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  • Public defence: 2017-09-01 10:00 Sal B, Kista
    Elahipanah, Hossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics.
    Design Optimization and Realization of 4H-SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    4H-SiC-based bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are attractive devices for high-voltage and high-temperature operations due to their high current capability, low specific on-resistance, and process simplicity. To extend the potential of SiC BJTs to power electronic industrial applications, it is essential to realize high-efficient devices with high-current and low-loss by a reliable and wafer-scale fabrication process. In this thesis, we focus on the improvement of the 4H-SiC BJT performance, including the device optimization and process development.

    To optimize the 4H-SiC BJT design, a comprehensive study in terms of cell geometries, device scaling, and device layout is performed. The hexagon-cell geometry shows 42% higher current density and 21% lower specific on-resistance at a given maximum current gain compared to the interdigitated finger design. Also, a layout design, called intertwined, is used for 100% usage of the conducting area. A higher current is achieved by saving the inactive portion of the conducting area. Different multi-step etched edge termination techniques with an efficiency of >92% are realized.

    Regarding the process development, an improved surface passivation is used to reduce the surface recombination and improve the maximum current gain of 4H-SiC BJTs. Moreover, wafer-scale lift-off-free processes for the n- and p-Ohmic contact technologies to 4H-SiC are successfully developed. Both Ohmic metal technologies are based on a self-aligned Ni-silicide (Ni-SALICIDE) process.

    Regarding the device characterization, a maximum current gain of 40, a specific on-resistance of 20 mΩ·cm2, and a maximum breakdown voltage of 5.85 kV for the 4H-SiC BJTs are measured. By employing the enhanced surface passivation, a maximum current gain of 139 and a specific on-resistance of 579 mΩ·cm2 at the current density of 89 A/cm2 for the 15-kV class BJTs are obtained. Moreover, low-voltage 4H-SiC lateral BJTs and Darlington pair with output current of 1−15 A for high-temperature operations up to 500 °C were fabricated.

    This thesis focuses on the improvement of the 4H-SiC BJT performance in terms of the device optimization and process development for high-voltage and high-temperature applications. The epilayer design and the device structure and topology are optimized to realize high-efficient BJTs. Also, wafer-scale fabrication process steps are developed to enable realization of high-current devices for the real applications.

  • Svensson, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    An Experimental Study to Improve the Casting Performance of Steel Grades Sensitive for Clogging2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the goal is to optimize the process and to reduce the clogging tendency during the continuous casting process. The focus is on clogging when the refractory base material (RBM) in the SEN is in contact with the liquid steel. It is difficult or impossible to avoid non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel, but by a selection of a good RBM in the SEN clogging can be reduced.

     

    Different process steps were evaluated during the casting process in order to reduce the clogging tendency. First, the preheating of the SEN was studied. The results showed that the SEN can be decarburized during the preheating process. In addition, decarburization of SEN causes a larger risk for clogging. Two types of plasma coatings were implemented to protect the RBM, to prevent reactions with the RBM, and to reduce the clogging tendency. Calcium titanate (CaTiO3) mixed with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) plasma coatings were tested in laboratory and pilot plant trials, for casting of aluminium-killed low-carbon steels. For casting of cerium alloyed stainless steels, YSZ plasma coatings were tested in laboratory, pilot plant and industrial trials. The results showed that the clogging tendency was reduced when implementing both coating materials.

     

    It is also of importance to produce clean steel in order to reduce clogging. Therefore, the steel cleanliness in the tundish was studied experimentally. The result showed that inclusions originated from the slag, deoxidation products and tundish refractory and that they were present in the tundish as well as in the final steel product.

  • Engman, Sven
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jordpackning och packningskontroll vid vägbyggnad1971Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mycket starka utveckling som vägtrafiken genomgått efter andra världskriget har bl.a. inneburit en markant ökning av trafikens intensitet, hastighet och tyngd (axel- och boggitryck). Härav har följt såväl växande fordringar på vägarnas bärighet och jämnhet som på deras kapacitet och trafiksäkerhet. Då alla prognoser för trafikutvecklingen inom landet pekar mot en fortsatt stark ökning i vägtrafiken och mot en fortsatt övergång till allt tyngre lastbilar, måste antagandet, att trafikantens krav på vägarna kommer att tilltaga i samma eller sannolikt snabbare takt, anses vara välgrundat.

    På senare tid har från olika håll framförts den åsikten, att de svenska vägarnas jämnhet icke är tillfredsställande samt att orsaken härtill är, att vägkroppens olika lager icke packats tillräckligt. Det har därför ansetts, att de nu gällande föreskrifterna för jordpackning vid vägbyggnad måste skärpas. Med anledning härav har Statens vägverk uppdragit åt Statens väginstitut, att verkställa en översyn av de normer och rekommendationer för jordpackning, som ingår i Väg- och vattenbyggnadsstyrelsens byggnadstekniska anvisningar (BYA) av år 1963. Översynen har även omfattat studium av dels olika länders krav på jordpackning, dels olika laboratorie- och fältmetoders användbarhet för bestämning av jord- och vägbyggnadsmaterials packningsegenskaper och packningstillstånd. Med hänsyn till att statens väginstitut icke sedan 1954, då institutets meddelande nr 87 "Om komprimering av jord" (Bruzelius) utgavs, publicerat någon mer omfattande sammanställning över till jordpackningskomplexet hörande frågor, har Väginstitutet ansett det vara motiverat, att redovisa denna översyn i en rapport mer omfattande än en promemoria.

  • Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

    • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

    • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

    Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

    Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

    Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

  • Gandahl, Rune
    Statens väginstitut.
    Vägar byggda med bark1970Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bark har under senare år fått användning vid vissa vägar i de norrländska länen samt i Kopparbergs och Värmlands län. Vid de flesta av dessa vägar har barken tjänstgjort som tjälisolerande medel och sålunda utövat ett skydd mot tjälskador och då främst tjällyftningsskador, bl.a. längsgående tjälsprickor. Barklagret har därvid givits en triangulär tvärsnittsform (= mittkil enligt Väg- och vattenbyggnadsstyrelsens anvisningar). Bark har använts i mycket tjälfarliga terränglägen dvs huvudsakligen i skärningar och där undergrunden uppbygges av mycket tjälfarliga sediment (finmo, mjäla, lättlera) och där grundvattenståndet är högt. Barkens tjälskyddande effekt härrör sig från dess stora frysmotstånd. I vissa fall har man utnyttjat dess låga volymvikt genom att använda den i lättbankar. Bark kan också ha använts enbart som fyllnadsmaterial.

    De "barkbyggda" vägarna, av vilka flera är provvägar, har studerats och nu slutbesiktigats.

  • Gandahl, Rune
    Statens väginstitut.
    Tjälskyddsåtgärder vid Långsele-Sollefteå, väg 87, Västernorrlands län1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av tjällyftning uppkommande Vägskador kan motverkas eller helt elimineras genom speciella åtgärder antingen vid vägens byggande eller senare, då den kommit i bruk, dvs genom reparationer vid lokala skadesträckor.

    Vare sig målet är att få en helt tjälskadefri väg eller enbart en till viss grad tjälsäker väg, måste man kunna bedöma var i terrängen betingelser finns för tjälskjutning av sådan art att den kan åstadkomma skador hos den färdigbyggda vägen. Vid vägföretaget Långsele - Sollefteå är markförhållandena komplexa och på längre sträckor ej möjliga att utreda med normal arbetsinsats. De utförda markundersökningarna har också visat sig icke vara nog detaljerade för att alla för skadande tjällyftning betydelsefulla inhomogeniteter i marken skulle kunna uppspåras.

    Som brukligt är utgick man vid bedömning av tjälskyddsåtgärder från ett tjälskyddskrav, som innebar ett delvis tjälskydd. Tjällyftningsskador var alltså förväntade, men blev första vintern (1968 - 69) så svåra, att rätt omfattande reparationer måste utföras.

    Påföljande vinter hade skadegraden hos vägen väsentligt gått ned, men på många sträckor kunde fortfarande skador men av moderatare typ noteras, förutom att vägbanan inom vissa avsnitt var "orolig".

  • Larson, T
    Statens väginstitut .
    Contributions to the development of a framework for modifying the Swedish flexible pavement design model1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design procedures serve as guides to the orderly consideration of all relevant aspects of a design problem. Sound procedures can promote uniformly good performance of structures, in both a technical and economic sense. Incomplete or erroneous procedures can obviously promote faulty performance. It is worth noting, however, that either good or bad design guides, tables and so forth may stifle creativity if viewed and used in a dogmatic, rigid fashion.

    Though many relatively unsophisticated design procedures have been used in the past to select dimensions for the road pavement structure, it is now obvious that for developed countries the rate of expenditure for new roads and major improvements, the rate of traffic growth and the availability of new materials all suggest a very high order of efficiency in this design process as being required for the future. Unfortunately such efficiency has been elusive, in part for the reason that roadbuilding has been, and continues to be, very much an "art", but also because research and development efforts have not followed a consistent, systematic plan of attack. The problems have been too numerous, too urgent and too multidisciplinary in nature while the research and deveIopment efforts have been too fragmented to permit such an approach. It would seem that improved pavement design methods can be developed only within a carefully structured framework. This framework must reflect an awareness of the very rich resources of past road research, treat the unique conditions of actual roadbuilding practice, and have a breadth and flexibility that modern systems engineering makes possible.

    The purpose of this paper is to make contributions to the deveIopment of a framework such as that noted above for Sweden. It contains a selective review of recent USA (and some other) literature treating principal elements of the pavement design process, some examples of the systems approach to pavement design, and examples of current pavement design procedures. It was felt that in these areas a person with no experience in Sweden might nevertheless offer something of value to the total effort.

  • Larson, T
    Statens väginstitut.
    Traffic as factor in pavement design1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether or not traffic load repetitions should be considered in pavement design, and if so by what relationship, is considered. From reports covering widely different experiences it is concluded that a continuum of pavement response to traffic has been described. Local design practice together with traffic and environmental factors determine the sensitivity for any particular case. Comparisons between dimensions for roads of similar specification in Sweden, the UK and several states of the USA suggest that Swedish pavements might be rather insensitive to traffic loads.

    A method for treating mixed traffic is required for the development of a pavement design traffic index. The equivalent wheel load concept, with equivalency based on equal decrements of serviceability, has been widely used for this purpose in the USA. This approach is justified through mathematical models relating pavement thickness to load applications. Such models reflect specific conditions and pavement design methods and so must be validated before any general adoption of load equivalency factors developed elsewhere can be considered. A method for such validation based on experience in Minnesota is described.

  • Roosmark, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Statens väginstitut.
    Fräki, R
    Statens väginstitut.
    Interview investigation of road traffic accidents1970Report (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Lunds universitet.
    Rosberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Disciplinary discernment from Hertzsprung-Russell-diagrams2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aim at investigating what astronomy students and experts discern from the multitude of different disciplinary affordances available in Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams. HR-diagrams are central to all of astronomy and astrophysics and used extensively in teaching. However, knowledge about what students and experts discern from these disciplinary representations are not well known at present. HR-diagrams include many disciplinary affordances that may be hidden to the novice student, hence we aim at investigating and describing what astronomy students at different university levels (introductory, undergraduate, graduate), and astronomy educators/professors, discern from such representation – referred to as disciplinary discernment (Eriksson, Linder, Airey, & Redfors, 2014). Data from a web based questionnaire were analysed using the Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment (ADD) framework by Eriksson et al. (2014). Preliminary results show (1) the developmental nature of disciplinary discernment from the HR-diagram by the participants and (2) the large discrepancy between disciplinary discernment by the astronomy educators and their students. We describe and discuss the qualitative nature of these differences and how this can have implications for teaching and learning astronomy.

  • Gregorcic, Bor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Planinsic, Gorazd
    University of Ljubljana.
    Etkina, Eugenia
    Rutgers University.
    Doing science by waving hands: Talk, symbiotic gesture, and interaction with digital content as resources in student inquiry2017In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 13, no 2, 020104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate some of the ways in which students, when given the opportunity and an appropriate learning environment, spontaneously engage in collaborative inquiry. We studied small groups of high school students interacting around and with an interactive whiteboard equipped with Algodoo software, as they investigated orbital motion. Using multimodal discourse analysis, we found that in their discussions the students relied heavily on nonverbal meaning-making resources, most notably hand gestures and resources in the surrounding environment (items displayed on the interactive whiteboard). They juxtaposed talk with gestures and resources in the environment to communicate ideas that they initially were not able to express using words alone. By spontaneously recruiting and combining a diverse set of meaning- making resources, the students were able to express relatively fluently complex ideas on a novel physics topic, and to engage in practices that resemble a scientific approach to exploration of new phenomena.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 09:00 Sal F3, Stockholm
    Timmer, Brian J.J.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Metals in Dynamic Chemistry: Selection & Catalysis2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the adaptation to the oxidative environment on earth, metals played a crucial role for the evolution of life. The presence of metals also allowed access to advanced functions due to their unique coordination sphere and reactivity. This thesis focused on exploiting these unique properties for further development of the field of dynamic chemistry – a field in which adaptation plays a central role as well.

    The first part of the thesis aimed to create a better understanding of multivalent effects in carbohydrate-lectin interactions. By reversible ligand coordination to zinc ions one of the nanoplatforms, the Borromean rings, could be selectively obtained. After carbohydrate functionalization the binding events were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance technology and compared to glycosylated fullerenes and dodecaamide cages. Overall, this investigation indicated that statistical and polyelectrolyte effects play a considerable role in the observed multivalent effects.

    The second part of the thesis aimed to design and synthesize a new catalyst for application in aqueous olefin metathesis. This afforded a ruthenium based catalyst that was applied in the self- and cross-metathesis of highly functionalized substrates, such as carbohydrates. In addition, it was shown that addition of a small amount of acetic acid prevented undesired double bond isomerization.

    The last part of the thesis aimed to explore new methods to discover transition metal catalysts. Dynamic exchange of directing groups generated a pool of potential substrates for C-H activation. Combining this pool of substrates with a pool of potential catalysts resulted in amplification of a reactive substrate/metal combination. By iterative deconvolution in combination with mass spectrometry, this “intermediate” could be identified from the mixture, proving applicability of this alternative approach to catalyst discovery.

  • Wänman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Grabowski, Pawel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nyström, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Crnalic, Sead
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Metastatic spinal cord compression as the first sign of malignancy: Outcome after surgery in 69 patients2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 4, 457-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) as the initial manifestation of malignancy (IMM) limits the time for diagnostic workup; most often, treatment is required before the final primary tumor diagnosis. We evaluated neurological outcome, complications, survival, and the manner of diagnosing the primary tumor in patients who were operated for MSCC as the IMM.

    Patients and methods - Records of 69 consecutive patients (51 men) who underwent surgery for MSCC as the IMM were reviewed. The patients had no history of cancer when they presented with pain (n = 2) and/or neurological symptoms (n = 67).

    Results - The primary tumor was identified in 59 patients. In 10 patients, no specific diagnosis could be established, and they were therefore defined as having cancer of unknown primary tumor (CUP). At the end of the study, 16 patients were still alive (median follow-up 2.5 years). The overall survival time was 20 months. Patients with CUP had the shortest survival (3.5 months) whereas patients with prostate cancer (6 years) and myeloma (5 years) had the longest survival. 20 of the 39 patients who were non-ambulatory preoperatively regained walking ability, and 29 of the 30 ambulatory patients preoperatively retained their walking ability 1 month postoperatively. 15 of the 69 patients suffered from a total of 20 complications within 1 month postoperatively.

    Interpretation - Postoperative survival with MSCC as the IMM depends on the type of primary tumor. Surgery in these patients maintains and improves ambulatory function.

  • Carlsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Model for calculating the effect of longitudinal profiles on the speed of heavy vehicles1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the effects which the vertical alignment of a road produces on traffic is necessary for preparation of appropriate standards and recommendations relating to gradients and to vehicle-climbing lanes. Furthermore this knowledge constitutes an indispensable element of the information which is required for economic calculations in traffic engineering. In fact, very extensive information is needed in order that the abovementioned effects may be determined in a satisfactory manner. Among other things, it is necessary to know the geometric road design features, the traffic volume, and the classification of traffic according to type of vehicle. Moreover, it is required to know the effects of the vertical alignment on free-moving vehicles of various types, and the influence of sight conditions and opposite-direction traffic on the frequency of overtaking and passing. A complete treatment of this problem will be carried out with the help of simulation by means of automatic data processing equipment. A model for simulation of traffic on two-lane roads is at present in preparation at the National Swedish Road Research Institute.

    As has been pointed out in the above, the necessary basis for the simulation comprises, among other things, the knowledge of the effects produced on free-moving vehicles by the vertical alignment of the road. Studies of the variations in the speeds of free-moving vehicles with the distance on upgrades have therefore been made for this purpose and the results are presented in this report.

  • Bixo, Marie
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Ekberg, Karin
    Asarina Pharma AB, Fogdevreten 2, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hirschberg, Angelica Linden
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jonasson, Aino Fianu
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Kvinnoforskningsenheten, SE-14146 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Andreen, Lotta
    Sundsvall Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Timby, Erika
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Wulff, Marianne
    Slottsstadens Lakarhus Malmo, Fagelbacksgatan 11, SE-21744 Malmo, Sweden..
    Ehrenborg, Agneta
    Specialistlakarna Kungsbacka Qvinnolivet, Sodra Torggatan 18, SE-43430 Kungsbacka, Sweden..
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with the GABA(A) receptor modulating steroid antagonist Sepranolone (UC1010)-A randomized controlled trial2017In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 80, 46-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Allopregnanolone is a metabolite from progesterone and a positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This endogenous steroid may induce negative mood in sensitive women when present in serum levels comparable to the premenstrual phase. Its endogenous isomer, isoallopregnanolone, has been shown to antagonize allopregnanolone effects in experimental animal and human models.

    Objective: The objective was to test whether inhibition of allopregnanolone by treatment with the GABA(A) modulating steroid antagonist (GAMSA) Sepranolone (UC1010) during the premenstrual phase could reduce symptoms of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The pharmacokinetic parameters of UC1010 when given as a subcutaneous injection were measured in healthy women prior to the study in women with PMDD.

    Design: This was an explorative randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Setting: Swedish multicentre study with 10 centers.

    Participants: Participants were 26 healthy women in a pharmacokinetic phase I study part, and 126 women with PMDD in a phase II study part. Diagnosis followed the criteria for PMDD in DSM-5 using Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) and Endicott's algorithm.

    Intervention: Subjects were randomized to treatment with UC1010 (10 or 16 mg) subcutaneously every second day during the luteal phase or placebo during one menstrual cycle.

    Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the sum of all 21 items in DRSP (Total DRSP score). Secondary outcomes were Negative mood score i.e. the ratings of the 4 key symptoms in PMDD (anger/irritability, depression, anxiety and lability) and impairment (impact on daily life).

    Results: 26 healthy women completed the pharmacokinetic phase I study and the dosing in the following trial was adjusted according to the results. 106 of the 126 women completed the phase II study. Within this group, a significant treatment effect with UC1010 compared to placebo was obtained for the Total DRSP score (p = 0.041) and borderline significance (p = 0.051) for the sum of Negative mood score. Nineteen participants however showed symptoms during the follicular phase that might be signs of an underlying other conditions, and 27 participants had not received the medication as intended during the symptomatic phase. Hence, to secure that the significant result described above was not due to chance, a post hoc sub-group analysis was performed, including only women with pure PMDD who completed the trial as intended (n =60). In this group UC1010 reduced Total DRSP scores by 75% compared with 47% following placebo; the effect size 0.7 (p = 0.006), and for sum of Negative mood score (p=0.003) and impairment (p =0.010) with the effect size 0.6. No severe adverse events were reported during the treatment and safety parameters (vital signs and blood chemistry) remained normal during the study.

    Conclusions: This explorative study indicates promising results for UC1010 as a potential treatment for PMDD. The effect size was comparable to that of SSRIs and drospirenone containing oral contraceptives. UC1010 was well tolerated and deemed safe.

  • Holmquist, Claes
    Statens väginstitut.
    Changes in speeds of vehicles on horizontal curves1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential part of the model for traffic simulation which is in preparation at the National Swedish Road Research Institute is a description of the variations in the speeds of road vehicles during their passage through horizontal curves.

    Studies of the speed adaptation on horizontal curves have been made at the Road Research Institute on several occasions in the course of the period from 1965 to 1967. A common feature of these studies is that they have been carried out under left-hand traffic conditions. It was therefore desirable to examine, among other things, the effect produced by righthand traffic on the speeds of vehicles on curves. It was to be expected that the sight from the inner lanes of the curves would be improved for vehicles equipped with steering wheels on the left-hand side, which are completely predominant in Sweden. In order to study the above-mentioned effect, investigations have been made in 1969 at some places where similar measurements had been performed in left-hand traffic, so that reference data were available for these places.

    In the first investigations, a study was made of free-moving vehicles. They were defined as vehicles separated by a time gap of at least 6 seconds from the vehicle ahead. The results of these investigations proved to be in close agreement with those of Taragin's tests carried out in 1954. It was found, among other things, that the speed adaptation took place in most cases before the curve, and was then maintained constant throughout the curve. Furthermore, the difference in speed between the vehicles moving in the inner and outer traffic lanes was very slight.

    In another investigation, the variation in the Speed of each vehicle with the distance was determined by measuring the travel time over 8 consecutive road sections. This investigation was carried out on free-moving vehicles at 25 places in Central Sweden, and covered 1 200 vehicles in all.

  • Carlsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Claes
    Statens väginstitut.
    Hastighetsförlopp i lutningar1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskap om hur en vägs vertikala linjeföring påverkar trafiken är nödvändig för utarbetande av lämpliga normer och anvisningar avseende lutningar och stigningsfält. Denna kunskap utgår även en nödvändig del av den information som erfordras för trafikekonomiska beräkningar. För att kunna ge ett tillfredsställande svar på frågan hur den vertikala linjeföringen påverkar trafiken erfordras en mängd information. Man måste bl.a. känna väggeometrin, trafikens storlek och dess sammansättning. Vidare måste man veta hur fria fordon av olika typer påverkas av den vertikala linjeföringen samt hur omkörningsfrekvensen påverkas av siktförhållanden och mötande trafik. En fullständig behandling av problemet är avsedd att ske med hjälp av simulering i dator. En simuleringsmodell för trafik på tvåfältiga vägar utarbetas f.n. vid institutet. Ett nödvändigt underlag för denna simulering är således bl.a. kunskap om hur fria fordon påverkas av vägens vertikala linjeföring. Studier av fria fordons hastighetsförlopp i lutningar har därför utförts. Resultatet från dessa redovisas i denna rapport.

    För att beskriva hastighetsförloppet i en uppförslutning ansattes en fysikalisk modell. De krav som ställdes på modellen var att den skulle vara enkel att använda, samt att den skulle avbilda varje enskilt fordons hastighetsförlopp väl. Det vill säga hela fordonspopulationen skulle kunna beskrivas och ej endast ett typfordon vilket varit vanligt vid tidigare studier av detta problem.

  • Jin, Junchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. iTekn Solutions, Sweden.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. iTekn Solutions, Sweden.
    A group-based traffic signal control with adaptive learning ability2017In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group-based control is an advanced traffic signal strategy capable of dynamically generating phase sequences at intersection. Combined with the phasing scheme, vehicle actuated timing is often adopted to respond to the detected traffic. However, the parameters of a signal controller are often predetermined in practice, and the control performance may suffer from deterioration when dealing with highly fluctuating traffic demand. This study proposes a group-based signal control approach capable of making decisions based on its understanding of traffic conditions at the intersection level. In particular, the control problem is formulated using a framework of stochastic optimal control for multi-agent system in which each signal group is modeled as an intelligent agent. The agents learn how to react to traffic environment and make optimal timing decisions according to the perceived system states. Reinforcement learning, enhanced by multiple-step backups, is applied as the kernel of the intelligent control algorithm, where each agent updates its knowledge on-line based on a sequence of states during the process. In addition, the proposed system is designated to be compatible with the prevailing signal system. A case study was carried out in a simulation environment to compare the proposed control approach with a benchmark controller used in practice, group-based vehicle actuated (GBVA) controller, whose parameters were off-line optimized using a genetic algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive group-based control system outperforms the optimized GBVA control system mainly because of its real-time adaptive learning capacity in response to the changes of traffic demand.

  • Larsson, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    BOOK REVIEW Wendy Brown, Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution (New York: Zone Books, 2015)2017In: Foucault Studies, ISSN 1832-5203, E-ISSN 1832-5203, no 23, 174-178 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Åhs, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Projekt Inspira Integrerad behandling för personer med psykisk ohälsa inom etableringen i Uppsala län: Utvärderingsrapport: December 20162016Report (Other academic)
  • Van Chien, Trinh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Joint Pilot Sequence Design and Power Control for Max-Min Fairness in Uplink Massive MIMO2017In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper optimizes the pilot assignment and pilottransmit powers to mitigate pilot contamination in MassiveMIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems. While priorworks have treated pilot assignment as a combinatorial problem,we achieve a more tractable problem formulation by directlyoptimizing the pilot sequences. To this end, we compute alower bound on the uplink (UL) spectral efficiency (SE), forRayleigh fading channels with maximum ratio (MR) detectionand arbitrary pilot sequences. We optimize the max-min SEwith respect to the pilot sequences and pilot powers, under powerbudget constraints. This becomes an NP-hard signomial problem,but we propose an efficient algorithm to obtain a local optimumwith polynomial complexity. Numerical results manifest the nearoptimality of the proposed algorithm and show significant gainsover existing suboptimal algorithms.

  • Andersson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bestämning av vägkonstruktioners egenskaper genom upprepad belastning1970Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 13:00 F3, Stockholm
    Heyman, Susanna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Visualizing Financial Futures2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on financial decision aids, systems designed to help people make financial decisions, is sparse. Previous research has often focused on the theoretical soundness of the advice that the systems provide.The original contribution of this doctoral thesis is a set of empirical studies of how non-expert people understand the advice provided by financial decision aids. Since every piece of advice must be interpreted by a receiver, the accuracy of the advice can be corrupted along the way if the receiver does not understand complicated terminology, probabilistic reasoning, or abstract concepts.The design concept resulting from the studies visualizes a unique combination of short-term and long-term variables that are usually treated as separate and not interacting with each other; loans and amortizations, insurance, retirement saving, and consumption. The aim is to visualize the consequences of different decisions and possible adverse events in terms of their effect on the user’s future consumption, rather than abstract numbers detached from the user’s lived experience.The design concept was tested and evaluated by personal finance experts and professional financial advisors, as well as students and people without financial education, who represented the target users of the system. Results indicate that the system has a learning curve, but that once users understand how to read the graph, they find it more informative than conventional financial planning tools.

  • Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investing in Lean to Improve Basic Capabilities: A strategy for System Supply?2017In: Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2013-8423, E-ISSN 2013-0953, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper describes the perceived effects of implementing lean production in aSwedish SME contract manufacturer. Especially focused are the effects on, and possible tradeoffsbetween, cost-efficiency and flexibility.Design/methodology/approach: SME suppliers need basic capabilities of qualitativeproduction performance as stepping-stones to develop more system supplier capabilities foradded customer value. Development of stable production processes is seen as a way to reachstable basic performance, efficient and with higher resource utilization. Quality is a precursor todelivery performance as well as to cost reduction and flexibility. This is a longitudinal single casestudy of a SME supplier striving to become a system supplier. Two main sources of datacollection are used: interviews and the main author’s presence as employee and businessdeveloper, participating in and following up the ongoing change process.Findings: Analyzing the development over time illustrated the importance of context andcontent for the change process. Two specific findings appeared: (1) An initial effect was animportant “eye-opener” for the balance between cost efficiency and flexibility in the organization.(2) Process orientation, as the basis of both lean and agile approaches, allows many improvementswithout any conflicts or trade-offs between these two goals. Stability in the production leads to increased controllability, initially resulting in both higher cost-efficiency and higher flexibility. Asthe organization develops however, strategic considerations relating to the chosen market strategymight occur: cost leadership or differentiation.Research limitations/implications: These results reflect the experiences of one SME supplierand further studies are needed for generalizability.Originality/value: The study increases the understanding of how a SME may develop stableprocesses in its different supplier-customer contexts. The study points at some necessary basiccomponents of this process approach as a first step for the transition to system supplier.

  • Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Resources to Form Logistics Capabilities: from the Perspective of a Small- or Medium-Sized Subcontractor2008In: Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, ISSN 1625-8312, E-ISSN 1624-6039, Vol. 9, no 2, 6-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for a small subcontractor to meet increasing global competitionis to develop a system supplying ability, which implies more focus onlogistical issues and a larger overall responsibility in the supply chain.Certain logistics capabilities have been identified as important to a smallormedium-sized subcontractor in order to cope with the systemsupplying role. Interviews have been carried out in a multiple case studywith the purpose of identifying important resources for a smaller supplierwith the ambition of forming logistics capabilities to support systemsupply. Resources within three different areas have been identified:organizational, competence base, and tools. Conclusions from acomparison among three companies, with different degrees of systemsupplying services, point out the importance of an organization with clearand distinct responsibilities and authorities. Competencies in logistics andenhanced understanding and use of IT support and communicationsystems are identified as areas to improve for the smaller companies.

  • Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Towards system capability: identifying logistics and manufacturing demands for small suppliers2007In: Proceedings of 14th EurOMA Conference in Ankara, 17-20 June, 2007, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Recensioner1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 95-127 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Korpi, Walter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den virtuella verklighetens tillväxt och det intellektuella samtalets förfall i forskarsamhället1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 80-93 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of virtual reality and the decline of intellectual dialog in the community of social scientists

    For about two decades now, leading Swedish economists have been arguing that the expansion of Sweden's welfare state since 1970 has caused its economic growth to lag behind that of other comparable countries. As main evidence for this causal interpretation, they have pointed to the fact that since the early 1970s Sweden's percentage growth of GDP per capita has been below the OECD-average. In these terms, however, Sweden's growth lagged behind the OECD-average by the same amount already in the 1950s and 60s, the effect thus preceding its assumed cause by two decades. Furthermore, also other relatively rich countries such as Switzerland and the United States, have had percentage growth rates below the OECD-average. This reflects the so called catch-up effect, which tends to give the originally less rich countries a higher percentage growth rates than the originally rich countries, among them Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. A causal interpretation of this percentage difference to the OECD-average in terms of a ”Swedish” welfare state is thus not possible. Henrekson is however a true believer in the irrelevance of the catch-up effect, something which makes him shut his eyes.

  • Henrekson, Magnus
    Industriens Utredningsinstitut.
    Sveriges ekonomiska tillväxt och samhällsforskarnas objektivitet1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 68-79 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic growth of Sweden and the objectivity of social scientists

    In an article in Sociologisk Forskning (2/98) Walter Korpi maintains that the claim by Swedish academic economists that Sweden’s economic growth has been slow compared to other rich countries is at odds with the empirical facts. Consequently, unless Sweden has grown slowly, an often cited basis for questioning the Swedish model is invalidated. Korpi also asserts that the discussion reveals a severe objectivity problem among Swedish academic economists. In this article Magnus Henrekson rebuts Korpi's allegations. The available facts show that Sweden was lagging behind relative to a broad aggregate ofother industrialized countries up to 1990, and this tendency is further reinforced if the 1990s is included in the comparison. As a corallary, it is an important task for future research to examine the factors that can potentially explain this unfavorable development. One hypothesis worthy of additional exploration is whether the Swedish model with its large public sector and strongly redistributive policies provides part of the explanation. As regards the objectivity problem in social science research in Sweden, Henrekson argues that, if anything, the discussion of Sweden’s growth problem shows that Walter Korpi is the one who has been lacking in scientific objectivity in this particular instance.

  • Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Réalisme magique ou fantastique ?: Stratégies narratives dans la réappropriation des traumatismes historiques2017In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 2000-3560, E-ISSN 2000-3560, Vol. 111, no 1, 59-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article starts with a theoretical discussion about the differences and the similitudes between Magical Realism and the Fantastic, especially concerning their relation to the category of the real, and consequently the possibility to apply the two concepts to the writing about the past. These genres, or these modes, which I argue is a more useful way to see them, might seem incompatible with the goal of writing about real events having occurred in the past. A realistic style, in which reality is considered according to the principles of rationality and logic, is traditionally preferred in such endeavors. Fiction in general can be seen as inappropriate when dealing with historiography. However, it has been argued that fiction, even of the kind that seems antirealist, can be used to write about the real past, especially a past marked by trauma.

    On the basis of this theoretical introduction, I analyze two literary works written by two francophone authors who have won the prestigious Goncourt prize: Biblique des derniers gestes by Patrick Chamoiseau (2002) and Trois femmes puissantes by Marie Ndiaye (2009). The two works appear as original ways of appropriation of a traumatic, deeply hidden past, using a style which can be seen as close to magical realism or to the fantastic.

  • Ljungar, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gunnar Myrdals relevans för dagens sociologi: Värdepremisser och kumulativ kausalitet1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 37-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gunnar Myrdals relevance for contemporary sociology: value premises and cumulative causation

    Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1977) is one of Sweden’s internationally most renowned social scientists. He has made important contributions to both the fields of economics and sociology, but even to the philosophy and methodology of the social sciences. M criticizes the social sciences for being value-loaded. The values built into the scientific tradition, political interests, and the personal values of the social scientist, has all a tendency to create biases in the scientific results. The only way to ”solve” this problem is that the social scientist brings the value premises that govern a study into the open. It is then possible for others to judge the conclusions reached. M has an ambition to reduce the gap between economics and sociology. For this purpose he has developed a model based on the idea of circular and cumulative causation. This model assumes that economic and non-economic factors are equally important in social processes and that the factors reinforce each other in a specific direction. M uses this model for analyzing business fluctuations, discrimination of Afro-Americans and development processes in third-world countries.

  • Melin, Göran
    STINT.
    Globalisering och internationalisering inom vetenskapen1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 22-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalization or internationalization in the sciences.

    The main question in this study is whether we can find empirical evidence of globalization in science or not. Usually the increasing number of co-authorships in the sciences is seen as an indicator of increasing research collaboration, which in turn is seen as part of the globalization-trend. Here, this chain is questioned and the relation and the difference between globalization and internationalization in science is investigated and discussed. A number of studies have shown how the amount of research collaboration is increasing but it is not clear that this is actually leading to globalization in science rather than internationalization. Through a number of empirical results the structure of international research collaboration is described. It is concluded that there may very well be an ongoing globalization-trend but this is hardly evident in empirical studies of research collaboration. What can be seen though is a strengthened internationalization-trend. Globalization seems to be a phenomenon that ought to be used more carefully and studied through both bibliometric and other methods.

  • Nordenmark, Mikael
    Umeå universitet.
    Arbetslöshetskoncentration: Ett resultat av negativa attityder gentemot arbete?1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 4-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment concentration: Caused by negative attitudes towards paid work?

    This article studies the concentration of unemployment within families and social networks in Sweden. The study, which is based on two random samples, one consisting of approximately 47000 young people and their parents and one consisting of 3500 unemployed persons, raises the question of whether unemployment concentration mainly is caused by negative values towards employment or by structural factors. The results show that it is common for persons who are unemployed and have experienced longer periods of unemployment to have unemployed family members and friends. The causes of the unemployment concentration can be traced to structural factors such as class, ethnicity, age, unemployment rate and population in the district etc., rather than to the attitudes of the members of the unemployed group.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1999:31999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Purhagen, Jeanette
    Perten Instruments, Sweden.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    The effect of processing on sensory properties of mayonnaise2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion, generally produced in high intensity rotor-stator mixers. The taste, flavour and texture is appreciated by consumers but local markets value different sensory properties. The effects of processing conditions on these properties are not fully understood. However, it can be hypothesized to primarily depend on mixing intensity (i.e. the rotor tip-speed) and processing time (i.e. the average number of  rotor-stator  passages).

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics of mayonnaise.

    Methods

    A standard recipe for mayonnaise was processed in a rotor-stator mixer using two different mixing intensities (rotor tip-speeds of 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s respectively). The processing time was chosen to give the same number of average rotor-stator passages for each rotor speed. Sensory properties were evaluated using an analytical panel and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). In addition, texture was measured instrumentally as curdled consistency by back extrusion (TVT Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments). Results The higher mixing intensity (7.1 m/s) led to a more yellow appearance compared to the lower intensity (4.7 m/s). It also resulted in an altered texture, both when assessed as by hand manipulation and in-mouth. Processed at higher speed, the mayonnaise was e.g. more  resistant to stirring corresponding to a higher Peak Force A (N) and Adhesiveness (J) when measured instrumentally. No effect on taste and flavour related sensory properties was found.

    Discussion and conclusion

    The result indicate that there is a potential to tailor the texture characteristics of mayonnaise through processing. By varying the mixing speed the appearance and texture of mayonnaise was affected, a higher mixing intensity led to a more yellow and firm product. The alterations  in processing conditions had however no effect on taste and flavour of the mayonnaise.

  • Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Larsson, Ewa
    Igelösa Life Science AB, Sweden.
    Wallin Bengtsson, Viveca
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Widén, Cecilia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Sensory acceptance of a diet designed to counteract obesity, diabetes and periodontaldisease2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified Nordic diet, developed by Igelösa Life Science AB, was tested in a clinical pilot study including ten individuals with type 2 diabetes during two weeks. The diet was based on locally produced, traditional ingredients such as intact grains, vegetables, legumes, root vegetables, fish, poultry, fruit and nuts. The intake of sugar, red meat and dairy products was restricted. One of the aims of the study was to study the sensory acceptance of the diet.

    The study was designed as a case-series. The diet was provided, ready-made and free of charge, to both the experimental subjects (N=10) and their partners (N=5). Two subjects were excluded due to heath implications, not related to the diet. The sensory acceptance was measured through questionnaire data and two focus groups (before and after the 2-week test period, 20 minutes each). Partners were invited to participate in the focus group interviews.

    Data from the questionnaire showed a high degree of liking for most meals. The result of the focus groups indicated the importance of the every-day meal as a social activity. They further expressed satisfaction with sensory properties and the perceived health benefits of the Igelösa diet but also some frustration regarding small portions, too little salt and somewhat unfamiliar ingredients.

    Sensory acceptance for diets nutritionally designed for weight reduction and/or maintenance is  a key factor. Despite the low number of participants, the pilot study indicate that the Igelösa diet is well accepted. An innovation of the study was that both the experimental subjects and their partners received the diet. The participants stated that this was supportive, facilitating adherence and promoting long-term impact on health. Habits, such as poor diet, can only be defeated by a concerted team effort and our work provide a glimpse of the potential benefits   of this shared approach.

  • Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Medical Technology Assessment, Linköping University.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    System Analysis Group, Link6ping University.
    Pedersen, Knud
    The Department of Urology, Ryhov County Hospital in Jönköping, Sweden.
    Varenhorst, Eberhard
    The Department of Urology, Norrköping County Hospital, Sweden.
    Gray, Darryl
    Sector of Clinical Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA.
    An evaluation of prostate cancer screening using a decision analytic model1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As early prostate cancer is often asymptomatic, the disease is often not diagnosed until it has reached an advanced, incurable stage. However, if diagnosed when it is still confined to the prostate, prostate caner is potentially curable. At present, there are no completed prospective evaluations or other scientific evidence to suggest that prostate cancer mortality is reduced or that quality of life is increased either by curative treatment or by screening programmes. However, the potential effects of a screening programme can be modelled using decision analytic computer software.

    The aim of this project was to develop a model for comparing the expected quality-adjusted life expectancy for a group of men subjected to a programme of screening for prostate cancer to that of a control group with conventional case-finding, given limited empirical data on the effectiveness of both strategies.

    Due to limitations of existing data, the analysis was developed during the early stages of evaluating a prostate cancer screening programme. We wish to illustrate how an analytic tool such as this model can be used in the future.

    The model was functionally separated into two parts. The first part, the observation submodel, covers the first 6 years of the programme and classifies the screened population into different quality of life states, based on observed outcomes. The second part, the simulation submodel, predicts quality adjusted life-years for healthy participants and for prostate cancer patients who receiving curative treatment or expectant management. Data for the model were obtained from a pilot programme on screening for prostate cancer in which a randomly selected population sample has been screened by digital rectal examination in Norrköping Sweden in 1987 and 1990. The outcome evaluated in the model was quality-adjusted life expectancy for individuals in the cohort invited to the screening programme, compared to results for population controls.

    While the preliminary results identify some health benefits associated with screening, more accurate empirical data for a number of key variables could improve the evaluation. One feature of this model is that it combines solid, empirical data from the observation submodel with simulated results. When better empirical data on the actual consequences of different strategies are available, they can easily be analysed by using this model.

  • Johannesson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Center of Technology Transfer, Institute of Technology, Linköping Universitgy, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A computer simulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of cardiovascular disease prevention1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a computer simulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of cardiovascular disease prevention is presented. The computer simulation model was written in Turbo Pascal to be used on an IBM-PC compatible. The model was based on the 8-year logistic multivariate risk equations for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke from the Framingham heart study, but the regression coefficients can easily be changed if local data exists. The main advantages of the model are that it is easy to use, transparent, and flexible. The model was mainly developed for scientific purposes, but should be useful also for educational purposes and clinical decision analysis. The modelling approach should also be useful in many other medical areas.

  • Höbeda, Peet
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Beläggningsmaterials polerings- och nötningsegenskaper1970Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport behandlas försök som utfördes under år 1967. Dessa var av orienterande natur och resultaten redovisades därför icke i avvaktan på vidare undersökningar. Då arbetsuppgifterna förändrats, avses ytterligare, mera omfattande försök icke att utföras med hjälp av den brittiska "Accelerated Polishing Machine" som använts för att efterlikna trafikslitaget.

    De redovisade undersökningarna är försök att utvidga utrustningens användningsområde med hjälp av vissa modifikationer. Erhållna resultat ansågs vara av ett visst intresse, vilket motiverat en sammanställning.

    Rapporten består av två delar. Den första behandlar friktions- och nötningsegenskaperna hos tunna, epoxybundna beläggningar med finkorniga ballastmaterial, som undersökts petrografiskt. Högvärdiga syntetiska bindemedel i kombination med speciella ballastmaterial har på senare år i viss utsträckning börjat användas utomlands för att framställa slitlager med hög friktion, speciellt till kritiska ställen som rondeller och farliga vägkorsningar. De har använts till att förbättra äldre blankslitna beläggningars strävhet. Genom beläggningstypens lätthet och vattentäthet kunde ekonomiska lätta brokonstruktioner erhållas.

    Den andra delrapporten behandlar ytbehandlingsstens poleringsegenskaper och-kompletterar tidigare gjorda försök. Undersökningarna med modifierad utrustning har belyst vissa problem vid laboratorieförsöket och i fråga om korrelationen med beläggningars friktionsegenskaper enligt bromsförsök i full skala.

  • Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Continuous multilinguality with language vectors2017In: Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers, 2017, 644-649 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most existing models for multilingual natural language processing (NLP) treat language as a discrete category, and make predictions for either one language or the other. In contrast, we propose using continuous vector representations of language. We show that these can be learned efficiently with a character-based neural language model, and used to improve inference about language varieties not seen during training. In experiments with 1303 Bible translations into 990 different languages, we empirically explore the capacity of multilingual language models, and also show that the language vectors capture genetic relationships between languages.

  • Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Cross-lingual Learning of Semantic Textual Similarity with Multilingual Word Representations2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping, 2017, 211-215 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studies of tire/road noise generation and measurement: state-of-the-art supplement1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 20 years, studies on the subject of tire/road noise generation have been published by several authors. It is likely that a reader would find the empirical evidence and the resulting conclusions published in them rather inconclusive and muddling. After the International Conference on Tire Noise in 1979 it was summarized that "The disagreement on which generating mechanisms are most important appeared to be almost as great as before". The controversy is still a fact and may sometimes lead to rather "hot" discussions.

    This report has the ambition of trying to bridge the gaps between the differing views and to emphasize on discussing the major results of research regarding the road surface influence on tire/road noise generation appearing in the latest decade. It also includes supplementary data from the author's research where this is appropriate.

  • Forskardagar - vägtransporter: del 2: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1984-01-10--11: beträffande trafiksäkerhet, trafikmedicin, trafikteknik, fordonsteknik, vägars drift och underhåll1984Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta VTI Meddelande utgör del 2 av den slutdokumentation som tagits fram från VTIs forskardagar 1984-01-10--11.

    I del 1 (VTI Meddelande 386) redovisas program, deltagarförteckning samt de inledningsanföranden som hölls vid forskardagarna.

  • Eliasson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rehn, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Health and social care teachers' descriptions of challenges in their teaching at upper secondary school2017In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 7, no 1, 42-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since vocational teachers not only mediate theoretical and practical knowledge, but also ideals concerning the professionals’ personalities and actions, the aim of this study is to analyse if and how these ideals influence the highlighted challenges of teaching. The study is drawing on a social constructionist perspective; the method used involves 17 qualitative interviews. The challenges mentioned were as follows: lack of motivation, language and cultural factors, low status of the occupation and plagiarism. Underlying ideals rooted in the health care sector were that students should become a carer because of an inner desire. Moral and ethical values were other ideals that underpinned themes such as dealing with plagiarism and the problems experienced with non-native Swedes. An underlying fact is also the low traditional status of the nursing assistants, a challenge the teachers try to handle without effective tools. In the order to understand the challenges and handle them, the teachers construct categories of differences. This is visible when the categorisation of students is made based on motivation and ethnicity. The findings highlight the importance of courses

  • Forskardagar - vägtransporter: del 1: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1984-01-10--11: beträffande allmänna frågor om transportpolitik, transportgeografi, trafikplanering och kollektivtrafik, godstransporter och materialadministration1984Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI:s forskardagar var det första försöket att samla forskare och avnämare inom främst vägtransportforskningsområdet. Under två dagar (1984-01-10--11) hölls 64 anföranden av forskare från hela landet kring frågor om transportpolitik, trafiksäkerhet, trafikmedicin, trafikteknik, fordonsteknik, transportgeografi, godstransporter, materialadministration samt vägars drift och underhåll. Totalt besöktes forskardagarna av ca 450 deltagare.

    Detta Meddelande tillsammans med VTI Meddelande 387 utgör dokumentationen från forskardagarna. Att täcka samtliga föredrag har inte varit möjligt. Programmet ger för den intresserade läsaren namn på föredragshållare, vilket ger möjlighet att ta direktkontakt i de fall där någon dokumentation inte finns.

  • Bjersand, Kathrine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Seidal, Tomas
    Department of Pathology, Halmstad Medical Center Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Skírnisdottir, Ingiridur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    The clinical and prognostic correlation of HRNPM and SLC1A5 in pathogenesis and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, e0179363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic effect of the Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein type M (HNRPM) and Solute carrier 1A5 (SLC1A5) in FIGO-stages I-II epithelial ovarian cancer.

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the prognostic effect of HNRPM and SLC1A5, and the association with clinical-pathologic characteristics in 131 patients with FIGO-stages I-II epithelial ovarian cancer. Tissue microarrays were constructed and protein levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    RESULTS: Positive HRNPM status was associated with positive staining for PUMA (P = 0.04), concomitant PUMA and p21 staining (P = 0.005), and VEGF-R2 (P = 0.003). Positive SLC1A5 staining was associated with positive staining of p27 (P = 0.030), PUMA (P = 0.039), concomitant PUMA and p27 staining, and VEGF-R2 (P = 0.039). In non-serous tumors (n = 72), the SLC1A5 positivity was associated with recurrent disease (P = 0.01). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis FIGO-stage (OR = 12.4), tumor grade (OR = 5.1) and SLC1A5 positivity (OR = 0.1) were independent predictive factors for recurrent disease. Disease-free survival (DFS) in women with SLC1A5-positive non-serous tumors was 92% compared with of 66% in patients with SLC1A5-negative non-serous tumors (Log-rank = 15.343; P = 0.008). In Cox analysis with DFS as endpoint, FIGO-stage (HR = 4.5) and SLC1A5 status (HR = 0.3) were prognostic factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: As the proteins HRNPM and SLC1A5 are associated with the cell cycle regulators p21 or p27, the apoptosis regulators PTEN and PUMA, and the VEGF-R2 it is concluded that both proteins have role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In patients with non-serous ovarian cancer SLC1A5 protects from recurrent disease, presumably by means of biological mechanisms that are unrelated to cytotoxic drug sensitivity.

  • Wahlström, Erik
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Techn, Dept Phys, NTNU, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Macia, Ferran
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain..
    Boschker, Jos E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Techn, Dept Elect Syst, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Leibniz Inst Crystal Growth, Max Born Str 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Monsen, Åsmund
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Techn, Dept Phys, NTNU, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Nordblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mathieu, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kent, Andrew D.
    NYU, Dept Phys, 4 Washington Pl, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Tybell, Thomas
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Techn, Dept Elect Syst, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Twinned-domain-induced magnonic modes in epitaxial LSMO/STO films2017In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 19, 063002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of periodic magnetic structures to control the magneto-dynamic properties of materials-magnonics-is a rapidly developing field. In the last decade, a number of studies have. shown that metallic films can be patterned or combined in patterns that give rise to well-defined magnetization modes,. which. are formed due to band folding or band gap effects. To explore and utilize these effects in a wide frequency range, it is necessary to pattern samples at the sub-micrometer scale. However, it is still a major challenge to produce low-loss magnonic structures with periodicities at such length scales. Here, we show that for a prototypical perovskite, La-0.7 Sr0.3MnO3, the twinned structural order can be used to induce a magnetic modulation with a period smaller than 100 nm, demonstrating a bottomup approach for magnonic crystal growth.

  • Hållsten, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language. Södertörns högskola.
    Stöttning av skrivande i ett digitalt diskussionsforum: Kan den digitala lärplattformens kursdesign utvecklas genrepedagogiskt?2017In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 7, no 1, 13-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Gustafson, Kent
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Test av väglagsgivare i VTIs provvägsmaskin1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägverkets VViS (VägVäder informationsSystem) består av mätstationer som är kopplade till en mätcentral. Mätstationerna är utrustade med sensorer för registrering av olika väder och väglagsdata. Prov pågår bl.a. med väglags- och fryspunktsgivare av svenskt och schweiziskt fabrikat. Ett frågetecken är huruvida givama kan motstå dubbdäckens inverkan och i så fall hur länge.

    Vid VTI finns en provvägsmaskin för accelererad provning där slitagepåverkan på en yta av det här slaget kan provas. Maskinen har 6 axlar som kan förses med dubbdäck. Maskinens hjul går på en cirkulär bana med omkretsen 16,5 m. Med en normal beläggning kan man uppnå ett spårdjup av ca 20 mm efter 300 000 varv eller ca 3 veckors körning. Avnötningen motsvarar flera års slitage ute på en väg med relativt stor trafik.

    lnverkan av dubbdäckens nötning har i provvägsmaskinen undersökts avseende en schweizisk givare "Vibrometer". Provningen har skett genom att i banan montera givaren och därefter köra maskinen tills givaren inte fungerade längre. Givarens funktion registrerades samtidigt som avnötningen uppmättes genom noggrann tvärprofilering över densamma. Vid försöket provades också avnötningen på en annan "sensor", eller närmare bestämt en attrapp av en sensor. Denna attrapp bestod av ett lättmetallrör, ca 60 mm i diameter, och fyllt med akrylat. Meningen är att i detta rör montera en fryspunktssensor.

    Bergab AB, Göteborg ansvarade för att givaren "Vibrometer" levererades till VTI, var i funktion samt att data från sensorn registrerades. Under försökets gång registrerades med dataloggers hjälp kontinuerligt givarens utdata, varigenom funktionen kunde följas.

    Försöket pågick i första hand tills fryspunktsgivaren inte fungerade längre, vilket emellertid inträffade relativt snabbt. Försöket fortsatte därefter tills 100 000 varv hade avverkats. Därigenom erhölls ett mekaniskt avnötningstest av de ingående givarna.

    l föreliggande rapport redovisas försökets utförande och resultatet av provet.

  • Paulsson, Johan
    et al.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Syst Biol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    El Karoui, Meriem
    Harvard Univ, Dept Syst Biol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Cell Biol, Sch Biol Sci, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lindell, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    The processive kinetics of gene conversion in bacteria2017In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 104, no 5, 752-760 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene conversion, non-reciprocal transfer from one homologous sequence to another, is a major force in evolutionary dynamics, promoting co-evolution in gene families and maintaining similarities between repeated genes. However, the properties of the transfer - where it initiates, how far it proceeds and how the resulting conversion tracts are affected by mismatch repair - are not well understood. Here, we use the duplicate tuf genes in Salmonella as a quantitatively tractable model system for gene conversion. We selected for conversion in multiple different positions of tuf, and examined the resulting distributions of conversion tracts in mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient strains. A simple stochastic model accounting for the essential steps of conversion showed excellent agreement with the data for all selection points using the same value of the conversion processivity, which is the only kinetic parameter of the model. The analysis suggests that gene conversion effectively initiates uniformly at any position within a tuf gene, and proceeds with an effectively uniform conversion processivity in either direction limited by the bounds of the gene.