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  • Mair, Louise
    et al.
    Harrison, Philip J.
    Raty, Minna
    Bärring, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Snäll, Tord
    Forest management could counteract distribution retractions forced by climate change2017In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 27, no 5, 1485-1497 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Wikars, Lars-Ove
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Oldhammer, Bengt
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Hotade arter i norra Hälsinglands lövskogar2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi inventerade ett stort antal lövrika skogar i norra Hälsingland mellan Ramsjö i

    väster och Hassela i öster. Särskilt eftersöktes tre arter av vedskalbaggar i björkved

    (djupsvart brunbagge, nordlig blombock och stor svartbagge), en vedskalbagge

    som lever i bark på döda aspar (aspbarkgnagare) samt en lavart som finns

    på levande aspar (liten aspgelélav). Många andra arter registrerades vid inventeringarna.

    Förutom att inventera arter noterade vi även skogens tillstånd, särskilt

    med avseende på lövträdens vitalitet och föryngring.

     

    Djupsvart brunbagge påträffades i ett enda bestånd (Brassbergets NR) medan

    inga säkra fynd gjordes av stor svartbagge och nordlig blombock (trots riktade

    eftersök). Aspbarkgnagare hittades i fyra bestånd, varav rikligast i Brassbergets

    sydsluttning. Liten aspgelélav påträffades i 16 områden, varav rikligt i Brassberget,

    Lammåsen, Måndagstjärn, Stensjön och Styggsjön.

     

    Baserat på fynd av dessa och andra hotade arter framstår Brassberget med omgivning

    som ytterst värdefullt. Andra viktiga områden för bevarande av arter

    knutna till lövträd är Burvassåsen, Hagåsen, Selberget och Måndagsberget.

    Dessa områden har förekomster av arter som ej hittats i Brassberget.

     

    Det största akuta hotet mot dessa arter är sannolikt slutavverkning och omvandling

    av naturskog till plantager. Förutom att minska areal av lämplig livsmiljö

    ökar även fragmenteringen av artförekomster. Vi ser redan idag tydliga tecken på

    att många arter lider av fragmentering i det undersökta landskapet. På sikt hotas

    arternas förekomster av att nya lövrika bestånd ej uppkommer. I allmänhet konstaterades

    det att föryngring av asp, sälg och vårtbjörk ofta sker, men att denna

    endast undantagsvis når ovan beteshöjd. Många hyggen och ungskogar har dock

    ofta ett stort inslag av lövträd, främst av glasbjörk.

     

    Vi bedömer det som att lövträden i äldre bestånd sällan hotas akut genom konkurrens

    av gran. Ofta kan flera generationer av lövträd ses i samma bestånd, där

    varje generation sannolikt föryngrats efter brand. Gamla aspar är ofta påtagligt

    vitala, medan äldre vårtbjörk ofta är utgående i samma bestånd.

     

    Många av de bestånd vi undersökt saknar idag skydd mot skogsbruk (om än

    flertalet helt eller delvis omfattas nyckelbiotoper och tänkta utvidgningar i naturreservat).

    Den viktigaste åtgärden bör vara att undanta en större areal äldre

    lövrik skog från normalt skogsbruk. Den näst viktigaste åtgärden torde vara att

    hägna in föryngring av lövträd, särskilt av asp som ofta finns i begränsade bestånd.

    En tredje åtgärd kan vara i vissa yngre lövträdsbestånd att öka lövträdens

    konkurrensförmåga genom att gallra bort barrträd. För det fjärde bör naturvårdsbränning

    användas eftersom detta möjliggör för lövträden att föryngra sig från

    frö, samt skapar optimala utvecklingsmiljöer för många av de arter som lever

    i lövträdsved. För det femte bör lövträden i högre grad gynnas i intilliggande

    produktionsbestånd vid alla skogliga åtgärder (röjning, gallring, hänsyn). Här

    bör dessutom uttag av skogsbränsle undvikas efter slutavverkning i bestånd med

    lövträd.

     

    För att möjliggöra detta arbete bör skogsbolag, länsstyrelsen och skogsstyren

    gemensamt avgränsa lämpliga skötsel- och skyddsområden och för dessa ta fram

    en skötselplan där olika naturvårdsinstrument tillåts samverka mer effektivt och

    koncentrerat. Denna rapport kan ses som en del i ett underlag för detta arbete.

  • Andersson, Ylva
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Överenskommelser för en bättre miljö: Utvärdering och uppföljning av åtgärdsprogrammet för miljömål i Gävleborg2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Länsstyrelserna har i uppdrag att ansvara för åtgärdsprogram för miljömålen på länsnivå men uppdraget är inte så tydligt när det kommer till hur arbetet ska genomföras. Det finns därför inte något självklart sätt att arbeta med miljömålsarbetet på regional nivå. När Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborgs län tog fram åtgärdsprogrammet baserat på de regionala miljömålen var man en av de första länsstyrelserna i landet att arbeta på det sättet. Idén med överenskommelsen uppstod då man funderade på hur ansvaret för genomförandet skulle kunna struktureras. Under 2009 tecknade alla länets kommuner samt Region Gävleborg, Gästrike Återvinnare, Gävle Energi, Landstinget Gävleborg, Naturskyddsföreningen och länets samlade taxibolag överenskommelser med Länsstyrelsen.

     

     Vid undertecknandet samlades landshövdingen och några av de högst ansvariga politikerna och tjänstemännen på slottet. Länsstyrelsen bjöd i samband med detta in media som också uppmärksammade det hela. Den här utvärderingen av arbetet med överenskommelserna

    bygger på intervjuer med någon representant, beslutsfattare eller tjänsteman, i de organisationer som

    deltagit. I rapporten utvärderas arbetssättet med överenskommelser. Utvärderingen utgör en viktig grund för fortsatt arbete med det nya åtgärdsprogram som kommer att gälla från 2014–2020.

     

    I de flesta fall har överenskommelsen inte bidragit till att ytterligare miljöåtgärder har genomförts. En förklaring är att överenskommelsen inte föregicks av någon demokratisk process. Allt gick lite för fort

    Tjänstemän på kommun och länsstyrelse tvingades göra det enkelt för sig och valde därför att ta med de åtgärder som kommunerna redan jobbade med. Beslutet blev en formsak och dokumentet var inte bindande på något sätt. En annan förklaring är Länsstyrelsens bristande resurser.

     

     På grund av ekonomiskt svåra år tvingades Länsstyrelsen skära ner på verksamheten som helhet

    under några år och då drabbades även miljömålsarbetet. Det har inte förekommit någon aktivitet relaterad till överenskommelserna under de här åren, förutom den uppföljning som gjordes vintern 2011. De flesta är trots detta positiva till överenskommelsen som arbetsmetod.

     

    En förklaring är förmodligen att man tror på idén som sådan. Det är dock inte självklart hur överenskommelsen ska integreras i det befintliga miljöarbetet ute i de olika organisationerna. Några menar att det skulle ha varit bättre att göra en överenskommelse kring en eller ett par frågor där det finns tydliga behov av regional samverkan. Om arbetet med överenskommelserna fortsätter tycker de flesta, såväl politiker som tjänstemän, att det ska kombineras med någon form av aktiviteter kopplade till miljömålen till exempel föredrag eller workshops.

     

    Förutom att bidra till det konkreta förändringsarbetet var Länsstyrelsens mål att synliggöra miljöarbetet i länet. Detta uppfattar i princip alla som något positivt. Det tycks dock inte finnas någon tydlig idé om vad det är som ska synas och vem som ska nås? Är det allmänheten? Eller är det politiker och tjänstemän som ska inspireras av varandra? Man kan fråga sig om det faktum att det pågår ett miljöarbete i länet är värt att synliggöra, oavsett hur bra eller bristfälligt det är, och vem som i så fall vinner på det.

  • Andersson, Sandra
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Lövgren, Olof
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Inventering av vegetationsklädda bottnar i Silviksfjärden och Norbergsfjärden 20092011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet med förorenade områden är ett led i arbetet med att uppnå miljömålet ”Giftfri

    miljö”. Inventering av förorenade områden utgör ett prioriteringsunderlag inför det fortsatta

    arbetet med att undersöka och vid behov åtgärda förorenade områden. Miljöproblematiken i

    samband med tjärfabriker består generellt i att tjära och tjärämnen har släppts ut i

    närliggande vattendrag. Tjäran kan sedan ligga kvar i sediment under väldigt lång tid. Runt

    fabrikerna finns ofta kolrester i marken som kan innehålla polycykliska aromatiska kolväten

    (PAH).

     

    Inventeringen av tjärfabriker har huvudsakligen pågått under 2008 och 2009. Områdena har

    riskklassats i enlighet med Naturvårdsverkets ”Metodik för inventering av förorenade

    områden” (MIFO). Totalt har 36 tjärfabriker identifierats, varav 33 har riskklassats med

    följande resultat:

     

    Riskklass 1 (mycket stor risk)                                         0 områden

    Riskklass 2 (stor risk)                                                      12 områden

    Riskklass 3 (måttlig risk)                                                  11 områden

    Riskklass 4 (liten/ingen risk)                                            10 områden

    Därutöver har ytterligare sju områden där det förekommit tjärtillverkning, men även kan ha

    förekommit annan verksamhet, inventerats och riskklassats sedan tidigare. Resultatet av

    detta arbete är ett av skälen till att branschen tjärtillverkning prioriterats för inventering i

    länet:

    Riskklass 1 (mycket stor risk)                                           2 områden

    Riskklass 2 (stor risk)                                                        3 områden

    Riskklass 3 (måttlig risk)                                                   2 områden

    Riskklass 4 (liten/ingen risk)                                                 -

    Flest inventerade tjärfabriker finns i Ovanåkers kommun. Här återfinns Räkåfors tjärfabrik i

    riskklass 2 som finns med bland de 30 högst prioriterade förorenade områdena i länet.

     

    Arbetet har också visat att det funnits ytterligare ca 40 namngivna tjärfabriker i länet. Det

    har dock inte varit möjligt att lokalisera dessa geografiskt.

     

    En viktig del vid inventeringen av tjärfabriker har varit fältbesöken. I fält bedömdes bland

    annat förekomsten av synliga föroreningar, troliga utsläppspunkter och förorenade sediment

    där det varit möjligt. Vid platsbesöken har stickspjut använts för att se hur det ser ut under

    markytan. För att kunna göra en riskbedömning enligt MIFO uppskattades bland annat

    markens genomsläpplighet, avståndet till skyddsobjekt som recipienter, bostäder och

    vattentäkter.

  • Gottby, Lijana
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Kellner, Olle
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Kvicksilver i fisk i Gävleborgs län: En sammanställning av undersökningar utförda 1966-20132016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från och med 60‐talet och fram till och med idag har kvicksilverhalterna i över 10 000 fiskar (främst

    gäddor och abborre) från totalt över 400 lokaler i länet analyserats. Under perioden 1990–2004

    analyserades kvicksilverhalten i totalt 1 550 gäddor från ca 200 av länets sjöar.

     

    Sedan år 2004 har Länsstyrelsen i samarbete med kommunerna ett pågående program för att

    upprätthålla baskunskapen om kvicksilverhalterna i fisk från länets sjöar. Under åren 2013‐2014

    utvärderades delprogrammet och en strategi för fortsättning av övervakningen av Hg i fisk i länet har

    tagits fram (Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg, 2014). Denna rapport är en sammanställning samt utvärdering

    av allt kvicksilverdata från 60‐talet fram till maj 2013.

     

    Data från och med 1990 visar att ca 70 % av de undersökta gäddorna har kvicksilverhalter som är

    förhöjda och en tredjedel gäddorna från samma tidsperiod har mycket höga kvicksilverhalter (> 1,0

    mg Hg/kg våtvikt). Utvärdering av långtidsserie för kvicksilverdata på kommunnivå visar att halterna

    av kvicksilver i fisk i Gävleborgs län långsamt minskar i de flesta kommuner efter 1990‐talet. Vilket

    överensstämmer med nationell 50‐års trendsutvärderings studien, där man har sett en tendens till

    att kvicksilverhalterna har minskat med minst 20 % i hela Sverige under perioden 1965‐2012

    (Åkerblom et al., 2014).

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Mot en gränslös demokrati?: Politiska responser på globala miljöhot1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 40-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards a transboundary democracy? Political responses to global environmental threats.

    Global environmental threats challenge the national state and the traditional understanding of democracy. Whereas many environmental problems transcend time and space, democracy is bound to the geographical borders of the national state as well as to its citizens/voters of today. The aim of this paper is to elaborate in what regards environmental problems challenge democracy and the sovereignty of national states, and critically discuss proposals for political reorganization. By analyzing two cases of global political mobilization against specific environmental threats, the possibilities for global responses to environmental threats are elucidated. By way of conclusion, the question is raised whether this kind of global alliances and actions implies a fragmentation of our understanding of the world, or if they are promising signs of a development towards global responsibility and cosmopolitan democracy.

  • Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att skiljas är att dö en smula...: Skilsmässa och psykisk ohälsa hos svenska kvinnor och män1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 4-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper data from the 1981 and 1991 Swedish Level of Living Surveys is used to analyze any impact of divorce on the individual’s psychological wellbeing. The longitudinal structure of the data set makes it possible to follow respondents, and any change in their civil status, over time. Respondents are categorized into three family types: 1) Intact couple (those who continued living with the same partner during the period 1981-1991), 2) Remarried (those who divorced or separated and were living with a new partner in 1991), and 3) Divorced (the divorced and separated who were living alone in 1991). The results do, in fact, reveal that divorcees, both female and male, reported a lower psychological well-being in 1991 than their married and cohabiting counterparts. This is only to a very limited extent due to divorcees having a lower well-being already before the divorce (in 1981) and the difference in well-being cannot be entirely explained by other factors (such as income or access to social support) either.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1999:41999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Loewe, Katharina
    et al.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Paukert, Marco
    Sedlar, Joseph
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Tjernstrom, Michael
    Hoose, Corinna
    Modelling micro- and macrophysical contributors to the dissipation of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS)2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 11, 6693-6704 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Kuentz, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Understanding hydrologic variability across Europe through catchment classification2017In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, no 6, 2863-2879 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Haapanala, Paivi
    et al.
    Raisanen, Petri
    McFarquhar, Greg M.
    Tiira, Jussi
    Macke, Andreas
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    DeVore, John
    Nousiainen, Timo
    Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 11, 6865-6882 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male-benefit sexually antagonistic genotypes show elevated vulnerability to inbreeding2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is theoretical and empirical evidence for strong sexual selection in males having positive effects on population viability by serving to purify the genome of its mutation load at a low demographic cost. However, there is also theoretical and empirical evidence for negative effects of sexual selection on female fitness, and therefore population viability, known as the gender load. This can take the form of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation where alleles with a selective advantage in males pose a detriment to female fitness, and vice versa. Here, using seed beetles, we shed light on a previously unexplored manifestation of the gender load: the effect of SA genetic variation on tolerance to inbreeding.

    Results

    We found that genotypes encoding high male, but low female fitness exhibited significantly greater rates of extinction upon enforced inbreeding relative to genotypes encoding high female but low male fitness. Also, genotypes encoding low fitness in both sexes exhibited greater rates of extinction relative to generally high-fitness genotypes (though marginally non-significant), an expected finding attributable to variation in mutation load across genotypes. Despite follow-up investigations aiming to identify the mechanism(s) underlying these findings, it remains unclear whether the gender load and the mutation load have independent consequences for tolerance to inbreeding, or whether these two types of genetic architecture interact epistatically to render male-benefit genetic variation relatively intolerant to inbreeding.

    Conclusions

    Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), our results show that male-benefit/female-detriment SA genetic variation poses a previously unseen detriment to population viability due to its elevated vulnerability to inbreeding/homozygosity. This suggests that sexual selection in the context of SA genetic variance for fitness may enhance the gender load on population viability more than previously appreciated, due to selecting for male-benefit SA genetic variation that engenders lineages to extinction upon inbreeding. We note that our results imply that SA alleles that are sexually selected for in males may be underrepresented or even lacking in panels of inbred lines.

  • Boskos, Dimitris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Online Abstractions for Interconnected Multi-Agent Control Systems2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we aim at the development of an online abstraction framework for multi-agent systems under coupled constraints. The motion capabilities of each agent are abstracted through a finite state transition system in order to capture reachability properties of the coupled multi-agent system over a finite time horizon in a decentralized manner. In the first part of this work, we define online abstractions by discretizing an overapproximation of the agents' reachable sets over the horizon. Then, sufficient conditions relating the discretization and the agents' dynamics are provided, in order to quantify the agents' transition possibilities.

  • Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Räfflade kantlinjer: kontroll av vägrenens användning genom åtgärder som gör det obekvämt att köra på den1993Report (Other academic)
  • Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sidolägesplaceringens varians på olika vägar1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Spårbildningen på svenska vägar beror till största del på slitage från dubbdäckstrafiken. Man har en sidolägesfördelning av trafiken på vägen som är ogynnsam ur spårbildningssynpunkt; i stället för att hjulens placering beskriver en rektangulärfördelning - vilket vore det ideala - så har man ofta en fördelning som är sammansatt av två normalfördelningar med små varianser. Detta ger ganska snart upphov till två längsgående spår. Hur sidolägesplaceringens varians varierar på olika vägar har undersökts i denna studie.

    Avsikten med studien har varit att undersöka hur sidolägesplaceringens varians för lätta fordon beror av vägbredd, Skyltad hastighet samt trafikflöde (ÅDT). Studiens primära syfte har varit att öka kunskapen om orsaker till uppkomst av längsgående spår, orsakade av dubbdäckstrafik.

  • Ansell, Brendan R. E.
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Baker, Louise
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Emery, Samantha J.
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    McConville, Malcolm J.
    Univ Melbourne, Mol Sci & Biotechnol Inst Bio21, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Gasser, Robin B.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Jex, Aaron R.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Transcriptomics Indicates Active and Passive Metronidazole Resistance Mechanisms in Three Seminal Giardia Lines2017In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 8, 398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes 200-300 million episodes of diarrhoea annually. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a front-line anti-giardial, but treatment failure is common and clinical resistance has been demonstrated. Mtz is thought to be activated within the parasite by oxidoreductase enzymes, and to kill by causing oxidative damage. In G. duodenalis, Mtz resistance involves active and passive mechanisms. Relatively low activity of iron-sulfur binding proteins, namely pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxins, and nitroreductase-1, enable resistant cells to passively avoid Mtz activation. Additionally, low expression of oxygen-detoxification enzymes can allow passive (non-enzymatic) Mtz detoxification via futile redox cycling. In contrast, active resistance mechanisms include complete enzymatic detoxification of the pro-drug by nitroreductase-2 and enhanced repair of oxidized biomolecules via thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant enzymes. Molecular resistance mechanisms may be largely founded on reversible transcriptional changes, as some resistant lines revert to drug sensitivity during drug-free culture in vitro, or passage through the life cycle. To comprehensively characterize these changes, we undertook strand-specific RNA sequencing of three laboratory-derived Mtz-resistant lines, 106-2ID(10), 713-M3, and WB-M3, and compared transcription relative to their susceptible parents. Common up-regulated genes encoded variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs), a high cysteine membrane protein, calcium and zinc channels, a Mad-2 cell cycle regulator and a putative fatty acid a alpha-oxidase. Down-regulated genes included nitroreductase-1, putative chromate and quinone reductases, and numerous genes that act proximal to PFOR. Transcriptional changes in 106-2ID(10) diverged from those in 713-r and WB-r (r <= 0.2), which were more similar to each other (r = 0.47). In 106-2ID(10), a nonsense mutation in nitroreductase-1 transcripts could enhance passive resistance whereas increased transcription of nitroreductase-2, and a MATE transmembrane pump system, suggest active drug detoxification and efflux, respectively. By contrast, transcriptional changes in 713-M3 and WB-M3 indicated a higher oxidative stress load, attributed to Mtz- and oxygen-derived radicals, respectively. Quantitative comparisons of orthologous gene transcription between Mtz-resistant G. duodenalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, a closely related parasite, revealed changes in transcripts encoding peroxidases, heat shock proteins, and FMN-binding oxidoreductases, as prominent correlates of resistance. This work provides deep insight into Mtz-resistant G. duodenalis, and illuminates resistance-associated features across parasitic species.

  • Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Breda körfält på 13-metersväg1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av trafikens sidolägesplacering och hastighet har tidigare gjorts på E4 vid Traryd. Denna 13 meter breda väg hade tidigare den traditionella, breda vägrenen och körfält med bredden 3,75 meter. Efter ommålningen är körfälten 5,50 meter breda och heldragna kantlinjer avskiljer de 1,00 meter breda vägrenarna. Den tidigare studien har kompletterats med mätningar avlångtidseffekten (mätning ett år efter ommålning) samt en studie av fordonens placering och hastighet då en fotgängare befinner sig på vägrenen.

    Mätningar har gjorts dag och natt under nästan 1 1/2dygn på två platser på delen med ny målning (heldragen kantlinje, breda körfält) och på två platser på delen som har konventionell målning. Den ena mätplatsen på respektive sträcka har varit identisk med tidigare mätplatser.

  • Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ytterbom, Uno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fernlund, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sidoläges- och hastighetsmätning på Rv40 Borås-Bollebygd1989Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Motortrafiksdelen av RV 40 mellan Borås och Göteborg har fått ett ganska dåligt rykte vad gäller olycksfrekvens. Vägverket har med anledning av detta ansett det vara nödvändigt att vidta åtgärder, varför man på vissa sträckor har ändrat vägen från 2-fältsväg med breda vägrenar till 3-fältsväg med smala vägrenar

    Syftet med den nya målningen har primärt varit att reducera antalet omkörningar utan tillräcklig siktlängd genom att utföra vägen växelvis med två körfält i ena och ett körfält i andra riktningen. Sekundära effekter av den alternativa målningen kan tänkas bli förändringar i hastigheter och spridning i sidolägesplacering. Denna studie behandlar dessa två sistnämnda parametrar.

  • Kaartinen, Tanja
    et al.
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Adv Cell Therapy Ctr, Kivihaantie 7, Helsinki 00310, Finland..
    Luostarinen, Annu
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Adv Cell Therapy Ctr, Kivihaantie 7, Helsinki 00310, Finland..
    Maliniemi, Pilvi
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Adv Cell Therapy Ctr, Kivihaantie 7, Helsinki 00310, Finland.;Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Res & Dev, Helsinki, Finland..
    Keto, Joni
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Res & Dev, Helsinki, Finland..
    Arvas, Mikko
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Res & Dev, Helsinki, Finland..
    Belt, Heini
    Univ Eastern Finland, AI Virtanen Inst Mol Sci, Dept Biotechnol & Mol Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Koponen, Jonna
    Univ Eastern Finland, AI Virtanen Inst Mol Sci, Dept Biotechnol & Mol Med, Kuopio, Finland..
    Loskog, Angelica S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mustjoki, Satu
    Univ Helsinki, Biomedicum Helsinki, Dept Med, Hematol Res Unit Helsinki,Div Hematol, Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Clin Chem & Hematol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Porkka, Kimmo
    Univ Helsinki, Biomedicum Helsinki, Dept Med, Hematol Res Unit Helsinki,Div Hematol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo
    Univ Eastern Finland, AI Virtanen Inst Mol Sci, Dept Biotechnol & Mol Med, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Ctr Heart, Kuopio, Finland..
    Korhonen, Matti
    Finnish Red Cross Blood Serv, Adv Cell Therapy Ctr, Kivihaantie 7, Helsinki 00310, Finland..
    Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion2017In: Cytotherapy, ISSN 1465-3249, E-ISSN 1477-2566, Vol. 19, no 6, 689-702 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype.

    Methods. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed.

    Results. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T-SCM, CD95(+)CD45RO(-)CD45RA(+)CD27(+)) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CART cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CART cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10 fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent.

    Discussion. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost:effective T-cell manufacturing.

  • Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Representation of large-scale environments1989Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to, through a literature study, shed some light on peoples’ representation of large-scale environments. This knowledge will make it possible to adapt the information from a navigation or route guidance-system to the drivers representation of the environment. In other words, if one knows how drivers are thinking about their environment, then it is possible to provide them with information that they understand and can use effectively during navigation.

    Before considering the question of how people represent large-scale environments it seems necessary to briefly analyse the task of navigation. The reason is that the navigation task will, to some extent, determine what type of information a driver needs from the environment.

  • Johansson, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    An outline for a driver model1987Report (Other academic)
  • Farr, Keith
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för språk (KV Språk).
    A study into the motivation of Swedish military staff officers to learn English2016In: Konin Language Studies, ISSN 2353-1983, Vol. 4, no 4/2006, 391-413 p., KSJ 4 (4). 2016. 391-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among those teaching a group of Swedish military officers, little is known about motivation to learn English as part of a one-year military staff course. This research therefore aims to explore possible motivational characteristics while attempting to identify ways in which they may be theoretically linked to Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self system. A particular area of interest is the officers’ view of their motivation having taken part in a one-year English course and also an international military staff exercise which was conducted in English. The study used a two phase mixed-methods design, with an interview study and a follow-up questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered by conducting seven individual interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Analysis of the qualitative data allowed themes to emerge. The questionnaire used in phase two was based on these themes and enabled the qualitative data to be triangulated. Twenty-eight Swedish military officers responded to the questionnaire. A variety of key variables were confirmed and it was possible to view them using the chosen theoretical framework. The Ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience were found to be particularly important motivators. It was also found that despite the officers’ high levels of motivation, their willingness to exert effort on learning is relatively low. It may therefore be concluded that teachers could address this through a focus on motivational teaching practice. Overall, this research provides insight into L2 motivation within a participant group which has not previously been studied.

  • Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bull, Thomas
    Sweden: Developments in Swedish Constitutional Law2017In: 2016 Global Review of Constitutional Law / [ed] Richard Albert, David Landau, Peetro Faraguna and Simon Drugda, Boston: ICONnect and the Clough Center for the Study of Constitutional Democracy , 2017, 1, 201-205 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Manzoor, Ayesha
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Manzoor, Kiran
    Balochistan University, Pakistan.
    Determinants of salesperson performance in selling new products2017In: International Journal of Economics, Finance and Business Management Studies, ISSN 2397-6926, Vol. 3, no 1, 53-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salesperson performance is essential to commercialise and sell a new product in the market. It is significant to investigate determinants that affect salesperson performance while selling new products. Theories of reasoned action and perceived behavioural control were examined, which in turn shed light on different factors including attitude, self-efficacy, subjective norms, product and customer knowledge. Using the quantitative approach and survey method, the study attempted to obtain a clear insight of the determinants of salesperson performance vis-à-vis new product selling. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample which comprised of salespeople in a business-to-consumer market. The results indicated significant positive relationships between salesperson performance and positive attitude, high self-efficacy and knowledge about products and customers. Moreover, a highly positive correlation was found between the subjective norms and salesperson performance. This research proposed recommendation that managers focus on increasing salesperson knowledge about new products and customers, while boosting self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards selling a new product.

  • Syssner, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Verksamhetsberättelse 2016: Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier CKS2017Report (Other academic)
  • Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Håkansson, Nina
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Mittaz, Jonathan P. D.
    Hanschmann, Timo
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Impact of AVHRR Channel 3b Noise on Climate Data Records: Filtering Method Applied to the CM SAF CLARA-A2 Data Record2017In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 9, no 6, 568Article in journal (Refereed)
  • van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, Arcum.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, Arcum.
    Hållbar utveckling i norra Sverige: Bundna mönster och historiska brytpunkter2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Danielsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Gautason, F. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Inst Phys Theor,Orme Merisiers, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Van Riet, T.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Theoret Fys, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Unstoppable brane-flux decay of D6 branes2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 3, 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate p (D6) over bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K x M (D6) over bar charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g(s)p is large, the (D6) over bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p / M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6) over bar branes and (D3) over bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3) over bar branes.

  • Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hösthagen, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Thermal Crack Risk of Concrete Structures: Evaluation of Theoretical Models for Tunnels and Bridges2017In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, no 56, 55-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for thermal crack risk estimations was introduced in the Swedish design guidelines BRO 94. The cracking occurs during the early hardening process because of the exothermic reactions between water and cement and often result in high repair costs and delayed construction. This paper studies and validates the inherent safety levels for one typical case of concrete structure. Three slab-frame structures were analysed and the original crack risk estimations were compared to the actual cracking and postcalculations were carried out, using actual parameters. This paper shows that walls with computed strain ratios over 70% were affected by thermal cracks.

  • Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 2, 138-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Valenzuela Fuentes, Katia
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Polanska, Dominika V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörn University.
    The right to housing in theory and in practice: going beyond the West2017In: Interface: a journal for and about social movements, ISSN 1164-6225, E-ISSN 1980-0908, Vol. 9, no 1, 359-367 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Ergin, Dinc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Vondra, Michal
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Hofmann, Sandra
    Schupke, Dominic
    Prytz, Mikael
    Bovelli, Sergio
    Frodigh, Magnus
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    In-Flight Broadband Connectivity: Architectures and Business Models for High Capacity Air-to-Ground Communications2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-flight broadband connectivity (IFBC) is a significant open market for mobile network operators considering more than 3.3 billion passengers being served by airlines in2015. On-board broadband services are provided via air-to-ground(A2G) connectivity through direct A2G communications(DA2GC) and satellite A2G communications (SA2GC). Available on-board connectivity systems have significant limitations: high latency in SA2GC and low capacity in DA2GC. The customer expectancy is multi-Mbps connections in every seat which leads to capacity requirements of Gbps to the aircraft. Creation of high capacity IFBC requires a collaborative interaction between different industrial partners. For this reason, we investigate A2Garchitectures in terms of economic and technical perspectives, and propose business models by identifying new roles and positioning them in the A2G business ecosystem. In addition, we provide an extensive summary of the state-of-the-art and future improvements for A2G communications.

  • Vondra, Michal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Dinc, Ergin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Prytz, Mikael
    Frodigh, Magnus
    Dominic, Schupke
    Nilsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Hofmann, Sandra
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Performance Study on Seamless DA2GC for Aircraft Passengers Toward 5G2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile users seek for ubiquitous broadband connectivity even during a flight above the clouds. As many passengers are expected to be connected to high-speed Internet, robust and high-capacity direct air-to-ground communication (DA2GC) to connect the aircraft with the ground cellular network is particularly attractive. In this paper, we assess the capacity limitations of DA2GC link provided to an aircraft by employing currently available 4G radio technologies. Further, we study different capacity enhancement techniques toward 5G such as an implementation of Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) or coordinated beamsteering to improve DA2GC capacity. We also compare DA2GC performance with connectivity offered by satellites. According to our results, DA2GC network extended for techniques toward 5G can improve capacity available per aircraft nearly by 100 Mb/s in comparison with the 4G DA2GC network, assuming 20 MHz bandwidth is exploited. Although the maximal capacity provided by the 5G DA2GC network and satellite communication is the same, satellite communication exhibits only 40 Mb/s for 10 000 deployed satellites in average. To incite future investigation in this field, this paper also outlines open challenges and research directions toward more efficient DA2GC. 

  • O'Malley, Grace
    et al.
    Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. European Childhood Obesity Group, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute.
    Vania, Andrea
    Frelut, Marie-Laure
    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie
    Weghuber, Daniel
    Thivel, David
    Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: What are the First Steps for Clinicians? Expert Conclusion from the 2016 ECOG Workshop2017In: International Journal of Exercise Science, ISSN 1939-795X, Vol. 10, no 4, 487-496 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main aims of the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) is to assist healthcare workers in delivering evidence-based assessment and treatment of childhood obesity. Every year the ECOG Congress includes working groups whose objective is to highlight concerns faced by clinicians and practitioners who work in the field of pediatric obesity. This year, a working group was devoted to the assessment of physical activity and physical fitness in this population. The present commentary attempts to summarize the main themes identified by practitioners during these workshops in order to provide the basic and essential first steps required to address physical activity and fitness in children with obesity.

  • Johansson, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Subjects reports of own speed a a function of various instructions and environmental factors: a pilot study1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One crucial aspect of car driving is the drivers' choice of speed in different situations. The speed level chosen will strongly affect the demands on the drivers' level of attention, quality of decision making, ability to react quickly etc. There is a quite extensive knowledge about the effects of some factors on drivers choice of speed. For instance, Armour (1983) showed that sight distance, width and presence of police have an effect on drivers' choice of speed on local streets. Galin (1981) showed that a driver's age, purpose of the trip, and vehicle age have some effect on the speed chosen in rural settings. This is, of course, a promising start, but it seems likely on intuitive grounds that more factors (or cues) exist that are important for a driver's choice of speed- level. Examples of factors the effects of which are not known, are the driver's estimates of risk, and the effect of being in a hurry. These are examples of factors which cannot, in an easy way, be estimated by observations in traffic.

    Another type of problem which has not been studied so far, is how drivers combine the effects of different factors. It is also, to a large extent, unknown, what relative weights the drivers attach to the different factors.

    To investigate this, laboratory research has to be carried out. For instance, to study how drivers integrate, or combine, different factors, it °is necessary to vary these factors in a systematic manner. In real traffic situations factors never present themselves systematically. There is, of course, problems with working in the laboratory. Generally speaking, you will always have uncertainties with the validity of your studies. But - in this case there does not seem to be any option. The only way to investigate these things systematically is in the laboratory.

  • Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Morén, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förstudie till projekt "Ökat säkerhetsmedvetande"1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har syftat till att utreda förutsättningarna för att öka säkerhetsmedvetandet på olika nivåer inom SJ. Utredningen har omfattat en granskning av statistik för de fyra senaste åren rörande olyckor, växlingsmissöden och tillbud, samt intervjuer med tåg-/trafikproduktionsansvariga och säkerhetshandläggare inom Persontrafikdivisionens olika affärsområden. Även representanter för fortbildning, trafikledning, Banverket samt försvarets provflygverksamhet har intervjuats. Det har kunnat konstateras att olyckor och missöden vållar SJ mycket stora kostnader, och de synpunkter som framförts vid intervjuerna tyder på att åtgärder för att höja säkerhetsmedvetandet är angelägna inom flera olika delar av organisationen. Såväl kunskaper som attityder när det gäller säkerheten har ansetts behöva förbättras. De åtgärder som föreslås genomföras i ett första steg är av två typer. Den första typen av insatser syftar till att öka tydligheten och samstämmigheten i de "säkerhetssignaler" som på olika sätt förmedlas till de anställda. En viktig åtgärd i detta sammanhang är att genomföra utbildning av chefer inom SJ, dels för att öka deras eget medvetande om sitt säkerhetsansvar och dels för att poängtera säkerhetens betydelse inom organisationen i dess helhet. Denna typ av insatser kan förväntas öka såväl det allmänna säkerhetsmedvetandet inom SJ som trovärdigheten och därmed effekterna av senare åtgärder inriktade mot specifika personalkategorier. Den andra typen av insatser som föreslås i denna förstudie syftar till att i större utsträckning tillvarata den säkerhetsrelaterade information, inte minst när det gäller tillbud och mindre allvarliga driftsstörningar, som på olika sätt genereras redan i nuläget. Sådan information har ett stort värde både när det gäller att bedöma behovet och att utvärdera effekterna av kommande insatser för att öka säkerhetsmedvetandet. Informationen bör dessutom vara värdefull när det gäller att identifiera riskfyllda situationer/beteenden som ännu inte lett till någon olycka.

  • Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola.
    Exploring gender and subjectivity in Narrative Research2011In: Narrative Works: issues, investigations & interventions, ISSN 1925-0622, Vol. 1, no 2, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, Anna’s occupational life history has been chosen to illustrate one woman’s personal and professional struggle for purpose and identity. Subjective construction is an on-going process and roles and identities are in a constant flux of coping with the tensions between continuity and change. By partaking of private as well as professional experiences, strategies used to maintain Anna’s personal integrity in changeable and often demanding contexts become clearer. Based on interviews, reflections, and discussions, Anna’s story provides authentic insights into the ways in which one teacher has learnt to cope with the demands and challenges in her life.

  • Malm, Birgitte
    Malmö högskola.
    Personal reflections on professional practice: A portrayal of Nora2008In: NZ Journal of Teachers' Work, ISSN 1176-6662, E-ISSN 1176-6662, Vol. 5, no 2, 79-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Centrell, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studded tyres: socio-economic calculations1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this investigation is a revision of earlier investigations of studded tyres, i.e. the socio-economic consequences that may be expected from a ban on such tyres.

    The calculations were made for winter 1993/1994 and for winter 1999/2000. The conditions in winter 1993/1994 form the basis for the calculations, a quite normal winter. The conditions in 1999/20 00 are the same, except for the assumptions that all those using studded tyres will then be using lightweight studs and that wear resistant pavements will be more common. Everything else, for example winter maintenance will be the same as in 1993/1994.

    The following effects are included:

    Accidents (direct: at slipperiness. indirect: because of pavement wear)

    Road wear (pavement and road markings, cleaning signs)

    Car costs (tyres/rims, fuel consumption, washing)

    Environment (car washing)

  • Thulin, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Obrenovic, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerheten för gående och cyklister i Kungsbacka kommun1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Kungsbacka kommun har Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet (VTI) undersökt de gåendes och cyklisternas (GC-trafikanternas) trafik: och trafiksäkerhetssituation i Kungsbacka tätort. 15 korsningar belägna i de centrala delarna samt två korsningar det s.k. Onsalakorset och korsningen mellan Gottskärsvägen och Gathes väg har ingått i undersökningen.

    Syftet med undersökningen har varit att ge en tillståndsbeskrivning av trafik- och trafiksäkerhets samt att kunna utnyttja resultaten vid en uppföljning av effekterna av de åtgärder som planeras inom i första hand de centrala delarna av tätorten.

    Undersökningen har genomförts med en praktisk metod som utvecklats vid VTI. Med metoden detaljgranskas enskilda korsningar. Riskbedömning görs för hela korsningen och för delar av den.

    Resultatet pekar på en något högre skaderisk för cyklister och mopedister inom de centrala delarna av Kungsbacka tätort jämfört med centrala delar i andra mellanstora tätorter. Skaderisken för de gående och bilisterna är av ”genomsnittlig” storlek.

    I undersökningens resultatdel görs en sammanställning av i vilka korsningar och var i dessa trafiksäkerhetsproblem finns.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Maddoks, H. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton–proton collision data2017In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, no 3, 195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at [Formula: see text] = 8 [Formula: see text]. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text], is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and 99% at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection.

  • Recensioner2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 210-221 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörns högskola.
    Självmordsdödligheten i den östeuropeiska omvandlingen2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 180-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide mortality in the Eastern European transition

    The current paper seeks to systematize the discussion on the causes of the changes in Eastern European countries' suicide mortality during the last 15 years by analyzing the changes in relation to some common causes: alcohol consumption, economic changes, "general pathogenic social stress", political changes and social disorganization. It is found that the development in suicide has varied between in different countries, and that the same causes cannot apply to all of them. However, the relation between suicide mortality and social processes is obvious. A model consisting of general stress, democratization, alcohol consumption and social disorganization (with a period-dependent effect) predicted fairly accurately the percentual changes in the suicide rates in 16 out of the 28 Eastern Bloc countries in 1984-89 and 1989-94, while it failed to do so for Albania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the Caucasian and Central Asian newly independent states. The data are subject to many potential sources of error: the small number of units and the large multicollinearity between the independent variables may bias results. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the changes in Eastern European suicide mortality, both its decreases and increases, may be explained with the same set of variables. However, more than one factor is needed, and the multicollinearity will continue to pose a problem.

  • Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussein, Hussein M.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfills Site Selection in Babylon, Iraq2017In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, no 4, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate is located in the middle of Iraq and includes five major districts called Qadhaa. It occupies an area of 5315 km2 with population of 2,092,998 in 2015. The process of selecting landfill site is considered complicated task related to many factors and regulations. Currently, there is no landfill site in Babylon Governorate that fulfils the scientific and environmental criteria. Therefore, in this study fifteen of suitable criteria were selected. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban canters, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, agriculture, roads lands use slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Then these criteria were used in the GIS (geographic information system), which has a high ability to manage and analyse various data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the weightings of criteria through using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. After that the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used to obtain the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Ten suitable candidate sites for landfill were selected (two for each District), where all these sites satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study. The areas of the selected sites were adequate to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självskattad hälsa och vådliga beteenden i transitionens Ryssland2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 150-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is hypothesised that individuals’ ability to cope with the Russian transition is socially structured and will give rise to health differences and differences in ‘risk behaviours’. Since self-rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and since risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self-rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes. The Taganrog household survey was conducted in the form of face-to face interviews and included 1009 individuals and their families.The survey was carried out January to December 1998. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed. In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in public health, (here self-rated health), seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction than changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self-rated ‘poor’ health was more common among those whose economic situation was worse 1998 than ten years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly. In general, self-rated health seems to be more closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are certainly im portant for the poor state of public healthin Russia, but may be not closely connected to the economic aspects of the transition.

  • Sparén, Pär
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Stagnation, sammanbrott och social nyordning - rötterna till den ryska folkhälsokrisen2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 127-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stagnation, break-down and a new social order - the roots of the Russian public health crisis

    Long term trends of deteriorating health status in Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during the last two decades of communism were followed by a new crisis in health, after the collapse of its social system. In contrast, the perestroika period coincided with strongly improved public health. Explanations for the latest Russian health crisis are discussed. It is concluded that explanations based on poor medical care, excessive alcohol consumption or nutrional deprivation are, at best, insufficient. The collapse of the social system itself has lead to a narrowing of individual and collective decision latitudes; we speculate that historical factors, such as vulnerability of specific birth cohorts or segments of the population, may be part of the unexpected and very steep rise of mortality during the first half of the 1990s.

  • Reitan, Therese C
    Södertörns högskola.
    Operasjonen var mislykket, men pasientenöverlevde. Den siste sovjetiske alkohol-kampanjen og dens blandede ettermaele2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 86-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation was unsuccessful, but the patient survived. Varying assessments of the last anti-alcohol campaign in the Soviet Union

    One of the most widely discussed factors behind fluctuations in mortality in Russia and the former Soviet Union is the so-called Gorbachev anti-alcohol campaign, which was launched in 1985. This large-scale natural experiment in alcohol policy has since then produced very mixed reviews, partly described as successful although more often depicted as a failure. The article presents the wide variety of assessments, and discusses the underlying criteria on which these assessments are made. These criteria most often pertain to the campaign’s goals, implementation, effects and the overall judgement is closely linked to the chosen time perspective. The effects include changes in life expectancy, alcohol consumption (registered as well as illicit), mortality, crime, in addition to other political, social and fiscal consequences. The varied assessments also point to a schism between a narrowly focused epidemiological view of the campaign and a more general sociological and normative approach.

  • Åberg, Martin
    Södertörns högskola.
    Den fungerande demokratin? Socialt kapital och demokratisering i västra Ukraina2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 46-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Futnam’s 'social capital theory’ goes east: a case study of Western Ukraine and L'viv

    The article is an attempt to probe Putnam’s ”social capital theory” using a case study approach to the analysis of democratisation in post-socialist societies. For this purpose Western Ukraine and more specifically the city of L'viv during the first years of independent statehood is analysed by help of available survey data, focus group discussions and deep interviews. It is argued that while political culture and social capital do play an important part in the former socialist states, Putnam ’s definition of social capital needs to be critically examined and in part re-interpreted. Public life in these countries are mostly associated with the type of ’non-communitarian’ social capital Putnam found in Southern Italy, deriving mainly from negative experiences from state socialist institutions. However, contrary to Putnam’s argument, lack of trust in formal institutions is not due primarily to difficulties to implement sanctions in the particularistic and vertical networks from which non-communitarian social capital is built. The exchange relations that constitute the backbone of communitarian and non-communitarian social capital respectively draw on two different modes of reducing social transaction costs. It is hypothesised that it is this difference rather than implementation of sanctions as such that is the key to the problem and that it is above all the mode of reducing social transaction costs typical to non-communitarian social capital which impedes the building of trust in formal institutions. Furthermore non-communitarian social capital still in many respects continue to represent a more efficient tool for practical problem solving compared to formal institutions. It is concluded that these two features increases the importance of institutional design and third-party enforcement rather than diminishing the role such factors play to successful democratisation.

  • Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    et al.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Steffen, Annika
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Kritikou, Maria
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Palli, Domenico
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Agudo, Antonio
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Wareham, Nick
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Gunter, Marc
    Freisling, Heinz
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, 115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between body size and prostate cancer risk, and in particular risk by tumour characteristics, is not clear because most studies have not differentiated between high-grade or advanced stage tumours, but rather have assessed risk with a combined category of aggressive disease. We investigated the association of height and adiposity with incidence of and death from prostate cancer in 141,896 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, there were 7024 incident prostate cancers and 934 prostate cancer deaths. Results: Height was not associated with total prostate cancer risk. Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in the association with height by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.002), with a positive association with risk for high-grade but not low-intermediate-grade disease (HR for high-grade disease tallest versus shortest fifth of height, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18-2.03). Greater height was also associated with a higher risk for prostate cancer death (HR = 1.43, 1.14-1.80). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly inversely associated with total prostate cancer, but there was evidence of heterogeneity by tumour grade (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.89, 0.79-0.99 for low-intermediate grade and HR = 1.32, 1.01-1.72 for high-grade prostate cancer) and stage (P-heterogeneity = 0.01; HR = 0.86, 0.75-0.99 for localised stage and HR = 1.11, 0.92-1.33 for advanced stage). BMI was positively associated with prostate cancer death (HR = 1.35, 1.09-1.68). The results for waist circumference were generally similar to those for BMI, but the associations were slightly stronger for high-grade (HR = 1.43, 1.07-1.92) and fatal prostate cancer (HR = 1.55, 1.23-1.96). Conclusions: The findings from this large prospective study show that men who are taller and who have greater adiposity have an elevated risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer death.

  • Hansen, Erik
    Forskningsstiftelsen Fafo, Oslo.
    Fattigdom i Ryssland: kontinuitet og endring2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 22-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poverty in Russia: Continuity and Change

    This article examines the relationship between economic reforms in Russia and the observed levels of poverty in the population. A review of poverty levels in the USSR reveals that the USSR had a significant poverty problem. Further, the article reviews the changes in poverty assessment methods during reform, and its consequences for estimates of poverty levels, which currently vary between 10 and 50 percent of the population. Russian poverty is seen as different from usual Western patterns, as neither employment nor education is sufficient to protect from poverty. Survey data reveal that whereas the numberof destitute may be relatively limited, more than half of all households have difficulties covering needs of a higher order. In a separate section, the disappearance of non-market personal networks as a source of consumer goods as a consequence of reform is discussed. Thereafter, the impact on poverty levels of the financial crisis in August 1998 is discussed. Social polices are seen as relatively inefficient due to their scope, which goes beyond poverty relief, but aims to shelter the population from adverse effects of the reform policies.