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  • Hazelius-Berg, Gunnel
    The Nordic Museum.
    Stickad tröja1941In: Fataburen - Nordiska Museet och Skansens Årsbok, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1941, p. 210-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lagerquist, Marshall
    The Nordic Museum.
    En dörr från den yngre Vasatiden1941In: En dörr från den yngre Vasatiden, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1941, p. 207-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Hazelius-Berg, Gunnel
    The Nordic Museum.
    En riksdrots i gala1941In: Fataburen - Nordiska Museet och Skansens Årsbok, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1941, p. 189-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sundelin, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Test-Driving FinTech Product Development: An Experience Report2018In: Conference Proceedings PROFES 2018, Springer, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present experiences from eight years of developing a financial transaction engine, using what can be described as an integration-test-centric software development process.We discuss the product and the relation between three different categories of its software and how the relative weight of these artifacts has varied over the years.In addition to the presentation, some challenges and future research directions are discussed.

  • Bengtsson, Bengt
    The Nordic Museum.
    Den Möllenborgska verkstaden på Skansen1941In: Fataburen - Nordiska Museet och Skansens Årsbok, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1941, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Forsell, Eskil
    Spotify.
    Hagen, Johannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stefansson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bostadstillägg för pensionärer: ett randomiserat informationsexperiment2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 29-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Många äldre med låga inkomster ansöker inte om bostadstillägg för pensionärer trots att de kan ha rätt till det. En viktig fråga är därför hur man kan få fler berättigade att ansöka. Vi har tillsammans med Pensionsmyndigheten genomfört ett randomiserat informationsexperiment riktat till populationen av potentiellt berättigade pensionärer. Ungefär var tionde pensionär som fick ett brev (behandlingsgruppen) ansökte om bostadstillägg inom fyra månader jämfört med drygt en av hundra som inte fick ett brev (kontrollgruppen). Andelen avslag i behandlingsgruppen var dock något högre.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-10 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Henriksson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structural and functional studies of a novel Botulinum neurotoxin and of MTH12018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray crystallography visualizes the three dimensional molecular structures of proteins at atomic resolution. Seeing the molecular structure of a biomedically interesting protein enables a higher understanding of its function. The process of producing pure protein from genetic material to generate crystals and determine the molecular structure can be a long and challenging process. My thesis involves structural and functional studies of two different proteins, which are both biomedically interesting and important to learn about. X-ray crystallography is the method which has been used to determine the majority of the protein structures that we know of today and is also the method used in the results presented in my thesis. 

    Today there are no cancer therapies defeating all types of cancers and they do not come without side effects. Battling cancer diseases often include long and painful treatments. Finding an anti-cancer drug targeting phenotypes characteristic of cancer cells is a compelling thought. MutT homolog-1 (MTH1) is an enzyme present in all proliferating cells. The enzyme seems to be crucial for cancer cell survival but not for the viability of normal cells. MTH1 cleans out oxidized and thereby damaged nucleotides from the free nucleotide pool and stops them from being used in DNA synthesis. This process is very important in fast proliferating cancer cells. The hypothesis is to inhibit MTH1 and thereby allow a limitless amount of DNA damage in the cancer cells. This action will eventually kill cancer cells while not affecting normal cells. The molecular structure of MTH1 with (PDB ID: 3ZR0) and without a product bound (PDB ID: 3ZR1) was determined and is presented in my thesis. These two structures aided in the synthesis of inhibitors. 

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins known. As little as one gram of pure toxin could potentially kill one million people. Due to its potency BoNT is a potential  bioterrorism threat. The toxin is also a very potent drug used clinically to relieve the symptoms of an array of neuromuscular disorders. Most people know this neurotoxin by one of its commercial names: Botox™. Additionally BoNTs are the cause of botulism. BoNTs are neuro-specific enzymes that target neuromuscular signaling, inducing flaccid paralysis and potentially death. It is of importance to learn more about these toxins to enable the development of new countermeasures, vaccines or more efficient neuroparalytic drugs. BoNTs consist of three domains with different functions, all crucial for intoxication. The toxins are fragile and can easily be destroyed by harsh surroundings if not protected by non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH) proteins. The complex of some BoNT serotypes and their protective NTNH have proven to be pH-dependent. Parts of the intoxication process are not yet clear and their mechanisms are still puzzling researchers. Until recently seven BoNT serotypes were identified. We have now identified and characterized a novel serotype called BoNT/X. The molecular structure of the active domain is presented here (PDB ID: 6F47). The pH-dependent mechanism forming a complex as seen in other serotypes, is confirmed to be present in BoNT/X as well.

  • FitzGerald, L. M.
    et al.
    Canc Council Victoria, Canc Epidemiol & Intelligence Div, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia;Univ Tasmania, Menzies Inst Med Res, Canc Genet & Immunol, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
    Zhao, S.
    NIEHS, Biostat & Computat Biol Branch, Res Triangle Pk, NC 27709 USA.
    Leonardson, A.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Geybels, M. S.
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, GROW Sch Oncol & Dev Biol, Dept Epidemiol, NL-6211 LK Maastricht, Netherlands;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Kolb, S.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Lin, D. W.
    Univ Washington, Sch Med, Dept Urol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Wright, J. L.
    Univ Washington, Sch Med, Dept Urol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Eeles, R.
    Royal Marsden Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, London, England;Royal Marsden Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Sutton SW3 6JJ, Surrey, England;Inst Canc Res, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England.
    Kote-Jarai, Z.
    Inst Canc Res, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England.
    Govindasami, K.
    Inst Canc Res, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England.
    Giles, G. G.
    Univ Melbourne, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Carlton, Vic 3053, Australia;Canc Council Victoria, Canc Epidemiol & Intelligence Div, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia.
    Southey, M. C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Pathol, Genet Epidemiol Lab, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Schleutker, J.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Med Genet, Tuch Microbiol & Genet, Turku 20520, Finland;Univ Turku, Dept Med Biochem & Genet, Inst Biomed, Turku 20014, Finland.
    Tammela, T. L.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, Tampere 33521, Finland;Univ Tampere, Prostate Canc Res Ctr, Sch Med, Tampere 33100, Finland.
    Sipeky, C.
    Univ Turku, Dept Med Biochem & Genet, Inst Biomed, Turku 20014, Finland.
    Penney, K. L.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Charming Div Network Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Stampfer, M. J.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Charming Div Network Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Gronberg, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, F.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Hugosson, J.
    Univ Goteborgs, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Urol, S-40530 Goteborgs, Sweden.
    Karyadi, D. M.
    NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20854 USA.
    Ostrander, E. A.
    NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20854 USA.
    Feng, Z.
    MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Biostat, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Stanford, J. L.
    Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    Germline variants in IL4, MGMT and AKT1 are associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality: An analysis of 12,082 prostate cancer cases2018In: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, ISSN 1365-7852, E-ISSN 1476-5608, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and genetic factors can influence tumour aggressiveness. Several germline variants have been associated with PCa-specific mortality (PCSM), but further replication evidence is needed.

    Methods: Twenty-two previously identified PCSM-associated genetic variants were genotyped in seven PCa cohorts (12,082 patients; 1544 PCa deaths). For each cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of PCSM associated with each variant. Data were then combined using a meta-analysis approach.

    Results Fifteen SNPs were associated with PCSM in at least one of the seven cohorts. In the meta-analysis, after adjustment for clinicopathological factors, variants in the MGMT (rs2308327; HR 0.90; p-value = 3.5 x 10(-2)) and IL4 (rs2070874; HR 1.22; p-value = 1.1 x 10(-3)) genes were confirmed to be associated with risk of PCSM. In analyses limited to men diagnosed with local or regional stage disease, a variant in AKT1, rs2494750, was also confirmed to be associated with PCSM risk (HR 0.81; p-value = 3.6 x 10(-2)).

    Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms the association of three genetic variants with risk of PCSM, providing further evidence that genetic background plays a role in PCa-specific survival. While these variants alone are not sufficient as prognostic biomarkers, these results may provide insights into the biological pathways modulating tumour aggressiveness.

  • Weickert, Martin O.
    et al.
    Univ Hosp Coventry, ENETS Ctr Excellence, ARDEN NET Ctr, Coventry CV2 2DX, W Midlands, England;Warwickshire Natl Hlth Serv Trust, Coventry CV2 2DX, W Midlands, England.
    Kaltsas, Gregory
    Univ Hosp Coventry, ENETS Ctr Excellence, ARDEN NET Ctr, Coventry CV2 2DX, W Midlands, England;Warwickshire Natl Hlth Serv Trust, Coventry CV2 2DX, W Midlands, England.
    Hörsch, Dieter
    Zent Klin Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany.
    Lapuerta, Pablo
    Lexicon Pharmaceut Inc, The Woodlands, TX USA.
    Pavel, Marianne
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany;Charite, Berlin, Germany.
    Valle, Juan W.
    Univ Manchester, Christie Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Caplin, Martyn E.
    Royal Free Hosp, European Neuroendocrine Tumor Soc Ctr Excellence, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, London, England.
    Bergsland, Emily
    Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Kunz, Pamela L.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford, CA USA.
    Anthony, Lowell B.
    Univ Kentucky, Lexington, KY USA.
    Grande, Enrique
    MD Anderson Int Canc Ctr, Madrid, Spain.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Lombard-Bohas, Catherine
    Hosp Civils Lyon, Hop Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France.
    Ramage, John K.
    Kings Coll Hosp London, Kings Hlth Partners European Neuroendocrine Tumor, London, England.
    Kittur, Ashwin
    Lexicon Pharmaceut Inc, The Woodlands, TX USA.
    Yang, Qi M.
    Lexicon Pharmaceut Inc, The Woodlands, TX USA.
    Kulke, Matthew H.
    Dana Farber Canc Inst, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Changes in Weight Associated With Telotristat Ethyl in the Treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome2018In: Clinical Therapeutics, ISSN 0149-2918, E-ISSN 1879-114X, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 952-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In the placebo-controlled Phase III TELE-STAR (Telotristat Etiprate for Somatostatin Analogue Not Adequately Controlled Carcinoid Syndrome) trial, the oral tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor telotristat ethyl significantly reduced bowel movement (BM) frequency during a 12-week, double-blind treatment period in 135 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors with carcinoid syndrome and >= 4 BMs per day. Patients (mean [SD] age, 63.5 [8.9] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 24.9 [4.9] kg/m(2)) received placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, or telotristat ethyl 500 mg 3 times per day (TID) in addition to somatostatin analogue therapy. Weight loss is associated with uncontrolled carcinoid syndrome and may be associated with reduced survival.

    Methods: Assessment of the occurrence of weight change >= 3% at week 12 was prespecified in the statistical analysis plan.

    Findings: In 120 patients with weight data available, weight gain >= 3% was observed in 2 of 39 patients (5.1%) taking placebo [1.1), 7 of 41 (17.1%) taking telotristat ethyl 250 mg TID, and 13 of 40 (32.5%) taking telotristat ethyl 500 mg TID (P = 0.0017) at week 12. Weight loss >= 3% was observed in 5 of 39 patients (12.8%) taking placebo TID, 4 of 41 (9.8%) taking telotristat ethyl 250 mg TID, and 6 of 40 (15.0%) taking telotristat ethyl 500 mg TID (P = 0.77). Biochemical and metabolic parameters of serum albumin and cholesterol significantly increased (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively) in patients gaining weight and decreased in patients who lost weight, suggesting an improvement in overall nutritional status.

  • Jonsson, Stefan (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Om Anna Ådahls Massor2018Artistic output (Unrefereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anna Ådahl 2018 av Stefan Jonsson (ENG) 180415 rev SJ.docPage 1of 5Stefan JonssonOnAnna Ådahl’s CrowdsFew things areasbewitchingas the sight of large crowds in motion. Consider the flock of swallows, tens of thousands of birds in perfect coordination,forminga dancing cloud.Considerthe opening of the Olympic Games, a military paradein China or the crowdmaking its way acrossSergel’s torg in Stockholm during rush hour. Look at the colony of ants, the start of the long distance cross-country ski raceVasaloppet, a herd of cattle or the procession of demonstratorsthat stretches for miles in front of and behind you. Anna Ådahl often takes such perspectives. She entersthe metroand seeks a viewpoint with an overview. Then she resolutely places herself or her stand-in in the flow and creates a dam....

  • Elm, Patrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring threshold concept when teaching Systems Thinking and Soft Systems Methodology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that the threshold concepts of a discipline are the gateways to a deeper understanding of disciplinary knowledge. These are also keys to improving student learning outcomes and progressive learning. Research has been done on systems as a threshold concept for understanding other disciplinary issues, like sustainability. However, we explore the threshold concepts of understanding systems itself, that is, in this case the disciplinary framework of systems thinking and Soft Systems Methodology. The term threshold concept is stated as having emerged from the UK project Enhancing Teaching and Learning Environments in Undergraduate Courses. It is argued to be a means leading to a transformed way of understanding or learning. Five key characteristics of threshold concepts have been identified in previous research. These are troublesome knowledge, transformation, irreversibility, integration, and boundedness. Later on, reconstitution, discourse and liminality were added.

    We have explored threshold concepts for teaching systems thinking and Soft Systems Methodology in a mixed knowledge environment, including students from different disciplines, in a developing country. The students were presented with an issue related to their everyday life as university students and with the aim of applying systems thinking ideas and techniques for the betterment of their university and, in the long run, their society. They were also asked to write a reflection paper related to the learning objectives of the course and on what they have learnt about Soft Systems Methodology (theory) and when applied to the specific case. We report on which pertinent threshold concepts we have identified, both of our own experience as teachers and of the students’ reflection papers.

  • Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    När avgrunden öppnar sig: Review of: Malena Ernman & Svante Thunberg, Scener ur hjärtat (Stockholm: Polaris, 2018)2018In: Dagens Nyheter, no 2018-09-15, article id DN Kultur p. 7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Lindahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danell, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In search of future excellence: The information value of bibliometric indicators in predicting doctoral students' future research performance2018In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators / [ed] Rodrigo Costas, Thomas Franssen, Alfredo Yegros-Yegros, Leiden, 2018, p. 448-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of using bibliometric indicators of scientific performance during doctoral studies to predict who will attain future excellence in a local organizational context. The data consisted of 479 Swedish doctoral students employed at a single Swedish university that completed their studies between 2003 and 2009. We used a probit regression model to estimate the probability for future excellence, operationalized with a citation based indicator. The model included five predictors: publication volume, excellence during doctoral studies, collaboration, age at thesis completion, and gender. Our main results were: (1) an interaction between publication volume and attaining excellence during doctoral studies, indicating that the effect of publication volume on the probability of attaining future excellence is much stronger for the group of excellent doctoral students than for the group of non-excellent students; (2) collaboration and age are significant predictors of future excellence; (3) examining potential gender bias the results were somewhat inconclusive. Male doctoral students had a higher probability of attaining future excellence. However, the effect was not significant (p>0.05). Our main conclusion is that bibliometric indicators has some predictive validity for post-doctoral performance in a local organizational context and that a combination of quantity and quality in doctoral students’ performance generated the highest probabilities of future excellence.

  • Abdalmoaty, Mohamed R.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Linear Prediction Error Methods for Stochastic Nonlinear Models2018In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation problem for stochastic parametric nonlinear dynamical models is recognized to be challenging. The main difficulty is the intractability of the likelihood function and the optimal one-step ahead predictor. In this paper, we present relatively simple prediction error methods based on non-stationary predictors that are linear in the outputs. They can be seen as extensions of the linear identification methods for the case where the hypothesized model is stochastic and nonlinear. The resulting estimators are defined by analytically tractable objective functions in several common cases. It is shown that, under certain identifiability and standard regularity conditions, the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal. We discuss the relationship between the suggested estimators and those based on second-order equivalent models as well as the maximum likelihood method. The paper is concluded with a numerical simulation example as well as a real-data benchmark problem.

  • Josephson, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History of Ideas.
    "Those who cannot rememeber the past...": Utkast till en historielöshetens historia2018In: Arche - tidskrift för psykoanalys, humaniora och arkitektur, ISSN 2000-7817, no 64-65, p. 138-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Wallner, Bengt
    et al.
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Surg, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Bjoer, Ove
    Umea Univ, Div Oncol, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Psychol, N Ryde, NSW, Australia;Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Huddinge, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellström, Per M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Forsberg, Anna M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Huddinge, Sweden;Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    Agreus, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Identifying clinically relevant sliding hiatal hernias: a population-based endoscopy study2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 657-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The clinical relevance of small to moderate sliding hiatal hernias is controversial. The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate which symptoms are associated with sliding hiatal hernias and (2) define the length of a sliding hiatal hernia at which gastrointestinal symptoms occur.Methods: A study population representative of the general Swedish population answered a questionnaire regarding gastrointestinal symptoms and was investigated with an upper endoscopy. The length of any sliding hiatal hernia was measured.Results: Only reflux-related symptoms were associated with length of the hiatal hernia (acid regurgitation OR 1.46, CI 1.19-1.79, heartburn OR 1.27, CI 1.05-1.54), and the association did not become significant until an axial hiatal hernia length of 2cm.Conclusions: Only reflux symptoms could be attributed to sliding hiatal hernias. Hiatal hernias less than 2cm should be considered clinically insignificant.

  • Doerstling, Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hedberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Västerås, Sweden.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Henriksen, Egil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Västerås, Sweden.
    Growth differentiation factor 15 in a community-based sample: age-dependent reference limits and prognostic impact2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the growing body of evidence on growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) reference values for patients with existing cardiovascular disease, limited investigation has been dedicated to characterizing the distribution and prognostic impact of GDF-15 in predominantly healthy populations. Furthermore, current cutoff values for GDF-15 fail to account for the well-documented age-dependence of circulating GDF-15. Methods: From 810 community-dwelling older adults, we selected a group of apparently healthy participants (n = 268). From this sample, circulating GDF-15 was modeled using the generalized additive models for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) to develop age-dependent centile values. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the derived GDF-15 reference values (expressed as centiles) and all-cause mortality. Results: Smoothed centile curves showed increasing GDF-15 with age in the apparently healthy participants. An approximately three-fold difference was observed between the 95th and 5th GDF-15 centiles across ages. In a median 8.0 years of follow-up, 97 all-cause deaths were observed in 806 participants with eligible values. In unadjusted Cox regression analyses, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for all-cause mortality per 25-unit increase in GDF-15 centile was 1.80 (1.48-2.20) and dichotomized at the 95th centile, >= 95th versus <95th, was 3.04 (1.99-4.65). Age-dependent GDF-15 centiles remained a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in all subsequent adjusted models. Conclusions: Age-dependent GDF-15 centile values developed from a population of apparently healthy older adults are independently predictive of all-cause mortality. Therefore, GDF-15 reference values could be a useful tool for risk-stratification in a clinical setting.

  • Karamanidou, Lena
    et al.
    Glasgow Caledonian University.
    Kasparek, Bernd
    Göttingen University.
    Border Management and Migration Control in the European Union2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package (WP2) Border and Migration Controls of the Horizon 2020 Project RESPOND -- Multilevel Governance of Mass Migration in Europe and Beyond. RESPOND explores the multilevel governance of migration in countries of origin, transit and migration, focusing on the Eastern Mediterranean route. WP2 addresses border management and migration control, including European Union (EU) and domestic legal regimes, policy developments since 2011, the implementation of border management and migration control policies by EU member states and third countries, and how refugees and migrants experience and respond to the EU border management regime. The aim of the report is to provide an overview of the current EU border management and migration control regime in order to contextualise further research on domestic regimes and their implementation. It outlines the key components of the European Union framework on border management and migration controls. It also presents an overview of historical developments, an analysis of discursive aspects of border and migration control on the level of Union institutions between 2011 and 2017, as well as a detailed description of control measures in the different layers of the European Union external border. We use the term border management to refer to the EU’s ensemble of legislation, policies, implementation practices, institutions, and actors that are concerned with defining, conceptualising, and policing of the external border of the member states of the European Union. We use the term migration control to capture modes of control that might fall outside the scope of border management, especially as defined by the 2016 European Border and Coast Guard Directive. We elaborate on these definitional issues in Concepts and Definitions section. We then move on to a detailed analysis of these policies and their legal codification and key legislative and policy developments since 2011. We conclude the report with a discussion of the complexities involved in researching this intersection of various legal frameworks, policy fields and implementation challenges in connection to the larger process of Europeanisation.

  • Wide, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Low-glycosylated forms of both FSH and LH play major roles in the natural ovarian stimulation2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The natural ovarian stimulation is mediated by four gonadotrophin glycoforms: FSHtri with three, FSHtetra with four, LHdi with two, and LHtri with three N-glycans. The aim of the study was to determine the serum concentrations of the four glycoforms and their contents of anionic monosaccharides (AMS), i.e. sialic acid (SA) and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SU) residues throughout the menstrual cycle. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 78 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. The serum glycoform molecules were identified by their distributions at electrophoreses. Analyses were also performed after removal of terminal SA. The hormones were measured with time-resolved sandwich fluoroimlooimm u noassays. Results: The concentration profiles of the four glycoforms were markedly different. FSHtri, which had a 3-fold higher biopotency than FSHtetra, had peak levels on cycle day 5 and at midcycle and nadirs on cycle days 9 and 21-23. FSHtetra had a raised level on cycle days 5-12, followed by a decrease. LHdi and LHtri had similar patterns, but the peak/nadir ratio was much more pronounced for LHdi than for LHtri, 18 versus 4. The numbers of SA residues per molecule were at a maximum around midcycle when the corresponding numbers of SU were at a minimum. The SU/SA ratio was at a minimum on cycle day 12. Conclusion: The results indicate that the LHdi and the FSHtri molecules play major roles in the natural ovarian stimulation. The SU/SA ratios per molecule favoured a prolonged circulatory half-life of all glycoforms at the midcycle phase. The observations may lead to more successful inductions of ovulation in anovulatory women.

  • Federico, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Florence.
    Fero, Ginevra CerrinaUniversity of Florence.
    Migration Governance – Collection of Country Reports: Legal and Policy Framework2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present collection of country reports represents the collective work of the following RESPOND national teams: Uppsala Universitet (Swedish report), the Glasgow Caledonian University (Hungarian report), Georg-August Universitat Gottigenstiftung Offentlichen Rechts (German report), University of Cambridge (British report), Svenska Forkningsinstitute i Istanbul (Turkish report), Università di Firenze (Italian report and European Union report), Panepistimio Aigaiou (Greek report), Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschafte (Austrian report), Uniwersytet Warszawski (Polish report), Lebanon Support (Lebanese report), Hammurabi Human Rights Organization (Iraqi report). The activities of this Work Package (WP1) have been coordinated by the University of Florence. We are indebted to all the authors for the competence and enthusiasm with which they fulfilled their tasks and for their collaborative approach.

    Each report underwent a double review process: the review by a national expert appointed by national teams, and the review by the work package leader. We are grateful to all national experts that collaborated enhancing the quality of RESPOND research.

  • Ekstrand Ragnar, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Hultstrand, Jenny Niemeyer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Development of an evidence-based website on Preconception health2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 116-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many women and men lack knowledge about fertility, including timing of the fertile window, age-related decline, and lifestyle factors that may impair fertility. The Internet has become an important source of information, but evidence-based information on fertility and reproduction in Swedish on the Internet is limited. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate an evidence-based fertility awareness website, 'reproduktivlivsplan.se', to increase awareness of fertility and provide guidance for improved preconception health and care among individuals and healthcare providers. Methods: The website's content, design, and layout were evaluated qualitatively among a total of 20 nursing students. An expert group of researchers also provided feedback on the content. Finally, healthcare providers (n = 24) answered a questionnaire covering attitudes and views on the Reproductive Life Plan website as a tool for counselling. Results: The developing process resulted in a mobile-friendly website, 'reproduktivlivsplan.se' (in English: Reproductive Life Plan). The website, including the content and layout, was positively evaluated by most participants and was amended according to suggested improvements. Uppsala University was found to be a trustworthy source. Conclusion: The evidence-based website 'reproduktivlivsplan.se' was well received among users and healthcare providers and may provide guidance for improved preconception health and care if it becomes well known and frequently used.

  • Hirst, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Atto, Naures
    University of Cambridge.
    United Kingdom - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the legal and policy framework of migration governance in the United Kingdom (UK). It shows that migration governance is complicated, reactive, and that the needs of immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers have been eroded at the expense of border control overtime. The constitutional organisation of the state has contributed to these features of immigration policy. Evidence of the complexity, reactivity and restrictiveness of migration governance is found in the UK’s legislative framework, the legal status of foreigners, the reception system and post-refugee crisis reforms. Constitutionally there are three tiers of government in the UK – the central UK Government, the devolved governments of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and local authorities. The rights of asylum seekers are in a more precarious position than in other countries for two reasons. First, there is no specific right to asylum enshrined in the UK’s uncodified constitution, although the Human Rights Act 1998 plays a significant role in protecting asylum seeker rights. Second, the UK has no entrenched provisions in its constitution, meaning that legislation such as the Human Rights Act 1998 could be amended or replaced simply via an act of parliament. Evidence of the complexity, reactivity and restrictive nature of migration governance can be found in the evolution of legislation. With some notable exceptions, the evolution of primary legislation on immigration and asylum has been regressive, with successive restrictions on appeal rights, social benefits and the criminalization of irregular migrants. Legislation has been introduced to circumvent more progressive court decisions and has at times been rushed through without adequate consultation. Legislation has also tended to be reactive, with each wave of immigration throughout the 20th century being met with a legislative backlash.Routes to live in the UK are incredibly complex, with over 16 different types of work visa, which are being amended, removed and replaced all the time. The reception system for asylum seekers provides another example of the complexity and regressive nature of immigration governance, which fails to meet asylum seekers’ needs. Only destitute and unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have access to the reception system. The weekly allowance given to destitute asylum seekers is barely enough to make ends meet, while reception centre accommodation is not sensitive to the needs of vulnerable asylum seekers.Since the outbreak of the Syrian war, the Government has set up the Syrian Vulnerable Person Resettlement Scheme (VPRS), the Vulnerable Children Resettlement Scheme and children relocated under the ‘Dubs Amendment’. Advocates have been particularly critical of the implementation of the ‘Dubs Amendment’. The current immigration landscape notwithstanding, Brexit has generated significant ambiguity as to the future of UK migration governance. However, there are significant components of UK migration governance that will remain unaffected – the UK will still need to meet its obligations under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 (Refugee Convention) and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), while Brexit will not directly affect the UK’s export of border controls to France2 (Gauci, 2017, p.3). The methodological approach of the report has been to rely on secondary research. Where possible, government documents, policies, legislation and publications have been used in order to gather information about the policy and legal environment directly from the source. This has been supplemented by third sector research reports, text books, academic journal articles, media articles and other public commentary.

  • Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Le Thomas, Nicolas
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power optical beam steering by microelectromechanical waveguide gratingsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical beam steering is key for optical communications, laser mapping (LIDAR), and medical imaging. For these applications, integrated photonicsis an enabling technology that can provide miniaturized, lighter, lower cost, and more power efficient systems. However, common integrated photonic devices are too power demanding. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, beam steering by microelectromechanical (MEMS)actuation of a suspended silicon photonic waveguide grating. Our device shows up to 5.6° beamsteering with 20 V actuation and a power consumption below the μW level, i.e. more than 5 orders of magnitude lower power consumption than previous thermo-optic tuning methods. The novel combination of MEMS with integrated photonics presented in this work lays ground for the next generation of power-efficient optical beam steering systems.

  • Çetin, Elif
    et al.
    Swedish Research Institute Istanbul.
    Öztürk, Neva Ö.
    Swedish Research Institute Istanbul.
    Gökalp Aras, N. Ela
    Swedish Research Institute Istanbul.
    Şahin Mencütek, Zeynep
    Swedish Research Institute Istanbul.
    Turkey – Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This country report focuses on developments that took place during the period of 2011-2017 in the field of migration in Turkey. Traditionally a country of emigration, starting from the early 1990s, it has also become an important country of immigration, asylum and transit. Most recently, the increasing pressure of the refugee challenge, particularly given the high number of arrivals from Syria, has put the country once again under international spotlights. This report provides relevant migration statistics that are available as open source data. It briefly reviews the socio-economic, political and cultural characteristic of the country as well as its brief migration history. The report also delves into a detailed analysis of the constitutional, legal and institutional framework of Turkey’s national migration management system, which has gone through significant transition in the last few years. The report points out that due to Turkey’s geographical limitation to the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Convention), and its associated 1967 Protocol; Turkey does not grant refugee status to people fleeing from conflicts and persecution in non-European countries. But it does provide ‘conditional refugee status’ along with ‘refugee’ and ‘subsidiary’ protection. The report reveals a key duality regarding European and non-European asylum seekers to be an important characteristic of Turkey’s asylum system. The first group can obtain ‘refugee’ status’; while the second group can only obtain ‘conditional refugee status’. However, regardless of their nationality, due to the Syrian mass migration, Syrian refugees1 are given another international protection status, which is called ‘temporary protection’. The report concludes by highlighting that part of Turkey’s recent migration policy efforts are tied to encouragement coming from the EU for Turkey to improve conditions regarding access to the asylum process and status determination as well as enhancement of its facilities forasylum-seekers’ protection. Although these developments bring Turkey closer to satisfying the EU demands on migration and asylum policy, Turkey is still expected to abolish the geographical limitation of the 1951 Convention to create a full-fledged asylum system and to solve remaining implementation problems. Ensuring equal and fair access to asylum procedures and facilitating the full access of asylum-seekers to legal aid remain priorities still to be achieved.

  • Karlsohn, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Digital Technology and Rhetoric in Swedish Educational History2018Report (Other academic)
  • Shakra, Mudar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, The Social Sciences of Religion, Psychology of Religions.
    Wirman, Jenni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Uppsala Religion and Society Research Centre.
    Szalanska, Justyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Sweden – Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to present the legal and policy framework of migration in Sweden in a period between 2011 and 2017. In the mentioned time Sweden witnessed a U-turn in migration governance linked with an unprecedented influx of asylum seekers in 2015 when more than 160,000 asylum applications were submitted, and introduction of a new temporary law on asylum in 2016. Since 2016, Sweden has been reshaping its image of a country open to refugees through new restrictive legislative measures which are a response not only to the mass migration, but also to lack of solidarity within the European Union on the matter of refugees acceptance. After the World War II Sweden, due to its level of economic development, the state model (welfare state) and the political system (established democracy), has become a desired destination for migrants and refugees. The constitutional entrenchment of the asylum principle in Sweden is derived from its international and European commitments, namely the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the 1951 Geneva Convention for Refugees and other international human rights instruments. The migration governance system in Sweden consists of several legislative acts dealing with different aspects of migration and asylum, such as asylum judicial procedures, reception, detention, health case, allowance, citizenship and boarders control. Considering migration management structure, the responsibility to enact and coordinate the various judicial, legislative, administrative and financial aspects related to migration and asylum rests in hands of the Ministry of Justice and is performed through its three divisions: Division for Migration Law (L7), Division for Migration and Asylum Policy (EMA) and Division for Management of Migration Affairs (SIM). After the record number of migrants coming to Sweden in 2015 and, as a result, the highest number of application for residence permit in the same year, the government introduced in 2016 restrictions to granting residence permit. Some of the main changes were to take away the possibility of permanent residency permit and tightened the family reunification possibility in order to reach the minimum level in comparison to an international and European level or to what the family reunification process in Sweden used to be before July 2016.

    In the section ‘Legal Status of Foreigners’ the report presents the legal process of granting an asylum in Sweden, including requirements for submitting an application, steps of the procedures of application, registration and reception, identification process of an asylum seeker, rights to information and legal counselling, and other rights given to an asylum seeker such as access to housing, labour market, professional trainings and health care system.

  • Forslund, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Thomas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    First Experimental Results of a Grid Connected Vertical Axis Marine Current Turbine using a Multilevel Power Converter2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental marine current power station hasbeen deployed in Söderfors, Sweden. It comprises a vertical axisturbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronousgenerator rated at 7.5 kW. The generator is controlled by aBack-To-Back 2L-3L Cascaded H-Bridge full scale bi-directionalPower Converter located on shore. This paper presents the firsttest results of the power converter, including grid connection.The startup of the turbine, power extraction and initial activepower injection to the grid, at 50 % of rated power, operatedas predicted by laboratory experiments and simulations. After40 seconds of grid connection the safety system disconnect thegrid converter due to high currents injected to the grid. Theproblem is mostly likely associated with the current controllerin the dq0 frame. Further tuning of the PI regulators and thepotential addition of an anti-windup could mitigate the controlissue.

  • Szuleck, Monika
    et al.
    University of Warsaw.
    Pachocka, Marta
    University of Warsaw.
    Sobczak-Szelc, Karolina
    University of Warsaw.
    Poland - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The history of immigration to and emigration from contemporary Poland as a social phenomenon dates back to 1989. Geopolitical changes in the region brought the ‘opening’ of Poland’s borders, which in turn contributed to the growing scale of mobility both from and to Poland. Moreover, Poland, as a country on the way from the East to the West also became a transit country both for migrants travelling due to economic reasons and also to asylum seekers. This report presents the socio-economic, political, legal, institutional and policy context of migration governance in Poland. By analysing legal acts, official documents and available statistical data, we try to analyse macro level factors determining migration management in Poland. The report is divided into seven parts. In the first part, on the basis of statistical data, we conclude that the population of asylum seekers and refugees in Poland is strictly determined by the region of origin of foreigners seeking protection.In the analysis of the legal, socio-economic, political and cultural context, which is described in parts two and four, we can observe that during the past 25 years the situation has improved. Therefore, Poland became more and more attractive for foreigners, especially in terms of its labour market. In part three, we focus on the constitutional organisation of the state and the constitutional entrenchment of the principle of asylum. We argue that the ongoing constitutional and judiciary crisis mentioned in this part may constitute threats to the rule of law and protection of human rights.Part five of this report describes the details of various statuses, ranging from asylum seekers (with a focus on the reception system), beneficiaries of international protection to regular migrants and undocumented migrants. This part describes the conditions for gaining certain statuses, rights and obligations linked to certain statuses as well as the circumstances in which a given status may be revoked. The last, seventh part, of the report discusses the planned amendments to the law driven by the refugee crisis. We argue that in the case of Poland the changes or reform proposals are rather linked to challenges observed in the context of inflow from the Caucasus than in the context of inflow from the Middle East or Africa, associated with the ‘refugee crisis’.

  • Jagarnathsingh, Amreesha
    Lebanon Support.
    Lebanon – Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to provide a contextual understanding of migration governance in the Lebanese context, as well as its implications for refugees and migrants. Towards this end, this report provides an overview of the legal and policy framework in Lebanon, notably within the context of the Syrian refugee crisis erupting in 2011. Moreover, the report critically evaluates the legal statuses – if any – pertaining to ‘asylum seekers’, ‘refugees’, and ‘migrants’ on the one hand, and the role of state and non-state actors on the other. Lastly, the report highlights a tendency to increased securitization of migration in the country. This report is part of RESPOND, a Horizon 2020 project studying multi-level migration governance from 2011-2017 through cross-country comparative research in source, transit, and destination countries in 11 different countries. It is the first in a series of five in the Lebanese context.

  • Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Int Maternal & Child Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Community agency and empowerment: a need for new perspectives and deepened understanding2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In an increasingly globalized and interlinked world it becomes ever more important to find strategies to prevent, detect, and respond to emerging public health threats. Local communities have a central role in this effort and need to be empowered and strengthened to be able to meet the challenge, and local knowledge and participation are key. This paper outlines a theoretical framework for community intervention dynamics and explores perceptions, priorities, and perspectives of stakeholders involved in community interventions. Methods: A deductive discourse analysis was performed based on the proposed theoretical framework consisting of three levels: intervention design, intervention delivery, and community agency. The setting was a workshop on community preparedness at Uppsala Health Summit 2017. Thirty-eight participants representing government officials, international organizations, and researchers as well as community implementers underwent a value exercise and were asked to prioritize good practices, challenges, and needed solutions to empower communities to meet emerging health threats. Results: The value exercise revealed a large variation in basic values among participants. Discussions mainly focused on intervention delivery and choice of methods. Need and allocation of resources at any level was not an issue. Despite being probed to take a deeper look at contextual factors and the underlying drivers of community engagement, participants scarcely mentioned and problematized community agency mechanisms. Conclusion: There is a need for new perspectives and a deepened reflection among decision-makers and public health implementers engaging at the local level to strengthen communities to face public health threats. A greater understanding and focus on contextual factors is needed which necessitates stronger interdisciplinary approaches.

  • Pannia, Paola
    et al.
    University of Florence.
    Federico, Veronica
    University of Florence.
    D’Amato, Silvia
    University of Florence.
    Italy – Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims at presenting the legal and policy framework of migration governance in Italy, with a specific emphasis on the period between 2011 and 2017, so as to shed light on the series of implemented changes and responses given to the recent migration crisis. In the last few decades, Italy — traditionally an emigration country — has gradually turned also into an immigration country. Since 2014, Italy is receiving the highest number of non-EU citizens looking for economic opportunities and for international protection in its history. The Constitutional Court has represented a fundamental anchor in promoting the legal entitlements of foreigners and in preventing standards downgrading. At domestic level, the national policy on migration has been featured with a structural lack of organic, coherent and effective instruments of planning and management. Concerning the asylum and migration management structure, the responsibility to enact the various procedures does not belong to a single governmental body. Rather, it is scattered among different institutional entities emanating from different tiers of government (from national to local), and it also involves the third sector. After having presented the legal process of granting the international protection in Italy, and the status of asylum applicants and beneficiaries of international protection, the report illustrates the legal status related to the permit to stay for “humanitarian reasons”, a specific feature of the Italian legal system. In addition, the report examines legal status related to the following permits to stay: work, family, study, EU long-term residence permit and unaccompanied minors. Finally, the report illustrates the legal status connected to the condition of the so-called ‘undocumented migrants’, which in Italy are excluded from a number of rights. Section 6 focuses on the time-span 2011–2017, when a number of legislative reforms have been issued with the aim to manage the growing arrival of migrants to Italian shores.

  • Warda, William K.
    et al.
    Hammurabi Human Rights Organization.
    al-Maffraji, Hamed
    Hammurabi Human Rights Organization.
    Toma, Youhanna
    Hammurabi Human Rights Organization.
    Arif, Nahla
    Hammurabi Human Rights Organization.
    Samoeel, Ayad
    Hammurabi Human Rights Organization.
    Iraq – Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to present the situation of refugees and displaced persons in Iraq, and to discuss the governance of this dossier through: understanding the socio-economic context; the constitutional and legal context; and policies and practices of the Iraqi government in terms of protection. Also, the research aims at discussing the evolution of both the legal and organizational framework as they relate to migration and asylum, the role of multiple governmental levels in providing protection to migrants and asylum seekers in Iraq in line with Iraq’s internal and international commitments. This research addresses the problem of rights and protection of refugees and displaced persons in Iraq from the perspective of legislation, mechanisms, and international obligations, especially since Iraq does not have an internationally recognized legal and procedural system for the protection of refugees and displaced people, and because the country is a source for migrants and asylum seekers.

  • Polanska, Dominika V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Richard, Åse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala Univ, Inst Bostads & Urbanforskning IBF, Box 514, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bortträngning pågår: Renovering som kulturellt trauma2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 415-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on interviews with tenants in an area facing eviction following forced renovation, this study presents an analysis of the reactions and forms of resistance that arise among residents in the early phase of a renovation process. The concepts of cultural trauma, resistance and action repertoires are used in the analysis to understand the processes that residents in renovation areas have to face and how their collective self-image and strategies for action change during these. We argue that the exceptionally high trust in Sweden, based on the Swedish welfare state and housing policy, results in traumatic experiences among tenants when facing forced renovation. In this study, we respond to questions about how traumatic experiences are expressed, what causes are identified by the tenants, and what forms of resistance emerge among tenants who face costly renovations. We hereby demonstrate how the experienced cultural trauma can be transformed into individual and collective resistance actions.

  • Mark, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Palmér, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Samtalskultur vid provbedömning: interaktion och kontext i bedömningssamtal2017In: Tolfte nationella konferensen i svenska med didaktisk inriktning : Textkulturer / [ed] Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Christina Olin Scheller, Marie Tanner, Michael Tengberg, Karlstad, 2017, Vol. 12, p. 323-343Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enighet och oenighet – lärares samtal om bedömning av muntlighet

    I gymnasieskolans kurser Svenska 1 och Svenska som andraspråk 1 innebär provet i muntlig framställning att eleven ska planera och hålla ett muntligt anförande inför en grupp. Vid bedömningen arbetar läraren med en bedömningsmatris, där de förväntningar som finns på elevernas anföranden presenteras utifrån ett antal givna normer. Ett antagande är att bedömningsmatrisen, med tillhörande kommentarer och bedömda elevprestationer, ska bidra till att en tolkningsgemenskap (Berge 2005:103 ff.) utvecklas bland Sveriges lärare om vad som utgör kvalitet i elevers muntlighet. Att en sådan gemenskap bör innehålla visst motstånd mot kollegers yttranden, och att motståndet kan leda till ny insikt, visar bland andra Matre & Solheim (2015:241) i en artikel om lärarsamtal om elevers skrivna texter.

    En pågående undersökning om bedömningen av kursprovet omfattar 57 elevers anföranden på 6 gymnasieskolor. Anförandena har samtliga filmats och bedömts av tre oberoende bedömare. Efter den individuella bedömningen har bedömarna samlats för ett samtal, då bedömningarna jämförts och diskuterats. Samtalen är ljudinspelade och utgör material i den delstudie som vi här presenterar.

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur de tre bedömarna i samtalen förhåller sig till de tolkningar av bedömningsmatrisens normer som presenteras av kollegerna i samtalen. Vilka delar av bedömningen orsakar oenighet i samtalen? I vilken mån och hur markerar de bedömande lärarna enighet respektive oenighet med kollegerna om hur normerna ska uppfattas och tillämpas? Med studien vill vi bidra med kunskap om hur givna normer om kvalitet i muntlig framställning kan uppfattas, användas och utmanas i lärares bedömningssamtal.

    Studiens metod är en form av samtalsanalys utifrån Linells (1998) begrepp topical episodes, vilka beskrivs som ”dynamic events, housing both action and topics” (s. 183). Resultatet visar bland annat vilka bedömningsfrågor som leder till topikala episoder där deltagarna visar oenighet med kollegerna. Vidare beskrivs hur deltagarna i turtagningen visar enighet och oenighet med varandra.

     

    Litteratur

     

    Berge, Kjell Lars, 2005: Studie 3. Skriveprøvenes pålitelighet. I: Ungdomers skrivekompetanse, Bind 1, Norsksensuren som kvalitetsutvurdering, red. av Kjell Lars Berge, Lars Siegfred Evensen, Frøydis Hertzberg, Wenche Vagle. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. S. 101–113.

    Linell, Per, 1998: Approaching Dialogue. Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Matre, Synnøve & Solheim, Randi, 2015: Laerarsamtalar om elevtekstar – mot eit felles fagspråk om skriving og vurdering. I: Alle tiders norskdidaktiker. Festskrift til Frøydis Hertzberg på 70-årsdagen, red. av Rita Hvistendahl & Astrid Roe. Oslo: Novus forlag. S. 219–243.

  • Palmér, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Mark, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Givna normer och egna: lärares matrisanvändning i bedömningssamtal om ett nationellt prov i muntlig framställning2017In: Rapport från Aslas symposium Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016 : Språk och norm / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala & Maria Westman, Uppsala, 2017, p. 87-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Givna normer och egna – lärares samtal vid bedömning av ett nationellt prov i muntlig framställning

    I gymnasieskolans kurser Svenska 1 och Svenska som andraspråk 1 innebär provet i muntlig framställning att eleven ska planera och hålla ett muntligt anförande inför en grupp. Inför bedömningen arbetar läraren med en bedömningsmatris, där det som i vår studie ses som provets givna normer är sammanfattade. Ett antagande är att bedömningsmatrisen med tillhörande kommentarer och bedömda elevprestationer ska bidra till att en tolkningsgemenskap (Berge 2005:103 ff) ska utvecklas bland Sveriges lärare om vad som utgör kvalitet i elevprestationer. Att oenighet inom en tolkningsgemenskap kan vara både fruktbar och utvecklande hävdar bland andra Matre & Solheim (2015:224) i en artikel om lärarsamtal om elevers skrivna texter.

    En pågående undersökning om bedömningen av detta prov omfattar 65 elevers anföranden på 6 gymnasieskolor. Anförandena är filmade och samtliga har bedömts av tre oberoende bedömare. Efter den individuella bedömningen har bedömarna samlats för ett samtal, då bedömningarna jämförs och diskuteras. Samtalen är ljudinspelade och utgör material i den delstudie som vi här presenterar.

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur de tre bedömarna i samtalen förhåller sig till provets givna normer i bedömningsmatrisen. I vilken mån verkar de eniga om hur normerna ska uppfattas och tillämpas, och i vilken mån är de oeniga om detta? Utmanas provets normer genom att bedömarna ger uttryck för egna normer om kvalitet i och bedömning av muntlig framställning? Med studien vill vi bidra med kunskap om hur givna normer om kvalitet i muntlig framställning kan uppfattas, användas och utmanas av lärare i skolan.

     

    Litteratur

     

    Berge, Kjell Lars, 2005: Studie 3. Skriveprøvenes pålitelighet. I: Ungdomers skrivekompetanse, Bind 1, Norsksensuren som kvalitetsutvurdering, red. av Kjell Lars Berge, Lars Siegfred Evensen, Frøydis Hertzberg, Wenche Vagle. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. S. 101–113.

    Matre, Synnøve & Solheim, Randi, 2015: Laerarsamtalar om elevtekstar – mot eit felles fagspråk om skrivingo g vurdering. I: Alle tiders norskdidaktiker. Festskrift til Frøydis Hertzberg på 70-årsdagen, red. av Rita Hvistendahl & Astrid Roe. Oslo: Novus forlag. S. 219–243.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 09:15 B42, Uppsala
    Albrecht, Lisa M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Antibiotic Resistance: Selection in the Presence of Metals and Antimicrobials2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The external environment is complex: Antibiotics, metals and antimicrobials do not exist in isolation but in mixtures. Human activities such as animal husbandry, fertilization of agricultural fields and human medicine release high amounts these compounds into the environment. The work in this thesis contributes to our understanding of how the selection of bacterial antibiotic resistance can be facilitated by the pollution by metals and antimicrobials. We show that low levels of antibiotics, metals and combinations thereof can lead to the selection of chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes as well as a multidrug resistance plasmid. The underlying genetic and cellular mechanisms of selection identified relate to mutational changes in a plasmid-encoded metal resistance operon, and metal-associated increases in cellular membrane permeability. We further show that exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds can result in cross-resistance to antibiotics following genetic changes in genes related to efflux, membrane synthesis and transcription/translation. Taken together, the work in this thesis suggests that the stewardship of antibiotics should include prudent use of metals and antimicrobials. 

  • Gyollai, Daniel
    Glasgow Caledonian University.
    Hungary - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, our objective is to provide a snapshot of the current situation of the governance and management of migration in Hungary, the regulatory landscape, citing and reflecting on developments and events occurred between 2011 and 2018. Section 1) gives a statistical overview of international migration to Hungary. The data displayed shows the main patterns of asylum seeker flows, their recognition rates and the scale of people being expelled from the territory. Section 2) outlines the political, cultural and socio-economic context in which migration management enfolds. It briefly introduces the linguistic and religious cleavages and the political and institutional arrangements of the state. Without engaging in a thorough analysis, we will try to pin down those critical socio-economic and political factors that are accountable for the current escalation of tensions. In doing so, we move on to Section 3) that gives an insight on how the constitutional organization of the state has been altered and restructured over the past years, thus establishing an ideological, legal and institutional base for the transformation of the migration and asylum framework. Section 4) accounts for the legislative and institutional framework of immigration and asylum by introducing the major Acts that govern the field, the authorities that are responsible for the implementation of the policy, and the Government’s migration strategy. Since the recent developments fundamentally changed the scope of the framework, now representing its basic tenets, instead of discussing the amendments in a separate section, the refugee crisis driven reforms will be embedded here. In chronological order we will address all major amendments since 2015 that affected the legislative framework. Section 5) explains the legal status of foreigners, including asylum applicants, beneficiaries of international protection, the main categories of third country nationals legally residing in the country in terms of the type of residence permit they hold, irregular migrants, and unaccompanied minors. In describing the situation of asylum seekers, we will outline the first main stages of the application procedure. Finally, in Section 6) we will analyse the national framework compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights based on the Court’s case law in relation to migration and asylum.

  • Sinha, Maitrayee Sardar
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ansell-Schultz, Anna
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Civitelli, Livia
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hildesjo, Camilla
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Max
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. BioArctic AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Pathol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Alzheimer's disease pathology propagation by exosomes containing toxic amyloid-beta oligomers2018In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 136, no 1, p. 41-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gradual deterioration of cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease is paralleled by a hierarchical progression of amyloid-beta and tau brain pathology. Recent findings indicate that toxic oligomers of amyloid-beta may cause propagation of pathology in a prion-like manner, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that small extracellular vesicles, exosomes, from Alzheimer patients' brains contain increased levels of amyloid-beta oligomers and can act as vehicles for the neuron-to-neuron transfer of such toxic species in recipient neurons in culture. Moreover, blocking the formation, secretion or uptake of exosomes was found to reduce both the spread of oligomers and the related toxicity. Taken together, our results imply that exosomes are centrally involved in Alzheimer's disease and that they could serve as targets for development of new diagnostic and therapeutic principles.

  • Petracou, Electra
    et al.
    University of the Aegean.
    Leivaditi, Nadina
    University of the Aegean.
    Maris, Giorgos
    University of the Aegean.
    Margariti, Maria
    University of the Aegean.
    Tsitsaraki, Paraskevi
    University of the Aegean.
    Ilias, Angelos
    University of the Aegean.
    Greece - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report intends to present the current situation regarding migration and asylum policy in Greece since 2015. One of the main conclusions is that Greece continues to be a country of

    main entry in the EU having at the same time a permanent refugee population.

    More precisely, report contains a presentation of the most up to date data concerning (a)

    arrivals of non EU citizens at the land and sea Greek borders mainly for the period 2011-2017,

    (b) asylum applications and decisions by country of origin, sex and age groups, (c) reception

    and accommodation centres (d) numbers of rejection and return to Turkey and (e) the latest

    numbers of migrants in Greece. The sources of data are mainly from governmental authorities

    such as the Asylum Service and international organizations and national nongovernmental

    organizations such as the UNHCR, GCR and most of them are open and available on the

    internet.It contains a brief history of migration and border policies in Greece particularly since 1990s, highlights the main dimensions of socioeconomic situation particularly during the recession and underlines the most important features of political situation in Greece since the beginning of the economic crisis. It presents the most important laws and presidential decrees concerning migration and asylum and describes the prevailing principles and goals of the legal framework and migration management. This report mentions different statuses and their rights and duties, procedures of reception, protection and different forms of granting protection. It presents the structure of the reception system and the responsible national authorities, NGOs and international organizations. It points out detention policies in pre-removal centres concerning non-EU nationals and asylum seekers. It includes a presentation of the integration measures for women and vulnerable groups.

  • Ryman, Lennart
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Onomastics, Uppsala. Institutet för språk och folkminnen.
    Kristna personnamnselement?1996In: Från götarna till Noreens kor: hyllningsskrift till Lennart Elmevik på 60-årsdagen 2 februari 1996 / [ed] Eva Brylla, Svante Strandberg och Mats Wahlberg, Uppsala: Ortnamnsarkivet i Uppsala , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Christian personal name elements?

    By Lennart Ryman

    The personal name elements Böt- and Likn-, -likn have been interpreted as 'penitence' and `mercy' respectively. It has been claimed that they were introduced by Christians, in order to form names appropriate to the new religion. According to this theory, Bot- was introduced in seventh-century England, whence it spread to Scandinavia and the High German area; likn, on the other hand, seems to have been exclusively Gotlandic and Swedish. The main argument for the theory is that the elements in question are not found in pre-Christian sources. The existence of the element Krist- shows that Christian elements could be incorporated in the old system of dithematic names. There is, however, some evidence that the existence of Bot- in continental Germanic sources precedes the introduction of Christianity, and it seems likely that both Bot- and likn are of pre-Christian origin on Gotland. The original meaning of the elements can in my opinion, judging by the Scandinavian evidence, probably be roughly rendered as lelp, improvement' , a meaning to which there are numerous parallels among Scandinavian personal name elements. However, it is quite possible that the elements later came to be associated, to a greater or lesser extent, with the Christian concepts referred to.

  • Jonsson, Karin
    et al.
    Andersson, Roger
    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hanhineva, Kati
    Katina, Kati
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Langton, Maud
    Nordlund, Emilia
    Lærke, Helle Nygaard
    Olsen, Anja
    Poutanen, Kajsa
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Landberg, Rikard
    Rye and health - Where do we stand and where do we go?2018In: Trends in Food Science & Technology, ISSN 0924-2244, E-ISSN 1879-3053, Vol. 79, p. 78-87Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High whole grain intake has consistently been associated with lowered risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Among cereals, rye has highest content of dietary fiber, together with a wide variety of bioactive compounds. There is accumulating evidence from intervention studies of physiological effects of rye foods with potential health benefits.

    Scope and approach: This review summarizes the state of the art of rye and health and identifies future directions for research and innovation, based partly on findings presented at the international conference "The Power of Rye", angstrom land, Finland, 7-8 June 2017.

    Key findings and conclusions: Rye foods have well-established beneficial effects on insulin metabolism compared with wheat bread under isocaloric conditions and at standardized amounts of available carbohydrates, which may have positive implications for diabetes prevention. Recent findings suggest that alterations in blood glucose flux partly explain these effects. Moreover, several studies have shown beneficial effects of rye-based foods on satiety, which is one plausible mechanism behind recently demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management. Emerging results indicate beneficial effects of rye intake on inflammation and blood lipids. More research is needed to uncover underlying mechanisms for other demonstrated effects and the long-term implications for health. A challenge with rye-based foods is making them palatable and widely acceptable to consumers. Development of innovative and tasty rye products and targeted communication strategies is crucial in increasing awareness and consumption of rye foods. Novel results in this regard are presented in this review.

  • Yadav, Akhilesh K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bacterial Strategies to Preserve Cell Wall Integrity Against Environmental Threats2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 2064Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cells are surrounded by an exoskeleton-like structure, the cell wall, composed primarily of the peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus. This structure is made up of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides generating a covalent mesh that shapes bacteria and prevents their lysis due to their high internal osmotic pressure. Even though the PG is virtually universal in bacteria, there is a notable degree of diversity in its chemical structure. Modifications in both the sugars and peptides are known to be instrumental for bacteria to cope with diverse environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize and discuss the cell wall strategies to withstand biotic and abiotic environmental insults such as the effect of antibiotics targeting cell wall enzymes, predatory PG hydrolytic proteins, and PG signaling systems. Finally we will discuss the opportunities that species-specific PG variability might open to develop antimicrobial therapies.

  • John, Thomas Wiswa
    et al.
    Mkoka, Dickson Ally
    Frumence, Gasto
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    An account for barriers and strategies in fulfilling women's right to quality maternal health care: a qualitative study from rural Tanzania2018In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tanzania has ratified and abides to legal treaties indicating the obligation of the state to provide essential maternal health care as a basic human right. Nevertheless, the quality of maternal health care is disproportionately low. The current study sets to understand maternal health services' delivery from the perspective of rural health workers', and to understand barriers for and better strategies for realization of the right to quality maternal health care. Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted, involving 11 health workers mainly; medical attendants, enrolled nurses and Assistant Medical Officers from primary health facilities in rural Tanzania. Structured observation complemented data from interviews. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis guided by the conceptual framework of the right to health. Results: Three themes emerged that reflected health workers' opinion towards the quality of health care services; "It's hard to respect women's preferences", "Striving to fulfill women's needs with limited resources", and "Trying to facilitate women's access to services at the face of transport and cost barriers". Conclusion: Health system has left health workers as frustrated right holders, as well as dis-empowered duty bearers. This was due to the unavailability of adequate material and human resources, lack of motivation and lack of supervision, which are essential for provision of quality maternal health care services. Pregnant women, users of health services, appeared to be also left as frustrated right holders, who incurred out-of-pocket costs to pay for services, which were meant to be provided free.

  • Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Bragazza, Luca
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Galanina, Olga
    Galka, Mariusz
    Ganeva, Anna
    Gillikin, David P.
    Goia, Irina
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Hájek, Michal
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Harris, Lorna I.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Jiroušek, Martin
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Lapshina, Elena
    Limpens, Juul
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Noskova, Maria
    Payne, Richard J.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Robinson, Sean
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Rochefort, Line
    Singer, David
    Stenøien, Hans K.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Vellak, Kai
    Verheyden, Anouk
    MichaelWaddington, James
    Rice, Steven K.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • Chemin, J. Eduardo
    et al.
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Hess, Sabine
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Nagel, Alexander K.
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Kasparek, Bernd
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Hänsel, Valeria
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Jakubowski, Matthias
    Georg-August Universität Göttingen.
    Germany - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims at mapping both the history of migration in Germany since 1945 and giving an overview of current asylum law, application procedures and overall legal status of Foreigners in Germany as well as the political organization and the constitutional entrenchment of the principle of asylum and immigration law. It depicts the reception of guest workers, the aftermath of the reunification and the New Act on Migration. The report gives a quantitative overview over migration since 2011 until 2017 and presents the different application procedures as well as the institutional organisation of asylum. 

  • Bälter, Olle
    et al.
    Zimmaro, Dawn
    Thille, Candace
    Estimating the minimum number of opportunities needed for all students to achieve predicted mastery2018In: Smart Learning Environments, E-ISSN 2196-7091, Vol. 5, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted a study on how many opportunities are necessary, on average, for learners to achieve mastery of a skill, also called a knowledge component (KC), as defined in the Open Learning Initiative (OLI) digital courseware. The study used datasets from 74 different course instances in four topic areas comprising 3813 students and 1.2 million transactions. The analysis supports our claim that the number of opportunities to reach mastery gives us new information on both students and the development of course components. Among the conclusions are a minimum of seven opportunities are necessary for each knowledge component, more if the prior knowledge among students are uneven within a course. The number of KCs in a course increases the number of opportunities needed. The number of opportunities to reach mastery can be used to identify KCs that are outliers that may be in need of better explanations or further instruction.

  • Zulu, Joseph M.
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard
    Blystad, Astrid
    Mulubwa, Chama
    Makasa, Mpundu C.
    Michelo, Charles
    Musonda, Patrick
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Community based interventions for strengthening adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights: how can they be integrated and sustained? A realist evaluation protocol from Zambia2018In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 15, article id 145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research that explores how community-based interventions for strengthening adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) can be integrated and sustained in community health systems, is, to the best of our knowledge, very scarce, if not absent. It is important to document mechanisms that shape integration process in order to improve health systems' responsiveness towards adolescents' SRHR. This realist evaluation protocol will contribute to this knowledge in Zambia where there is increased attention towards promoting maternal, neonatal and child health as a means of addressing the current high early pregnancy and marriage rates. The protocol will ascertain: why, how, and under what conditions the integration of SRHR interventions into Zambian community health systems will optimise (or not) acceptability and adoption of SRHR services. This study is embedded within a randomized controlled trial - "Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls (RISE) "-which aims to reduce adolescent girl pregnancies and marriages through a package of interventions including economic support to families, payment of school fees to keep girls in school, pocket money for girls, as well as youth club and community meetings on reproductive health.

    Methods: This is a multiple-case study design. Data will be collected from schools, health facilities and communities through individual and group interviews, photovoice, documentary review, and observations. The study process will involve 1) developing an initial causal theory that proposes an explanation of how the integration of a community-based intervention that aimed to integrate adolescent SRHR into the community health system may lead to adolescent-friendly services; 2) refining the causal theory through case studies; 3) identifying contextual conditions and mechanisms that shape the integration process; and 4) finally proposing a refined causal theory and set of recommendations to guide policy makers, steer further research, and inform teaching programmes.

    Discussion: The study will document relevant values as well as less formal and horizontal mechanisms which shape the integration process of SRHR interventions at community level. Knowledge on mechanisms is essential for guiding development of strategies for effectively facilitating the integration process, scaling up processes and sustainability of interventions aimed at reducing SRH problems and health inequalities among adolescents.

  • Nilsson Lindström, Petra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bringsén, Åsa
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Co-worker dialogue: a tool for health, personal development, and an empowering development culture in the workplace2018In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores managers' perspective on how co-worker dialogue [CWD] can foster co-worker health and personal development, and contribute to an empowering development culture in the workplace. The interview study was performed at a hospital in Sweden. Seventeen hospital managers participated. The managers, both men and women, worked in different areas, and a majority had 30-40 co-workers. To uncover underlying pattern phenomena in the interview data, a six-step inductive qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. The findings present three themes, each highlighting different prerequisites for CWD to function as a resource for the co-workers and the workplace: (1) Utility; (2) Content, and (3) Implementation. The study provides suggestions for and problems of practical implications from the findings. To make the findings useful in other organizations, practical implications are presented and discussed in the light of workplace health promotion [WHP]. The CWD is not focusing on performance the way traditional PA does. The CWD is therefore an important complement to PA in annual co-worker meetings, to also highlight the co-worker perspective. If managers realize the value of working with both PA and CWD, opportunities for health, personal development, and an empowering development culture are created.

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit
    et al.
    McDonagh, Birgitte H.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    Raghunathan, Karthik
    Sandvig, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. 3 Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Sandvig, Ioanna
    Andreassen, Jens-Petter
    Glomm, Wilhelm R.
    Growing gold nanostructures for shape-selective cellular uptake2018In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 13, article id 254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With development in the synthesis of shape- and size-dependent gold (Au) nanostructures (NSs) and their applications in nanomedicine, one of the biggest challenges is to understand the interaction of these shapes with cancer cells. Herein, we study the interaction of Au NSs of five different shapes with glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells. Three different shapes (nanorods, tetrahexahedra, and bipyramids), possessing tunable optical properties, have been synthesized by a single-step seed-mediated growth approach employing binary surfactant mixtures of CTAB and a secondary surfactant By the use of two-step seed-mediated approach, we obtained new NSs, named nanomakura (Makura is a Japanese word used for pillow) which is reported for the first time here. Spherical Au nanoparticles were prepared by the Turkevich method. To study NS-cell interactions, we functionalized the NSs using thiolated PEG followed by 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid. The influence of shape and concentration of NSs on the cytotoxicity were assessed with a LIVE/DEAD assay in glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells. Furthermore, the time-dependent uptake of nanomakura was studied with TEM. Our results indicate that unlike the other shapes studied here, the nanomakura were taken up both via receptor-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Thus, from our library of different NSs with similar surface functionality, the shape is found to be an important parameter for cellular uptake.

  • Josipovic, Ivan
    et al.
    Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Reeger, Ursula
    Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences.
    Austria - Country Report: Legal and Policy Framework of Migration Governance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims at both outlining the history of migration to Austria, the socio-economic, political and cultural context surrounding migration and mapping the institutional frameworks. In the first section, a statistical overview will be presented, followed by sections on the above mentioned contexts, constitutional organisation and principles regarding migration. Chapter four will present the relevant legislative and institutional framework in the fields of migration and asylum. Chapter five is mapping the legal status of foreigners, followed by the last chapter on reform caused by the “refugee crisis”.

    Austria has a long tradition of being a destination country for migrants and refugees, a country that for decades promoted labour migration and admitted refugees during the communist era of Eastern Europe as well as during the time of the Balkan Wars. The notion of the latest advent of mass migration to Austria relates to the increasing number of asylum applications since 2013 and in particular in 2015. In that year alone, application numbers reached a six decade high of 88,340 persons, while thousands of others crossed federal territory for their onward journey. Besides the quantity and frequency of immigration, this latest phase also displays novelties concerning the composition of the newcomers in terms of countries of origin. Arguably, the three largest groups of asylum applicants in 2015, namely Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis, are relatively new to Austria, with their numbers increasing by 1,265 per cent, 430 per cent, and 232 per cent respectively between 2011 and 2017. The federal overall policy goal however, aimed at reducing the number of newcomers in the long run. In 2016, the entitlement to asylum was accordingly limited initially to three years and family reunification was restrained through application time limits. The federal government also introduced a unilateral annual quota for asylum applications that allows for acting upon an emergency decree and suspending further processing of applications upon exhaustion. Apart from state internal conflicts, border management and the distribution of refugees from hotspots became highly contested issues in Austria’s relationship to other EU member states. While the principle of asylum is deeply embedded in the Austrian constitution and European Union law, the governance of immigration and asylum has in recent years been repeatedly impeded by the Constitutional Court (VfGH), which intervened in both federal and provincial laws that aimed at restricting refugee’s rights and entitlements. It was not only the state and its institutions that affected the life of immigrants and refugees, the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ has doubtlessly also had an impact on the Austrian political landscape. It was a top priority topic on the political agenda paired with strong public opinions. Accordingly, in the wake of the crisis, the federal government underwent a reconfiguration with party internal exchanges of prominent figures such as the interior minister and the chancellor in early 2016. During the national elections of 2017, asylum and migration remained highly salient topics. The major winning parties were the right-wing FPÖ, which had had a strong ownership of the issue for decades, and the conservative ÖVP, whose lead candidate had previously been foreign minister and had particularly pushed an agenda for order and security.