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  • Falkevall, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Exemepel-vis: Det oväntade och föreställningar om religionskunskapslärares professionella kunnande2017In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, 44-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is a critical interpretation of different perceptions of teacher’s professional knowledge as it is implicit in evidence based studies and Learnings Studies, two common ways of grounding the professional knowledge in educational science and in school politics today and therefore studied in teacher education. These two perceptions are analyzed with two metaphors from a research overview by Clandinin & Clandinin, called the conduit metaphor and teacher as curriculum maker. Strengths and shortcomings are pointed out. Especially in relation to unexpected events in teaching situations. A third perception of teacher’s professional knowledge is introduced and labelled teacher as jazz musician and the professional knowledge is viewed as improvisation. Based on the assumption from Gudmundsdottir experienced teachers have developed a curriculum story that helps them to improvisator – the re-active dimension of teaching. The two later perceptions are used in discussing three cases from students teaching. The thesis advocated is that the metaphor jazz - improvisation gives wider focus on RE as a school subject with content and meaning than the other two.

  • Eric, Linvill
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis Data of Sheets Made from Wood-Based Cellulose Fibers Partially Converted to Dialcohol Cellulose2017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This data article contains the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) results for sheets made from cellulose fibers partially converted to dialcohol cellulose. See Larsson and Wågberg [1] for a description and characterization of the material as well as how the material is produced. See also Linvill et al. [2] for tensile testing and 3-D forming of the material. The DMTA tests were conducted at four different relative humidity levels: 0, 50, 60, and 70 % RH, and the temperature was swept between 10 and 113 °C. The DMTA results enable the understanding of the elastic, viscoelastic, and viscoplastic mechanical properties of this material at a wide range of temperature and relative humidity combinations.

  • Svensson, Conny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Till svenska jazzhatets historia: Om Waldemar Hammenhögs roman "Det var en gång en musiker"2017In: Jazzpulsen: medlemstidning för Föreningen klassisk jazz, ISSN 2000-8449, no 2, 12-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Juudas, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kazior, Zuzanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Lunds Universitet.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Ola
    Lunds Universitet.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    No additional benefits of block- over evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training within a polarized microcycle2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, 1-12 p., 413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, VO2max or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly altered post-training (P < 0.05). Discussion: The current study shows that well-trained junior cross-country skiers are able to complete 9 HIT sessions within 1 week without compromising total work done and without experiencing greater stress or reduced recovery over a 3-week polarized microcycle. However, the findings do not support block-distributed HIT as a superior method to a more even distribution of HIT in terms of enhancing physiological or performance adaptions.

  • Svensson, Conny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Från Piazza del Popolo: Om Vilhelm Bergsøes roman med samma namn2017In: Romhorisont, ISSN 0349-5590, no 66, 8-9 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Shannon, Oliver
    et al.
    Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nybäck, Linn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Duckworth, Lauren
    Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK.
    Barlow, Matthew J
    Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK.
    Woods, D
    Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK.
    Siervio, M
    University of Newcastle Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    O'Hara, JP
    Leeds Beckett University Leeds UK.
    "Beet-ing" the mountain: A review of the physiological and performance effects of dietary nitrate supplementation at simulated and terrestrial altitude2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to altitude results in multiple physiological consequences. These include, but are not limited to, a reduced maximal oxygen consumption, drop in arterial oxygen saturation, and increase in muscle metabolic perturbations at a fixed sub-maximal work rate. Exercise capacity during fixed work rate or incremental exercise and time-trial performance are also impaired at altitude relative to sea level. Recently, dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation has attracted considerable interest as a nutritional aid during altitude exposure. In this review, we summarise and critically evaluate the physiological and performance effects of dietary NO3- supplementation during exposure to simulated and terrestrial altitude. Previous investigations at simulated altitude indicate that NO3- supplementation may reduce the oxygen cost of exercise, elevate arterial and tissue oxygen saturation, improve muscle metabolic function, and enhance exercise capacity/performance. Conversely, current evidence suggests that NO3- supplementation does not augment the training response at simulated altitude. Few studies have evaluated the effects of NO3- at terrestrial altitude. Current evidence indicates potential improvements in endothelial function at terrestrial altitude following NO3- supplementation. No effects of NO3- supplementation have been observed on oxygen consumption or arterial oxygen saturation at terrestrial altitude, although further research is warranted. Limitations of the present body of literature are discussed, and directions for future research are provided.

  • Svensson, Conny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Erik Dahlberg i Vilda västern2017In: Nya Argus, ISSN 0027-7126, no 4, 104-107 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Svensson, Conny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    'Vandrar-Mari’ och Betty på Klockargården: Två kvinnoporträtt i romaner av Margit Friberg2017In: Ölandsbladet, ISSN 1104-0351, Vol. 23 maj, 13-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The reliability and validity of a four-minute running time-trial in assessing VO2max and performance2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, no MAY, 1-9 p., 270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Traditional graded-exercise tests to volitional exhaustion (GXTs) are limited by the need to establish starting workloads, stage durations, and step increments. Short-duration time-trials (TTs) may be easier to implement and more ecologically valid in terms of real-world athletic events. The purpose of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance measured during a traditional GXT (STEP) and a four-minute running time-trial (RunTT). Methods: Ten recreational runners (age: 32 ± 7 years; body mass: 69 ± 10 kg) completed five STEP tests with a verification phase (VER) and five self-paced RunTTs on a treadmill. The order of the STEP/VER and RunTT trials was alternated and counter-balanced. Performance was measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) for STEP and VER and distance covered for RunTT. Results: The coefficient of variation (CV) for VO2max was similar between STEP, VER, and RunTT (1.9 ± 1.0, 2.2 ± 1.1, and 1.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), but varied for performance between the three types of test (4.5 ± 1.9, 9.7 ± 3.5, and 1.8 ± 0.7% for STEP, VER, and RunTT, respectively). Bland-Altman limits of agreement (bias ± 95%) showed VO2max to be 1.6 ± 3.6 mL·kg-1·min-1 higher for STEP vs. RunTT. Peak HR was also significantly higher during STEP compared with RunTT (P = 0.019). Conclusion: A four-minute running time-trial appears to provide more reliable performance data in comparison to an incremental test to exhaustion, but may underestimate VO2max.

  • Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Holmes, Maria
    Göteborgs Stad; Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nyttoberäkningar av minskat buller från elbusstrafik i Göteborg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social benefit calculations of reduced noise from electric bus transport in Gothenburg

    In this study we examine noise from different types of buses. The aim is to calculate the economic benefits of electric buses over other bus types used in Gothenburg in terms of noise reduction. Since there is no established method to investigate the economic effects of noise from buses a large part of this study focuses on if methods currently available to quantify the health effects and economic costs of noise are sufficient to assess the effects of noise from buses. DALYs is a measure that has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to quantify the health effects by counting the number of healthy life years lost every year because of the noise. ASEK is a Swedish method used to calculate the costs caused by the transport sector to society every year.

    In order to calculate noise from buses in a sufficiently correct way, it is necessary to have knowledge on how the different bus types operating in Gothenburg today sound. In Gothenburg there are diesel, gas, hybrid and electric buses. The method we used to calculate the bus noise was Nord2000, which is a more advanced method of calculation than the one usually used for calculations in Sweden, i.e. the Nordic Prediction method from 1996 (RTN: 96). The advantage with Nord2000 is that you can use specific input data for each bus type, something that is impossible with RTN where in-data for light and heavy vehicles are based on measurements carried out in the early 1990s. Nord2000 has been implemented in different noise calculation software, of which SoundPLAN is the computational tool used in this project. The drawback with SoundPLAN however, is that it is not possible to calculate maximum sound levels with the Nord2000 model as this has not been implemented in the software. For calculations with Nord2000 new input data has been collected based on measurements of gas, electrically charged hybrid buses driving in diesel mode, and electrically charged hybrid buses driving in electric mode on a test track in the autumn of 2016. For diesel buses existing input data for Nord2000 was used based on measurements in real traffic in 2015. The results of these measurements are used not only to do outdoor calculations of bus noise, but also for calculations of indoor noise.

    Another disadvantage of Nord2000 is that the calculations are more time consuming, which meant that we had to limit the geographic calculation area to 32 km2 in central Gothenburg. It is the most densely populated area in Gothenburg is where the bus traffic is most intense. In this area, bus traffic along with car traffic and other heavy vehicles was calculated within 100 meters from the road center, as well as within 30 meters of all bus stops to see the effect of starting and stopping on noise levels.We have also calculated a small residential area in the center of town where buses dominate namely the area around Bäckegatan, to analyze the impact of bus traffic noise in more detail.

    Measurements of the various bus types demonstrates that there are differences between the bus types and that diesel buses cause more noise than the other bus types. A frequency analysis of the sound also shows that the sound from diesel buses contains much more low frequency sound than electric buses. Gas and hybrid buses lie somewhere in between when it comes to the content of low-frequency sound.

    The estimates of the health effects and economic costs of bus noise show that diesel buses cause the highest costs of the various bus types included. But despite electric buses being perceived as much quieter it is in general difficult to show any significant difference between the bus types, even if hybrid buses in diesel mode and gas-powered buses contain more low frequency sound than electric buses. There is however a greater difference between bus types at bus stops because diesel, hybrid bus in diesel mode and gas-powered buses make a lot more noise than electric buses during acceleration. When the buses are calculated together with other road traffic, the other road traffic tends to dominate due to the fact that the volume of other traffic tends to be much greater than the volume of buses.

    However if you only have bus services near homes (without other traffic), the differences in exposure, especially from 55 dBA and above, is large between bus types and the electric bus is by far the quietest option. For exposure at night, calculated both with buses only and with buses and other traffic included, the differences in exposure to sound levels that can cause sleep disturbances are greater between bus types, and electric bus clearly contribute least to increased sleep disturbance.

    Research shows that the link between annoyance to and loudness of noise from heavy traffic, measured or calculated as a daily equivalent noise level in decibel A, is not particularly good. Low-frequency sounds are perceived as more disturbing and are perceived as louder than sound sources that are dominated by sounds in the higher frequencies, such as car traffic. The methods for quantifying the health impact and economic costs of traffic noise need to be developed or supplemented by other methods which more accurately include annoyance and sleep disturbance from heavy traffic in order to be able to make more accurate cost-benefit calculations.

  • Jansson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Language brokering in multilingual caregiving settings2017In: Communication & Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Healthcare, Ethics and Society, ISSN 1612-1783, E-ISSN 1613-3625, Vol. 13, no 3, 277-290- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the methodology of conversation analysis to examine audio-recorded multi-party conversations between a Swedish/Farsi-speaking resident and multilingual staff in a Swedish residential home, this article describes a practice for establishing shared understanding by one caregiver enacting the role of language broker. The focus is on caregiving settings where caregivers assist an elderly person with her personal hygiene. We demonstrate how brokering is used to 1) maintain the conversational flow in a small talk sequence and 2) address the contents in the resident’s complaints. The article thus advances our understanding of language brokering as an activity that multilingual staff in a linguistically asymmetrical workplace setting take on to assist a colleague in performing client-oriented activities.

  • Gago, Paulo
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Research Center for Sport, Health and Human Development, (CIDESD), Portugal.
    Arndt, Toni
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Department of CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ekblom, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Post Activation Potentiation of the Plantarflexors: Implications of Knee Angle Variations2017In: Journal of Human Kinetics, ISSN 1640-5544, E-ISSN 1899-7562, Vol. 57, 29-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexing the knee to isolate the single joint soleus from the biarticular gastrocnemius is a strategy forinvestigating individual plantarflexor's post activation potentiation (PAP). We investigated the implications of testingplantarflexor PAP at different knee angles and provided indirect quantification of the contribution of gastrocnemiuspotentiation to the overall plantarflexor enhancements post conditioning. Plantarflexor supramaximal twitches weremeasured in ten male power athletes before and after a maximal isometric plantarflexion (MVIC) at both flexed andextended knee angles. Mean torque and soleus (SOLRMS) and medial gastrocnemius (MGRMS) activity were measuredduring the MVIC. The mean torque and MGRMS of the MVIC were lower (by 33.9 and 42.4%, respectively) in the flexedcompared to the extended position, with no significant difference in SOLRMS. After the MVIC, twitch peak torque (PT)and the rate of torque development (RTR) potentiated significantly more (by 17.4 and 14.7% respectively) in theextended as compared to the flexed knee position, but only immediately (5 s) after the MVIC. No significant differenceswere found in the twitch rate of torque development (RTD) potentiation between positions. It was concluded that kneejoint configuration should be taken into consideration when comparing studies of plantarflexor PAP. Furthermore,results reflect a rather brief contribution of the gastrocnemius potentiation to the overall plantarflexor twitchenhancements.

  • Mäkelä, Mikko
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Division of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE- 90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Edler, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Geladi, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Low-temperature drying of industrial biosludge with simulated secondary heat2017In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 116, 792-798 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drying is an energy-intensive unit operation and future sludge dryers should be able to take advantage of the secondary energy of industrial environments. This work reports the use of a pilot cyclone for drying biosludge at low temperatures and simulating the use of secondary waste heat. The pilot-scale experiments were performed according to an experimental design and the results interpreted using principal components and multiple linear regression. The dry solids content of processed sludge increased from 9 to 19-68% during the experiments with a predicted energy consumption of <1.7 kWh kri H2O. However, the combined energy consumption was 80-230% higher indicating that the efficiency of sludge drying was governed by the availability of secondary heat. Drying sludge to solid contents sustainable for fossil fuel replacement at pulp and paper mills could be performed with secondary heat at a temperature of 70 degrees C, a pilot-scale feeding capacity of 170 kg h(-1) and a corresponding energy consumption of 1.0 kWh kg(-1) H2O. The results suggest that the use cyclones could be an efficient option for future sludge drying at pulp and paper mills.

  • Grimaldi, Simone
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    An SVM-Based Method for Classification of External Interference in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2017In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Network, ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 6, no 2, 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the adoption of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) has greatly increased. However, the time-critical performance of IWSANs is considerably affected by external sources of interference. In particular, when an IEEE 802.11 network is coexisting in the same environment, a significant drop in communication reliability is observed. This, in turn, represents one of the main challenges for a wide-scale adoption of IWSAN. Interference classification through spectrum sensing is a possible step towards interference mitigation, but the long sampling window required by many of the approaches in the literature undermines their run-time applicability in time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH)-based IWSAN. Aiming at minimizing both the sensing time and the memory footprint of the collected samples, a centralized interference classifier based on support vector machines (SVMs) is introduced in this article. The proposed mechanism, tested with sample traces collected in industrial scenarios, enables the classification of interference from IEEE 802.11 networks and microwave ovens, while ensuring high classification accuracy with a sensing duration below 300 ms. In addition, the obtained results show that the fast classification together with a contained sampling frequency ensure the suitability of the method for TSCH-based IWSAN

  • Kudrin, Pavel
    et al.
    Varik, Vallo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Oliveira, Sofia Raquel Alves
    Beljantseva, Jelena
    Santos, Teresa Del Peso
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Dzhygyr, Ievgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Rejman, Dominik
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Tenson, Tanel
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Subinhibitory Concentrations of Bacteriostatic Antibiotics Induce relA-Dependent and relA-Independent Tolerance to beta-Lactams2017In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 61, no 4, e02173-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleotide (p) ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. During amino acid starvation, the Escherichia coli (p) ppGpp synthetase RelA is activated by deacylated tRNA in the ribosomal A-site. An increase in (p) ppGpp is believed to drive the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells, prompting the development of strategies to inhibit (p) ppGpp synthesis. We show that in a biochemical system from purified E. coli components, the antibiotic thiostrepton efficiently inhibits RelA activation by the A-site tRNA. In bacterial cultures, the ribosomal inhibitors thiostrepton, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline all efficiently abolish accumulation of (p) ppGpp induced by the Ile-tRNA synthetase inhibitor mupirocin. This abolishment, however, does not reduce the persister level. In contrast, the combination of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor trimethoprim with mupirocin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol leads to ampicillin tolerance. The effect is independent of RelA functionality, specific to beta-lactams, and not observed with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. These results refine our understanding of (p) ppGpp's role in antibiotic tolerance and persistence and demonstrate unexpected drug interactions that lead to tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics.

  • Zhou, Yang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    Numerical instability investigations for thin membranes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane structures are commonly used in many fields. The studies of these structures are of increasing interest. The projects in this thesis focus on the evaluations of equilibrium states for pressurized membranes under different problem settings, using finite element methods, and the corresponding instability behaviors.

    The first part of the current work discusses the instability behavior of a thin, planar, circular and initially horizontal membrane subjected to downwards or upwards fluid pressure. The membrane structures exhibit large deformations under pressure. The method for evaluating fluid pressure from gravity was developed in finite element context, and used in numerical simulations. Limit and bifurcation points have been detected for different loading parameters and conditions. The effects on instabilities of parameters, the initial states of the membrane, and the chosen mesh are discussed.

    The second part of the current work discusses instability behavior of a thin, spherical and closed membrane containing gas and fluid, when placed on a horizontal rigid and non-friction plane. A multi-parametric loading is described. By adding practically relevant controlling equations, different classes of equilibrium paths were followed using a generalized path following algorithm. Stability conclusions were made, according to the considered load parameters and the constraints. A generalized eigenvalue analysis was used to evaluate the stability behavior including the constraint effects. Fold line evaluations were performed to analyze the parametric dependence. A solution surface approach is used to visualize the mechanical response under this multi-parametric setting.

    The third part of the current work focuses on instability response of a truncated sphere, containing gas and fluid, and in contact with two vertical rigid and non-friction planes. Different penalty formulations were used and compared. The effects of contact implementations on instability behaviors were investigated. Bifurcation points induced by contacts have been observed. Multi-parametric problems were defined, and generalized paths were followed. The multi-parametric stability was evaluated using generalized eigenvalue analysis, based on the mass and total differential matrices. The effects of augmenting equations on bifurcation points and limit points are discussed.

    The fourth part of the current work analyses the instability response of a truncated sphere, completely filled with fluid, placed on a horizontal plane and spinning around the vertical axis. The loads from fluid pressure and the constraints, e.g., fluid volume, were formulated to generate a symmetric differential matrix. Several mesh patterns with different symmetries were used to simulate the model, and the obtained results are compared. Various problem settings were considered, and generalized paths were followed. The effects of symmetry aspects of the chosen meshes on instability behaviors are discussed, as are the effects of parameters.

  • Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Social Responsibility in the Context of Multinational Enterprises: Exploring Perceptions and Expectations of Local Employees of Subsidiaries in a Developing-Country2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 5, 96-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems prevalent in the settings in which they operate. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was used as the methodological grounding for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ghana with a total of 20 participants (16 males and 4 females). Interviews were audio-taped, with permission of the participants. A convenience sampling method was used, and all 20 participants were recruited via initial personal visits by the researcher and subsequent follow-up visits and phone call. Interviews were transcribed via thematic analysis. The views of participants were organized into four major themes: relevance of CSR (business ethics) to local employees; local employees’ attitude towards firms’ (un)ethical behaviour; educating managers and employees of foreign-owned companies; and attractiveness of company and ability to draw resources. Findings: Our interpretive research in the Ghanaian context suggests that most of the participants appreciate the salient role of cooperation between companies and traditional authorities in identifying and resolving potential tension that could evolve out of non-compliance with local socio-cultural values and belief systems. In respect to this, the findings from the present study reinforce the insights of Kjonstad and Willmott (1995) that reliance on rule-based approaches to business ethics is deficient, as it has been found to be ineffective or at best, less ‘empowering’ when it comes to influencing organizations in their ethical behaviour. The findings further suggest that inadequate information about local customs, values and belief systems, partly explains the seeming ‘irresponsible’ posture of foreign-owned companies towards aspects of local socio-cultural values and belief systems. Thus, as scanty information is available to the companies and their managers, few are able to either integrate them into their core CSR practices and/or encourage employees to uphold them in their processes. Research limitations/implications: Findings are based on a single-country investigation. This limitation, combined with a relatively small sample size (20 participants, across firms that belong to 6 industry-groupings), may have implications that the results might not be readily generalizable. Moreover, as the present study employed an interpretive methodological approach, the findings could have been impacted by self-evaluation (i.e., self-narratives from participants), resulting in socio-cultural preferences and response biases, on the part of the participants. Practical implications: Although results of this study is based on single-country (Ghana) study, given similarities in socio-cultural characteristics across developing-countries, this study is likely to have wider relevance and applicability in developing-countries, as a whole. Originality/value: The present study explored relatively unexplored ground by investigating the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, prevalent in the settings in which companies operate. Most importantly, these initial attempts at exploring the perceptions of local employees regarding MNE subsidiaries’ attitudes in relation to local customs, values, and belief systems, can hopefully be further explored and validated through future research directed at this topic. © www.iiste.org

  • Leighton, Ralph
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, Canterbury Christ Church University.
    Nielsen, Laila
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Ethnicity, gender, social class and citizenship: Comparative views from England and Sweden2017In: Teaching Citizenship, ISSN 1474-9335, Vol. 45, 42-43 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Yadav, Priti
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, BioMEx.
    Multiscale Modelling of Proximal Femur Growth: Importance of Geometry and Influence of Load2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Longitudinal growth of long bone occurs at growth plates by a process called endochondral ossification. Endochondral ossification is affected by both biological and mechanical factors. This thesis focuses on the mechanical modulation of femoral bone growth occurring at the proximal growth plate, using mechanobiological theories reported in the literature. Finite element analysis was used to simulate bone growth.

    The first study analyzed the effect of subject-specific growth plate geometry over simplified growth plate geometry in numerical prediction of bone growth tendency. Subject-specific femur finite element model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of one able- bodied child. Gait kinematics and kinetics were acquired from motion analysis and analyzed further in musculoskeletal modelling to determine muscle and joint contact forces. These were used to determine loading on the femur in finite element analysis. The growth rate was computed based on a mechanobiological theory proposed by Carter and Wong, and a growth model in the principal stress direction was introduced. Our findings support the use of subject- specific geometry and of the principal stress growth direction in prediction of bone growth.

    The second study aimed to illustrate how different muscle groups’ activation during gait affects proximal femoral growth tendency in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were used. Gait kinematics and kinetics were acquired for 3 able-bodied children, and muscle and joint contact forces were determined, similar to the first study. The contribution of different muscle groups to hip contact force was also determined. Finite element analysis was performed to compute the specific growth rate and growth direction due to individual muscle groups. The simulated growth model indicated that gait loading tends to reduce neck shaft angle and femoral anteversion during growth. The muscle groups that contributes most and least to growth rate were hip abductors and hip adductors, respectively. All muscle groups’ activation tended to reduce the neck shaft and femoral anteversion angles, except hip extensors and adductors which showed a tendency to increase the femoral anteversion.

    The third study’s aim was to understand the influence of different physical activities on proximal femoral growth tendency. Hip contact force orientation was varied to represent reported forces from a number of physical activities. The findings of this study showed that all studied physical activities tend to reduce the neck shaft angle and anteversion, which corresponds to the femur’s natural course during normal growth.

    The aim of the fourth study was to study the hypothesis that loading in the absence of physical activity, i.e. static loading, can have an adverse effect on bone growth. A subject-specific model was used and growth plate was modeled as a poroelastic material in finite element analysis. Prendergast’s indicators for bone growth was used to analyse the bone growth behavior. The results showed that tendency of bone growth rate decreases over a long duration of static loading. The study also showed that static sitting is less detrimental than 

    static standing for predicted cartilage-to-bone differentiation likelihood, due to the lower magnitude of hip contact force.

    The prediction of growth using finite element analysis on experimental gait data and person- specific femur geometry, based on mechanobiological theories of bone growth, offers a biomechanical foundation for better understanding and prediction of bone growth-related deformity problems in growing children. It can ultimately help in treatment planning or physical activity guidelines in children at risk at developing a femur or hip deformity. 

  • Nielsen, Laila
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Leighton, Ralph
    Faculty of Education, Canterbury Christ Church University.
    What are the gender, class and ethnicity of citizenship?: A study of upper secondary school students' views on Citizenship Education in England and Sweden2017In: Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics, ISSN 2001-4562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to examine and compare how the ethnicity, gender and social class conditions of citizenship influence, and are understood by, teachers and secondary school students in England and Sweden. The intention is also to compare how conditions of citizenship are dealt with in social studies for upper secondary school in England and Sweden. The relationship between students education and real conditions for citizenship is complex and partly differs between, as well as within, the two countries. The present comparative examination and analysis aims to visualize both specific and common conditions of citizenship in England and Sweden. This is to draw attention to how the meaning of frequently used terminology and images in the field of Citizenship Education do not always coincide with teachers’ and students’ own opinions and perceived meanings. By doing this we hope to contribute some new knowledge regarding one of the most difficult challenges that citizenship education is struggling with, whether the provided knowledge and values prepare todays youth to defend and develop future democratic and just societies. To achieve this, we have conducted a number of interviews with teachers and secondary school students and asked them about their experiences and opinions regarding Citizenship Education and the nature of citizenship. The following main questions were central to the interviews:

    • What knowledge and skills does a citizen need in a democracy and how is the meaning of citizenship connected to gender, class and ethnicity?
    • How are personal liberties affected by the citizen’s gender, class and ethnicity according to the respondents?
    • What are teachers’ and students’ experiences of Citizenship Education and how does school pay attention to citizens´ conditions based on gender, class and ethnicity?

    In recent years, both public debate and published research have shown that, in order to understand the real meanings of citizenship, it is necessary to understand and interpret formal citizenship rights and responsibilities from individuals’ social and cultural conditions as characterised by gender, ethnicity and social class. During the 2000s, the Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket) presented recurrent reports that shows how socio-economic background, in combination with foreign background, are crucial for pupils school results. The reports also show how segregation between schools and residential areas has increased on the basis of residents socio-economic and ethnic background. This group of students are a part of tomorrows citizens, which are also likely to remain marginalized even as adults. The links between Swedish school policy, pupils school results and the democratic development of society at large has been observed and analysed in contemporary Swedish research.

    In England, the picture is slightly different with the 7 per cent of the population who experience private education being over-represented in positions of power and influence. In May 2012, the then Secretary of State for Education Michael Gove provided a list of leaders in the arts, sciences, politics, sports, journalism, entertainment and other fields who had all been to independent schools, concluding that

    “the sheer scale, the breadth and the depth, of private school dominance of our society points to a deep problem in our country  . . .  Those who are born poor are more likely to stay poor and those who inherit privilege are more likely to pass on privilege in England than in any comparable county.”

    There is significant evidence that socio-economic background, in combination with ethnic background, continue to be highly influential on pupils school results. Links between national education policy, social class and pupils school results appear to remain entrenched in England. 

    When we identify cultural and social conditions as in any way hindering the status of citizenship, we do so from a perspective which does not seek to blame the less powerful for holding particular cultural perceptions but which recognises the barriers a dominant culture sets against those with less power. The insight that tells us it is necessary to comprehend individuals’ social and cultural conditions in order to understand and interpret their formal citizenship rights and responsibilities is not, however, particularly recent. Marx wrote over 160 years ago that, “if you assume a particular civil society . . . you will get particular political conditions”, from which it must follow that any society divided on the grounds of class, ethnicity and gender will present political conditions which reflect such divisions. It is also the case that there is likely to be a significant space between what is (the real) and what is perceived (the formal); just because there is inequality it does not follow that everyone is aware of that inequality.

  • Cetin, Gurel
    et al.
    Department of Tourism Management, Istanbul University, Turkey.
    Alrawadieh, Zaid
    Istanbul University, Turkey.
    Zeki Dincer, Mithat
    Istanbul University, Turkey.
    Istanbullu Dincer, Fusun
    Istanbul University, Turkey.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Willingness to pay for tourist tax in destinations: Empirical evidence from Istanbul2017In: Economies, ISSN ISSN 2227-7099, Vol. 5, no 2, 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Revenue generated from tourism taxes constitutes an important financial resource for local governments and tourism authorities to both ensure tourism sustainability and enhance the quality of tourist experiences. In order for tourism policy makers to create an efficient and fair tax system in tourism destinations, it is crucial to understand travelers’ perceptions concerning willingness to pay (WTP), tax rates, and their optimal allocation. The objectives of this paper, therefore, are to evaluate tourism taxes as a compensation tool to cover the costs of tourism and to measure tourists’ WTP. The paper also suggests a fair allocation of tax revenues based on tourists’ perceptions. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with international travelers to Istanbul, Turkey. The findings suggest that tourists are more likely to pay an additional amount of tax when this is earmarked for improvements in their experiences, but they are reluctant to take on liability concerning matters relating to destination sustainability. Based on the travelers’ perceptions, the paper also identified areas that need investment to improve tourist experiences. An interesting highlight of this paper is that the majority of surveyed respondents reported that their travel decisions would not be negatively affected even if the total cost of their vacation increased by one third. The findings are expected to offer fresh and much-needed insights into tourist taxation for tourism policy makers and stakeholders.

  • Norman, Hans
    Comments on the Session Urban Disease and Mortality1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 173-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lindahl, B. I. B
    On Weighting Causes of Death. An Analysis of Purposes and Criteria of Selection1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändstöm and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 131-156 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 122-147 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Nyström, Eva
    The Development of Cause-of-Death Classification in Eighteenth Century Sweden. A Survey of Problems, Sources and Possibilities1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 109-129 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Björklund Larsen, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulf
    Swedish Tax Agency, Sweden.
    A Thrice-Told Tale: A Collaboration Between The Swedish Tax Agency And Academia2017In: JOTA - Journal of Tax Administration, E-ISSN 2059-190X, Vol. 3, no 1, 6-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the story of a collaborative project involving the creation, development and teaching of a course on qualitative research, which was designed for all Swedish Tax Agency analysts. The collaboration took place between the Swedish Tax Agency and Linköping University, and this story is told from the perspective of three researchers: Lotta, Karin and Ulf. It was a successful course. However, this is not just a story about collaboration between academia and tax authority, but also one about how interdisciplinary approaches can create new knowledge. We argue that, due to our different backgrounds, and diverse interests and resources, the collaboration also gave us new insights into our daily research and analytic work. Our experience can perhaps inspire other collaborations between academia and tax administration.

  • Sarkar, Debasish
    et al.
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Das, Shyamashis
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Sharada, G.
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Pal, Banabir
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Shukla, Ashok
    Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    Sarma, D. D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Indian Inst Sci, Solid State & Struct Chem Unit, Bengaluru 560012, India..
    A Cost-Effective and High-Performance Core-Shell-Nanorod-Based ZnO/alpha-Fe2O3//ZnO/C Asymmetric Supercapacitor2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 6, A987-A994 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel core-shell design for nano-structured electrode materials is introduced for realizing cost-effective and high-performance supercapacitors. In the proposed core-shell design, thin shell-layers of highly pseudo-capacitive materials provide the platform for surface or near-surface-based faradaic and non-faradaic reactions together with shortened ion-diffusion path facilitating fast-ion intercalation and deintercalation processes. The highly-conducting core serves as highway for fast electron transfer toward current collectors, improving both energy and power performance characteristics of the core-shell structure in relation to pristine component materials. Furthermore, use of carbon (C)-based materials as a shell layer in either electrode not only enhances capacitive performance through double-layer formation but also provides enough mechanical strength to sustain volume changes in the core material during long-cycling of the supercapacitor improving its cycle life. In order to enhance electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacitance and rate capability via core-shell architecture and nano-structuring, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is assembled using ZnO/alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO/C core-shell nanorods as respective negative and positive electrodes. The ASC exhibits a specific capacitance of similar to 115 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s in a potential window as large as 1.8 V with a response time as short as 39 ms and retains more than 80% of its initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. Interestingly, the ASC can deliver an energy density of similar to 41 Wh/kg and a power density of similar to 7 kW/kg that are significantly higher than those reported hitherto for iron-oxide-based ASCs.

  • Sandelowsky, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, NVS, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Alfred Nobels Alle 23,D2, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Krakau, Ingvar
    Karolinska Inst, NVS, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Alfred Nobels Alle 23,D2, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modin, Sonja
    Karolinska Inst, NVS, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Alfred Nobels Alle 23,D2, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nager, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, NVS, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Alfred Nobels Alle 23,D2, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Case Method in COPD education for primary care physicians: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial2017In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 18, 197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is often undiagnosed and insufficiently managed. Effective forms of continuing medical education (CME) for primary care physicians (PCPs) are necessary to ensure the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice and, thus, improve patients' health.

    Methods: In this study, we will measure the effects of CME by Case Method and compare them against those of traditional lectures and no CME at all through an unblinded, cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT). Thirty-three primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Stockholm, Sweden, with a total of 180 PCPs will be involved. Twenty-two primary PHCCs, will be cluster-randomised into: an intervention group who will receive CME by Case Method (n = 11) and a control group who will receive traditional lectures (n = 11). The remaining PHCCs (n = 11) will be a reference group and will receive no CME. From the intervention and control groups, 460 randomly selected patients with COPD in GOLD stages 2 and 3 will participate, while no patients will be recruited from the reference group.

    For the patients, smoking status, actual treatment and urgent visits to a health provider due to airway problems will be registered. For the PCPs, professional competence (i.e. knowledge and management skills) in COPD, will be measured using a questionnaire based on current guidelines and guideline implementation problems in clinical practice which has previously been described by the authors. Data will be collected at baseline and at follow-up, which will be after 1.5 years for the patients, and 1 year for the PCPs. Statistical methods for individual-level and cluster-level analyses will be used.

    Discussion: COPD is considered a particularly complex clinical challenge involving managing multimorbidity, symptom adaptation, and lifestyle problematisation. Case Method in CME for PCPs may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of COPD on patients' lives and, thus, improve their management of it. The present study is expected to contribute scientific knowledge about indicators for an effective CME in COPD that is tailor-made to primary care physicians.

  • Michailakis, Dimitris
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Autopoiesis och styrning: En studie av handikappolitiska program2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 90-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autopoiesis and steering: a study on disability policy programs

    In this article Luhmanns autopoiesis theory is discussed in relation to a specific case; namely political programs with regard to inclusion of disabled persons in the labour market and the implementation difficulties that arise. The article does not attempt to explain the increasing amount of disabled persons excluded from the labour market system. It attempts to explain something more fundamental; how inequality in the labour market system can have such a permanent character. The central question is thus: How come that different programs designed to steer towards an increasing integration of disabled people in the labour market system, does not lead to the intended effect? According to autopoiesis theory, real steering can only be self-steering. Even when steering addresses systems in the environment, is it still self-steering because it is directed towards the system’s own environment, that is, as it is internally constructed by the steering system. Disability policy programs with the objective to increase the inclusion in the labour market of disabled persons, are political programs and as such unable to steer the labour market system.

  • Bluth, T.
    et al.
    Univ Hosp Carl Gustav Carus, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Pulmonary Engn Grp, Dresden, Germany..
    Teichmann, R.
    Univ Hosp Carl Gustav Carus, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Pulmonary Engn Grp, Dresden, Germany..
    Kiss, T.
    Univ Hosp Carl Gustav Carus, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Pulmonary Engn Grp, Dresden, Germany..
    Bobek, I.
    Semmelweis Egyet, Aneszteziol & Intenz Terapias Klin, Budapest, Hungary..
    Canet, J.
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Dept Anesthesiol, Badalona, Spain..
    Cinnella, G.
    Univ Foggia, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Foggia, Italy..
    De Baerdemaeker, L.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Anesthesiol, Ghent, Belgium..
    Gregoretti, C.
    Policlin P Giaccone, Dept Biopathol & Med Biotechnol, Palermo, Italy..
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hemmes, S. N.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesiol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, LEICA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hiesmayr, M.
    Med Univ Vienna, Div Cardiac Surg, Vienna, Austria.;Med Univ Vienna, Div Thorac Dis, Vienna, Austria.;Med Univ Vienna, Div Vasc Surg, Vienna, Austria.;Med Univ Vienna, Dept Anesthesia Intens Care & Pain Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Hollmann, M. W.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesiol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, LEICA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Jaber, S.
    St Eloi Univ Hosp, Dept Crit Care Med & Anesthesiol SAR B, Montpellier, France..
    Laffey, J. G.
    St Michaels Hosp, Dept Anesthesia, Crit Care Med Program, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Anesthesia, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Physiol, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Interdepartmental Div Crit Care Med, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Licker, M. J.
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Anesthesiol Pharmacol & Intens Care, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Markstaller, K.
    Med Univ Vienna, Dept Anesthesia Intens Care & Pain Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Matot, I.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Tel Aviv Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesia & Crit Care, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Mueller, G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Ctr Evidence Based Healthcare, Univ Hosp, Dresden, Germany.;Tech Univ Dresden, Med Fac Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany..
    Mills, G. H.
    Sheffield Teaching Hosp, OSCCA, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.;Univ Sheffield, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Mulier, J. P.
    AZ Sint Jan Brugge Oostende AV, Dept Anesthesiol, Brugge, Belgium..
    Putensen, C.
    Univ Bonn, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Bonn, Germany..
    Rossaint, R.
    Univ Aachen, Dept Anesthesiol, Aachen, Germany..
    Schmitt, J.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Ctr Evidence Based Healthcare, Univ Hosp, Dresden, Germany.;Tech Univ Dresden, Med Fac Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany..
    Senturk, M.
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul Fac Med, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Serpa Neto, A.
    Fac Med ABC, Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Dept Crit Care Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil.;Fac Med ABC, Program Postgrad Res & Innovat, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Severgnini, P.
    Univ Insubria, Dept Biotechnol & Sci Life, ASST Sette Laghi, Osped Cricolo & Fdn Macchi, Varese, Italy..
    Sprung, J.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Anesthesiol, Rochester, MN USA..
    Melo, M. F. Vidal
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Anesthesia Crit Care & Pain Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Wrigge, H.
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Leipzig, Germany..
    Schultz, M. J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesiol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, LEICA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Pelosi, P.
    Univ Genoa, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Dept Surg Sci & Integrated Diagnost, Genoa, Italy..
    de Abreu, M. Gama
    Univ Hosp Carl Gustav Carus, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Pulmonary Engn Grp, Dresden, Germany..
    Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2017In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 18, 202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients.

    Methods/design: The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index >= 35 kg/m(2) scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH(2)O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH(2)O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint.

    Discussion: To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs.

  • Sjöström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Mobile App for Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis2017In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, no 5, e154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mobile apps can increase access to care, facilitate self-management, and improve adherence to treatment. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10-35% of women and, currently, an app with instructions for pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is available as first-line treatment. A previous randomized controlled study demonstrated that the app benefitted symptom severity and quality of life (QoL); in this study we investigate the cost-effectiveness of the app. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the health economy of the app for treating SUI. Methods: This deterministic cost-utility analysis, with a 1-year societal perspective, compared the app treatment with no treatment. Health economic data were collected alongside a randomized controlled trial performed in Sweden from March 2013 to October 2014. This study included 123 community-dwelling women participants of 18 years and above, with stress urinary incontinence >= 1 time per week. Participants were self-assessed with validated questionnaires and 2-day leakage diaries, and then randomized to 3 months of treatment (app group, n=62) or no treatment (controls, n=61). The app focused on pelvic floor muscle training, prescribed 3 times daily. We continuously registered treatment delivery costs. Data were collected on each participant's training time, incontinence aids, and laundry at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. We measured quality of life with the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Quality of Life, and calculated the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Data from the 3-month follow-up were extrapolated to 1 year for the calculations. Our main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared between app and control groups. One-way and multiway sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of participants was 44.7 years (SD 9.4). Annual costs were (sic)547.0 for the app group and (sic)482.4 for the control group. Annual gains in quality-adjusted life years for app and control groups were 0.0101 and 0.0016, respectively. Compared with controls, the extra cost per quality-adjusted life year for the app group ranged from -(sic) 2425.7 to (sic) 14,870.6, which indicated greater gains in quality-adjusted life years at similar or slightly higher cost. Conclusions: The app for treating stress urinary incontinence is a new, cost-effective, first-line treatment with potential for increasing access to care in a sustainable way for this patient group.

  • Beukelman, Timothy
    et al.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, 1600 7th Ave South,CPP 210, Birmingham, AL 35233 USA.;Univ Alabama Birmingham, Div Pediat Rheumatol, 1600 7th Ave South,CPP 210, Birmingham, AL 35233 USA..
    Anink, Janneke
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Berntson, Lillemor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Duffy, Ciaran
    Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Ellis, Justine A.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Genes Environm & Complex Dis, Parkville, Vic, Australia..
    Glerup, Mia
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Guzman, Jaime
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Horneff, Gerd
    Asklepios Klin Sankt Augsutin, St Augustin, Germany..
    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Klein, Ariane
    Asklepios Klin Sankt Augsutin, St Augustin, Germany..
    Klotsche, Jens
    German Rheumatism Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Magnusson, Bo
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Minden, Kirsten
    German Rheumatism Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Munro, Jane E.
    Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Niewerth, Martina
    German Rheumatism Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Nordal, Ellen
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Ruperto, Nicolino
    Ist Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy..
    Santos, Maria Jose
    Hosp Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal..
    Schanberg, Laura E.
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Thomson, Wendy
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Wulffraat, Nico
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hyrich, Kimme
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Cent Manchester Fdn Trust, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    A survey of national and multi-national registries and cohort studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: challenges and opportunities2017In: Pediatric Rheumatology, ISSN 1546-0096, E-ISSN 1546-0096, Vol. 15, 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To characterize the existing national and multi-national registries and cohort studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and identify differences as well as areas of potential future collaboration.

    Methods: We surveyed investigators from North America, Europe, and Australia about existing JIA cohort studies and registries. We excluded cross-sectional studies. We captured information about study design, duration, location, inclusion criteria, data elements and collection methods.

    Results: We received survey results from 18 studies, including 11 national and 7 multi-national studies representing 37 countries in total. Study designs included inception cohorts, prevalent disease cohorts, and new treatment cohorts (several of which contribute to pharmacosurveillance activities). Despite numerous differences, the data elements collected across the studies was quite similar, with most studies collecting at least 5 of the 6 American College of Rheumatology core set variables and the data needed to calculate the 3-variable clinical juvenile disease activity score. Most studies were collecting medication initiation and discontinuation dates and were attempting to capture serious adverse events.

    Conclusion: There is a wide-range of large, ongoing JIA registries and cohort studies around the world. Our survey results indicate significant potential for future collaborative work using data from different studies and both combined and comparative analyses.

  • Turpeinen, Oiva
    Infant Mortality in Finland 1865-18691988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 61-76 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Rosenberg, Margit
    Birth Weight, Breast-Feeding, Postpartum Amenorrhea and Infant Mortality in Three Norwegian Cities during Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 49-59 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Allalou, Amin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Wu, Yuelong
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Eimon, Peter M.
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Automated deep-phenotyping of the vertebrate brain2017In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 6, e23379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we describe an automated platform suitable for large-scale deep-phenotyping of zebrafish mutant lines, which uses optical projection tomography to rapidly image brain-specific gene expression patterns in 3D at cellular resolution. Registration algorithms and correlation analysis are then used to compare 3D expression patterns, to automatically detect all statistically significant alterations in mutants, and to map them onto a brain atlas. Automated deep-phenotyping of a mutation in the master transcriptional regulator fezf2 not only detects all known phenotypes but also uncovers important novel neural deficits that were overlooked in previous studies. In the telencephalon, we show for the first time that fezf2 mutant zebrafish have significant patterning deficits, particularly in glutamatergic populations. Our findings reveal unexpected parallels between fezf2 function in zebrafish and mice, where mutations cause deficits in glutamatergic neurons of the telencephalon-derived neocortex.

  • Knodel, John
    Two Centuries of Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality in German Village Populations1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 23-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lee, Robert
    Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality in Western Europe: A Critique1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 9-21 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Tursunovic, Mirzet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fokusgruppsintervjuer i teori och praktik2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 62-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus Groups in Theory and Practice

    The ultimate goal of this article is to provide a linkage between the theoretical framework of focus groups and their use in a number of studies. Focus groups are today, as a method of collecting qualitative data, widely used within many different research fields. Basically they are a form of group interviews where data is produced through participants’ discussion led by a moderator, on the topic determined by the researcher. There is not only one way of doing focus groups. Their features, size, composition, purpose as well as areas where they are practiced vary. Focus groups are used as a self-contained method; as a supplementary method for qualitative and quantitative methods; and finally they are used in multimethod studies. Like other research methods focus groups also have strengths and weaknesses, which makes focus groups more or less appropriate as a data gathering method for a particular study. The strategic questions posed to the focus groups, in my own work - the project about Bosnian youngsters’ political socialization - cover aspects of their social context, contacts with media and political groups, as well as their own plans for the future. The students in five focus groups are followed for a period of three sessions where a topic (school, parents, mass media) is covered.

  • Håkanson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet.
    Den blinda fläcken: Medvetande, kropp elle materia?2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 28-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Blind Spot: Mind, Body or Matter?

    Using Nick Crossley’s recently published The Social Body. Habit, identity and desire as a starting-point the author questions certain contemporary attempts to overcome dualism (often connected with present-day sociological interest in the body). He argues that they, if committed to materialism, crude or sophisticated, will reproduce dualism. They will end in materialist reductionism, he argues,unless ”knowing” or ”mind”, a no-thing-ness, is recognized as inalienable to reality. This does not, as often assumed, imply ”solipsism” unless one accepts the very dualist presupposition that mind is some-thing ”private”, ”inside” of basically separate selves. Introducing non-dualist traditions outside of the body of academic sociology he presents certain practical forms of inquiry. Directed at or including the very inquirer they do not approach the mind/body-issue as a purely ”theoretical” issue. Mind/body-dualism is further seen as an aspect of the broader dualism of self/other, in its turn the basis for human suffering and unfreedom. He asks at last why sociology, given a certain disciplinary self-understanding, bothers about dualism. He proposes the reason it does might be an unrecognised, academically indecent ”existential” search for ”wholeness” . This “existential” aspect need be accepted, for the “problem of dualism ” to find a solution.

  • Hagg, S.
    et al.
    Zhan, Y.
    Karlsson, R.
    Gerritsen, L.
    Ploner, A.
    van der Lee, S. J.
    Broer, L.
    Deelen, J.
    Marioni, R. E.
    Wong, A.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Zhu, G.
    Hansell, N. K.
    Sillanpaa, E.
    Fedko, I. O.
    Amin, N. A.
    Beekman, M.
    de Craen, A. J. M.
    Degerman, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Harris, S. E.
    Kan, K-J
    Martin-Ruiz, C. M.
    Montgomery, G. W.
    Adolfsson, Annelie N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Reynolds, C. A.
    Samani, N. J.
    Suchiman, H. E. D.
    Viljanen, A.
    von Zglinicki, T.
    Wright, M. J.
    Hottenga, J-J
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Rantanen, T.
    Kaprio, J. A.
    Nyholt, D. R.
    Martin, N. G.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Kuh, D.
    Starr, J. M.
    Deary, I. J.
    Slagboom, P. E.
    van Duijn, C. M.
    Codd, V.
    Pedersen, N. L.
    Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts2017In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 7, e1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N = 17 052; mean age = 59.2 +/- 8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measuredTL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP). In addition, a genetic risk score (GRS) for TL including seven known genetic variants for TL was calculated, and used in associations with cognitive traits as outcomes in all cohorts. Observational analyses showed that longer telomeres were associated with better scores on DSST (beta = 0.051 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.024, 0.077; P = 0.0002), and MMSE (beta = 0.025; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.047; P = 0.03), and faster STROOP (beta = -0.053; 95% CI: -0.087, -0.018; P = 0.003). Effects for DSST were stronger in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers (beta = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.117; P = 1.0 x 10(-5)), whereas carriers performed better in STROOP (beta = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.009; P = 0.03). Causal associations were found for STROOP only (beta = -0.598 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% CI: -1.125, -0.072; P = 0.026), with a larger effect in epsilon 4-carriers (beta = -0.699; 95% CI: -1.330, -0.069; P = 0.03). Two-sample replication analyses using CHARGE summary statistics showed causal effects between TL and general cognitive function and DSST, but not with STROOP. In conclusion, we suggest causal effects from longer TL on better cognitive performance, where APOE epsilon 4-carriers might be at differential risk.

  • Aspers, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Interaktionsformer2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 6-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forms of interaction

    In this article, the theoretical notion of forms of interaction is introduced, which comprehends how the network and domain structures provide a background for interaction. This general approach is used to discuss how persons can style their identities. Today’s forms of interaction enable people to hide information in interaction with other people. People can, for example, present themselves as individualized, important and successful in interaction with others. This facilitates the emergence of certain values. Especially individualistic values are studied in this article.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 4- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Erixon, Eva-Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Matematiklärares kompetensutveckling online: policy, diskurs och meningsskapande2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different forms of professional development online are becoming increasingly common for teachers and the aim of the thesis is to contribute knowledge about online professional development for mathematics teachers and the relationship between professional development, educational policy, and mathematics teaching practice. In the thesis, professional development refers to organized professional development in terms of university courses.

    The thesis consists of four studies, each of which has been presented in the form of an article. The four studies together explore transnational and national policy discourses, meaning-making activities that can be distinguished in online professional development, discourses pertaining to mathematics teaching in the classroom and in the subsequent seminar discussions in the course, and teachers’ experience of professional development online. The different arenas have been explored using the concept of discourse with reference to Fairclough, Gee, and Sfard. The term ”discourse” refers primarily to communication and language in use.

    The result of the studies indicates that the participants have not been offered enough opportunities to reflect on how or whether the use of several concepts and everyday life connections really deepened the students’ understanding of the mathematical content. Moreover, the analysis of the interviews with the participants shows that it was difficult for them to deepen their reflections in the synchronous communication online. There is a lack of reciprocal participation and reflection in the conversation and it is hard for the participants to get an idea of how the others respond to their messages. When a participant has completed his or her message the next speaker continues with a new message and as a result, the communication often takes a new direction instead of allowing in-depth reflection.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:12002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Karah, Nabil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Jolley, Keith A.
    Hall, Ruth M.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Database for the ampC alleles in Acinetobacter baumannii2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0176695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a troublesome opportunistic pathogen with a high capacity for clonal dissemination. We announce the establishment of a database for the ampC locus in A. baumannii, in which novel ampC alleles are differentiated based on the occurrence of >= 1 nucleotide change, regardless of whether it is silent or missense. The database is openly accessible at the pubmlst platform for A. baumannii (http://pubmlst.org/abaumannii/). Forty-eight distinctive alleles of the ampC locus have so far been identified and deposited in the database. Isolates from clonal complex 1 (CC1), according to the Pasteur multilocus sequence typing scheme, had a variety of the ampC locus alleles, including alleles 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, and 18. On the other hand, isolates from CC2 had the ampC alleles 2, 3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, and 46. Allele 3 was characteristic for sequence types ST3 or ST32. The ampC alleles 10, 16, and 25 were characteristic for CC10, ST16, and CC25, respectively. Our study points out that novel gene databases, in which alleles are numbered based on differences in their nucleotide identities, should replace traditional records that use amino acid substitutions to define new alleles.

  • Tedebrand, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändstöm and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 7-8 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Affognon, Hippolyte
    et al.
    Mburu, Peter
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kingori, Sarah
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Sang, Rosemary
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ethnic groups' knowledge, attitude and practices and Rift Valley fever exposure in Isiolo County of Kenya2017In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, no 3, e0005405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities.

  • AlJawad, Sadeq B.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Storm Runoff in Wadi Hauran, Western Iraq2017In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arid and semi arid regions are characterized by low frequency monthly rainfall events and high evaporation during the remaining dry days. Utilizing monthly rainfall means for water balance calculation risks a high error margin. Even when daily rainfall analysis methods are used to evaluate the resulting runoff in a valley course, errors may still be committed when wrong values are assigned to important field elements such as soil cover type, vegetation and land use. Accordingly and when the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) is applied, single storm rainfall and validation of the estimated Curve Number (CN) value using valley flow measurements is necessary. The evaluation of annual runoff volume in a major valley in the Western Iraqi desert using the SCS method applied to single rainfall storm events and validated by actual historical runoff measurements has revealed that Wadi Hauran would exhibit no runoff flow in one year out of three and that runoff may exceed 69 mm depth in a single water year but the average depth for those years with runoff events is only 11.1 mm

    which amounts to about 64 Mm3 at a location in the center of its catchment area.

    Journal

  • Johansson, Anders S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    What was Love?: On the Dialectic of Mediation2017In: SIC, ISSN 1847-7755, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Love has traditionally been understood either as an objective, transcendentforce, or a subjective ability. Through a number of steps,the article argues that both these options have lost their credibility due to changes in the media through which love is performed. First, the article demonstrates how the attempts,in the life sciences, to explain love biologically or physically reproduce a traditional romantic ideology. Then, the implications of the inflation of explicit love declarations, and the consequences of internet dating, are discussed. What these examples amount to is the fact that the medium is brought to the fore. A consequence of this is that the romantic ideology is strengthened, while the premises of romantic love – the autonomous subject and the transcendent objectivity – are weakened or even dissolved.

  • Andreasson, Ulf
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    TRUST – THE NORDIC GOLD2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns social trust in the Nordic countries. The Nordic region has the highest levels of social trust in the world. This benefits the economy, individuals and society as a whole. This report discusses the background to why social trust has reached such high levels in the Nordic region, and the present day challenges it is facing.