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  • Sharifi, Tiva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Sharifi, Tiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Larsen, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wang, Jia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Kwong, Wai Ling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gracia-Espino, Eduardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mercier, Guillaume
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Messinger, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Toward a Low-Cost Artificial Leaf: Driving Carbon-Based and Bifunctional Catalyst Electrodes with Solution-Processed Perovskite Photovoltaics2016In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, no 20, 1-10 p., 1600738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular hydrogen can be generated renewably by water splitting with an artificial-leaf device, which essentially comprises two electrocatalyst electrodes immersed in water and powered by photovoltaics. Ideally, this device should operate efficiently and be fabricated with cost-efficient means using earth-abundant materials. Here, a lightweight electrocatalyst electrode, comprising large surface-area NiCo2O4 nanorods that are firmly anchored onto a carbon-paper current collector via a dense network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is presented. This electrocatalyst electrode is bifunctional in that it can efficiently operate as both anode and cathode in the same alkaline solution, as quantified by a delivered current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 400 mV for each of the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions. By driving two such identical electrodes with a solution-processed thin-film perovskite photovoltaic assembly, a wired artificial-leaf device is obtained that features a Faradaic H-2 evolution efficiency of 100%, and a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 6.2%. A detailed cost analysis is presented, which implies that the material-payback time of this device is of the order of 100 days.

  • Garenne, Michel
    et al.
    Garenne, Michel
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Completeness of birth and death registration in a rural area of South Africa: the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance, 1992-20142016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, 32795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Completeness of vital registration remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas.

    Objectives: To investigate trends and factors in completeness of birth and death registration in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa covering a population of about 110,000 persons, under demographic surveillance since 1992. The population belongs to the Shangaan ethnic group and hosts a sizeable community of Mozambican refugees.

    Design: Statistical analysis of birth and death registration over time in a 22-year perspective (1992-2014). Over this period, major efforts were made by the government of South Africa to improve vital registration. Factors associated with completeness of registration were investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis.

    Results: Birth registration was very incomplete at onset (7.8% in 1992) and reached high values at end point (90.5% in 2014). Likewise, death registration was low at onset (51.4% in 1992), also reaching high values at end point (97.1% in 2014). For births, the main factors were mother's age (much lower completeness among births to adolescent mothers), refugee status, and household wealth. For deaths, the major factors were age at death (lower completeness among under-five children), refugee status, and household wealth. Completeness increased for all demographic and socioeconomic categories studied and is likely to approach 100% in the future if trends continue at this speed.

    Conclusion: Reaching high values in the completeness of birth and death registration was achieved by excellent organization of the civil registration and vital statistics, a variety of financial incentives, strong involvement of health personnel, and wide-scale information and advocacy campaigns by the South African government.

  • Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Mellalieu, Stephen
    Roberts, Claire-Marie
    Are Career Termination Concerns Only for Athletes?: A Case Study of the Career Termination of an Elite Female Coach.2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 4, 314-326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of an elite female coach and her career termination from a 20+ year career following a critical life incident. A novel autobiographical approach was adopted whereby the participant undertook expressive writing to describe her experiences before, during, and following coaching an athlete at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. Thematic analysis indicated seven phases related to the participant's experiences of the critical incident: Build up to the event, the event, the aftermath, recovery and reflection on the event, sampling of new avenues, enlightenment, and career rebirth. The findings reinforce the high demands placed upon elite coaches, the subsequent threats to physical and mental well-being, and the importance of having robust psychological skills and suitable social support to cope with these demands. Implications for preparing and supporting coaches for successful career transition are discussed.

  • Kauppi, Anna M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Kauppi, Anna M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Edin, Alicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Ziegler, Ingrid
    Molling, Paula
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Metabolites in Blood for Prediction of Bacteremic Sepsis in the Emergency Room2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, e0147670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metabolomics approach for prediction of bacteremic sepsis in patients in the emergency room (ER) was investigated. In a prospective study, whole blood samples from 65 patients with bacteremic sepsis and 49 ER controls were compared. The blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Multivariate and logistic regression modeling using metabolites identified by chromatography or using conventional laboratory parameters and clinical scores of infection were employed. A predictive model of bacteremic sepsis with 107 metabolites was developed and validated. The number of metabolites was reduced stepwise until identifying a set of 6 predictive metabolites. A 6-metabolite predictive logistic regression model showed a sensitivity of 0.91(95% CI 0.69-0.99) and a specificity 0.84 (95% CI 0.58-0.94) with an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-1.01). Myristic acid was the single most predictive metabolite, with a sensitivity of 1.00 (95% CI 0.85-1.00) and specificity of 0.95 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), and performed better than various combinations of conventional laboratory and clinical parameters. We found that a metabolomics approach for analysis of acute blood samples was useful for identification of patients with bacteremic sepsis. Metabolomics should be further evaluated as a new tool for infection diagnostics.

  • Blomgren, Roger
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Lunds Univresitet.
    Blomgren, Roger
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Lunds Univresitet.
    Lindqvist, Katja
    Fördjupad utvärdering av statsbidraget Skapande skola.2016Report (Other academic)
  • Karlsson, Kåre J.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Ambulance Service, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kåre J.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Ambulance Service, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Niemelä, Patrik H.
    Ambulance Service, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders R.
    School of Health Sciences, Borås University, Borås, Sweden.
    Törnhage, Carl-Johan A.
    Department of Paediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Using shoulder straps decreases heart rate variability and salivary cortisol concentration in Swedish ambulance personnel2016In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 7, no 1, 32-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that paramedics are exposed to risks in the form of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. In addition, there are studies showing that they are also at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and psychiatric diseases, which can partly be explained by their constant exposure to stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the use of shoulder straps decreases physical effort in the form of decreased heart rate and cortisol concentration.

    Methods: A stretcher with a dummy was carried by 20 participants for 400 m on two occasions, one with and one without the shoulder straps. Heart rate was monitored continuously and cortisol samples were taken at intervals of 0 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, and 60 minutes. Each participant was her or his own control.

    Results: A significant decrease in heart rate and cortisol concentration was seen when shoulder straps were used. The median values for men (with shoulder straps) at 0 minutes was 78 bpm/21.1 nmol/L (heart rate/cortisol concentration), at 15 minutes was 85 bpm/16.9 nmol/L, and at 60 minutes was 76 bpm/15.7 nmol/L; for men without shoulder straps, these values were 78 bpm/21.9 nmol/L, 93 bpm/21.9 nmol/L, and 73 bpm/20.5 nmol/L. For women, the values were 85 bpm/23.3 nmol/L, 92 bpm/20.8 nmol/L, and 70 bpm/18.4 nmol/L and 84 bpm/32.4 nmol/L, 100 bpm/32.5 nmol/L, and 75 bpm/25.2 nmol/L, respectively.

    Conclusion: The use of shoulder straps decreases measurable physical stress and should therefore be implemented when heavy equipment or a stretcher needs to be carried. An easy way to ensure that staff use these or similar lifting AIDS is to provide them with personalized, well-adapted shoulder straps. Another better option would be to routinely sewn these straps into the staff's personal alarm jackets so they are always in place and ready to be used.

  • Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Öhlander, Magnus
    Tillämpad kulturteori: Lärarhandledning2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Nygårdh, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Nygårdh, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Interaktiv forskning2009In: Vägval och dilemman i interaktiv forskning: Kurspaper från Bridging the Gaps doktorandkurs Interaktiv forskning 2008 / [ed] Mattias Elg, Boel Andersson Gäre, Linköpings: Linköpings universitet , 2009, 19-28 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från inledningen: I detta paper är min avsikt att beskriva och diskutera den interaktiva forsk-ningen och hur kunskap kan skapas i denna ansats samt öka förståelsen för hur jag som forskare bör interagera med praktiken för att skapa ett gemen-sam lärande. Jag kommer att utgå från min metoddesign och kritiskt disku-tera huruvida den beskrivna ansatsen kan öka kunskapsbildningen och va-liditeten i min forskning.

  • Public defence: 2017-01-25 13:00 Flexhallen, Umeå
    Peeters, Jeroen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. RISE Interactive.
    Peeters, Jeroen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. RISE Interactive.
    Perpetual perspectives: on designing for aesthetic engagement2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates aesthetics of engagement in -interaction. Aesthetic refers to the aesthetic experience, based on a phenomenological and pragmatist understanding: dynamic and personal, appealing mutually to - and formed inseparably by - our bodily, emotional, as well as intellectual faculties. Engagement signifies this experience as forming a deeply involved relationship between people and an artefact in interaction. The theoretical background upon which this work is based, asserts that we perceive the world in terms of how we can act in it. Action, through the body, is how we make sense of the world around us. To be congruent with these foundations and the topic at hand means that the research program was investigated through a constructive design research process. The research program anchors and outlines the goal of this investigation: to contribute shareable knowledge of how to design for aesthetic engagement in interaction by leveraging a first-person -perspective. The findings of this research form two contributions to the overlapping fields of Human-Computer Interaction and (Interaction) Design Research.

    The main contribution is methodological and is concerned with generating knowledge through design. The methodological structure of this dissertation builds on a programmatic approach that centres on the first-person perspective of the designer, who learns from experience by reflecting on design action. Such an approach is fundamental to the design tradition, but its dependency on subjectivity is also a source of epistemological conflict since design, as mode of inquiry, matures and comes in contact with more established disciplines that have their own academic traditions. For design research, to develop its own intellectual culture, alternative and bidirectional relationships between theory and practice need to be further shaped, articulated, and debated in the field. This dissertation contributes to this discussion around designerly ways of knowing by exposing how skillful coping and intuition, through mechanisms of reflection-on-action, generate a multitude of perspectives on a complex design space. These perspectives reveal parts of the complexity of designing for aesthetic engagement, while leaving it intact. Exposing and consolidating the first-person (design) knowledge embedded in these perspectives allows this knowledge to be articulated as a shareable academic knowledge contribution.

    This shareable knowledge forms the second contribution of this dissertation. Reflections on the process and results of eight constructive design research projects describe a design space around aesthetic engagement. Individual reflections are consolidated into themes that describe how a design may elicit aesthetic engagement in interaction. These themes are experiential qualities: conceptual values that can be leveraged for a design to appeal to both mind and body in ways that are rich, open-ended and ambiguous. The findings propose strategies for interactions with digital technologies to open up the complexity of relations in the world between artefacts and people. Designing for aesthetics of engagement proposes ways to respect people’ skills in making sense of the complexity of the lived world. In respecting the uniqueness of their body and the subjectivity of their experiences, to design for aesthetic engagement is to support the expression of personal points of view in interaction. This points to ways in which designers can open up interactions with digital technologies to be more beautiful, respectful, and liveable, as it touches what makes us human: our personal being in the world.

  • Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • Karimov, A. R.
    et al.
    Karimov, A. R.
    Shatokhin, V. L.
    Yu, M. Y.
    Stenflo, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Linköping University, Linköping ,SE-58183, Sweden.
    The processes of nonequilibrium exchange in rotating plasma flows2016In: II CONFERENCE ON PLASMA & LASER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, 2016, Vol. 747, 012077Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of energy/momentum exchange in rotating and compressing plasma flows have been discussed. It has been shown that such flows are capable of transforming the energy of different degrees of freedom into the energy of one degree owing to the interaction of the coupled nonlinear radial, axial and azimuthal electron-ion oscillations. These processes may lead to the additional acceleration of the flow in azimuthal or axial direction so they might be instrumental for the creation of space thrusters employing pulse transformations for propulsion.

  • Du, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Du, Rong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Xiao, Ming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Poster: On the Immortality of Wireless Sensor Networks by Wireless Energy Transfer - A Node Deployment Perspective2017In: Proceedings of International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be substantially extended by transferring energy wirelessly to the sensor nodes. In this poster, a wireless energy transfer (WET) enabled WSN is presented, where a base station transfers energy wirelessly to the sensor nodes that are deployed in several regions of interest, to supply them with energy to sense and to upload data. The WSN lifetime can be extended by deploying redundant sensor nodes, which allows the implementation of duty-cycling mechanisms to reduce nodes' energy consumption. In this context, a problem on sensor node deployment naturally arises, where one needs to determine how many sensor nodes to deploy in each region such that the total number of nodes is minimized, and the WSN is immortal. The problem is formulated as an integer optimization, whose solution is challenging due to the binary decision variables and a non-linear constraint. A greedy-based algorithm is proposed to achieve the optimal solution of such deployment problem. It is argued  that such scheme can be used in monitoring systems in smart cities, such as smart buildings and water lines.

  • Malm, Dan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Malm, Dan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Futurum Academy for Healthcare, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ebefors, Eva-Marie
    Department of Internal Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Conlon, Lisa
    Futurum Academy for Healthcare, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nygårdh, Annette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Reducing the prevalence of catheter-related infections by quality improvement: Six-year follow-up study2016In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 6, no 2, 79-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Peripheral venous catheter (PVC) insertion is a crucial nursing action during life support. Several factors that increase the risk of thrombophlebitis associated with PVCs have been reported. Objective: We wish to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement regarding PVC treatment for patients with coronary heart diseases.

    Method: A longitudinal, quantitative observational study was carried out in 2008 and 2013 in a hospital in southern Sweden with 360 consecutive patients suffering from acute chest pain. New routines for PVC treatment were included in the hospital with daily inspection according to a checklist. A structured observation protocol was used to survey the prevalence of thrombophlebitis between 2008 and 2013. Also, we examined the relationship between the location and luminal diameters of PVCs.

    Results: The student’s t-test showed significant differences between 2008 and 2013 with respect to luminal diameter of PVCs (p = 0.002), prevalence of thrombophlebitis (p = 0.003) and number of days with PVC left in situ (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: These findings emphasize the value of using systematic daily inspections and checklists to achieve quality and safety in patients with acute chest pain having PVC-based treatment.

  • Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    An analytical calculation of the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact model applied to turbine blade shroud contact2016In: Computers & structures, ISSN 0045-7949, E-ISSN 1879-2243, Vol. 177, 204-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression is formulated to compute the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact modeling that efficiently evaluates the matrix while computing the friction contact forces in the time domain by means of the alternate frequency time domain approach. The developed expression is successfully used for the calculation of the friction damping on a turbine blade with shroud contact interface having an arbitrary 3D relative displacement. The analytical expression drastically reduces the computation time of the Jacobian matrix with respect to the classical finite difference method, with many points at the contact interface. Therefore, it also significantly reduces the overall computation time for the solution of the equations of motion, since the formulation of the Jacobian matrix is the most time consuming step in solving the large set of nonlinear algebraic equations when a finite difference approach is employed. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of cyclic symmetry boundary condition for a periodic structure. Implementation of the developed scheme in solving the equations of motion is proved to be effective and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Bröder, Lisa-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bröder, Lisa-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Transport, degradation and burial of organic matter released from permafrost to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic store large quantities of organic matter, roughly twice the amount of carbon that was present in the atmosphere before the industrial revolution. This freeze-locked carbon pool is susceptible to thawing caused by amplified global warming at high latitudes. The remobilization of old permafrost carbon facilitates its degradation to carbon dioxide and methane, thereby providing a positive feedback to climate change.

    Accelerating coastal erosion in addition to projected rising river discharge with enhancing sediment loads are anticipated to transport increasing amounts of land-derived organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. On its shallow continental shelves, this material may be remineralized in the water column or in the sediments, transported without being altered off shelf towards the deep sea of the Arctic Interior or buried in marine sediments and hence sequestered from the contemporary carbon cycle. The fate of terrigenous material in the marine environment, though offering potentially important mechanisms to either strengthen or attenuate the permafrost-carbon climate feedback, is so far insufficiently understood.

    In this doctoral thesis, sediments from the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf, the world’s largest shelf-sea system, were used to investigate some of the key processes for OC cycling. A range of bulk sediment properties, carbon isotopes and molecular markers were employed to elucidate the relative importance of different organic matter sources, the role of cross-shelf transport and the relevance of degradation during transport and after burial.

    Overall, OC released from thawing permafrost constitutes a significant proportion of the sedimentary organic matter on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Two sediment cores from the inner and outer East Siberian Sea recorded no substantial changes in source material or clear trends in degradation status for the last century. With increasing distance from the coast, however, strong gradients were detected towards lower concentrations of increasingly reworked land-derived OC. The time spent during cross-shelf transport was consequently found to exert first-order control on degradation. Compound-specific radiocarbon dating on terrigenous biomarkers revealed a net transport time of ~4 000 years across the 600 km wide Laptev Sea shelf, yielding degradation rate constants for bulk terrigenous OC and specific biomarkers on the order of 2-4 kyr-1.

    From these results, the carbon flux released by degradation of terrigenous OC in surface sediments was estimated to be ~1.7 Gg yr-1, several orders of magnitude lower than what had been quantified earlier for dissolved and particulate OC in the water column. Lower oxygen availability and close associations with the mineral matrix may protect sedimentary OC from remineralization and thereby weaken the permafrost-carbon feedback to present climate change.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Vähämäki, Janet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholms Universitet/SCORE.
    Vähämäki, Janet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholms Universitet/SCORE.
    Matrixing Aid: The Rise and Fall of 'Results Initiatives' in Swedish Development Aid2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reform ideas, such as results measurement and management, tend to come and go in different ‘tides of reforms’. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our understanding of tides of reforms by identifying and discussing mechanisms that drive the rise, as well as the fall, of management reforms. This is done by studying four so-called ‘results initiatives’ launched at Sida, the Swedish International Development Agency in 1971, 1981, 1998 and 2012. The thesis tries to understand what happened both in Sida’s external environment as well as within the agency prior to the initiation, during implementation and when the four results initiatives fell out of favor.

    The life of each of the four results initiatives can be understood as having taken place in five phases: 1) the pressure phase, 2) the launch, 3) implementation, 4) point of re-do or die, 5) phase of opening up for something new. During these five phases different internal and external mechanisms contributed to either further institutionalization or to de-institutionalization of the results measurement and management ideas and technologies.

    It is argued that the need to gain legitimacy can be seen as the main mechanism that has driven the initiation of the results initiatives. During implementation, problems and difficulties arise. It is argued that whilst resistance towards the initiatives, as well as changed external demands, accelerates de-institutionalization, these mechanisms do not explain why the initiatives fall. In turn, the failure to find a standardized reporting category for “results”, the non-use of the results information produced and the fact that the initiatives no longer fulfill the function of providing legitimacy, are mechanisms that lead to the final death of the initiatives.

    The study concludes that whilst different external pressures can be considered important in initiating reforms, it is mainly internal mechanisms, within the organization, that explain the reason why the initiatives fall. Earlier literature has argued that tides of reforms are driven by hope and optimism to be and to be seen as effective. The findings in this study show that also the solidarity rationale, i.e. the wish to do good for someone else, and the feeling of doing so, drives the reforms. It is moreover argued that the reforms are also driven by fear and other emotions. In general, the occurrence of tides of reforms can be understood by the tension between the two rationales in development aid: solidarity and effectiveness.

    The study contributes with insights to what happens within an organization and over a longer time perspective when public agencies are faced with conflicting demands. It provides a broader understanding of reasons behind the quest to report on results and also what happens when results are not reportable. Since new and similar reforms will most probably arise in the future, findings from this study ought to be interesting not only in development aid but in all public policy sectors, for any policy maker or practitioner involved in the implementation of such reforms.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy: Monitoring and reporting deterioration and adverse and unwanted events2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has the potential of providing many patients with an effective form of psychological treatment. However, despite helping to improve mental health and well-being, far from everyone seem to benefit. In some cases, negative effects may also emerge. The overall aim of the present thesis was to establish the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents in ICBT using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Study I determined deterioration, non-response, and adverse and unwanted events in a sample of 133 patients undergoing ICBT for social anxiety disorder. The results indicated that up to 6.8% fared worse during the treatment period, depending on the self-report measure and time point, as determined using the Reliable Change Index (RCI), while the non-response rate was between 29.3 to 86.5% at post treatment assessment, and 12.9% experienced other negative effects. Study II investigated the responses to open-ended questions on adverse and unwanted events among 556 patients in four separate clinical trials of ICBT; social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, and procrastination. In total, 9.3% reported negative effects, with a qualitative content analysis revealing two categories and four subcategories; patient-related, i.e., gaining insight and experiencing new symptoms, and treatment-related, i.e., difficulties applying the treatment interventions and problems related to the treatment format. Study III explored the number of patients achieving reliable deterioration, as determined using the RCI on the individual raw scores of 2866 patients from 29 clinical trials of ICBT. The results showed that the deterioration rate was higher among patients in a control condition, 17.4%, in comparison to treatment, 5.8%. Predictors were related to decreased odds of deterioration for patients receiving treatment; clinical severity at pre treatment assessment, being in a relationship, having a university degree, and being older. As for the control condition, only clinical severity at pre treatment assessment was associated with decreased odds of deterioration. Study IV examined a newly developed self-report measure for monitoring and reporting adverse and unwanted events, the Negative Effects Questionnaire. The results suggested a six-factor solution with 32 items; symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. One-third of the patients reported experiencing unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety, with novel symptoms and a lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship having the greatest negative impact. The general finding of the present thesis is that negative effects do occur in ICBT and that they are characterized by deterioration, non-response, and adverse and unwanted events, similar to psychological treatments delivered face-to-face. Researchers and clinicians in ICBT are recommended to monitor and report negative effects to prevent a negative treatment trend and further the understanding of what might contribute to their incidents. Future research should investigate the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, especially at follow-up, to examine if they are transient or enduring. Also, interviews could be conducted with those achieving reliable deterioration to explore if and how it is experienced by the patients and to see if it is attributed to the treatment interventions or other circumstances.

  • Ljung, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Ljung, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Abdominal obesity, gender and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis - a nested case-control study2016In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 18, 277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be affected by immune activation in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the association between obesity in general, and abdominal obesity, and the risk for subsequent development of RA. Methods: In two large population-based, prospective cohorts, 557 cases (mean age at RA symptom onset 58, SD 10 years, 68% women) who subsequently developed RA and 1671 matched controls were identified. From a health examination antedating symptom onset (median 5.5 years), collected data on body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), smoking habits, and educational level was used in conditional logistical regression models. Corresponding regression models were used to analyse the association between waist circumference measurements (cm) and RA development in a subset of the population. Results: BMI and waist circumference were associated with the risk of RA development, adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI), 1.13 (1.00, 1.28) per 5 kg/m(2), and 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) per cm, respectively. An association was also observed for obesity (BMI >= 30) OR 1.45 (1.07, 1.95), compared with BMI < 25. After stratification for sex the associations were enhanced in men, and attenuated in women. Among men with BMI above normal a 3-5 times increased risk for RA disease development at 50 years of age or earlier was observed. Abdominal obesity with waist circumference > 102 cm was associated with a 2-3 times increased risk of RA, but not abdominal obesity (> 88 cm) in women. Conclusions: Obesity or abdominal obesity, respectively, was independently associated with a modest increase of the risk for subsequent development of RA. This appeared to be relevant mainly for early RA disease onset among men.

  • Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Learning for life? The effects of schooling on earnings and health-related behavior over the life cycle2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how education is associated with earnings and health-related behaviors (HRBs) over the adult life cycle using a sample of 18,000 twins. The underlying motive is to improve the understanding of to what extent schooling may contribute to increased human welfare over time and age through the intermediaries of earnings and HRBs. We find that one additional year of schooling is associated with around 5-6 percent higher earnings at ages 35-75 and generally improved HRBs for both men and women. Much of the estimated relationships between schooling, earnings and HRBs can be traced back to genetic inheritance. Controlling for such inheritance, the remaining education -earnings premium is non-linear and increasing with educational level, and the education premium in HRBs is mainly concentrated to smoking habits.

  • Lång, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Does tallness pay off in the long run? Height and earnings over the life cycle2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on approximately 30,000 dizygotic and monozygotic twins born in Sweden 1918-58, we analyze how the height premium in earnings develops over the adult lifespan. Overall, the unconditional estimated premium increases with age for men and decreases for women. For men, within twin-pair fixed effects (WTP) estimates are on average about 40 percent lower than the corresponding unconditional OLS estimates. Including years of schooling as an explanatory variable induces a similar reduction (about 40 percent) of the estimated OLS height premium, but has no effect whatsoever on the WTP estimates, implying that the OLS and WTP estimates tend to coincide. Hence, it seems as if schooling mediates the association between height and earnings among unrelated male individuals but not among twins. For women, the estimations are less precise, but limiting the sample to those with earnings above a threshold level mirroring half time earnings at a very low wage level, the estimated OLS and WTP premiums are rather constant with age. This indicates that, for women, the unconditional premiums may well be influenced by height-related variation in labor market participation. Overall, the height premium patterns do not vary substantially between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences affect earning levels similarly.

  • Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Pérez-Díaz, J-L
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters2017In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology: An International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 11, no 1, 94-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  • Myren, Gunn Eva
    et al.
    Centre for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Myren, Gunn Eva
    Centre for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Centre for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Hellzen, Ove
    Department of Nursing Science, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Saur, Ellen
    Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    The influence of place on everday life: observations of persons with dementia in regular day care and at the green care farm2016In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Day care services for persons with dementia are becoming an important aspect of community services. Place, therefore, becomes vital concerning how such establishments are organized regarding both the physical and social environment and the programs that are offered. The aim of this study was to describe the influence of place on everyday life in two different organized daycare services for persons with dementia. Based on observations and informal conversations with persons with dementia and staff members at a green care farm and a regular day care, we used an inductive manifest content analysis. The analysis reveals a main category: enabling and collaboration in daily life. The results are discussed in light of Goffman’s analysis of the structures of social encounters from the perspective of the dramatic performance. The main findings in this study involve how place contributes to enabling activities and collaboration between participants and staff, as it influences participants’ ability to achieve an active or passive role in everyday life at the day care services.

  • Kellgren, Henrik
    Kellgren, Henrik
    Cure of inflammation of the lungs by the manual treatment1876Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Johansson, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Forskningsöversikt - demokratiutveckling i kommunerna: Underlag för följeforskning om demokratiutveckling i Ängelholms kommun2016Report (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Samhällskunskap i den nya ämnes­lärarutbildningen: samhällskunskapens innehåll och ämnesdidaktik vid 14 lärosäten i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
  • Pham, Cong-Toan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Pham, Cong-Toan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    On the development of an equivalent electrical circuit model for energy storages for smart grid applications2016In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia), 2016 IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storages are indispensable in regard to the development of the smart grid with increasing fluctuating power generation. A valid choice of energy storages is important to ensure the efficiency of the system and selected application. This study describes an initial approach to model energy storage systems as an equivalent circuit. This model is capable of analyzing different load scenarios and simulating the storage's behavior in dependence of three circuit components, i.e., resistance, inductance, and capacitance. These model parameters define the storage system and can be used to test existing storage devices or find an optimal setting for selected load conditions.The model is tested in a load scenario with a residential building supported by photovoltaic generation.

  • Vågberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Vågberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Axelsson, M.
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Burman, J.
    Cananau, C.
    Forslin, Y.
    Granberg, T.
    Gunnarsson, M.
    von Heijne, A.
    Jönsson, L.
    Karrenbauer, V. D.
    Larsson, E. -M
    Lindqvist, T.
    Lycke, J.
    Lönn, L.
    Mentesidou, E.
    Müller, S.
    Nilsson, P.
    Piehl, F.
    Svenningsson, A.
    Vrethem, M.
    Wikström, J.
    Guidelines for the use of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of multiple sclerosis: recommendations of the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Association and the Swedish Neuroradiological Society2017In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 135, no 1, 17-24 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with inflammatory lesions in the brain and spinal cord. The detection of such inflammatory lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important in the consideration of the diagnosis and differential diagnoses of MS, as well as in the monitoring of disease activity and predicting treatment efficacy. Although there is strong evidence supporting the use of MRI for both the diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity, there is a lack of evidence regarding which MRI protocols to use, the frequency of examinations, and in what clinical situations to consider MRI examination. A national workshop to discuss these issues was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2015, which resulted in a Swedish consensus statement regarding the use of MRI in the care of individuals with MS. The aim of this consensus statement is to provide practical advice for the use of MRI in this setting. The recommendations are based on a review of relevant literature and the clinical experience of workshop attendees. It is our hope that these recommendations will benefit individuals with MS and guide healthcare professionals responsible for their care.

  • Ruano, Ana Lorena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ruano, Ana Lorena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, 20786Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective: To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design: Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW program. Each of these spaces has participants with specific roles and processes. Conclusions: True participation and collaboration among can only be attained through the promotion and creation of meaningful partnerships between institutional stakeholders and community leaders, as well as with other stakeholders working at the community level. For this to happen, more structured support for the participation process in the form of clear policies, funding and capacity building is needed.

  • Golovliov, Igor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Golovliov, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Eneslätt, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Conlan, Wayne
    Mosnier, Amandine
    Henry, Thomas
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    An In Vitro Co-culture Mouse Model Demonstrates Efficient Vaccine-Mediated Control of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 and Identifies Nitric Oxide as a Predictor of Efficacy2016In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium and cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection, but mechanisms of protection against highly virulent variants, such as the prototypic strain F. tularensis strain SCHU S4, are poorly understood. To this end, we established a co-culture system, based on splenocytes from naive, or immunized mice and in vitro infected bone marrow-derived macrophages that allowed assessment of mechanisms controlling infection with F. tularensis. We utilized the system to understand why the clpB gene deletion mutant, Delta clpB, of SCHU S4 shows superior efficacy as a vaccine in the mouse model as compared to the existing human vaccine, the live vaccine strain (LVS). Compared to naive splenocytes, Delta clpB-, or LVS-immune splenocytes conferred very significant control of a SCHU S4 infection and the Delta clpB-immune splenocytes were superior to the LVS-immune splenocytes. Cultures with the Delta clpB-immune splenocytes also contained higher levels of IFN-gamma, IL-17, and GM-CSF and nitric oxide, and T cells expressing combinations of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-17, than did cultures with LVS-immune splenocytes. There was strong inverse correlation between bacterial replication and levels of nitrite, an end product of nitric oxide, and essentially no control was observed when BMDM from iNOS(-/-) mice were infected. Collectively, the co-culture model identified a critical role of nitric oxide for protection against a highly virulent strain of F. tularensis.

  • Kilger, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Kilger, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Jonsson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Talent Production in Interaction: Performance Appraisal Interviews in Talent Selection Camps2017In: Communication & Sport, ISSN 2167-4795, E-ISSN 2167-4809, Vol. 5, no 1, 110-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, there is an extensive interest in identifying and selecting talented children

    in order to develop elite adult athletes. The process of selecting and screening

    talents involves not only physical and technical skills but also efforts to find adequate

    personality traits. Therefore, different types of performance appraisal interviews

    (PAIs) are becoming increasingly common within the field. Departing from fieldwork

    in two selection camps for Swedish youth national teams in soccer and hockey, we

    will take a closer look at the PAIs employed during these camps. This article takes on

    a narrative approach, emphasizing PAI as a narrative genre and a framework for a

    specific form of interaction. Our findings show how eligibility is performed in

    interaction through following three practices: (i) showcasing gratitude without tipping

    into flattery, (ii) using temporality as a way of displaying developmental

    potential, and (iii) adopting the role of the self-reflecting subject. This genre of

    interviews not only produces certain practices but also preferred subject positions

    and narratives. The PAI is thus a narrative genre where the players are encouraged

    to perform talent in order to appear selectable.

  • Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Lee, Yi-Ping
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Melik, Wessam
    Kröger, Andrea
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Johansson, Magnus
    The role of the poly(A) tract in the replication and virulence of tick-borne encephalitis virus2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 39265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus transmitted to humans, usually via tick bites. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, and symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and long-lasting sequelae, including permanent brain damage. It has been suggested that within the population of viruses transmitted to the mammalian host, quasispecies with neurotropic properties might become dominant in the host resulting in neurological symptoms. We previously demonstrated the existence of TBEV variants with variable poly(A) tracts within a single blood-fed tick. To characterize the role of the poly(A) tract in TBEV replication and virulence, we generated infectious clones of Toro-2003 with the wild-type (A)(3)C(A)(6) sequence (Toro-6A) or with a modified (A)(3)C(A)(38) sequence (Toro-38A). Toro-38A replicated poorly compared to Toro-6A in cell culture, but Toro-38A was more virulent than Toro-6A in a mouse model of TBE. Next-generation sequencing of TBEV genomes after passaging in cell culture and/or mouse brain revealed mutations in specific genomic regions and the presence of quasispecies that might contribute to the observed differences in virulence. These data suggest a role for quasispecies development within the poly(A) tract as a virulence determinant for TBEV in mice.

  • Chen, Mengying
    et al.
    Chen, Mengying
    Xia, Dongqing
    Min, Cuiting
    Zhao, Xiaoke
    Chen, Yinhua
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Xiaonan
    Neonatal repetitive pain in rats leads to impaired spatial learning and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in later life2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 39159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preterm birth is a major health issue. As part of their life-saving care, most preterm infants require hospitalization and are inevitably exposed to repetitive skin-breaking procedures. The long-term effects of neonatal repetitive pain on cognitive and emotional behaviors involving hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in young and adult rats are unknown. From P8 to P85, mechanical hypersensitivity of the bilateral hindpaws was observed in the Needle group (P < 0.001). Compared with the Tactile group, the Needle group took longer to find the platform on P30 than on P29 (P = 0.03), with a decreased number of original platform site crossings during the probe trial of the Morris water maze test (P = 0.026). Moreover, the Needle group spent more time and took longer distances in the central area than the Tactile group in the Open-field test, both in prepubertal and adult rats (P < 0.05). The HPA axis function in the Needle group differed from the Tactile group (P < 0.05), with decreased stress responsiveness in prepuberty and puberty (P < 0.05) and increased stress responsiveness in adulthood (P < 0.05). This study indicates that repetitive pain that occurs during a critical period may cause severe consequences, with behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances developing through prepuberty to adult life.

  • Edström, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Edström, Håkan
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Josefsson, Anders
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Command & Control Studies Division.
    Försvaret av Sverige: vem kan leda operationer... och vem bör?2016In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, 67-86 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Bornemark, Jonna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Bornemark, Jonna
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Smith, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Introduction2016In: Phenomenology of Pregnancy / [ed] Nicholas Smith & Jonna Bornemark, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016, 7-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology takes its starting point in the conviction that a phenomenologyof pregnancy could play an important role in contemporary thought. Stating this is also an acknowledgment that it doesn’t play such a role—yet. The aim of this anthology is to contribute to making philosophical reflectionon pregnancy a greater part of the discussions to come.

  • Haksari, Ekawaty L.
    et al.
    Haksari, Ekawaty L.
    Lafeber, Harrie N.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Pawirohartono, Endy P.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Reference curves of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational ages in Yogyakarta, Indonesia2016In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16, 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The birth weight reference curve to estimate the newborns at risk in need of assessment and monitoring has been established. The previous reference curves from Indonesia, approximately 8 years ago, were based on the data collected from teaching hospitals only with limited gestational ages. The aims of the study were to update the reference curves for birth weight, supine length and head circumference for Indonesia, and to compare birth weight curves of boys and girls, first child and later children, and the ones in the previous studies. Methods: Data were extracted from the Maternal-Perinatal database between 1998-2007. Only live singletons with recorded gestational ages of 26 to 42 weeks and the exact time of admission to the neonatal facilities delivered or referred within 24 h of age to Sardjito Hospital, five district hospitals and five health centers in Yogyakarta Special Territory were included. Newborns with severely ill conditions, congenital anomaly and chromosomal abnormality were excluded. Smoothening of the curves was accomplished using a third-order polynomial equation. Results: Our study included 54,599 singleton live births. Growth curves were constructed for boys (53.3%) and girls (46.7%) for birth weight, supine length, and head circumference. At term, mean birth weight for each gestational age of boys was significantly higher than that of girls. While mean birth weight for each gestational age of first-born-children, on the other hand was significantly lower than that of later-born-children. The mean birth weight was lower than that of Lubchenco's study. Compared with the previous Indonesian study by Alisyahbana, no differences were observed for the aterm infants, but lower mean birth weight was observed in preterm infants. Conclusions: Updated neonatal reference curves for birth weight, supine length and head circumference are important to classify high risk newborns in specific area and to identify newborns requiring attention.

  • Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bilaga 12: Klimatmålsanalys med TIMES-Sweden: Övergripande klimatmål 2045 i kombination med sektormål 20302016In: En klimat- och luftvårdsstrategi för Sverige: delbetänkande / av Miljömålsberedningen, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, 429-454 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nijzink, Remko
    et al.
    Nijzink, Remko
    Hutton, Christopher
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Capell, Réne
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Freer, Jim
    Han, Dawei
    Wagener, Thorsten
    McGuire, Kevin
    Savenije, Hubert
    Hrachowitz, Markus
    The evolution of root-zone moisture capacities after deforestation: a step towards hydrological predictions under change?2016In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 20, no 12, 4775-4799 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Haarsma, Reindert J.
    et al.
    Haarsma, Reindert J.
    Roberts, Malcolm J.
    Vidale, Pier Luigi
    Senior, Catherine A.
    Bellucci, Alessio
    Bao, Qing
    Chang, Ping
    Corti, Susanna
    Fuckar, Neven S.
    Guemas, Virginie
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Hazeleger, Wilco
    Kodama, Chihiro
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Leung, L. Ruby
    Lu, Jian
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Mao, Jiafu
    Mizielinski, Matthew S.
    Mizuta, Ryo
    Nobre, Paulo
    Satoh, Masaki
    Scoccimarro, Enrico
    Semmler, Tido
    Small, Justin
    von Storch, Jin-Song
    High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP62016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 11, 4185-4208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Ahmed, Bayes
    et al.
    Ahmed, Bayes
    Hasan, Rakibul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Maniruzzaman, K. M.
    Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax2014In: ISPRS International journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 4, 1412-1444 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72) of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal) type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72) are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values), and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18) lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  • Uziela, Karolis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Uziela, Karolis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Menéndez Hurtado, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Shu, Nanjiang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Wallner, Björn
    Elofsson, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Improved protein model quality prediction by changing the target functionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein modeling quality is an important part of protein structure prediction. We have for more than a decade developed a set of methods using various types of protein descriptions and machine learning methods. Common to all these methods has been that the target function, i.e. the description of the quality of a residue in a protein model, has been the S-score. However, many other quality estimation functions also exist. These can roughly be divided into superposition, like S-score, and contact-based functions. The contact-based methods have been shown to be better at evaluating the quality of multi-domain proteins.

    Here, we examine the effects of retraining ProQ3D using identical inputs but different target functions. We find that using the same target and test function provides the best agreement. However using contact-based methods provide higher correlations and a better ranking of individual models.

  • Casini, Michele
    et al.
    Casini, Michele
    Kall, Filip
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Plikshs, Maris
    Baranova, Tatjana
    Karlsson, Olle
    Lundstrom, Karl
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    Gardmark, Anna
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 10, 160416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nordin, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. School of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Applied Health Research, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Reach the Person behind the Dementia Physical Therapists' Reflections and Strategies when Composing Physical Training2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, e0166686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia. The interviews were analyzed with a modified Grounded Theory method with focus on constant comparisons. To increase trustworthiness the study used triangulation within investigators and member checking. The core category "Discover and act in the moment-learn over time" reflects how the PTs continuously developed their own learning in an iterative process. They built on previous knowledge to communicate with residents and staff and to tailor the high intensity training in relation to each individual at that time point. The category "Be on your toes" highlights how the PTs searched for sufficient information about each individual, before and during training, by eliciting the person's current status from staff and by interpreting the person's body language. The category "Build a bond with a palette of strategies" describes the importance of confirmation to build up trust and the use of group members and the room to create an interplay between exercise and social interaction. These findings highlight the continuous iterative process of building on existing knowledge, sharing and reflecting, being alert to any alterations needed for individuals that day, communication skills (both with residents and staff) and building a relationship and trust with residents in the effective delivery of high intensity functional exercise to older people living with dementia in care settings.

  • Håkansson, Krister
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The role of socio-emotional factors for cognitive health in later life2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing life expectancies in most parts of the world, the prevalence of dementia and other age-related chronic diseases is growing. Several factors affect future projections and are discussed in this thesis, including possible limits to a continued growth of life expectancy. A related question is to what extent healthy ageing per se affects cognitive functions in old persons. Previous studies have generally exaggerated ageing effects on cognition, by applying study designs that did not account for common confounders, such as birth cohort differences, and the effects of terminal decline and subclinical dementia. In contrast to healthy ageing, dementia neuropathologies dramatically reduce cognitive performance, and proposed mechanisms behind dementia are briefly discussed with focus on Alzheimer’s disease (AD), on the role of genetic factors and on life course exposures. Three studies (study 1-3) investigated how cohabitant status and feelings of loneliness and hopelessness in midlife were associated with cognitive health in later life. Neurotrophic factors could potentially be involved in the biological mechanisms behind these and other associations between life-style factors and cognitive health. The fourth study aimed to explore how levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), measured in serum, were affected by performing different activities; physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness.

    THE FOUR STUDIES

    Study 1-3 were epidemiological association studies based on the Cardiovascular Risk Factor, Ageing and Dementia (CAIDE) Study, a population based cohort study on 1511 persons in eastern Finland, who at baseline were 50.4 years. Two re-examinations have been performed in the CAIDE Study, in 1998 when the participants were between 65 and 80 years, and between 2005-2008, averagely 25.3 years after the baseline examinations. The first two studies were based on the 1409 persons who fully participated in the first re-examination and the third study on the 1511 persons who participated in one or both re-examinations. In the first two studies logistic regression was the main statistical method with any cognitive impairment versus no cognitive impairment as outcome. In addition we performed analyses with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease as separate outcomes. In Study 1 and 2 we also analysed how apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (ApoE4) status affected the associations with Alzheimer’s disease. The statistical method in Study 3 was survival model analysis (Kaplan-Meyer and Cox regression) and the outcome variable was dementia, without subtyping. We compared the results from the analysis on the 1511 participants with the results when we used the total sample (by including register linked data on dementia diagnoses). We adjusted the associations for several potential confounding variables in all three studies.

    In Study 4 we used 19 elderly healthy volunteers who were between 65 and 80 years (mean = 70.8 years). They performed three different activities during 35 minutes on separate occasions, i.e. a within-subject cross-over experimental design where we randomized the order of the three conditions between the participants. We sampled blood from a suitable

    lower arm vein directly before and after each activity session and in addition at 20 and 60 minutes after the session had ended. After the serum had been analysed for BDNF levels, we used repeated measures ANOVA to calculate the differences in the effect of BDNF levels between the three conditions.

    MAIN RESULTS

    We found that living alone in midlife was associated with approximately a doubled risk of cognitive impairment during the re-examination. Among the non-cohabitants the risk increase was especially high for persons who were widowed in midlife and who had continued to live alone until the re-examination (odds ratio (OR) 7.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 – 40.0). Feelings of loneliness were common both among cohabitants and non-cohabitants, but we found that such feelings were only associated with an increased dementia risk if these persons had also been living alone. Feelings of hopelessness in midlife, but not at follow-up, were associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment at the re-examination, especially of Alzheimer’s disease (OR 2.90, CI 1.4 – 5.9). When we adjusted the association from midlife also for depression and hopelessness at the re-examination, this association was still statistically significant. Participants with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment had higher feelings of hopelessness at the re-examination, compared to the cognitively healthy group, but this difference between the groups existed already when they were in midlife. When we stratified the participants with reference to ApoE4 status, we found that participants who were also ApoE4 carriers had a dramatically increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease compared to non-carriers without feelings of hopelessness, even after final adjustment for depression (OR 6.48, CI 2.4 –17.5). A similar stratification for ApoE4 status in Study 1 showed an even more dramatic increase in the association for persons who had lost their partner (widowed or divorced/separated) if they in addition were ApoE4 carriers.

    In Study 4 we found that physical exercise, but not cognitive training or mindfulness, led to a statistically significant increase in BDNF levels of around 25%, compared to baseline. We also found that the individual differences in BDNF levels after the physical exercise correlated with working memory performance, measured on a separate occasion.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Social and emotional factors can have long-term consequences for cognitive health in later life. The long follow-up time in Study 1-3 suggests that the associations we found with dementia could reflect a causal, rather than a prodromal, relation. As other studies have found a range of adverse ill health consequences from both living alone and from depressive feelings, a possible mechanism behind the associations we found could be related to a systemic biological impact, and that the specific ill health outcome could be a result of individual vulnerability where genetic dispositions could play an important role. This conclusion seems consistent with the dramatic risk increases we found for AD when ApoE4

    status was combined with the social factor of living alone and with the emotional dimension of hopelessness. At the micro level, as synaptic dysfunction and loss is characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, and as BDNF has a central role for synaptogenesis, impaired BDNF functionality could play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. More research is needed to further explore the role of BDNF in Alzheimer’s disease and if the disease can be prevented, or the disease process halted, by activities that stimulate BDNF expression in the brain.

  • Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Population trends and threats from ship traffic to long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea2016In: Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe 2015 / [ed] von Nordheim, H. and Wollny-Goerke, K, Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN) , 2016, 205-210 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis is a small sea duck that breeds in Arctic tundra regions and winter in marine and brackish waters. Surveys indicate substantial declines in numbers in recent decades and the species is now classified by IUCN as globally threatened in the category “vulnerable”. The largest of the four recognized long-tailed duck populations is the West Siberian / North European population. Birds belonging to the WS/NE population breed in northern Russia and northern Scandinavia and overwinter mainly in the Baltic Sea. An International Single Species Action Plan for the long-tailed duck has also recently been developed by specialists under the auspices of AEWA (Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds) (HEARN et al. 2015)

    Two Baltic wide surveys have shown that the WS/NE population has decreased very rapidly from approx. 4.3 million birds in 1992-93 to approx. 1.5 million birds in 2007-2009 (DURINCK et al. 1994; SKOV et al. 2011). Although there is some uncertainty regarding the overall level of the population size estimates it is believed that the difference between the estimates accurately reflects the trend between the mid 1990s and late 2000s. A further decline also after 2009 can be assumed as the mean proportion of juveniles in the wintering population has been low since 2009. The recent decline of the WS/NE population can most likely be explained by a combination of factors affecting both the productivity at the Arctic breeding grounds and the adult mortality in the wintering areas in the Baltic Sea.

    Four important anthropogenic threats affecting the wintering birds have been recognised, namely,

    1. operational oil spills from ships at core wintering sites,

    2. by-catches in fishery,

    3. hunting and

    4. disturbance at and exploitation of offshore mussel banks.

    Mortality due to by-catches has decreased but is still high (BELLEBAUM et al. 2013). Hunting mortality is fairly well known and can be regulated if agreements are reached. Displacement of wintering long-tailed ducks from good feeding areas might be more important in future if planned large scale wind farms will be established at core wintering sites, i.e. at offshore banks.

    In this note one of the four recognised anthropogenic threats, i.e. the threat from intensive shipping activities is elucidated. More specifically, an analysis of ship traffic within and close to two marine Natura 2000 sites is presented. The analysed sites, the Hoburgs bank and the Northern Midsjö bank, are two of the most important wintering sites for long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea. Several hundred thousand long-tailed ducks, which is a significant part of the global population, have been observed wintering within these areas in recent years (SKOV et al. 2011, NILSSON 2012). Possible methods to reduce the threat from ship traffic are also discussed.

  • Olofsson, Per Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    Olofsson, Per Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics.
    Microscopy-based single-cell in vitro assays for NK cell function in 2-D and 3-D2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural killer (NK) cells are effector cells of the innate immune system that are responsible for mediating cellular cytotoxicity against virally infected or neoplastically transformed cells. NK cell subsets are defined by their expression of certain cell-surface markers, and are usually related to activation and developmental status.

    However, how distinct NK cell phenotypes correlate with behavior in NK-target interactions is less widely characterized. There is therefore a need to study NK cell behavior down at the single-cell level. One aim of this thesis is to approach methods that quantitatively describe these single-cell-level behavioral differences of NK cells.

    Additionally, the ability of NK cells to migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is crucial for NK cell trafficking and immune surveillance. Traditional imaging studies of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity do not properly reproduce the structural and mechanical cues that shape the migratory response of NK cells in vivo.

    Therefore, it is desirable to implement 3-D in vitro migration and killing assays that better mimic in vivo conditions. Another aim of this thesis is to develop a microwell-based assay for 3-D time-lapse imaging of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity.

    Using a newly developed single-cell imaging and screening assay, we trap small populations of NK and target cells inside microwells, where they are imaged over extended periods of time. We have performed experiments on resting, IL-2-activated, educated, and non-educated NK cells and quantified their migration behavior and cytotoxicity. One major discovery was that a small population of NK cells mediate a majority of the cytotoxicity directed against target cells. A particularly cytotoxic group of cells, termed serial killers, displayed faster and more effective cytotoxicity. Serial killers were more prevalent in IL-2-activated and educated NK cells, but were also present in a small fraction of resting and non-educated NK cells. IL-2-activated and educated NK cells displayed more dynamic migration behavior than resting and non-educated NK cells. Additionally, IL-2-activated and educated NK cells spent more time in NK–target cell conjugates and post-conjugation attachment than resting and non-educated NK cells.

    To more closely approximate in vivo conditions, we have combined our microwell assay with an interstitial ECM-like matrix. The microwells allow for long-term imaging of NK–target cell interactions within a confined 3-D volume. NK cells were tracked and interactions with target cells were scored for duration and outcome. The developed microwell-based assay is suitable for 3-D time-lapse imaging of NK cell migration and cytotoxicity. As it allows for experiments with human cells, it could be used as a complement to in vivo imaging.

    We have quantified NK cell behavioral heterogeneity and developed tools that can be used to further study and elucidate differences in the behavior of single immune cells. These tools advance current methods for single-cell analysis, which will likely play an even more important role in the study of immune responses in the future.

  • Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Mirakelbebisar och märkvärdiga genealogier: Lärdomar för vår tid2016In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, no 1-2, 197-200 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Bülow, William
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Bülow, William
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Unfit to live among others: Essays on the ethics of imprisonment2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides an ethical analysis of imprisonment as a mode of punishment. Consisting in an introduction and four papers the thesis addresses several important questions concerning imprisonment from a number of different perspectives and theoretical starting points. One overall conclusion of this thesis is that imprisonment, as a mode of punishment, deserves more attention from moral and legal philosophers. It is also concluded that a more complete ethical assessment of prison conditions and prison management requires a broader focus. It must include an explicit discussion of both how imprisonment directly affects prison inmates and its negative side-effects on third parties. Another conclusion is that ethical discussions on prison conditions should not be too easily reduced to a question about how harsh or lenient is should be.

    Paper 1 argues that prisoners have a right to privacy. It is argued that respect for inmates’ privacy is related to respect for them as moral agents. Consequently, respect for inmates’ privacy is called for by different established philosophical theories about the justification of legal punishment. Practical implications of this argument are discussed and it is argued that invasion of privacy should be minimized to the greatest extent possible, without compromising other important values or the rights to safety and security. It is also proposed that respect for privacy should be part of the objective of creating and upholding a secure environment.

    Paper 2 discusses whether the collateral harm of imprisonment to the children and other close family members of prison inmates may give rise to special moral obligations towards them. Several collateral harms, including decreased psychological wellbeing, financial costs, loss of economic opportunities, and intrusion and control over their private lives, are identified. Two perspectives in moral philosophy, consequentialism and deontology, are then applied in order to assess whether these harms are permissible. It is argued that from either perspective it is hard to defend the claim that allowing for these harms are morally permissible. Consequently, imprisonment should be used only as a last resort. Where it is deemed necessary, it gives rise to special moral obligations. Using the notion of residual obligation, these obligations are then categorized and clarified.

    Paper 3 focuses on an argument that has figured in the philosophical debate on felon disenfranchisement. This argument states that as a matter of democratic self-determination, a legitimate democratic collective has the collective right to decide whether to disenfranchise felons as a way of defining their political identity. Yet, such a collective’s right to self-determination is limited, since the choice to disenfranchise anyone must be connected to normative considerations of political significance. This paper defends this argument against three charges that has been raised to it. In doing so it also explores under what circumstances felon disenfranchisement can be permissible.

    Paper 4 explores the question of whether prison inmates suffering from ADHD should be administered psychopharmacological intervention (methylphenidate) for their condition. The theoretical starting point for the discussion is the communicative theory of punishment, which understands criminal punishment   as a form of secular penance. Viewed through the lens of the communicative theory it is argued that the provision of pharmacological treatment to offenders with ADHD need not necessarily be conceived of as an alternative to punishment, but as an aid to achieving the penological ends of secular penance. Thus, in this view offenders diagnosed with ADHD should have the option to undergo pharmacological treatment.

  • Henning, Petra
    et al.
    Henning, Petra
    Conaway, H. Herschel
    Lerner, Ulf H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute for Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Retinoid receptors in bone and their in bone remodeling2015In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN 1664-2392, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 6, 31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin A (retinol) is a necessary and important constituent of the body which is provided by food intake of retinyl esters and carotenoids. Vitamin A is known best for being important for vision, but in addition to the eye, vitamin A is necessary in numerous other organs in the body, including the skeleton. Vitamin A is converted to an active compound, all-transretinoic acid (ATRA), which is responsible for most of its biological actions. ATRA binds to intracellular nuclear receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, RAR beta, RAR gamma). RARs and closely related retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, RXR beta, RXR gamma) form heterodimers which bind to DNA and function as ligand-activated transcription factors. It has been known for many years that hypervitaminosis A promotes skeleton fragility by increasing osteoclast formation and decreasing cortical bone mass. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that increased intake of vitamin A and increased serum levels of retinoids may decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture rate, but the literature on this is not conclusive. The current review summarizes how vitamin A is taken up by the intestine, metabolized, stored in the liver, and processed to ATRA. ATRAs effects on formation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are outlined, and a summary of clinical data pertaining to vitamin A and bone is presented.

  • Mgaya, Andrew H.
    et al.
    Mgaya, Andrew H.
    Kidanto, Hussein L.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Essen, Birgitta
    Improving Standards of Care in Obstructed Labour: A Criteria-Based Audit at a Referral Hospital in a Low-Resource Setting in Tanzania2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, e0166619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In low-resource settings, obstructed labour is strongly associated with severe maternal morbidity and intrapartum asphyxia, and consequently maternal and perinatal deaths. This study evaluated the impact of a criteria-based audit of the diagnosis and management of obstructed labour in a low-resource setting. Methods: A baseline criteria-based audit was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014, followed by a workshop in which stakeholders gave feedback on interventions agreed upon to improve obstetric care. The implemented interventions included but were not limited to introducing standard guidelines for diagnosis and management of obstructed labour, agreeing on mandatory review by specialist for cases that are assigned caesarean section, re-training and supervision on use and interpretation of partograph and, strengthening team work between doctors, mid-wives and theatre staff. After implementing these interventions in March, a re-audit was performed from July 2015 to November, 2015, and the results were compared to those of the baseline audit. Results: Two hundred and sixty deliveries in the baseline survey and 250 deliveries in the follow-up survey were audited. Implementing the new criteria improved the diagnosis from 74% to 81% (p = 0.049) and also the management of obstructed labour from 4.2% at baseline audit to 9.2% at re-audit (p = 0.025). Improved detection of prolonged labour through heightened observation of regular contractions, protracted cervical dilatation, protracted descent of presenting part, arrested cervical dilation, and severe moulding contributed to improved standards of diagnosis (all p < 0.04). Patient reviews by senior obstetricians increased from 34% to 43% (p = 0.045) and reduced time for caesarean section intervention from the median time of 120 to 90 minutes (p = 0.001) improved management (all p < 0.05). Perinatal outcomes, neonatal distress and fresh stillbirths, were reduced from 16% to. 8.8% (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A criteria-based audit proved to be a feasible and useful tool in improving diagnosis and management of obstructed labour using available resources. Some of the observed changes in practice were of modest magnitude implying demand for further improvements, while sustaining those already put in place.

  • Sylwan, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sylwan, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Enskilt avlopp.  Vilken teknik passar dina förutsättningar?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna broschyr ger dig tips om vilken teknik du kan välja när du ska anlägga nytt enskilt

    avlopp eller renovera ditt gamla. Du får möta Alma, Berit och Carl samt några av deras

    grannar. Hitta den person i broschyren vars förutsättningar mest liknar dina egna. Då får

    du en fingervisning om vad du kan välja för lösning till ditt eget avlopp. Tänk på att det

    är många olika faktorer som spelar in i vilken avloppslösning som fungerar på just din

    tomt, alla olika förutsättningar är inte möjliga att ta upp i denna broschyr.