights i.e. the mean number of wet nights out of 14 was 11.4 before and 9.2 after RME. (p=0.003) This was not observed in the placebo group (p=0.40).

    Study IV:There was a significant reduction of sleep efficiency during RME. (p=0.001) The mean HI was also affected. (p=0.005)

    Conclusions:

    Children with nocturnal enuresis have an impaired self-esteem and their quality of life is affected in their relationship with friends.

    There were no major differences in respiration during sleep between enuretic children and controls.

    Rapid maxillary expansion reduces the number of wet nights in children with enuresis, but the effect is of limited clinical value.

    The antienuretic effect does not seem to be due to a placebo effect of the appliance.

    The majority of the children in our study sample did not have sleep disordered breathing as a co-morbidity to their nocturnal enuresis. 

  • Anderson, Lotta
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Jönköping University.
    Ohlsson, Lisbeth
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap inriktning grundskola, gymnasium och specialpedagogik. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Characteristics of independent schools directed at students in need of special support: a study of school website presentation2019In: Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 317-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research was to explore how 55 Swedish independent schools, directed at (or limited to) students in need of special support (SNSS), describe their organisation, work and visions. The empirical data of the research consisted of the schools’ website presentations, which were processed and analysed in consecutive steps. The results showed that the students’ complicated school- and life situations were often combined with disabilities mainly in the neuropsychiatric field. The majority of the schools (76%) practiced both schooling and methods for treatment and care, differentiating their role from the mainstream track. Neuropsychiatric and psychological perspectives had a significant influence, reflected in how the schools describe their daily routines, therapeutic methods of treatment and access to specific categories of staff. Small groups, individual instruction and competent staff were described as specific features. Teaching content and didactic aspects were seldom highlighted. The focus on the websites was on socialisation and subjectification while qualification, i.e. knowledge development, had a more limited role. The study points to a need for further research exploring daily pedagogical practice in more depth and calls for a greater focus on student perspectives. Consequences for learning contexts are discussed in the concluding part of the article. The specialist role, the independent schools in the present study tended to take on are most urgent issues to discuss in an educational context striving for equity and inclusive learning environments. 

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 10:00 Lindahlsalen, Uppsala
    van der Valk, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genomics of population decline2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With human populations forecasted to grow in the next decades, many mammals face increasing anthropogenic threats. The consequential population declines are a precursor to extinctions, as small populations are not only more sensitive to stochastic events, but reduction in population size is generally also followed by a decrease in genetic diversity, which in turn reduces adaptive potential and fitness of the population. By using molecular methods I aimed to estimate the magnitude of the genomic consequences as a result of rapid population declines with a focus on the endangered eastern gorillas. First, I genotyped Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) faecal samples, which revealed lower genetic diversity and high differentiation in the peripheral compared to the central populations, indicating a strong effect of genetic drift and limited gene flow among the small, isolated forest fragments (Chapter 1). Next, by using a target capture approach I obtained complete mitochondrial genomes from degraded Grauer’s and mountain (Gorilla beringei beringei) gorilla faecal and museum samples (Chapter 2) which showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity within the last century in Grauer’s gorillas, mainly driven by the extinction of peripheral populations (Chapter 3). Genome-wide sequence data from historical samples suggests that this loss has also affected the nuclear genome, as modern Grauer’s gorillas carry on average more genetic variants with putatively negative fitness consequences than historically. No significant temporal changes were observed in the closely related mountain gorillas, which might be due to their contrasting demographic history (Chapter 4). I then switched study species to the endangered Dryas monkey and find that, despite its possible small population size, the current Dryas monkey population is genetically diverse with low levels of inbreeding and as such likely viable in the long-term if appropriate conservation measures are taken (Chapter 5). Finally, I aimed to estimate the strength of genetic purging across a range of mammalian species. This revealed that although genetic purging might be common among endangered species, it mainly acts on long evolutionary time scales with limited strength during the rapid population declines as experienced by many species today (Chapter 6).

  • Johansson, Sandra
    et al.
    Golub, Koraljka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    LibraryThing for Libraries: How Tag Moderation and Size Limitations Affect Tag Clouds2019In: Knowledge organization, ISSN 0943-7444, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 245-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse differences between tags on LibraryThing’s web page and tag clouds in their “LibraryThing for Libraries” service, and assess if, and how, the LibraryThing tag moderation and limitations to the size of the tag cloud in the library catalogue affect the description of the information resource. An e-mail survey was conducted with personnel at LibraryThing, and the results were compared against tags for twenty different fiction books, collected from two different library catalogues with disparate tag cloud sizes, and LibraryThing’s web page. The data were analysed using a modified version of Golder and Huberman’s tag categories (2006). The results show that while LibraryThing claims to only remove the inherently personal tags, several other types of tags are found to have been discarded as well. Occasionally a certain type of tag is included in one book, and excluded in another. The comparison between the two tag cloud sizes suggests that the larger tag clouds provide a more pronounced picture regarding the contents of the book but at the cost of an increase in the number of tags with synonymous or redundant information.

  • Landqvist, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Semiotic spaces in antidiscriminatory political discourse: Naming practices as indexes2019In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the semiotic spaces occupied by organizations working against discrimination in Sweden. Expressions of identity, norm critique, and political goals are studied in relation to word production and language policy and planning. The study departs from interviews with representatives from three organizations within the hbtqi, antiracist, and disability movements. Other resources connected to them have also been analyzed, such as glossaries. Theoretically, this study draws on Yuri Lotman's concept of semiospheres, allowing the analysis to weigh in the whole semiotic process, including meaning production, policy work, and concrete word production. This approach completes an analysis of indexical orders. The results show that (a) organizations are aware of the importance of linguistic choices, (b) when new concepts and words are spread to the public, tension can arise and sometimes objections, and (c) word meanings change when used in public discourse. (Language policy and planning, semiosphere, indexical order, hbtqi, antiracism, disability, discrimination). 

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 09:15 C2:305, Uppsala
    Carvalho, Carla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    The Role of Kidney Oxygen Homeostasis for the Development of Kidney Disease2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between oxygen supply and demand determines tissue oxygen tension (PO2). When intrarenal tissue PO2 decreases, any compensatory increase in oxygen supply via increased renal blood flow is likely to increase glomerular filtration rate. The resulting increased tubular load of electrolytes destined for active transport increases oxygen consumption, thus affecting intrarenal tissue PO2. Consequently, the kidney is particularly sensitive to alterations in oxygen homeostasis and kidney hypoxia is acknowledged as a common pathway to end stage renal disease. Different factors that can affect intrarenal oxygen homeostasis, including alterations in blood pressure and sodium intake dietary or pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, anemia or atherosclerosis. This thesis focuses on understanding how these factors influence kidney oxygen homeostasis.

    Pronounced reduction in sodium intake caused tissue hypoxia in kidney cortex via activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leading to increased tubular sodium reabsorption. Angiotensin II and aldosterone affect kidney oxygen handling differently. Whereas angiotensin II mainly affects kidney oxygen delivery, aldosterone mainly affects oxygen consumption.

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system is a cellular defense mechanism against prolonged hypoxia. Although diabetes causes intrarenal hypoxia, hyperglycemia per se also prevents HIF-activation. Therefore, the effects of type 1 diabetes were evaluated in genetically modified mice with chronic HIF-activation. Diabetic mice with globally increased HIF activity, due to heterozygote prolyl hydroxylase-2 deficiency, displayed reduced mitochondria leak respiration and preserved cortical PO2. Diabetic mice with kidney-specific HIF activation, due to homozygous deficiency of von Hippel-Lindau, developed reduced mitochondria leak respiration and reduced urinary albumin excretion.

    The normal age-related decline in kidney function has been proposed to be due to, at least in part, increased oxidative stress, which can induce mitochondrial leak respiration via activation of uncoupling proteins. Indeed, two-year old mice deficient of uncoupling protein-2 presented with improved mitochondria efficiency and reduced urinary protein excretion.

    Summarizing, the data presented in this thesis provide clear support for potent influence of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, HIF activation and mitochondria function on intrarenal oxygen availability. Maintaining kidney oxygen homeostasis may be a unifying strategy to protect kidney function.

  • Erlandsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Osman, Fatumo
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pedersen, Christina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Evaluating a model for the capacity building of midwifery eduators in Bangladesh through a blended, web-based master's programme2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1652022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While setting international standards for midwifery education has attracted considerable global attention, the education and training of midwifery educators has been relatively neglected, particularly in low-resource settings where capacity building is crucial. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the expectations of midwifery educators in Bangladesh who took part in a blended web-based master's programme in SRHR and the extent to which these were realized after 12 months of part-time study. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to collect data. A structured baseline questionnaire was distributed to all participants at the start of the first course (n = 30) and a second endpoint questionnaire was distributed after they (n = 29) had completed the core courses one year later. At the start of the first course, five focus group discussions (FGD) were held with the midwifery educators. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for the analyses. Results: Midwifery educators who took part in the study identified expectations that can be grouped into three distinct areas. They hoped to become more familiar with technology, anticipated they would learn pedagogical and other skills that would enable them to better support their students' learning and thought they might acquire skills to empower their students as human beings. Participants reported they realized these ambitions, attributing the master's programme with helping them take responsibility for their own teaching and learning, showing them how to enhance their students' learning and how to foster reflective and critical thinking among them. Conclusions: Midwifery educators have taken part in a creative learning environment which has developed their engagement in teaching and learning. They have done this using a blended learning model which combines online learning with face-to-face contact. This model can be scaled up in low resource and remote settings.

  • Stenlund, Jörgen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Travelling through time: Students’ interpretation of evolutionary time in dynamic visualizations2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary knowledge is important to understand and address contemporary challenges such as loss of biodiversity, climate change and antibiotic resistance. An important aspect that is considered to be a threshold concept in teaching and learning about evolution is the time it involves. The history of evolution comprises several scales of magnitude, some of which are far from direct human experience and therefore difficult to understand. One way of addressing this issue is to use dynamic visualizations that represent time, for example, to facilitate teaching and learning about evolution.

    This thesis investigates how students’ comprehension of evolution and evolutionary time can be facilitated by visualizations in educational settings. Two different dynamic visualizations were investigated. In paper I different temporal versions of a spatio-temporal animation depicting hominin evolution were explored. The temporal information was expressed as one or several timelines along which an animated cursor moved, indicating the rate of time. Two variables, the number of timelines with different scales, and the mode of the default animated time rate (either constant throughout the animation or decreasing as the animation progressed), were combined to give four different time representations. The temporal aspects investigated were undergraduate students' ability to find events at specific times, comprehend order, comprehend concurrent events, comprehend the length of time intervals, and their ability to compare the lengths of time intervals.

    In paper II, perceptions and comprehension of temporal aspects in an interactive, multi-touch tabletop application, DeepTree, were investigated. This application depicts the tree of life. The focus was on the interactive aspects, especially how the zooming feature was perceived, but also on any misinterpretations associated with the interaction. The same temporal aspects listed for paper I were also implicitly investigated.

    The findings indicate that handling the problem of large differences in scale by altering the rate of time in the visualization can facilitate perception of certain temporal aspects while, at the same time, can hinder a correct comprehension of other temporal aspects. Findings concerning DeepTree indicate that the level of interactions varies among users, and that the zooming feature is perceived in two ways, either as a movement in time or as a movement in the metaphorical tree. Several misinterpretations were observed, for example the assumption that the zooming time in the tree corresponds to real time, that there is an implicit coherent timeline along the y-axis of the tree, and that more nodes along a branch corresponds to a longer time.

    The research reported in this thesis supports the claim that careful choice, and informed use of visualizations matters, and that different visualizations are best suited for different educational purposes

  • Hägglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Koistinen, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet.
    Ståhlnacke, Katri
    Wester, Per
    Levring Jäghagen, Eva
    Older people with swallowing dysfunction and poor oral health are at greater risk of early death2019In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between swallowing dysfunction, poor oral health and mortality among older people in intermediate care in Sweden.

    METHODS: This prospective cohort study investigated 391 older people in 36 intermediate care units (clusters). Swallowing function was assessed with the timed water swallow test (TWST), and oral health with the revised oral assessment guide (ROAG) at baseline. Data were collected on age, sex, education level, multimorbidity, cognitive impairment, care dependency and body mass index (BMI). Time to mortality was recorded during the following year. The mixed effects Cox regression model with cluster as a random factor was used to estimate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 84 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 11), and 53.3% were females. Mortality within one year was 25.1%. In the adjusted model, swallowing dysfunction and poor oral health were both independently associated with mortality (adjusted HR [aHR]: 1.67, 95% CI 1.02-2.75; P = .041 and aHR: 1.98, 95% CI 1.07-3.65; P = .029, respectively). Participants with combined swallowing dysfunction and poor oral health showed the highest mortality (35.0%) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.15-5.89; P = .022) times higher mortality risk than those with normal swallowing function and good oral health (13.0%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing dysfunction and poor oral health were identified as independent risk factors for mortality in older people in intermediate care. Although further studies are required to verify these findings, they suggest that systematic assessment of swallowing function and oral health status should be performed for care considerations.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-10 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Hasselgren, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Essays on Investor Behavior and Trading Strategies in International Financial Markets2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation contains four articles that in different ways inform on investor behavior in international financial markets, their impact on the underlying market, and the trading strategies that they pursue.

    Article I studies how hedge funds herd in currency future contracts and how it is affecting the underlying market. The results indicate that hedge funds herd, and that they herd in a pattern that is consistent with them following the carry trade strategy. Hedge fund herding has an impact on the underlying market, in the direction of the herd, and the results give no indication that their herding in destabilizing.

    Article II examines if limits to arbitrage can help explain the returns to technical analysis strategies in the foreign exchange market. The findings show that returns to technical analysis strategies are higher when limits to arbitrage are more severe, supporting the argument that profit opportunities can persist as arbitrage activity is costly and risky. However, investor sentiment seem to be unrelated to technical analysis returns. The main takeaway is that limits to arbitrage are an important determinant of technical analysis profitability.

    Article III investigates whether the trading activity of speculators is beneficial for the speed of information diffusion in the foreign exchange market. The findings show that predictive ability of the equity market on foreign exchange strategies dissipates when speculator activity is high. However, the same results are not found for the commodity markets ability to predict foreign exchange strategies. Overall, the results indicate that speculators play a vital role for informational efficiency in the foreign exchange market.

    Article IV examines the impact of investor attention on stock and foreign exchange market volatility in emerging economies using a newly constructed innovative attention proxies that capture the full spectrum of the dynamics of the information processing stages. The results show that investor attention significantly effects emerging stock market volatility, but not FX market volatility.

  • Marberg, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Söderberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anan, Intissar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wixner, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms are more common in liver transplanted transthyretin amyloidosis patients than in healthy controls and in patients transplanted for end-stage liver disease2019In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 26, p. 47-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Niklasson, Laila
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Understanding educational conditions in preschool: Preparing student teachers for social justice during practicum placements.2019In: The Educational Review, USA, ISSN 2575-7938, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectations placed on practice teaching in initial teacher education are high. During practice, student teachers should combine theory with practice, make themselves familiar with multicultural classrooms in general, and become aware of different factors that affect learning and teaching. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge about how work is carried out within practicum placements to help student teachers to understand differing cultural and socioeconomic characteristics of educational settings as a basis for discussing social justice. Staff at practice schools, the practicum team at a university and student teachers were asked about their definitions of different factors that condition learning and teaching, and routines for visiting preschools characterized by different educational conditions. Staff at practice school and university gave examples of different factors, but there was a general lack of organized work with this issue, such as visiting different preschools and holding discussions afterwards. This was confirmed by student teachers, few of whom had visited other preschools and had subsequent discussions. Instead some had experienced variation in work routines, children with special needs and multilingual groups in different sections of their own unit. Experiencing educational environments with different cultural and socioeconomic conditions was considered valuable by the student teachers but was not always given priority. It is concluded that individual variations and needs are understood and formulated by staff and student teachers, but less attention is given to how group belongings and structural frameworks such as socioeconomics are affecting social justice.

  • Hahn, Niklas
    et al.
    Brockmann Geomatics.
    Wester, Kjell
    Brockmann Geomatics.
    Satellibaserad övervakning av våtmarker: Slutrapport södra Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En satellitbaserad metodik för att identifiera snabba vegetationsförändringar i våtmarker har använts för att hitta områden med förändringsindikation. Undersökningsområdet, södra Sverige, består av Blekinge, Hallands, Jönköpings, Kronobergs och Skåne län. Projektet drivs inom ramen för den nationella miljöövervakningen och genomförs enligt ett löpande schema över landet fördelat på olika undersökningsområden.

    Under perioden 2016-2017 utfördes "Satellitbaserad övervakning av våtmarker" i södra Sverige. Den satellitbaserade övervakningen är utformad för att upptäcka markanvändningsrelaterade förändringar i öppna myrar i form av ökad biomassa/igenväxning. Till förändringsanalysen för en tidsperiod används två set av satellitdata, ett från en äldre tidpunkt "1999" och ett från en senare tidpunkt "2009" (satellitdata främst från 2009 men även från 2007 och 2010).

    Förändrade områden delas in i två förändringsklasser; potentiell och säker förändringsindikation med en minsta karteringsenhet på 0,5 ha. Förändringsklasserna ger en direkt indikation på styrkan och omfattningen av förändringen. Förändringsklassningen redovisas även som förändringskartor: andel säker förändringsindikation per analyserad öppen myr presenterade inom olika områdes- eller regionsindelningar. Exempel på intressanta områdesindelningar som redovisas är indexrutor 10km och delavrinningsområden.

    Undersökningsområdet, d.v.s. "Öppen myr" -mask, omfattar totalt ca 113 300 ha. Det analyserbara området, d.v.s. undersökningsområdet med undantag för moln mm, motsvarar ca 96 % av det totala undersökningsområdet. Av det analyserbara området visade 1 310 ha (1,19 %) säker förändringsindikation och 701 ha (0,64 %) potentiell förändringsindikation vilket är i paritet med övriga län i södra Sverige. Förändringarna är inte jämt fördelade inom länsgruppen. Utvärderingen, som utfördes med hjälp av flygbildstolkning och fältbesök, visar att överensstämmelsen för de 141 slumpmässigt valda förändringsindikations-ytorna ligger minst på 65 % och max på 83 %. Motsvarande överensstämmelse för de 39 slumpmässigt valda referensytorna ligger minst på 74 % och max på 84 %.

  • Kallionpää, Roosa E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku,Finland.
    Laitio, Ruut
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Single-subject analysis of N400 event-related potential component with five different methods2019In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 144, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different approaches to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) at single-subject level, and the aim of the current study is to provide information for choosing a method based on its ability to detect ERP effects and factors influencing the results. We used data from 79 healthy participants with EEG referenced to mastoid average and investigated the detection rate of auditory N400 effect in single-subject analysis using five methods: visual inspection of participant-wise averaged ERPs, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for amplitude averages in a time window, cluster-based non-parametric testing, a novel Bayesian approach and Studentized continuous wavelet transform (t-CWT). Visual inspection by three independent raters yielded N400 effect detection in 85% of the participants in at least one paradigm (active responding or passive listening), whereas ANOVA identified the effect in 68%, the cluster-method in 59%, the Bayesian method in 89%, and different versions of t-CWT in 22–59% of the participants. Thus, the Bayesian method was the most liberal and also showed the greatest concordance between the experimental paradigms (active/passive). ANOVA detected significant effect only in cases with converging evidence from other methods. The t-CWT and cluster-based method were the most conservative methods. As we show in the current study, different analysis methods provide results that do not completely overlap. The method of choice for determining the presence of an ERP component at single-subject level thus remains unresolved. Relying on a single statistical method may not be sufficient for drawing conclusions on single-subject ERPs. 

  • Lough, Alastair J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England;Natl Oceanog Ctr, European Way, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Connelly, Douglas P.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, European Way, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Homoky, William B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, Oxford, England.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Chavagnac, Valerie
    Univ Toulouse, GET CNRS UMR5563, Geosci Environement Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Castillo, Alain
    Univ Toulouse, GET CNRS UMR5563, Geosci Environement Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Kazemian, Majid
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Nakamura, Ko-ichi
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Araki, Tohru
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Kaulich, Burkhard
    Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Mills, Rachel A.
    Univ Southampton, Natl Oceanog Ctr Southampton, Ocean & Earth Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Diffuse Hydrothermal Venting: A Hidden Source of Iron to the Oceans2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron (Fe) limits primary productivity and nitrogen fixation in large regions of the world's oceans. Hydrothermal supply of Fe to the global deep ocean is extensive; however, most of the previous work has focused on examining high temperature, acidic, focused flow on ridge axes that create "black smoker" plumes. The contribution of other types of venting to the global ocean Fe cycle has received little attention. To thoroughly understand hydrothermal Fe sources to the ocean, different types of vent site must be compared. To examine the role of more diffuse, higher pH sources of venting, a hydrothermal plume above the Von Damm vent field (VDVF) was sampled for Total dissolvable Fe (unfiltered, TDFe), dissolved Fe (< 0.2 mu m, dFe) and soluble Fe (< 0.02 mu m, sFe). Plume particles sampled in situ were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and soft X-ray spectromicroscopy. The VDVF vents emit visibly clear fluids with particulate Fe (TDFe-dFe, > 0.2 mu m) concentrations up to 196 nmol kg(-1) comparable to concentrations measured in black smoker plumes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Colloidal Fe (cFe) and sFe increased as a fraction of TDFe with decreasing TDFe concentration. This increase in the percentage of sFe and cFe within the plume cannot be explained by settling of particulates or mixing with background seawater. The creation of new cFe and sFe within the plume from the breakdown of pFe is required to close the Fe budget. We suggest that the proportional increase in cFe and sFe reflects the entrainment, breakdown and recycling of Fe bearing organic particulates near the vents. Fe plume profiles from the VDVF differ significantly from previous studies of "black smoker" vents where formation of new pFe in the plume decreases the amount of cFe. Formation and removal of Fe-rich colloids and particles will control the amount and physico-chemical composition of dFe supplied to the deep ocean from hydrothermal systems. This study highlights the differences in the stabilization of hydrothermal Fe from an off-axis diffuse source compared to black smokers. Off-axis diffuse venting represent a potentially significant and previously overlooked Fe source to the ocean due to the difficulties in detecting and locating such sites.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-06 09:00 A103, Byggnad 6A, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Håglin, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Vitamin A regulated neuronal regeneration and homeostasis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The olfactory epithelium is a dynamic tissue maintained by continuous neurogenesis throughout life. Upon injury, neurons and other olfactory cell types are regenerated through proliferation of horizontal stem cells. Some genes that regulate vitamin A metabolism are spatially expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Retinoic acid is a vitamin A derivate, a key regulator of proliferation and stem cell activity. Retinoic acid is generated and inactivated by enzymes with opposing expression patterns which create local variations in retinoic acid levels in the olfactory epithelium. The overall aim of this thesis is to elucidate functional relationships between retinoic acid metabolism and the regulation of temporal and spatial features of normal tissue homeostasis and regeneration of neurons within the olfactory epithelium.

    I have studied the association between the activity-dependent retinoic acid inactivating enzyme CYP26B1 and neurogenesis.  During doubled stimulation by odorants and air flow the level of CYP26B1 was further induced in olfactory sensory neurons and proliferation of progenitor/stem cells was increased. In the absence of stimuli, CYP26B1 expression was reduced and proliferation decreased. Stimuli-independent transgenic over-expression of CYP26B1 resul-ted in increased proliferation, which was compared to acute intranasal admini-stration of retinoic acid that reduced the number of proliferating cells.

    The region of the olfactory epithelium with low CYP26B1 and high levels of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes had the greatest level of proliferation and regenerated efficiently after chemical induced injury. Furthermore, neurons in this region differentiated surprisingly fast. In the region with high CYP26B1 and low levels of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes the proliferation rate was low and the regeneration after injury was incomplete. Together these results indicate that retinoic acid within the olfactory epithelial stem cell niche regulates local differences in functional neuronal diversity, neurogenesis, and generative capacity of olfactory epithelial progenitor/stem cells.

    My research has revealed that ageing as well as constitutive transgenic over-expression of CYP26B1 activated dormant horizontal basal stem cells in the olfactory epithelium in an injury like manner. Continuous stem cell activation by constitutive CYP26B1 expression, repeated injuries or old age results in the appearance of epithelial patches devoid of normal olfactory epithelial cells, containing metaplastic respiratory cells. The respiratory patches either contained ciliated cells or a previously unidentified columnar secretory cell type.  Moreover, we investigated whether increased proliferation of stem cells affected their regenerative potential over time. Repeated injury-repair cycles maximized the number of stem cell division, which decreased their potential to regenerate olfactory epithelial cells. Together these results indicate a premature exhaustion of the stem cell niche upon reduced levels of retinoic acid, repeated injury induced regeneration, and ageing.

  • Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Costa, Rafael
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Rogne, Adrian Farner
    University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography.
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (currently Municipality of Amsterdam).
    Socio-economic Segregation in European Cities: A Comparative Study of Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo and Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare socioeconomic segregation patterns and levels in Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo, and Stockholm with uniform measurements. Socioeconomic segregation is a persistent reality in European cities that may have negative effects on social cohesion and individual outcomes. Previous research has been hampered by conceptual and methodological shortcomings, preventing comparable studies of segregation. We use harmonized datasets from 2011 containing geocoded indicators based on a nearest-neighbors approach, allowing for comparable measures of socio-economic segregation at multiple scales. Our analyses offer an unprecedented comparison of patterns and levels of socio-spatial inequalities in European capitals. Using maps, segregation indices and percentile plots, we find that for all cities, the level of segregation by affluence is much larger than that of poverty. Macro-scale poverty segregation is most prominent in Stockholm and Brussels, and quite low in Amsterdam. At micro- scales, Brussels and Stockholm stand out with very high concentrations of poverty at the local level. In such poor neighborhoods, there are hardly any non-poor, indicating high levels of polarization. Macro-scale segregation by affluence is most pronounced in Oslo. Differences in levels and patterns are interpreted in the light of their particular welfare regimes, housing systems, area-based policies and migration dynamics.

  • Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Langeveld, Jeroen
    Department of Water Management, TU Delft. Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    de Haan, Cornelis
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Liefting, Erik
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Schilperoort, Remy
    Partners4UrbanWater, The Netherlands.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for Locating and Characterising Infiltration and Inflow into Foul Sewers before, during and after Snowmelt Period2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infiltration and inflow (I/I) into sewers cause negative effects on the sewer system,wastewater treatment plant and environment. Identifying the causes and locating the inflows isnecessary in order to address the I/I problem. This paper focuses on using distributed temperaturesensing (DTS) for identifying, locating and characterising I/I into a sewer system during the endof winter–beginning of summer transition period under dry and wet weather conditions. Duringsnowmelt, several locations with I/I were identified, while these locations did not show I/I duringstorm events after the snowmelt. In addition, during a very heavy storm after the snowmelt period,I/I was found at other locations. Therefore, DTS was demonstrated to be effective in identifying thetype of I/I and in locating I/I. Finally, I/I monitoring campaigns in cold climates should take intoaccount the variety of pathways of I/I during snowmelt and during rainfall.

  • Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tekniker för att mäta köttkvalitet och slaktkroppsegenskaper på nötkreatur och lamm före slakt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat quality is a broad concept that can include e.g. retail product, ethical traits and eating quality. This report mainly focuses on the eating quality, i.e. the sensory properties, of the meat. Studies have shown that tenderness and taste is the most important eating quality traits in meat. The tenderness and taste are partly influenced by the amount of intramuscular fat (marbling) in the meat. Swedish carcasses of cattle and lamb is mainly classified according to the EUROP-system, which classifies the carcasses’ shape and external fat deposition. There is also a Swedish standard for classification of marbling in beef, which is optional for the abattoirs to use. These parameters are only possible to influence when the animal is alive. The marbling of the meat is affected by e.g. breed, sex, age and feeding regime. In general, animals with lower growth rates have a greater potential to produce marbled meat. Also, an intense feeding regime has been shown to have a positive impact on the marbling grade. Marbling is a moderately heritable trait in cattle, which means that genetic progress can be achieved by selecting for marbling within a breed. To measure meat quality on live animals can provide valuable information in the aim to improve meat quality in Swedish beef.

    This review presents techniques that have been evaluated in the application to measure carcass meat quality traits on live cattle and lambs. The techniques covered in the report are ultrasound, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), computed tomography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 3D-imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Studies have shown that marbling in cattle can be measured with similar accuracy by ultrasound and BIA, and there is also potential to develop NMR for measurement of marbling in shallow muscles. Both fat and muscles in cattle can be measured with ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and there is also potential to develop 3D-imaging for these traits. Fewer studies have focused on lamb meat quality and for marbling, only studies on computed tomography was found. Muscles and fat content in live lambs have been successfully measured by ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and DXA. At present, ultrasound and 3D-imaging are the techniques considered to have the potential to be practically applicable for measuring carcass meat quality traits in live animals in Sweden.

  • Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Language learning strategies and teaching practices in adult L2 education: The case of Swedish for Immigrants2019In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 17-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the use and co-construction of language learning strategies (LLS) in second language education for adults with short previous education. In a case study, we explore how LLS are used and co-constructed by one student and one teacher. The data for the article was created in an action research programme comprising two Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) schools, and the methodology used was classroom observation based in linguistic ethnography. In accordance with Griffiths (2013, p. 15) LLS are defined as “activities consciously chosen by learners for the purpose of regulating their own language learning”. For the analysis of LLS, Oxford’s (1990) taxonomy was chosen. In the chosen case the teacher and student co-constructed direct and indirect strategies. In their co-construction, they sometimes seemed to work together, both using a strategy initiated by one of them, and sometimes appeared to have opposite goals, so that the teacher-initiated strategies turned out as complicated for the student, while the student-initiated strategies were counteracted by the teacher. Some of the LLS promoted by the teacher that were difficult for the student seemed to demand literacy skills that he had not yet developed. This underlines the importance of adapting teaching to the language and literacy competences of the individual learner. It also highlights the importance of further research on LLS with this group of students in order to find strategies that work in the process of developing functional literacy skills.

  • Woolway, R. Iestyn
    et al.
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England;Dundalk Inst Technol, Dundalk, Louth, Ireland.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Schmid, Martin
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Surface Waters Res & Management, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Univ Innsbruck, Res Dept Limnol, Mondsee, Austria.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Marine Inst, Furnace, Newport, Ireland.
    Maberly, Stephen C.
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Lancaster, England.
    May, Linda
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Merchant, Christopher J.
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England;Univ Reading, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading, Berks, England.
    Substantial increase in minimum lake surface temperatures under climate change2019In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 155, no 1, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual minimum of lake surface water temperature influences ecological and biogeochemical processes, but variability and change in this extreme have not been investigated. Here, we analysed observational data from eight European lakes and investigated the changes in annual minimum surface water temperature. We found that between 1973 and 2014, the annual minimum lake surface temperature has increased at an average rate of + 0.35 degrees Cdecade(-1), comparable to the rate of summer average lake surface temperature change during the same period (+ 0.32 degrees C decade(-1)). Coherent responses to climatic warming are observed between the increase in annual minimum lake surface temperature and the increase in winter air temperature variations. As a result of the rapid warming of annual minimum lake surface temperatures, some of the studied lakes no longer reach important minimum surface temperature thresholds that occur in winter, with complex and significant potential implications for lakes and the ecosystem services that they provide.

  • Alfonzo, Emilia
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Med Gatan 3, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Emelie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Linnea
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Staf, Christian
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Western Sweden, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Radestad, Angelique Floter
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynisson, Petur
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Stålberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Falconer, Henrik
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynaecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, K 57, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jan
    Skane Univ Hosp, Div Gynaecol Oncol, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Dahm-Kahler, Pernilla
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Med Gatan 3, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Western Sweden, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    No survival difference between robotic and open radical hysterectomy for women with early-stage cervical cancer: results from a nationwide population-based cohort study2019In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 116, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare overall survival (OS) and diseasefree survival (DFS) after open and robotic radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer. Patients and methods: This was a nationwide population-based cohort study on all women with cervical cancer stage IA1-IB of squamous, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histological subtypes, from January 2011 to December 2017, for whom radical hysterectomy was performed. The Swedish Quality Register of Gynaecologic Cancer was used for identification. To ensure quality and conformity of data and to disclose patients not yet registered, hospital registries were reviewed and validated. Cox and propensity score regression analysis and univariable and multivariable regression analysis were performed in regard to OS and DFS. Results: There were 864 women (236 open and 628 robotic) included in the study. The 5-year OS was 92% and 94% and DFS was 84% and 88% for the open and robotic cohorts, respectively. The recurrence pattern was similar in both groups. Using propensity score analysis and matched cohorts of 232 women in each surgical group, no significant differences were seen in survival: 5-year OS of 92% in both groups (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-2.01) and DFS of 85% vs 84% in the open and robotic cohort, respectively (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.66-1.78). In univariable and multivariable analysis with OS as the end-point, no significant factors were found, and in regard to DFS, tumour size (p < 0.001) and grade 3 (p = 0.02) were found as independent significant risk factors. Conclusion: In a complete nationwide population-based cohort, where radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer is highly centralised, neither long-term survival nor pattern of recurrence differed significantly between open and robotic surgery. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Grāve, Kristīne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lambert, Wietske
    PRA Health Sciences, Assen, The Netherlands.
    Berggren, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Griese, Julia J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Biology.
    Bennett, Matthew D.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Logan, Derek T.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Redox-induced structural changes in the di-iron and di-manganese forms of Bacillus anthracis ribonucleotide reductase subunit NrdF suggest a mechanism for gating of radical access2019In: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0949-8257, E-ISSN 1432-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) utilize a di-nuclear manganese or iron cofactor for reduction of superoxide or molecular oxygen, respectively. This generates a stable tyrosyl radical (Y·) in the R2 subunit (NrdF), which is further used for ribonucleotide reduction in the R1 subunit of RNR. Here, we report high-resolution crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis NrdF in the metal-free form (1.51 Å) and in complex with manganese (MnII/MnII, 1.30 Å). We also report three structures of the protein in complex with iron, either prepared anaerobically (FeII/FeII form, 1.32 Å), or prepared aerobically in the photo-reduced FeII/FeII form (1.63 Å) and with the partially oxidized metallo-cofactor (1.46 Å). The structures reveal significant conformational dynamics, likely to be associated with the generation, stabilization, and transfer of the radical to the R1 subunit. Based on observed redox-dependent structural changes, we propose that the passage for the superoxide, linking the FMN cofactor of NrdI and the metal site in NrdF, is closed upon metal oxidation, blocking access to the metal and radical sites. In addition, we describe the structural mechanics likely to be involved in this process.

  • Salas, Julian
    et al.
    Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia (CYBERCAT), Barcelona, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A General Algorithm for k-anonymity on Dynamic Databases2018In: Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology: ESORICS 2018 International Workshops, DPM 2018 and CBT 2018, Barcelona, Spain, September 6-7, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro, Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí, Giovanni Livraga, Ruben Rios, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11025, p. 407-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present an algorithm for k-anonymization of datasets that are changing over time. It is intended for preventing identity disclosure in dynamic datasets via microaggregation. It supports adding, deleting and updating records in a database, while keeping k-anonymity on each release. We carry out experiments on database anonymization. We expected that the additional constraints for k-anonymization of dynamic databases would entail a larger information loss, however it stays close to MDAV's information loss for static databases. Finally, we carry out a proof of concept experiment with directed degree sequence anonymization, in which the removal or addition of records, implies the modification of other records.

  • Bachour, Raougina-Laouisa
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Pohl, Johannes
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Behavioral effects of citalopram, tramadol, and binary mixture in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 238, article id 124587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging as environmentally problematic compounds. As they are often not appropriately removed by sewage treatment plants, pharmaceutical compounds end up in surface water environments worldwide at concentrations in the ng to μg L−1 range. There is a need to further explore single compound and mixture effects using e.g. in vivo test model systems. We have investigated, for the first time, behavioral effects in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to a binary mixture of an antidepressant drug (citalopram) and a synthetic opioid (tramadol). Citalopram and tramadol have a similar mode of action (serotonin reuptake inhibition) and are known to produce drug-drug interactional effects resulting in serotonin syndrome (SS) in humans. Zebrafish embryo-larvae were exposed to citalopram, tramadol and 1:1 binary mixture from fertilization until 144 h post fertilization. No effects on heart rate, spontaneous tail coiling, or death/malformations were observed in any treatment at tested concentrations. Behavior (hypoactivity in dark periods) was on the other hand affected, with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) of 373 μg L−1 for citalopram, 320 μg L−1 for tramadol, and 473 μg L−1 for the 1:1 mixture. Behavioral EC50 was calculated to be 471 μg L−1 for citalopram, 411 μg L−1 for tramadol, and 713 μg L−1 for the 1:1 mixture. The results of this study conclude that tramadol and citalopram produce hypoactivity in 144 hpf zebrafish larvae. Further, a 1:1 binary mixture of the two caused the same response, albeit at a higher concentration, possibly due to SS.

  • Janzén, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Aspán, Anna
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA).
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Southern Sweden: Associations with coniferous forest, water bodies and landscape heterogeneity2019In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 285, article id 106626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape characteristics influence both vector and host habitats affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is one of the most widespread tick-borne diseases in Europe causing tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants, and granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and companion animals. The aim of this study was to identify landscape factors associated with Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) cases in a refined temporal and spatial analysis by combining land cover data and presence/absence disease data, using a geographical information system (GIS). This study is a retrospective analysis utilizing 1030 EGA diagnostic test results extracted from the National Veterinary Institute (SVA, Sweden). The association between EGA and different land cover types was analyzed with generalized linear models. To analyze the relation between landscape heterogeneity and EGA, we calculated the Gini-Simpson index. Our results showed a significant increase in the proportion positive EGA cases from 2002 to 2015 and marked differences in the seasonal within year distribution of EGA cases. The association with landscape configuration is shown by the positive relationship between A. phagocytophilum and coniferous forest, water bodies, and landscape heterogeneity, respectively. The information on the eco-epidemiological drivers for EGA can be central for disease control and prevention. Our method of linking land cover to disease risk may be applied to other vector-borne diseases and to other study regions.

  • Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo
    Department of Information and Communications Engineering, CYBERCAT-Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia, Universitat Aut`onoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Probabilistic Metric Spaces for Privacy by Design Machine Learning Algorithms: Modeling Database Changes2018In: Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology: ESORICS 2018 International Workshops, DPM 2018 and CBT 2018, Barcelona, Spain, September 6-7, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro, Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí, Giovanni Livraga, Ruben Rios, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11025, p. 422-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning, data mining and statistics are used to analyze the data and to build models from them. Data privacy for big data needs to find a compromise between data analysis and disclosure risk. Privacy by design machine learning algorithms need to take into account the space of models and the relationship between the data that generates the models and the models themselves. In this paper we propose the use of probabilistic metric spaces for comparing these models.

  • Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education. National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-20162019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, article id jech-2018-211939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented credit-driven economic growth that was followed by a deep recession. This study examined the impact of profound macroeconomic changes on population mental health in Estonia in 2004-2016.

    METHODS: Data on 17 794 individuals in the 20-64 age group were obtained from seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of past 30-day depression was calculated for men and women further stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether these characteristics were associated with the yearly variation in depression.

    RESULTS: In 2006, the adjusted prevalence ratio for depression was 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) for men and 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) for women as compared with 2004; in 2010, the prevalence ratio as compared with 2008 for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CIs 1.04 to 1.43 and 1.09 to 1.37, respectively). Among men, the increase in the prevalence of depression in 2008-2010 was statistically significant for 35-64 year olds, ethnic Estonians, those who were married, mid-educated or were employed, whereas among women, a significant increase was observed in 50-64 year olds, Estonians and non-Estonians, those who were not-married, were highly educated or mid-educated, in the mid-income group or were employed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Population mental health is responsive to macroeconomic changes. In less wealthy high-income countries, the greater impact of recession on depression among advantaged groups may relate to a higher debt burden coupled with job insecurity.

  • Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, teknisk- naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, kemiska institutionen.
    Veenaas, Cathrin
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, teknisk- naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, kemiska institutionen.
    Non-target screening and digital archiving of abiotic samples2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results of a doctoral project at Umeå University, which has been initiated and funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Within this project, innovative methods were developed to create and use digital archives for environmental samples, such as biological tissue, sediment and sludge. Digital archives differ from traditional environmental specimen banks by the fact that results from analysis of environmental samples are digitally frozen, instead of physical samples being stored in freezers.To test this new concept, new methods were developed for extensive chemical analysis of sludge from sewage treatment plants. Sewage sludge is interesting because it can provide an integrated picture of which chemicals are used in society. It is also e.g. used for the fertilization of arable land, which can lead to release of hazardous chemicals to the environment and subsequent exposure of various organisms, including humans.The newly developed methods enable analysis and subsequent identification of environmental contaminants with widely differing chemical properties. They include non-destructive sample preparation and comprehensive analysis of sewage sludge with gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. For the preparation of samples for GC analysis, two methods were developed for extraction of contaminants and elimination of potentially interfering substances, for example fat and humus. In addition, extraction techniques for LC analysis were optimized. By supplementing the two methods for GC analysis with one for LC analysis, environmental pollutants with varying stability, size and polarity can be analysed. It was also developed a robust retention index system for two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) based on relative retentions versus polyethylene glycols (retention indices), as well as methods for calculating retention times and indices. Best results were achieved with a multivariate prediction method using molecular descriptors. Together, these tools facilitate identification of new potential environmental pollutants.Time trend analysis was used to prioritize among the detected contaminants, for example, to find contaminants that increase over time. Thousands of contaminants with statistically significant time trends were discovered and hundreds of them could be given a preliminary identity. Contaminants with greatly increasing trends included, for example, chemicals with UV absorbing properties used in sunscreens. Finally, the present status and prospects for future use of digital archives are presented. Appropriate digital archiving routines are discussed, and recommendations are made for each step, from sample collection, through instrument analysis to data storage. It is likely that, in the near future, digital archives can partially or completely replace environmental sample banks in environmental pollutant studies and thus avoid problems such as limited access to materials, degradation or contamination during storage.

  • Aldén, Liselotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. The National Network for Wind Utilization.
    Ridbäck, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. The National Network for Wind Utilization.
    New and Ongoing Wind Power Research in Sweden 2018: A compilation of Swedish research programs and new scientific publications on wind energy2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Node for education and competence in the National network for wind utilization annually publishes a summary of new and ongoing wind power research in Sweden. The aim of this summary is to provide an easily accessible overview of what is happening annually in wind power research for interested parties. This compilation is divided into two sections. The first is a presentation of the research centres and research programmes active in wind power research in Sweden. Then a topic-based list of the wind power research published in 2018 follows where at least one of the authors is active at a Swedish university. Here one also can find doctoral and licentiate theses as well as theses at bachelor and master levels that have been published during the year.

  • Plantin Ewe, Linda
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    ADHD symptoms and the teacher–student relationship: a systematic review of literature2019In: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, ISSN 1363-2752, E-ISSN 1741-2692, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 136-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review integrates the existing literature regarding relationships that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) have with their teachers, in mainstream inclusive primary, secondary and high school settings. Theoretical approaches and methodicalchoices were considered in understanding the literature and consideringpossible research areas. The methods used in the reviewed literatureshow that investigations in this research field have predominantly usedquantitative surveys. Several theoretical approaches have been used,with attachment theory the most-prominent. The findings indicate students with ADHD generally feel less close to their teacher than do theirnon-ADHD peers, which agrees with the teachers’ perceptions. Thus,teachers experience less emotional closeness, less co-operation andmore conflicts in their relations with their students with ADHD thanwith other students. Teachers’ rejection of ADHD students poses a riskfactor for not only school failure, but also peer exclusion and rejection,leading to low self-esteem and loneliness.

  • Faxneld, Suzanne
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Ek, Caroline
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Pütz Winkens, Kerstin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    The Swedish national monitoring programme for contaminants in freshwater biota (until 2017 year's data)2019Report (Other academic)
  • Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Fjellström, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Stolle, Bettina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory. Stockholm University.
    Arkeologisk undersökning av lämningar invid Raä 62 i Påtåker, Sollentuna socken, Uppland, maj 20172019Report (Other academic)
  • Armuand, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Fac Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sydsjo, Gunilla
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Fac Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Cty Council Ostergotland, Dept Gynaecol & Obstet Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Lampic, Claudia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Tomtebodavagen 18A, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attitudes towards embryo donation among healthcare professionals working in child healthcare: a survey study2019In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 19, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate attitudes towards embryo donation and embryo donation families among professionals working in primary child healthcare, and their experiences of these families.MethodsA cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Sweden between April and November 2016. A total of 712 primary healthcare physicians, registered nurses and psychologists were approached to participate in this study. The study-specific questionnaire measured attitudes and experiences in the following four domains: legalisation and financing, the family and the child's health, clinical experience of meeting families following embryo donation, and knowledge of embryo donation.ResultsOf the 189 women and 18 men who completed the questionnaire (response rate 29%), relatively few (13%) had clinical experience of caring for families following embryo donation. Overall, 69% supported legalisation of embryo donation for infertile couples, and 54% agreed it should be publicly funded. The majority (88%) agreed the child should have the right to know the donors' identity. Respondents did not believe that children conceived through embryo donation are as healthy as other children (50%), citing the risks of poor mental health (17%) and social stigmatization (18%). Approximately half reported low confidence in their own knowledge of embryo donation (47%) and wanted to know more (58%).ConclusionsThese results indicate relatively large support among healthcare professionals in Sweden for the legalisation of embryo donation. In order to provide adequate healthcare to families following embryo donation, there is a need to develop educational resources to increase knowledge about the medical and psychosocial consequences of embryo donation among healthcare professionals working in primary healthcare.

  • Movaffaghi, Hamid
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Pyykkö, Johan
    Uppsala University – Division of Applied Mechanics, Ångström Laboratory.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Multi-Objective and Multi-Criteria Approach for Value-Driven Design in Industrialized Residential Multi-Storey Timber-Building2019In: Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. / [ed] Thomas K. Bader, Josef Füssl, Anders Olsson, Växjö, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serviceability in terms of springiness, vibration and deflection [1], as well as sustainability in terms of climate impact and costs [2] have been identified as the most important aspects for appropriate functioning in residential multi-storey timber-buildings. Thus, the aim of this study is focused on product development of a timber-concrete composite (TCC) floor system by 1) enhancing serviceability performances of the floor for larger spans (above 6 m) in terms of stiffness and dynamic response, and 2) reducing both climate impact (CO2-emissions) and costs, by optimizing material usage. As the case study a timber structure of a residential multi-storey building, including concrete ground floor and shaft, with the overall dimensions ܮൈܹൈܪൌ30ൈ11ൈ14 ሾ݉ଷሿ has been studied. The geometry of the load bearing structural elements has been modelled using finite element programs. As serviceability criteria for the floors, the deflection due to a point load was chosen. The deflections were related to comfort classes given in [3] and transverse load distribution was taken into account according to [4]. The deflection and effective bending stiffness (EIef in EC5 Annex B) were chosen as objective functions, while thickness of concrete slab and shear stiffness of the connection between glulam beam and concrete slab were chosen as design variables in a multi-objective optimization. The relationship between connection stiffness and height of the concrete slab for comfort class B can be seen in Figure 1. In the figure the cross-section of the TCC floor structure, with a span of 7.5 m, is also depicted. Figure 1: Connection stiffness-concrete thickness relationship and cross-section for the TCC floor. After optimization, a multi-criteria analysis was applied to select a design solution from the Pareto optimal front, satisfying some subjective preferences of the stakeholders for value-driven design. The results in this study integrates serviceability, environmental and economic performances for value-driven design and supports decision making in the early phases of a project, where various alternatives can be analyzed and evaluated. 

  • Pierre, Pernilla Videhult
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Audiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Anette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Kisiel, Marta Alina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Damberg, Peter
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Expt Res & Imaging Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aski, Sahar Nikkhou
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Expt Res & Imaging Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lotta
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Laurell, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Middle Ear Administration of a Particulate Chitosan Gel in an in vivo Model of Cisplatin Ototoxicity2019In: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5102, E-ISSN 1662-5102, Vol. 13, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Middle ear (intratympanic, IT) administration is a promising therapeutic method as it offers the possibility of achieving high inner ear drug concentrations with low systemic levels, thus minimizing the risk of systemic side effects and drug-drug interactions. Premature elimination through the Eustachian tube may be reduced by stabilizing drug solutions with a hydrogel, but this raises the secondary issue of conductive hearing loss. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the properties of a chitosan-based particulate hydrogel formulation when used as a drug carrier for IT administration in an in vivo model of ototoxicity. Materials and Methods: Two particulate chitosan-based IT delivery systems, Thio-25 and Thio-40, were investigated in albino guinea pigs (n = 94). Both contained the hearing protecting drug candidate sodium thiosulfate with different concentrations of chitosan gel particles (25% vs. 40%). The safety of the two systems was explored in vivo. The most promising system was then tested in guinea pigs subjected to a single intravenous injection with the anticancer drug cisplatin (8 mg/kg b.w.), which has ototoxic side effects. Hearing status was evaluated with acoustically evoked frequency-specific auditory brainstem response (ABR) and hair cell counting. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the distribution and elimination of the chitosan-based system from the middle ear cavity in comparison to a hyaluronan-based system. Results: Both chitosan-based IT delivery systems caused ABR threshold elevations (p < 0.05) that remained after 10 days (p < 0.05) without evidence of hair cell loss, although the elevation induced by Thio-25 was significantly lower than for Thio-40 (p < 0.05). Thio-25 significantly reduced cisplatin-induced ABR threshold elevations (p < 0.05) and outer hair cell loss (p < 0.05). IT injection of the chitosan- and hyaluronan-based systems filled up most of the middle ear space. There were no significant differences between the systems in terms of distribution and elimination. Conclusion: Particulate chitosan is a promising drug carrier for IT administration. Future studies should assess whether the physical properties of this technique allow for a smaller injection volume that would reduce conductive hearing loss.

  • Säterberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Sweden / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yearsley, Jon
    University College Dublin, School of Biology & Environmental Science, Ireland / UCD Earth Institute, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ebenman, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Sweden / Stockholm University, SRC, Sweden.
    A potential role for rare species in ecosystem dynamics2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-12, article id 11107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological importance of common species for many ecosystem processes and functions is unquestionably due to their high a bundance.Yet, the importance of rare species is much less understood. Here we take a theoretical approach, exposing dynamical models of ecological networks to small perturbations, to explore the dynamical importance of rare and common species. We find that both species types contribute to the recovery of communities following generic perturbations (i.e. perturbations affecting all species).Yet, when perturbations are selective (i.e. affects only one species), perturbations to rare species have the most pronounced effect on community stability. We show that this is due to the strong indirect effects induced by perturbations to rare species. Because indirect effects typically set in at longer timescales, our results indicate that the importance of rare species may be easily overlooked and thus underrated. Hence, our study provides a potential ecological motive for the management and protection of rare species.

  • Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Sofie
    Mobile Heights, Sweden.
    Open Collaborative Data: a pre-study on an emerging practice2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data intense defined software is becoming more and more prevalent, especially with the advent of machine learning and artificial intelligence. With data intense systems comes both challenges – to continue to collect and maintain quality – and opportunities – open innovation by sharing with others.

    To understand challenges and opportunities with ODC, we ran 5 focus groups (4 in Lund and 1 in Kista) with companies and public organizations. We had 27 participants from 22 organizations.

    Despite an interest to participate and understanding of the potentials of the subject, the overall maturity is low and ODC is rare. For ODC to be successful, there is a need to study technical, organizational, business, and legal aspects further.