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  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Quæstionis philosophicæ, num sexus femineus a cultu literarum sit arcendus? Pars posterior. Quam, adprobante ampliss. facult. philosoph. in alma Vpsaliensi academia, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman, ... pro gradu publicæ bonorum censuræ modeste submittit s:æ r:æ m:tis alumnus Ericus Joh. Edberg, Westro-Gothus. In audit. Gustav. maj. ad diem 10 Februar. anni MDCCXLIII. Horis, ante meridiem, solitis.1743Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Quæstionis philosophicæ, num sexus femineus a cultu literarum sit arcendus? Pars prior. Quam, adprobante ampliss. facult. philosoph. in alma Upsaliensi academia, sub præsidio, ... Petri Ekerman, ... publicæ bonorum censuræ modeste submittit s:æ r:æ m:tis alumnus Ericus Joh. Edberg, Westro-Gothus. In auditor. Gustav. majori d. 18 Junii anno MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem consvetis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Disputatio academica, de svada Periclea, quam, ex suffrag. ampliss. senat. philosoph. in regia & illustri academ. Upsaliensi, moderante ... Petro Ekerman ... in auditor. Gustav. majori d. 15 Junii anno MDCCXLI. Eruditis examinandam modeste offert Johannes Otto Hagström, Jemtius. Horis ante meridiem consvetis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio gradualis, numina veterum tutelaria leviter adumbratura, cujus partem posteriorem, suffragante ampliss. facult. philosoph. in illustri regia acad. Upsaliensi, præside ... Petro Ekerman ... publice examinandam modeste sistit Johannes Magn. Broling, Nericius. In audit. Carol. majori d. [2] Decemb. ann. MDCCXLV. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1745Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, numina veterum tutelaria leviter adumbratura, cujus partem priorem, suffragante ampliss. facult. philosoph. in illustri regia acad. Upsaliensi, præside ... Petro Ekerman, ... publice examinandam modeste sistit Johannes Magn. Broling, Nericius. In audit. Gustav. major. d. 13. Junii, anni MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio principium et fontem oraculorum sistens, quam adprobante ampliss. facult. philosoph. in alma Upsaliensi academia, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman, ... publicæ bonorum censuræ modeste submittit Petrus Ekelund, Olavi fil. Wermelandus. In audit. Gustav. major. d. 6. Junii, anno MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio gradualis, de lingua eruditorum vernacula, quam consensu ampliss. facult. philosoph. in regia academia Upsaliensi, præside ... Petro Ekerman, ... publico bonorum examini modeste submittit, Jacobus Malmsten, Ostrobotniensis. In audit. Gustav. major. d. XXVII Maji anni MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem consvetis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio historico literaria, de controversia Perraltina, quam cum consensu ampliss. facult. philos. in regia academia Upsaliensi, et moderante ... Petro Ekerman, ... publico bonorum examini modeste submittit, Daniel Grevillius, Linkopia Ostro-Gothus. In audit. Gustav. major. d. XXIII. Maji anni MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de necessitate eloquentiæ in cathedra ecclesiastica, cujus partem posteriorem, permittente ampliss. facult. philos. in illustri ad Salam athenæo, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman ... pro gradu, candido bonorum examini modeste committit stipendiarius regius Sveno S. Noring, Westro-Gothus. In audit. Gust. majori ad diem 18. Decemb. anni MDCCXLII. Horis, ante meridiem, consuetis.1742Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de necessitate eloquentiæ in cathedra ecclesiastica, cujus partem priorem, permittente ampliss. facult. philos. in illustri ad Salam athenæo, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman ... candido bonorum examini modeste committit Sveno S. Noring, Westro-Gothus. In audit. Gustav. major. ad diem [XX] Maji, anni MDCCXLI. Horis, ante meridiem, consuetis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Pfeffer, Paul E.
    et al.
    Ho, Tzer R.
    Mann, Elizabeth H.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    Sehlstedt, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Dove, Rosamund E.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mudway, Ian S.
    Hawrylowicz, Catherine M.
    Urban particulate matter stimulation of human dendritic cells enhances priming of naive CD8 T lymphocytes2018In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 502-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown associations between elevated concentrations of urban particulate matter (UPM) air pollution and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are both associated with viral respiratory infections. The effects of UPM on dendritic cell (DC) -stimulated CD4 T lymphocytes have been investigated previously, but little work has focused on CD8 T-lymphocyte responses despite their importance in anti-viral immunity. To address this, we examined the effects of UPM on DC-stimulated naive CD8 T-cell responses. Expression of the maturation/activation markers CD83, CCR7, CD40 and MHC class I on human myeloid DCs (mDCs) was characterized by flow cytometry after stimulation with UPM in vitro in the presence/absence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The capacity of these mDCs to stimulate naive CD8 T-lymphocyte responses in allogeneic co-culture was then assessed by measuring T-cell cytokine secretion using cytometric bead array, and proliferation and frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing T lymphocytes by flow cytometry. Treatment of mDCs with UPM increased expression of CD83 and CCR7, but not MHC class I. In allogeneic co-cultures, UPM treatment of mDCs enhanced CD8 T-cell proliferation and the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells. The secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13, Granzyme A and Granzyme B were also increased. GM-CSF alone, and in concert with UPM, enhanced many of these T-cell functions. The PM-induced increase in Granzyme A was confirmed in a human experimental diesel exposure study. These data demonstrate that UPM treatment of mDCs enhances priming of naive CD8 T lymphocytes and increases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Such UPM-induced stimulation of CD8 cells may potentiate T-lymphocyte cytotoxic responses upon concurrent airway infection, increasing bystander damage to the airways.

  • Bågander, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kent, Karolin (Choreographer)
    Movement and visual art.
    INSIDE/OUTSIDE - tunnel2018Artistic output (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive performance INSIDE/OUTSIDE questions the borders of the body both through how material movement allow the body to extend in scale and by changing the inside and outside perspective of dress. Through this it also questions the notion of wearing. The form suggest and instructs the choreography and becomes a co-choreographer pushing the narrative further and opening up for interaction between bodies through its materiality.

  • Bågander, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kent, Karolin (Choreographer)
    Movement and visual art.
    INSIDE/OUTSIDE - Landscape2018Artistic output (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive textile sculpture INSIDE/OUTSIDE questions the borders of the body through material form and movement. The form suggest and instructs the choreography and becomes a co-choreographer pushing the narrative further and opening up for interaction between bodies through its materiality. Exhibited at Järnhallen Gotehburg 12-20 may 2018. 

  • Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sundh, John
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Bennke, Christin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Beier, Sara
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hugerth, Luisa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Kisand, Veljo
    University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Riemann, Lasse
    Section for Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the BAltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.

  • Olofsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Persson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bellelli, G.
    Morandi, A.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Development of dementia in patients with femoral neck fracture who experience postoperative delirium: A three-year follow-up study2018In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives It remains unclear to what extent postoperative delirium (POD) affects the incidence of dementia in hip fracture patients, and the methods used to detect delirium and dementia require validation. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of dementia within 3 years of femoral neck fracture repair surgery, with a focus on POD as a potential predictive factor.

    Methods Patients were assessed for cognition, delirium, depression, psychological well-being, and nutritional status during their hospitalization as well as 4, 12, and 36 months after the operation. Logistic regression models were used to analyse factors associated with POD and factors associated with the development of dementia.

    Results The study sample consisted of 135 patients without a history of dementia, of whom 20 (14.8%) were delirious preoperatively and 75 (55.5%) postoperatively. Three years after their operations, 43/135 patients (31.8%) were diagnosed with dementia. A greater portion of patients diagnosed with dementia (39/43, 90.6%) than patients with no dementia (36/92, 39.1%) were included among the 75 patients who had experienced POD (P<0.001). In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for covariates (age, sex, diabetes, delirium pre- and postoperatively, hyperactive delirium, days with delirium, urinary tract infection, and Mini Nutritional Assessment score), POD emerged an independent predictor for the development of new dementia (odds ratio, 15.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-91.6) within 3 years after the operation.

    Conclusion Geriatric hip fracture patients who exhibit POD should be monitored closely for the development of dementia.

  • Ekblom Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Wallin, Peter
    HPI Health Profile Institute AB.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health.2018In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.

  • Alneberg, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karlsson, Christofer M.G.
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Divne, Anna-Maria
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Bergin, Claudia
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Homa, Felix
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Karolinska Institutet, Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Molecular, Tumour and Cell Biology, Centre for Translational Microbiome Research, Solna, Sweden.
    Ettema, Thijs JG
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Genomes from uncultivated prokaryotes: a comparison of metagenome-assembled and single-amplified genomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prokaryotes dominate the biosphere and regulate biogeochemical processes essential to all life. Yet, our knowledge about their biology is for the most part limited to the minority that has been successfully cultured. Molecular techniques now allow for obtaining genome sequences of uncultivated prokaryotic taxa, facilitating in-depth analyses that may ultimately improve our understanding of these key organisms.

    Results: We compared results from two culture-independent strategies for recovering bacterial genomes: single-amplified genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes. Single-amplified genomes were obtained from samples collected at an offshore station in the Baltic Sea Proper and compared to previously obtained metagenome-assembled genomes from a time series at the same station. Among 16 single-amplified genomes analyzed, seven were found to match metagenome-assembled genomes, affiliated with a diverse set of taxa. Notably, genome pairs between the two approaches were nearly identical (>98.7% identity) across overlapping regions (30-80% of each genome). Within matching pairs, the single-amplified genomes were consistently smaller and less complete, whereas the genetic functional profiles were maintained. For the metagenome-assembled genomes, only on average 3.6% of the bases were estimated to be missing from the genomes due to wrongly binned contigs; the metagenome assembly was found to cause incompleteness to a higher degree than the binning procedure.

    Conclusions: The strong agreement between the single-amplified and metagenome-assembled genomes emphasizes that both methods generate accurate genome information from uncultivated bacteria. Importantly, this implies that the research questions and the available resources are allowed to determine the selection of genomics approach for microbiome studies.

  • Rosenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Rusanen, Minna
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Bäckman, Lars
    Havulinna, Satu
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Levälahti, Esko
    Lindström, Jaana
    Paajanen, Teemu
    Peltonen, Markku
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Solomon, Alina
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: The FINGER trial2018In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition.

    Methods: The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1: 1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses.

    Results: Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). Conclusions: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia. 

  • Pettersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Megyesi, Beata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    The HistCorp Collection of Historical Corpora and Resources2018In: DHN 2018: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference / [ed] Eetu Mäkelä, Mikko Tolonen, Jouni Tuominen, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2018, p. 306-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the HistCorp collection, a freely available open platform aiming at the distribution of a wide range of historical corpora and other useful resources and tools for researchers and scholars interested in the study of historical texts. The platform contains a monitoring corpus of historical texts from various time periods and genres for 14 European languages. The collection is taken from well-documented historical corpora, and distributed in a uniform, standardised format. The texts are downloadable as plaintext, and in a tokenised format. Furthermore, a subset of the corpus contains information on the modern spelling variant, and some of the texts are also annotated with part-of-speech and syntactic structure. In addition, preconfigured n-gram language models and spelling normalisation tools are provided to allow the study of historical languages.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-05 09:00 Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Mendoza, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the unsteady aerodynamics involved in the operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The main focus is to represent and understand the most relevant phenomena within the resulting flow pattern as the wake structure, loads on the different turbine components and the performance of the rotor. An actuator line model has been used for this purpose.

    This model has been validated against experimental measurements from diverse cases with different operating conditions in both confined wind tunnels and open site locations. Numerical works were carried out considering a wide range of tip speed ratios (TSRs), and therefore covering from the no stall to the deep stall regime. The latter requires the implementation of a dynamic stall model for the proper representation of the unsteady forces on the blades. Also, different inlet conditions such as a uniform flow, a logarithmic wind shear and an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have been tested. The so-called recycling method technique was used to produce the fully developed ABL flow. Additionally, the resulting wake and performance of interacting turbines has been studied.

    Once the model was validated, two numerical study cases for large scale turbines were carried out. First, the performance and resulting flow field from both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and VAWT were investigated when the turbines were operating at their optimal TSR and within the same ABL inflow boundary conditions. The influence of the variation on the atmospheric turbulence levels was also studied, as well as the differences and similarities on the obtained results for both type of turbines. Later, the performance improvement of two interacting VAWTs was investigated through the deflected wake produced by the pitched struts of the upstream turbine. This is presented as a novel mechanism to mitigate losses on interacting turbine arrangements (i.e. wind farms).

    In general, there is a reasonable good agreement between numerical results and experimental measurements, and therefore, the applied ALM can be considered as a potential tool for VAWTs simulations, characterized by relatively low computational cost showing accuracy and numerical stability.

  • Buchheister, Justine
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    The influence of different stress states on soil liquefaction under a building2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of soil depends on the state and type of soil, loading function and the initial stress state ofa soil element prior to a dynamic event. Most studies focus on an initial stress state from the free fieldwhile assuming σ2 = σ3. Therefore, this stress state can be studied in a triaxial apparatus. With ahollow cylinder apparatus, it is possible to apply any possible combination of σ1, σ2 and σ3 in the soilprior to testing and thus enables the reproduction of boundary conditions e.g. as given for different soilelements under a building.Underneath a building different initial stress states need to be taken into account to judge the safetyand the behavior of the building during and after an earthquake. The focus in this contribution is tostudy the influence of these stress states. For a typical building the initial stress states were chosen atthree locations in a depth of 5 m. Experiments with fine sand are carried out under these initial stressstates with combined cyclic shear and axial loading. The results are presented and discussed in termsof the influence of stress state on liquefaction susceptibility and potential failures modes of a buildingtype to be considered in soil structure interaction.

  • NOSOSCO, Editorial Group
    Nordic Council of Ministers, NOMESCO-NOSOSCO. SSB Norway.
    Nordic Welfare States, challenged by ageing and immigration?: - Comparable indicators2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the third in a series of reports financed by the Nordic Social Statistical Committee (NOSOSCO), discussing future challenges to the Nordic Welfare states. Building on the assumption that there are some key common traits shared by the Nordic welfare states justifying the use of the label “Nordic welfare model”. The purpose of the report is to use comparable indicators to analyse some key challenges faced by the welfare states. Identifying and describing comparative indicators for common challenges may be suitable both for analysing the challenges and for policy making in the Nordic countries. At their best, indicators are measures that condenseinformation on relevant issues and facilitate policy making. More emphasis on the challenge coming from increased immigrationto the Nordic countries in the recent years, since this has reached the forefront ofpublic and political debate in all of the Nordic countries.

  • Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Plasma, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension in a Longitudinal Study2018In: Hypertension, ISSN 0194-911X, E-ISSN 1524-4563, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1258-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have shown to be involved in the atherosclerotic process and to cause endothelial cell dysfunction. To assess longitudinally whether plasma concentrations of different POPs were associated with blood pressure and risk of hypertension in middle-aged women and men. Study subjects were 850 participants in the VIP (Västerbotten Intervention Programme) with 2 blood samples and blood pressure measurements, 10 years apart, during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and during 2000 to 2013 (follow-up). Dioxin-like and nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs, NDL-PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured. Associations were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline sampling 49% and at follow-up 64% had hypertension. DL-PCBs and DDE, but not NDL-PCBs or hexachlorobenzene, were associated with hypertension. Only the association for DL-PCBs remained statistically significant after lipid-standardization and adjustment for body mass index and total serum lipids. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hypertension based on repeated measurements were 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.13) for DL-PCBs (third versus first tertile of lipid-standardized POPs). In stratified adjusted analyses, odds ratio for those born after 1950 increased to 3.99 (95% confidence interval, 2.15-7.43), whereas no association was observed among those born earlier. Based on repeated measurements, the accumulated exposure to DL-PCBs and DDE, although less clear for the latter, may disrupt the normal blood pressure levels and increase the odds of hypertension. Moreover, individuals experiencing early-life POP exposure may be at elevated risk of vascular POP effects.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:15 Siegbahnsalen, Uppsala
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Diamond Devices Based on Valley Polarization2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with extreme properties such as high thermal conductivity, high breakdown field, high carrier mobilities and chemical inertness. These properties together with the possibility to synthesize high purity Single-Crystalline (SC) diamond by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), make it a very interesting material and a candidate for use in power electronics and in hazardous environments. The low impurity concentration achieved when fabricating diamond by CVD allows for a detailed study of the intrinsic electronic properties.

    Diamond has six equivalent conduction band valleys oriented along the {100} axes with a uniquely low scattering rate between them. At low temperatures, the intervalley phonon scattering rate in diamond becomes negligible, which leads to a stable valley polarization state. We have observed non-equilibrium valley populations (valley-polarized electron ensembles), which in turn have been found to result in a Negative Differential Mobility (NDM).

    NDM is commonly only observed in direct bandgap materials such as GaAs, InP and CdTe but our group has also observed NDM in diamond at a temperature range of 100 to 150 K. The occurrence of this phenomenon can be explained by electron repopulation, which is the scattering of electrons between different valleys. If NDM is pronounced enough, electric current instabilities build up and give rise to oscillations. By exploiting this phenomenon, a Transferred-Electron Oscillator (TEO) can be constructed for microwave applications.

    Further investigations into the valley-polarized electrons seen in diamond could bring it forward as an alternative material for use in electronic devices. This use, called valleytronics, is similar to spintronics but instead of using the electron spin, the polarization in the conduction band valleys is used to transfer information. Digital electronic circuits use the presence or absence of charge to encode information which relies on a rapid redistribution of mobile charge carriers. This requires energy which results in losses and thus sets a theoretical limit to the maximum switching frequency. This is one of the main issues of electronic devices and can be mitigated by using alternative technologies such as spintronics or valleytronics.

    In order to get a better understanding of the electron valley repopulation effects, the focus of this doctoral thesis is the study of electron charge transport in SC-CVD diamond at low temperatures. The thesis also aims at using valley-polarized states as a foundation for the creation of electronic devices such as TEOs or valley-transistors, out of diamond.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:15 K3, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Janné, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Construction Logistics Solutions in Urban Areas2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people are living in, or moving to, urban areas than ever before. This attraction to urban areas means that new houses and work places are needed. Building new houses or renovating older housing stock is a natural way for a city to evolve. However, the end products of construction projects are produced at their place of consumption. This means that a multitude of materials and resources need to be delivered to, and removed from, each construction site. This leads to new transport flows being created in urban areas. In urban areas, these transports are subjected to space limitations, environmental demands, accessibility demands and noise restrictions. This has led to a situation where material deliveries to construction sites needs to be coordinated and managed in ways that reduce their impact on the urban transport system and at the same time ensuring efficient construction projects.

    In essence, construction in urban areas faces two problems; the urban transport problem and the problem of coordinating multiple construction stakeholders. One way to address these problems is through the use of construction logistics solutions such as terminals (e.g. construction logistics centres) and checkpoints. The aim of both types of solutions is to control and coordinate construction transports. In the construction industry, these solutions are however, still a rather new phenomenon. This means that how these solutions are perceived by different stakeholders, and the effect the solutions have on material flows and costs, needs to be explored further.

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how construction logistics solutions can be used as a means to coordinate material flows to ensure efficient construction and reduce disturbances on the urban transport system. To achieve this purpose, the following research questions have been addressed:

    RQ1:   How are different stakeholders in the construction industry affected by construction logistics solutions?

    RQ2:   How will the use of construction logistics solutions affect material flows and costs in urban construction projects?

    To answer the research questions two main methodologies have been used; case study research for the empirical studies and literature reviews for the analysis of the case studies as well as for understanding how supply chain management, logistics, and third-party logistics affects the inter-organizational relationships of the construction industry.

    The main findings of the research are firstly that construction logistics solutions do have a role to play in the coordination of different construction stakeholders. Adding this new node will force construction stakeholders to address coordination issues in order to ensure that material deliveries arrive to construction sites on time. This also implies that new inter-organizational relationships will evolve, where communication is key. However, this may not be an easy task as it will call for an attitude adjustment towards a more open and collaborative environment.

    Secondly, adding a construction logistics solution can reduce some unnecessary friction between construction stakeholders and third parties. Coordinated material flows can lead to a reduction in the amount of material delivery vehicles that travels to site, thus alleviating some of the congestion in the urban transport system. This will not reduce all friction between construction projects and third parties, but it is a step in the right direction.

    Thirdly, a construction logistics solution must come with a set of regulations and a governance strategy from the initiator of the solution. This governance strategy must be clearly stated and communicated to the affected stakeholders. To alleviate animosity towards the solution, flexibility and stakeholder involvement is key. If the directly affected stakeholders are consulted on the function, chances are that they will be more accepting of the solution.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-01 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Yoshioka, Takanori
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Parameters influencing inclusion compositions in Al-killed steel melts during a secondary refining process2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

         This study was carried out to clarify the factors influencing the evolution of inclusions in Al-killed steel melts during a secondary refining process. First, a case-hardening steel was the subject of study to understand the factors influencing the inclusion compositions in the steel melt. During the LF process, inclusions were transformed from the Al2O3 phase, which was the primary deoxidation product, to both MgO·Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3-MgOliq phases simultaneously. This composition transition during the LF process occurred by composition evolutions toward thermodynamically stable phases. After the RH process, the inclusion compositions primarily consisted of the Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3 phases. MgO·Al2O3 inclusions were removed, while the CaO-Al2O3 inclusions remained during the RH process. This behavior can be understood in terms of the interfacial properties of the oxide phases in a steel melt. The detected Al2O3 inclusions were considered to be generated by reoxidation during the RH treatment. Thus, it was confirmed that the equilibrium states, removal, and generation of inclusions determine the inclusion compositions in an Al-killed steel melt during an LF-RH refining process.

         Subsequently, the effect of high Al contents in a steel melt on the change in inclusion compositions during the LF-RH process was studied. Due to the high Al content in the steel melt, the thermodynamic driving forces for Al2O3 modification became lower than those in ordinary Al-killed steels. Therefore, the degree of inclusion evolution was restricted. This contributed to the low CaO contents in the inclusions. Due to the low CaO contents, the removability of the inclusions remained high throughout the LF-RH process. According to thermodynamic calculations, the low T.O contents in this steel grade are due to the low insoluble O contents. This can be explained by the fast removal of inclusions. Because the inclusions were removed smoothly, the CaO content in the inclusions was lower than that in the thermodynamically stable phase.

         In addition, a study was carried out to understand the formation and behavior of the CaS phase in an Al-killed high-S steel during the LF-RH process without Ca-treatment. In the initial stage of the LF process, a CaS phase was formed on the existing inclusions by a reaction between Ca and S. As the desulfurization of the steel melt progressed, the CaS phase started to be transformed into a CaO phase in the inclusions, which resulted in the formation of CaO-Al2O3-CaS inclusions. After desulfurization of the steel melt, the Al2O3 phase in the inclusions was transformed to the CaO-Al2O3liq phase without being hindered by a CaS phase. During the following RH process, the addition of FeS increased the activity of S, which then reacted with both CaO in the inclusions and with Ca, forming a CaS phase. Consequently, the majority of the inclusions consisted of the Al2O3-CaS phase. Thus, a CaS formation during the LF-RH process without Ca-treatment progresses under the thermodynamic driving forces of the following two reactions: the reaction between CaO in the inclusions and S and the reaction between Ca and S. Due to the formation of a CaS phase during the RH process, inclusions in the high S steel melt were covered by a CaS phase, which is difficult to remove from steel melts. Therefore, the castability of the high S steels can be deteriorated by the CaS inclusions, even without using Ca-treatment.

         In summary, it can be concluded that the removal of inclusions, generation, and composition evolution should be considered in order to control the inclusion compositions in Al-killed steel melts. In addition, steel components, such as Al and S, are important to monitor to control the inclusion evolution during secondary refining processes.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Servadio, Luigi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Customer Rituals: Ethnographic explorations of wine rituals with families and friends2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketers are increasingly adopting rituals as a powerful technique to spur product engagement and enhance customer value creation. From a customer perspective, rituals and value creation may entail broader purposes and meanings that go beyond the company’s intentions. Service research has extensively studied everyday value creation as emerging in the interaction between companies and customers. Increasingly, service scholars are nuancing understanding toward a more focussed perspective of value creation, which primarily is dominated by customers. By expanding on this bourgeoning literature, the present thesis provides an alternative view suggesting that customer value creation in certain instances can be better understood through the lens of rituals. Rituals are customer-centric processes of value creation orchestrated by customers within their realm, with little or no control from companies. Rituals are sacred moments in customers’ lives separated from the everyday, in which value creation appears to be not only a mundane action, but broadly these actions are loaded with extraordinary experiences. Rituals are cocreated by broader customer ecosystems, including not only customers and their contexts, but also other subjects and contexts, collectively determining value. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a framework to explore the relationship between rituals and value creation from a customer’s point of view by taking a customer-dominant stance on service as a starting point and leveraging insights from a theoretical ritual construct to provide a fuller understanding of how customers create and determine value. 

    The field of wine is chosen as a fertile empirical context in which to research rituals due to its rich ritualistic connotations. The research adopts ethnography as method of investigation and exploits reflexivity as a strategic asset to elicit and interpret data. Data was collected during a period of 2 years in two sites (Sweden and Italy) to moderate research biases and to broaden the empirical setting. Various techniques, including participant observation and interviews, were chosen in order to obtain detailed descriptions of how families and friends ritualized their value creation through drinking wine. 

    The thesis provides a customer rituals framework, its main contribution. In adopting this framework, the study illustrates in two ethnographic episodes how wines (i.e. distribution mechanism of service provision) become embedded in customers’ lives through rituals. Particularly, value creation in rituals emerges as an ongoing, multilayered process (script-based) exerted by customers meant to feed their needing for rituals. Furthermore, ritualizing customers gather in communitas,that is an extended, temporary customer ecosystem, wherein value is intersubjectively and dynamically determined by multiple subjects and contexts. Service providers may benefit from this study by using the framework to better facilitate customer value creation in rituals and to gain interesting insights on product and service innovation.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Liu, Yingxin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose-based materials: from colloidal assembly to functional films2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The assembly of nature-based nanomaterials into complex architectures is both a design principle of biological composites, e.g., wood and nacre with outstanding properties and a promising route for developing functional macroscopic materials. This thesis aims to investigate and understand the colloidal and self-assembly behaviour of nanocellulose in aqueous dispersions. Moreover, composite films of nanocellulose and nanoclay/lignin with diverse functionalities, e.g., mechanical and optical properties, are fabricated by tailoring the electrostatic interactions of these building blocks.

    The evaporation induced assembly of sulfonated cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has been followed in either an aqueous droplet on substrates or a levitated droplet by real-time small angle X-ray scattering. The evolution of structural features, e.g., an isotropic phase, biphasic phase, fully liquid crystalline and contracted helical structures of drying CNC dispersions were related to the power-law scaling of the particle separation distance (d) with concentrations (c, from 1 vol% to 38 vol%). Below 2 vol%, CNC dispersions consolidated isotropically with a scaling of d c-1/3, while the fully cholesteric liquid crystalline phase showed a unidimensional contraction of the nematic structure (d c-1) with increasing concentrations. Competition between gelation and the ordered assembly of CNC was quantitatively evaluated in nanoscale for the first time, which was reflected by a scaling of d c-2/3.

    The rheology of composite dispersions of carboxylated cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and nanoclay was investigated, which was influenced by the surface charge of CNF, the morphology of nanoclays and interactions between CNF and clay particles. Optically transparent films of synthetic aminoclay (50 wt%) and CNF were fabricated, of which tensile strength and strain to failure (205 MPa and 7.5%) were significantly higher than those of nacre and other nacre-mimicking nanocellulose-based materials, e.g., montmorillonite-CNF films, due to the formation of ionic bonding between the cationic clay and anionic CNF.

    Lignin nanoparticles were testified to enhance the colloidal stability and dispersity of carboxylated CNF in dispersions, and showed a remarkable strengthening and stiffening effect on the matrix of CNF. The mechanical properties of lignin-CNF films were superior to previously reported polymer/nanoparticle-CNF composites, such as polyvinyl alcohol-CNF films and even reduced graphene oxide-CNF films.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-15 10:00 B3, Stockholm
    Leach, Lindsay
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Modeling Bainite Formation in Steels2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the fundamental aspects of bainite formation in a guided effort to lay a foundation for development of a model capable of predicting bainite formation. In the first part of this study, the tenets of an existing model for growth, developed by Zener and later modified by Hillert are examined. A number of interacting and adjustable parameters are identified namely, diffusivity, driving force, radius of the ferrite plate tip, interfacial carbon content, and thermodynamic barriers. Amongst which, there are a number of assumptions which are no longer justifiable because of the availability of software and databases from which more accurate calculations can be obtained. The approximation of the driving force is one such example. Another is the carbon content in ferrite, which was assumed negligible. The capillarity effect of the curved ferrite interface had initially been assigned by Zener as having a fixed, optimal value at the maximum growth rate. Although this principle was kept it led to quite different results when the earlier approximations were removed. It is shown that the shape of the C-curves is largely dependent on the diffusivity.

    The second focus of this thesis is aimed towards developing a model for the start temperatures of bainite, WBs and is achieved twofold. The first procedure was to develop an empirical model. Experimental information on which it is based refers to the start conditions for both bainite and Widmanstätten ferrite. A systematic approach is adapted by which Fe-C is the basis and the effect of alloying elements are evaluated separately from ternary alloys. Regression analysis of data on five ternary systems with Mn, Ni, Si, Cr and Mo gives separate coefficients. A linear empirical equation for the WBs is defined from their sum which was possible because their effects were independent. Carbon had by far the largest effect and Ni the smallest. The equation has good agreement with data but further improvement can be achieved with more reliable experimental data. The second procedure is directed towards a thermodynamic description of the start condition. The critical driving forces corresponding to the critical conditions depicted in the empirical equation are calculated. The results are presented with a dependence on temperature and the same could be translated to a carbon dependence. The critical driving force increases substantially with decreasing temperature and increasing carbon content and the effect of alloying elements is varied.

    In the final section, the growth model is further developed. A more generalized expression for the barrier is formulated and together with the capillarity effect, consists of the energy requirement to move the growth interface. This is balanced with the available driving force and is solved with an optimization procedure. The predicted C-curves are compared with experimental results and reasonably good agreement is found.

  • Hermelin, Brita
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrköpings arbetsmarknad i förändring: Strukturomvandling och lokal sysselsättning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten handlar om sysselsättningen och arbetsmarknaden i Norrköpings kommun från ett strukturomvandlingsperspektiv. Denna omvandling diskuteras utifrån den historiska industribakgrunden för Norrköping som har inneburit en stark exponering för den ökande globala konkurrensen samt för effektivisering och automatisering. Detta har påverkat utvecklingen med en krympande arbetsmarknad samt strukturellt ihållande arbetslöshet som följd.

    Syftet med studien är att skapa kunskap om hur arbetsmarknaden i Norrköping är strukturerad och hur den förändras. Speciellt fokus riktas mot frågor som berör kommunens ansvarsområden med avseende på näringslivsfrågor och tillväxt samt kompetensförsörjning och utbildning.

    I rapporten ges en beskrivning av arbetsmarknadens utveckling i Norrköping utifrån olika typer av empiriskt material. Detta omfattar statistiska data, dokument, företagsdatabas, media och personliga intervjuer. Med fokus på perioden 2008 till 2016 beskrivs att den relativa tillväxten av sysselsatta i Norrköping motsvarar medelvärdet för andra kommuner i Sverige med ungefär lika befolkningsstorlek. Däremot avviker Norrköping från andra jämnstora kommuner vad gäller en genomsnittligt lägre utbildningsnivå och genomsnittligt lägre inkomster från förvärvsarbete. En stor avvikelse för arbetsmarknadens struktur i Norrköping är en jämförelsevis liten andel sysselsatta inom landstinget som i sin tur innebär en liten andel sysselsatta inom hälso- och sjukvård. Rapporten ger även mer kvalitativ beskrivning av företagssektorn och dess arbetsmarknad i Norrköping. Denna ger en bild att verksamheter med anknytning till hantverksyrken och byggsektorn är en tydligt framträdande profil för Norrköping.

    Rapporten avslutas med några lärdomar från studiens resultat. Dessa lärdomar har generats utifrån studiens utgångspunkt att insatser som stödjer den lokala arbetsmarknadens utveckling berör olika policyfält omfattande såväl kommunens välfärdsuppdrag (inklusive utbildning och arbetsmarknadsfrågor) som insatser för näringslivsfrågor och tillväxtarbete, samt inte minst hur dessa samordnas. Detta får betydelse för organiseringen av kommunstrategiska insatser för en förstärk arbetsmarknad.

    • Den första lärdomen lyfter fram kommunens roll med avseende på hur det påverkar det lokala klimatet för arbetsliv och näringsliv. Det lokala klimatet kan påverkas genom hur kommunen bjuder in till samverkan och kommunikation och i detta ingår även frågan om hur Norrköpings kommun väljer att utforma sitt informationsmaterial. En konkret aspekt för detta är den starka manliga dominansen i bilden av arbetsliv och näringsliv i Norrköping. Med det som bakgrund är det motiverat att reflektera över möjligheter att integrera och synliggöra kvinnor och på så sätt förstärka integrationen och nyttiggörandet av erfarenheter och kunskapsområden, till gagn för lokal utveckling.
    • Den andra lärdomen handlar om hur strategier för kompetensförsörjning med avseende på utbildningsnivåer behöver hålla flera ”bollar i luften” samtidigt. Detta syftar på de olika nivåerna i utbildningssystemet. För Norrköpings arbetsmarknad är utbildningsbakgrund från gymnasieskolan centralt. Gymnasieskolans yrkesutbildningar omfattar etablerade samverkanstrukturer mellan näringsliv och gymnasieskola som kan vara en kritisk resurs att nyttiggöra för förstärkt arbetsmarknadsintegration.
    • Den tredje lärdomen handlar om att den lokala arbetsmarknaden för personer med eftergymnasial utbildning inte växer automatiskt och att man inte kan anta att denna tillväxt entydigt följer näringsgrensindelning. En utmaning i detta sammanhang är att attrahera sådan arbetskraft. Här sker olika insatser från kommunens sida i relation till studenterna på universitetet. Det är en extra stor utmaning att påverka efterfrågan på högutbildad arbetskraft när den genomsnittliga utbildningsnivån i det lokala arbetslivet inte är så hög. En strategisk fråga blir därmed möjligheter att stärka beställningskapaciteten hos de lokala arbetsgivarna vad gäller efterfrågan på akademiskt utbildade personers kompetens.
  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:00 Sal B3, Stockholm
    Huyan, Fei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Computational Materials Design of Medium Mn Steels2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium Mn steels (~ 3–10 mass % Mn), a new category of advanced high strength steels, attracted worldwide research interests recent years due to their excellent mechanical properties and low cost. These steels have fine microstructures and contain large fraction of metastable retained austenite (~ 30 volume %), therefore exhibit excellent strength and elongation. The fine microstructure is mainly introduced by an intercritical annealing process.

    To accelerate the design of such steels, materials design is applied. The materials design concept is a systematic method. Contrary to conventional methods largely based on trial and error, it is based on the classical processing–structure–properties relationships and a quantitative knowledge of each relation represented by a mathematical model, so-called linkage model. Such models are thus an essential part in materials design.

    The present thesis aims to develop a framework used for materials design of medium Mn steel. The development of models which serve as linkage tools is thus the focus. Tensile properties, i.e. strength and elongation, are set as the design objectives driven by the industrial application.

    The major part is concentrated on the linkage tools of processing–structure, i.e. models and simulations to predict the microstructure evolution associated with processing. These linkage tools are based on thermodynamic calculations and kinetic simulations using the commercially available Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software. To be specific, the processing involves austenitization and quenching as well as intercritical annealing and quenching; while the associated structure involves transformation of austenite to martensite and reversion of martensite to austenite. Therefore the following aspects have been studied:

    1. martensite fraction with undercooling;
    2. austenite reversion during intercritical annealing;
    3. influence of austenite grain size on martensite start temperature;
    4. mechanical stability of retained austenite.

    Besides these, prediction of tensile properties is studied in the last part, which serves as an example of a linkage tool of structure–properties.

    Via integrating these models, to achieve certain tensile properties, the required microstructure and the associated processing can be traced back.

  • Kågström, Lennart
    Barfota AB, Skellefteå.
    Att utveckla det personliga ledarskapet i grupp: Om arbetssättet i CKS-utbildningen Ledarskap i kommuner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap är en viktig fråga i dagens organisationer. Mycket tid och energi läggs på att resonera om, rekrytera, stimulera och utveckla ledare på olika nivåer i landets kommuner och andra organisationer. Ett populärt tema för ledarskap är det personliga ledarskapet. Syftet med denna rapport är att bidra till reflektioner kring vad ”det personliga” kan vara, och hur man kan jobba med det i en utbildning för kommunala chefer där gruppen utgör en viktig resurs för lärandet. Det är också viktigt att sätta in frågan om det personliga i perspektivet ”ledarskap som relation” som jag valt att utgå från.

    Rapporten bygger på erfarenheter från CKS utbildning Ledarskap i kommuner (LiKo). Detta är en utbildning för kommunala chefer på nivån närmast under kommunchefen. Det övergripande syftet med utbildningen är att stödja och utveckla ledarskapet i kommunerna och östgötaregionen med omnejd. Utbildningen kan beskrivas bestå av två delar: en teoretisk del med utvalda teman som i huvudsak har sin utgångspunkt i vetenskap och aktuell samhälls- och beteendevetenskaplig forskning för att deltagarna ska kunna förhålla sig till vad det innebär att vara ledare i en demokratisk, politiskt styrd organisation samt kunna göra omvärldsanalyser och hantera samhällsförändringar. Den andra delen av utbildningen handlar om ledarskap. Det senare är temat för den här rapporten.

    Speciellt viktigt för mig som processledare och ansvarig för utbildningens del som handlar om ledarskap har varit frågor som handlar om hur relevant innehållet och upplägget är för deltagarna. Är det vi gör i utbildningen något som blir användbart i det vardagliga ledarskapet? Lär sig deltagarna något som går att relatera till personlig utveckling? Kan man på goda grunder säga att utbildningen leder till ökad kunskap och medvetenhet med avseende på de teman vi tar upp?

    De teman som väckt mest engagemang och tydliga utvecklingssteg för deltagarna i utbildningen är:

    • Kontaktstilar/projicering
    • Att nyfiket utforska som dialogmetod
    • Affektskola
    • Anknytning

    Alla dessa teman finns utförligt beskrivet i texten och mer om deltagarnas lärande finns under rubriken ”Sammanfattande diskussion och lärande för deltagarna”.

    Träning för ökad medvetenhet och kunskap kring projiceringar gör jag med deltagarna i en övning där de får säga saker om varandra och sedan reflektera kring vad som kan vara projiceringar och hur det kan uppfattas av den som får det ”lagt på sig”. Upplevelsen hos deltagarna är oftast att de känner igen detta och att projiceringar sker dagligen i deras arbete. Som ledare är det för dem också igenkännande att detta kan vara kraftfullt, speciellt med koppling till konflikter eller missnöje. Kunskapen kring vad som sker när medarbetare

    projicerar tankar, känslor eller upplevelser tycker många är till stöd för att som ledare inte själv dras in i olika processer. Att snarare kunna förhålla sig till det som sker blir ett sätt att behålla ledarskapet. Självklart leder detta också omvänt till att ledarna reflekterar mer kring sitt eget projicerande.

    Att nyfiket utforska som metod och förhållningssätt är det i utbildningen som för de flesta deltagare blir en ”ögonöppnare”. Jag försöker ständigt stimulera deltagarna att pröva det vi tränar i utbildningen på sin arbetsplats. Ibland som en tydlig hemuppgift. Kring temat nyfiket utforska och vad de prövat i sitt dagliga ledarskap har deltagarna många upplevelser att dela med sig av på våra internat.

    Affektskola är en viktig del av utbildningen och har för några deltagare betytt väldigt mycket. Både för den personliga utvecklingen och för att förstå hur situationer, med starka känslor inblandade, kan hanteras annorlunda när ledaren har mer insikt i ämnet och om sina egna reaktioner. Om affekter och känslors betydelse i olika situationer både som person och ledare sade en deltagare ”...att jag är fyrtioett år och aldrig tänkt eller reflekterat kring det och på detta sätt, är inte det märkligt?”.

    Anknytning kan sägas vara det starka band vi alla knyter till en vuxen vårdnadshavare tidigt i livet och som färgar vårt sätt att se på och fungera i relationer. I grunden handlar det om överlevnad och den hjälp vi behöver för att livet i stort ska fungera. I vuxen ålder blir den känslomässiga delen mer framträdande men kanske kan det sägas att även det handlar om överlevnad, åtminstone med den mentala hälsan i behåll.

    Det engagemang deltagarna visar i denna utbildning och det sätt som detta uttrycks ser jag som ett kvitto på att utbildningens innehåll och hur vi arbetar med övningarna är relevant för dem. Det gäller både den personliga utvecklingen och ledarskapet. Det varierar givetvis mellan de enskilda deltagarna beroende på de olika teman vi berör och hur de intresserar och är aktuella för deltagarna.

  • Pojskic, Haris
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Erik, Åslin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Krolo, Ante
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Jukic, Ivan
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Uljevic, Ognjen
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Spasic, Miodrag
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Sekulic, Damir
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Croatia.
    Importance of Reactive Agility and Change of Direction Speed in Differentiating Performance Levels in Junior Soccer Players: Reliability and Validity of Newly Developed Soccer-Specific Tests2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agility is a significant determinant of success in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented and evaluated soccer-specific tests of reactive agility (S_RAG) and non-reactive agility (change of direction speed – S_CODS) or their applicability in this sport. The aim of this study was to define the reliability and validity of newly developed tests of the S_RAG and S_CODS to discriminate between the performance levels of junior soccer players. The study consisted of 20 players who were involved at the highest national competitive rank (all males; age: 17.0 0.9 years), divided into three playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) and two performance levels(U17 and U19). Variables included body mass (BM), body height, body fat percentage,20-m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, reactive-strength-index, unilateral jump, 1RM-back-squat, S_CODS, and three protocols of S_RAG. The reliabilities of theS_RAG and S_CODS were appropriate to high (ICC: 0.70 to 0.92), with the strongest reliability evidenced for the S_CODS. The S_CODS and S_RAG shared 25–40% of the common variance. Playing positions significantly differed in BM (large effect-size differences [ES]; midfielders were lightest) and 1RM-back-squat (large ES; lowest results in midfielders). The performance levels significantly differed in age and experience in soccer; U19 achieved better results in the S_CODS (t-test: 3.61, p < 0.05, large ES)and two S_RAG protocols (t-test: 2.14 and 2.41, p < 0.05, moderate ES). Newly developed tests of soccer-specific agility are applicable to differentiate U17 and U19players. Coaches who work with young soccer athletes should be informed that the development of soccer-specific CODS and RAG in this age is mostly dependent on training of the specific motor proficiency.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-12 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Kotb, Omar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    On Stability Enhancement in AC/DC Power Systems through Multi-terminal HVDC Controllers2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing share of renewable energy sources in modern power systems and electricity market deregulation, heavy inter-regional and cross-border power flows are becoming a commonplace in system operation. Moreover, large-scale integration of renewable energy sources is expected to pace up, therefore new solutions have to be developed to integrate these intermittent sources, which are also characterized by being distributed over large geographical areas, such as offshore wind farms. Multi-Terminal High Voltage Direct Current (MTDC) networks are expected to form a solution for the integration of renewable energy sources to the existing interconnected AC grid. The type of converters used in the MTDC networks is however a subject of debate, as both Line Commutated Converters (LCCs) and Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) can be used. Moreover, the coordinated control of the MTDC networks with the AC system poses a challenge to the system operators, as it requires the consideration of both AC and DC system dynamics.

     

    In response to these challenges, this thesis aims to discuss the following aspects of the MTDC networks: control of a hybrid MTDC with both LCCs and VSCs, as well as the utilization of an embedded VSC-MTDC for stability enhancement. The thesis also investigates the supply of passive AC systems using a hybrid MTDC network.

     

    In the investigation of an AC/DC power system with a hybrid MTDC network, first, the combined AC/DC system is modeled. Next, a Small Signal Stability Analysis (SSSA) of the system is conducted, based on which the Power Oscillation Damping (POD) controllers were designed to enhance stability in the connected AC systems.

     

    In the utilization of an embedded VSC-MTDC network for stability enhancement in the AC/DC system, the operating point adjustment strategy is investigated, which is implemented through the adjustment of setpoints for the active and reactive power controllers in the network converters. Finally, the design and placement of a Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) controller is investigated, where the control strategy is based on Modal Linear Quadratic Gaussian (MLQG) control using Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) signals.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Tang, Xiongzhuo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Isoform-specific regulation of Drosophila gut immunity and regeneration by the POU/Oct transcription factor Nub/Pdm12018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innate immune reactions protect organisms against a variety of infections.  In metazoans, these reactions involve both cellular and humoral responses. The immune responses have to be well-tuned, as excessive immune activation is associated with tissue-specific pathologies. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying how immune responses are balanced are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the Drosophila POU/Oct transcription factor Nubbin (Nub) in regulating Drosophila innate immunity, with a special focus on intestinal immune and epithelium homeostasis.

    In Paper I, we show that the nub gene encodes two independent transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD. The short isoform, Nub-PD, acts as a repressor of NF-κB/Relish-dependent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in healthy flies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nub-PD directly binds to Oct sequence motifs located in the distal promoter region of several AMP genes, thereby inhibiting gene transcription. In addition, loss of Nub-PD diminishes the number of cultivatable gut bacteria, possibly due to high expression levels of AMP genes. In Paper II, we show that the large isoform, Nub-PB, in a sharp contrast to Nub-PD, activates AMP gene expression, both independently of and together with Relish. Importantly, Nub-PB and Nub-PD regulated the same target AMP gene expression antagonistically. In addition, Nub-PB expression in gut enterocytes (ECs) negatively correlated with gut microbial loads and host lifespan. Finally, we found that enforced Nub-PB expression in ECs promotes a pro-inflammatory signature and stimulated epithelium renewal. In Paper III, we show that Nub-PB and Nub-PD are not only expressed in differentiated gut ECs, but also present in midgut progenitor cells. Depletion of Nub-PB in gut progenitor cells results in hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), via direct or indirect de-repression of Escargot expression. Furthermore, enforced Nub-PB expression in ISCs and enteroblasts (EBs) inhibited Notch RNAi-induced tumor formation. In addition, Nub-PD was necessary for both basal and infection-induced ISC proliferation. Strikingly, Nub-PB and Nub-PD regulated ISC proliferation in antagonistic manners. In Paper IV, we created a Nub-PB-specific mutant and found that this mutant impairs normal gut development, giving rise to short and wide anterior midguts. Furthermore, loss of Nub-PB promoted rapid ISC proliferation, increased EC delamination, and increased numbers of enteroendocrine cells in the anterior midgut.

    Taken together, we have characterized a novel isoform-specific regulatory mechanism, involved in maintaining Drosophila intestinal immune homeostasis and epithelial regeneration. 

  • Hagen, Johannes
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Malmberg, Hannes
    Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Hur kan tidiga hälsorelaterade utträden ur arbetslivet minskas?2018Report (Other academic)
  • Halila, Leena
    et al.
    Lankinen, Veronica
    Nilsson, Annika
    Administrativa sanktionsavgifter: En nordisk komparativ studie2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Administrativa avgiftspåföljder av straffkaraktär har under de senaste åren stått föremål för ett växande intresse och debatt i de nordiska länderna. Förevarande forskning kartlägger rättsläget gällande sanktionsavgifter i Finland samt Sverige, Norge och Danmark. I forskningen undersöks hur garantier för god förvaltning och rättvis rättegång kan säkerställas i förfaranden som gäller påförande av sanktionsavgift, samt överklagandet av dessa ärenden. I studien jämförs och analyseras dessa europarättsliga krav med de nationellrättsliga, nordiska undersökningar som utförts. Dessutom diskuteras principiella utgångspunkter som ska beaktas vid reglering av sanktionsavgifter. Forskningen har utförts av professor Leena Halila och doktorand Veronica Lankinen vid Juridiska fakulteten, Helsingfors universitet, samt universitetslektor Annika K. Nilsson, vid Juridiska fakulteten, Uppsala universitet.

  • Llamas, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications2018In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M), ISSN 1475-0902, E-ISSN 2041-3084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-oriented simulation models. Unfortunately, the same reasons that motivate the use of simulation models also hinder the capacity to obtain sufficient measurement data at different operating points for developing the models. A mean value engine model of a large two-stroke diesel with exhaust gas recirculation that can be simulated faster than real time is presented and validated. An analytic model for the cylinder pressure that captures the effects of changes in the fuel control inputs is also developed and validated with cylinder pressure measurements. A parameterization procedure that deals with the low number of measurement data available is proposed. After the parameterization, the model is shown to capture the stationary operation of the real engine well. The transient prediction capability of the model is also considered satisfactory which is important if the model is to be used for exhaust gas recirculation controller development during transients. Furthermore, the experience gathered while developing the model about essential signals to be measured is summarized, which can be very helpful for future applications of the model. Finally, models for the ship propeller and resistance are also investigated, showing good agreement with the measured ship sailing signals during maneuvers. These models give a complete vessel model and make it possible to simulate various maneuvering scenarios, giving different loading profiles that can be used to investigate the performance of exhaust gas recirculation and other controllers during transients.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-05 13:00 Astrid Fagraeus hörsal A103, byggnad 6E, Umeå Universitet, Umeå
    Bitar, Aziz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Vibrio cholerae modulates the immune defense of human gut mucosa2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The key function of innate immunity is to sense danger signals and initiate effective responses as a defense mechanism against pathogens. Simultaneously, effector responses must be regulated to avoid excessive inflammation with resulting tissue damage. microRNAs (miRNAs), are small endogenous molecules, that has recently gained attention as important regulatory elements in the human inflammation cascade. The control over host miRNA expression may represent a previously uncharacterized molecular strategy exploited by pathogens to mitigate innate host cell responses.

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human small intestine and causes life-threatening secretory diarrhea, essentially mediated by cholera toxin (CT). It is considered a non-invasive pathogen and does not cause clinical inflammation. Still, cholera is associated with inflammatory changes of the small intestine. Furthermore, CT-negative strains of V. cholerae cause gastroenteritis and are associated with extra-intestinal manifestations, suggesting that other virulence factors than CT are also involved in the pathogenesis.

    The innate immune response to V. cholerae is poorly investigated and the potential role of miRNA in cholera had not been studied before. Therefore, this thesis explores the role of intestinal epithelial cells in response to V. cholerae infection with a focus on regulatory miRNA as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis. The in vivo material was small intestinal biopsies from patients suffering from V. cholerae infection. As an in vitro model for V. cholerae attack on intestinal epithelium, we used tight monolayers of T84 cells infected with V. cholerae and their released factors. We analyzed changes in levels of cytokines, immunomodulatory microRNA and their target genes.

    We showed that miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 reached significantly elevated levels in the intestinal mucosa at acute stages of disease in V. cholerae infected patients and declined to normal levels at the convalescent stage. Low-grade inflammation was identified at the acute stage of V. cholerae infection, which correlated with elevated levels of regulatory miRNA. Furthermore, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by the bacteria were shown to induce miR-146a and live bacteria induced miR-155 in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, OMVs decreased epithelial permeability and caused mRNA suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including immune cell attractant IL-8 and CLL20, and the inflammasome markers IL-1b and IL-18. These results propose that V. cholerae regulates the host expression of miRNA during infection and may set the threshold for activation of the intestinal epithelium.

    Moreover, we showed that V. cholerae also harbors inflammatory-inducing capabilities, by secreting a pore-forming toxin, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC). By using genetically modified strains as well as soluble protein challenge experiments, VCC was found solely responsible for the increased epithelial permeability and induction of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells. In contrast to OMVs, VCC displayed strong upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-a, CCL20 and IL-1b and IRAK2, a key signaling molecule in the IL-1 inflammasome pathway. This suggest that VCC is an important virulence factor in the V. cholerae pathogenesis, particularly in CT-negative strains. Furthermore, we showed that the bacterium could control the inflammatory actions of VCC by secreting the PrtV protease, which degraded VCC and consequently abolished inflammation.  

    In summary, we showed that V. cholerae harbors immunomodulating capabilities, both at the gene level, through induction of host regulatory miRNA, and at the protein level, through secretion of VCC and PrtV. These strategies may be relevant for V. cholerae to promote survival in the gut and cause successful infections in the human host.

  • Pelle, Snickars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Mähler, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SpotiBot — Turing Testing Spotify2018In: Digital Humanities Quarterly, ISSN 1938-4122, E-ISSN 1938-4122, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even if digitized and born-digital audiovisual material today amounts to a steadily increasing body of data to work with and research, such media modalities are still relatively poorly represented in the field of DH. Streaming media is a case in point, and the purpose of this article is to provide some findings from an ongoing audio (and music) research project, that deals with experiments, interventions and the reverse engineering of Spotify’s algorithms, aggregation procedures, and valuation strategies. One such research experiment, the SpotiBot intervention, was set up at Humlab, Umeå University. Via multiple bots running in parallel our idea was to examine if it is possible to provoke — or even undermine — the Spotify business model (based on the so called “30 second royalty rule”). Essentially, the experiment resembled a Turing test, where we asked ourselves what happens when — not if — streaming bots approximate human listener behavior in such a way that it becomes impossible to distinguish between a human and a machine. Implemented in the Python programming language, and using a web UI testing frameworks, our so called SpotiBot engine automated the Spotify web client by simulating user interaction within the web interface. The SpotiBot engine was instructed to play a single track repeatedly (both self-produced music and Abba’s “Dancing Queen”), during less and more than 30 seconds, and with a fixed repetition scheme running from 100 to n times (simultaneously with different Spotify Free ‘bot accounts’). Our bots also logged all results. In short, our bots demonstrated the ability (at least sometimes) to continuously play tracks, indicating that the Spotify business model can be tampered with. Using a single virtual machine — hidden behind only one proxy IP — the results of the intervention hence stipulate that it is possible to automatically play tracks for thousands of repetitions that exceeds the royalty rule.

  • Allin, Kristine H.
    et al.
    Tremaroli, Valentina
    Caesar, Robert
    Jensen, Benjamin A. H.
    Damgaard, Mads T. F.
    Bahl, Martin I.
    Licht, Tine R.
    Hansen, Tue H.
    Nielsen, Trine
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Jørgensen, Torben
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Kristiansen, Karsten
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hansen, Torben
    Bäckhed, Fredrik
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 810-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1-7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42-48 mmol/mol [6.0-6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health.

    Methods: In the present case-control study, we analysed the gut microbiota of 134 Danish adults with prediabetes, overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and low-grade inflammation and 134 age-and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Results: We found that five bacterial genera and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were differentially abundant between individuals with prediabetes and those with normal glucose regulation. At the genus level, the abundance of Clostridium was decreased (mean log2 fold change -0.64 (SEM 0.23), p adj = 0.0497), whereas the abundances of Dorea, [Ruminococcus], Sutterella and Streptococcus were increased (mean log2 fold change 0.51 (SEM 0.12), p adj = 5 x 10-4; 0.51 (SEM 0.11), p adj = 1 x 10-4; 0.60 (SEM 0.21), p adj = 0.0497; and 0.92 (SEM0.21), p adj = 4 x 10-4, respectively). The two OTUs that differed the most were a member of the order Clostridiales (OTU 146564) and Akkermansia muciniphila, which both displayed lower abundance among individuals with prediabetes (mean log2 fold change -1.74 (SEM0.41), p adj = 2 x 10-3 and -1.65 (SEM0.34), p adj = 4 x 10-4, respectively). Faecal transfer from donors with prediabetes or screen-detected, drug-naive type 2 diabetes to germfree Swiss Webster or conventional C57BL/6 J mice did not induce impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings are comparable to observations in overt chronic diseases characterised by low-grade inflammation.

  • Shi, Lin
    et al.
    Brunius, Carl
    Lehtonen, Marko
    Auriola, Seppo
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hanhineva, Kati
    Landberg, Rikard
    Plasma metabolites associated with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish population: a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 849-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Vasterbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Using untargeted liquid chromatography-MS metabolomics, we analysed plasma samples from 503 case-control pairs at baseline (a median time of 7 years prior to diagnosis) and samples from a subset of 187 case-control pairs at 10 years of follow-up. Discriminative metabolites between cases and controls at baseline were optimally selected using a multivariate data analysis pipeline adapted for large-scale metabolomics. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between discriminative metabolites and future type 2 diabetes, adjusting for several known risk factors. Reproducibility of identified metabolites was estimated by intra-class correlation over the 10 year period among the subset of healthy participants; their systematic changes over time in relation to diagnosis among those who developed type 2 diabetes were investigated using mixed models. Risk prediction performance of models made from different predictors was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, discrimination improvement index and net reclassification index.

    Results: We identified 46 predictive plasma metabolites of type 2 diabetes. Among novel findings, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing odd-chain fatty acids (C19: 1 and C17:0) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate were associated with the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes; we also confirmed previously identified predictive biomarkers. Identified metabolites strongly correlated with insulin resistance and/or beta cell dysfunction. Of 46 identified metabolites, 26 showed intermediate to high reproducibility among healthy individuals. Moreover, PCs with odd-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid and glutamate changed over time along with disease progression among diabetes cases. Importantly, we found that a combination of five of the most robustly predictive metabolites significantly improved risk prediction if added to models with an a priori defined set of traditional risk factors, but only a marginal improvement was achieved when using models based on optimally selected traditional risk factors.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Predictive metabolites may improve understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and reflect disease progression, but they provide limited incremental value in risk prediction beyond optimal use of traditional risk factors.

  • Medina, Anya
    et al.
    Parween, Saba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Ullsten, Sara
    Vishnu, Neelanjan
    Siu, Yuk Ting
    Quach, My
    Bennet, Hedvig
    Balhuizen, Alexander
    Åkesson, Lina
    Wierup, Nils
    Carlsson, Per Ola
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Lernmark, Åke
    Fex, Malin
    Early deficits in insulin secretion, beta cell mass and islet blood perfusion precede onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in BioBreeding rats2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 896-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Genetic studies show coupling of genes affecting beta cell function to type 1 diabetes, but hitherto no studies on whether beta cell dysfunction could precede insulitis and clinical onset of type 1 diabetes are available.

    Methods: We used 40-day-old BioBreeding (BB) DRLyp/Lyp rats (a model of spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes) and diabetes-resistant DRLyp/+ and DR+/+ littermates (controls) to investigate beta cell function in vivo, and insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro. Beta cell mass was assessed by optical projection tomography (OPT) and morphometry. Additionally, measurements of intra-islet blood flow were performed using microsphere injections. We also assessed immune cell infiltration, cytokine expression in islets (by immunohistochemistry and qPCR), as well as islet Glut2 expression and ATP/ADP ratio to determine effects on glucose uptake and metabolism in beta cells.

    Results: DRLyp/Lyp rats were normoglycaemic and without traces of immune cell infiltrates. However, IVGTTs revealed a significant decrease in the acute insulin response to glucose compared with control rats (1685.3 +/- 121.3 vs 633.3 +/- 148.7; p < 0.0001). In agreement, insulin secretion was severely perturbed in isolated islets, and both first- and second-phase insulin release were lowered compared with control rats, while glucagon secretion was similar in both groups. Interestingly, after 5-7 days of culture of islets from DRLyp/Lyp rats in normal media, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was improved; although, a significant decrease in GSIS was still evident compared with islets from control rats at this time (7393.9 +/- 1593.7 vs 4416.8 +/- 1230.5 pg islet-1 h-1; p < 0.0001). Compared with controls, OPT of whole pancreas from DRLyp/Lyp rats revealed significant reductions in medium (4.1 x 109 +/- 9.5 x 107 vs 3.8 x 109 +/- 5.8 x 107 μm3; p = 0.044) and small sized islets (1.6 x 109 +/- 5.1 x 107 vs 1.4 x 109 +/- 4.5 x 107 μm3; p = 0.035). Finally, we found lower intra-islet blood perfusion in vivo (113.1 +/- 16.8 vs 76.9 +/- 11.8 μl min-1 [g pancreas]-1; p = 0.023) and alterations in the beta cell ATP/ADP ratio in DRLyp/Lyp rats vs control rats.

    Conclusions/interpretation: The present study identifies a deterioration of beta cell function and mass, and intra-islet blood flow that precedes insulitis and diabetes development in animals prone to autoimmune type 1 diabetes. These underlying changes in islet function may be previously unrecognised factors of importance in type 1 diabetes development.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-04 10:00 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Doping and Density of States Engineering for Organic Thermoelectrics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric materials can turn temperature differences directly into electricity. To use this to harvest e.g. waste heat with an efficiency that approaches the Carnot efficiency requires a figure of merit ZT larger than 1. Compared with their inorganic counterparts, organic thermoelectrics (OTE) have numerous advantages, such as low cost, large-area compatibility, flexibility, material abundance and an inherently low thermal conductivity. Therefore, organic thermoelectrics are considered by many to be a promising candidate material system to be used in lower cost and higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, despite record ZT values for OTE currently lying around 0.25.

    A complete organic thermoelectric generator (TEG) normally needs both p-type and n-type materials to form its electric circuit. Molecular doping is an effective way to achieve p- and ntype materials using different dopants, and it is necessary to fundamentally understand the doping mechanism. We developed a simple yet quantitative analytical model and compare it with numerical kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to reveal the nature of the doping effect. The results show the formation of a deep tail in the Gaussian density of states (DOS) resulting from the Coulomb potentials of ionized dopants. It is this deep trap tail that negatively influences the charge carrier mobility with increasing doping concentration. The trends in mobilities and conductivities observed from experiments are in good agreement with the modeling results, for a large range of materials and doping concentrations.

    Having a high power factor PF is necessary for efficient TEG. We demonstrate that the doping method can heavily impact the thermoelectric properties of OTE. In comparison to conventional bulk doping, sequential doping can achieve higher conductivity by preserving the morphology, such that the power factor can improve over 100 times. To achieve TEG with high output power, not only a high PF is needed, but also having a significant active layer thickness is very important. We demonstrate a simple way to fabricate multi-layer devices by sequential doping without significantly sacrificing PF.

    In addition to the application discussed above, harvesting large amounts of heat at maximum efficiency, organic thermoelectrics may also find use in low-power applications like autonomous sensors where voltage is more important than power. A large output voltage requires a high Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that density of states (DOS) engineering is an effective tool to increase the Seebeck coefficient by tailoring the positions of the Fermi energy and the transport energy in n- and p-type doped blends of conjugated polymers and small molecules.

    In general, morphology heavily impacts the performance of organic electronic devices based on mixtures of two (or more) materials, and organic thermoelectrics are no exception. We experimentally find that the charge and energy transport is distinctly different in well-mixed and phase separated morphologies, which we interpreted in terms of a variable range hopping model. The experimentally observed trends in conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are reproduced by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in which the morphology is accounted for.  

  • Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Teknikämnet i svensk grundskolas tidiga skolår sett genom forskningscirkelns lupp.2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has been a compulsory subject in the Swedish school curriculum since 1980. However,many primary school teachers say that they do not feel comfortable with teaching technology. Thisoften results in a teaching time that is a (too) small part of the total teaching time of science andtechnology. In addition, studies show that pupils are probably not given equivalent education asthe syllabi may be interpreted in different ways. Against this background, we have conducted threeresearch circles under the guidance of researchers, in three municipalities in the Mälardalen region,addressing teachers working in preschool class to grade 6. Each circle had up to five participants andhad five meetings during one year. Based on the teachers’ own questions and needs we have studieddidactic literature connected to the subject of technology, discussed the syllabi for technology anddifferent forms of teaching support. An existing model for pedagogical content knowledge in technologyhas been used to interpret the activities in the research circles. The teachers experienced and appreciatedthe opportunities to work with the subject content linked to the syllabi for technology andsaw ways to integrate technology with other school subjects.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-05 13:00 C203, Borås
    Söderholm, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Borrowing and lending tools: The materiality of x-lending libraries2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Libraries lend an expanding array of items: bikes, clothes, seeds, and tools, to name a few. In correspondence with this development, the library as concept is increasingly connected with current sharing trends. At the same time, the library is expected to still be about books, literature, and reading, to deal in information and documents. The library is regarded as a well-established and predictable institution of integrity. These intriguing dynamics of responsiveness and stability provide the inspiration for this work.

    The thesis presents a case study of tool lending libraries. The aim is to explore what is introduced here as x-lending libraries: the idea of libraries based on the types of materials borrowed and lent. Findings show that patrons, staff, and managers experience their tool lending library as immediately and locally relevant to their community, rather than related to long-term global concerns. In their experience, the tool lending library is also decidedly different from other libraries. Seemingly, what is borrowed and lent is important to understanding the role different libraries play in their communities. In other words, material matters.

    The work concludes with proposing a theoretical concept for how different values involved in library borrowing and lending can be understood, again in the community context.

  • Seyfferth, Carolin
    et al.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wessels, Bernard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sundberg, Björn
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Felten, Judith
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood) inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula) stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2) homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and potential targets for EIN3D and ERF transcription factors in Populus stem tissues, which can help to understand the range of ethylene targeted biological processes during secondary growth.

  • Igamberdiev, Abir U.
    et al.
    Kleczkowski, Leszek A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The Glycerate and Phosphorylated Pathways of Serine Synthesis in Plants: The Branches of Plant Glycolysis Linking Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 318Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine metabolism in plants has been studied mostly in relation to photorespiration where serine is formed from two molecules of glycine. However, two other pathways of serine formation operate in plants and represent the branches of glycolysis diverging at the level of 3-phosphoglyceric acid. One branch (the glycerate serine pathway) is initiated in the cytosol and involves glycerate formation from 3phosphoglycerate, while the other (the phosphorylated serine pathway) operates in plastids and forms phosphohydroxypyruvate as an intermediate. Serine formed in these pathways becomes a precursor of glycine, formate and glycolate accumulating in stress conditions. The pathways can be linked to GABA shunt via transamination reactions and via participation of the same reductase for both glyoxylate and succinic semialdehyde. In this review paper we present a hypothesis of the regulation of redox balance in stressed plant cells via participation of the reactions associated with glycerate and phosphorylated serine pathways. We consider these pathways as important processes linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism and maintaining cellular redox and energy levels in stress conditions.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:00 C326, Sundsvall
    Abbasi, Seyed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of social inequalities in cardiovascular disease among Iranian patients2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the world. Similar to other health issues, CVD is generally affected either by individual risk factors, which may influence the risk for developing an illness or its complications, or by social indicators (social determinants of health). There is evidence from developed countries which shows that the so-called "upstream factors"—including social determinants such as political, social, spiritual, cultural, and economic factors—may affect the prevalence and incidence of CVD. Scarce evidence from studies in low- and middle-income countries also suggests that social factors may affect the distribution of CVD across population groups. However, there is a dearth of such data in Iran, where only a few small-sizedstudies have focused on the social determinants of health. Therefore, the present thesis sought to fill this gap by assessing the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the distribution of CVD and the relevant inequalities within the Iranian context.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four studies, which used data from the Tehran Heart Center’s Databases. In Study I, a total of 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center between 2005 and 2010 were recruited. Then, their pre- and post-procedural data—including demographics, CVD risk factors, symptoms, and laboratory tests—were compared between men and women. In Study II, 6,246 patients with acutecoronary syndrome who were hospitalized between March 2004 and August 2011 were included and, based on their education and their employment status, were divided into high- and low-SES groups. Thereafter, the effect of SES on the in-hospital death of the patients was evaluated. In Study III, 20,165 patients with documented coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center were enrolled and CVD risk factors and severity (measured by the Gensini score) were assessed among the six major Iranian ethnic groups. In Study IV, 9,088 patients with acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized at Tehran Heart Center between May 2007and June 2014 were recruited and the association between in-hospital death due to acute coronary syndrome and place of residence (rural/urban) was assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.

    Results: In this thesis, the data analyses were based on the hypothesis that there is a potential association between the different socioeconomic indicators and the selected cardiovascular outcomes. In Study I, among the recruited participant, 25,363 men and 11,995 women had coronary artery disease and the women not only were significantly older, less educated, and more overweight but also had higher blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar than the men. Moreover, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in the women with coronary artery disease (OR=3.45, 95% CI: 3.28to 3.61 and OR=2.37, 95% CI: 2.26 to 2.48, respectively). In addition, the frequency of post-procedural recommendations for non-invasive procedures was higher in the women than in the men (20.1% vs 18.6%; P<0.001). In StudyII, of the 6,246 recruited patients with acute coronary syndrome, 3,290individuals were considered low-SES and 2,956 high-SES individuals. In-hospital death occurred in 79 (1.26%) patients: 1.9% in the low-SES and 0.6% in the high-SES groups. After adjustment for the possible cofounders, our multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect of the patients’ SES on their in-hospital death and a lower in-hospital mortality rate was shown in the high-SES patients (OR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.98; P=0.046). In Study III, the Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest frequency of having at least four simultaneous risk factors. Additionally, the mean Gensini score was lowest in the Lurs (67.5±52.8) and highest among the Gilaks (77.1±55.9). The multivariable regression analysis indicated that the Gilaks showed the worst CVD severity (β: 0.056, 95% CI: 0.009 to 0.102; P=0.018), followed by the Turks (β: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.059; P=0.020), and the lowest CVD severity, was detected in the Lurs (β: -0.087, 95% CI: -0.146 to -0.027;P=0.004). Study IV showed that while smoking (P=0.002), positive family history of coronary artery disease (P=0.003), higher body mass index (P=0.013),and hyperlipidemia (P=0.026) were more prevalent in the urban patients, the rural patients showed lower educational levels (P<0.001) and higher frequency of unemployment (P=0.009). Meanwhile, in-hospital death occurred in 135 (1.5%) patients: 125 (1.5%) urban and 10 (1.2%) rural. To adjust the effects of the possible confounders, we utilized the Firth regression model, which showed no significant difference regarding in-hospital death betweenthe rural and urban patients (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.376 to 7.450; P=0.585).

    Conclusions: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of social determinants (particularly SES) on CVD and its modifiable risk factors among Iranian patients. Results showed that medical treatment for CVD was more recommended (by treating physicians) to the women than the men, and the low-SES patients with acute coronary syndrome were more likely to die in the hospital than their high-SES counterparts. In addition, the thesis found heterogeneity in the distribution of the traditional risk factors for CVD as well as CVD severity in the major Iranian ethnic groups. Further, there were no differences concerning the in-hospital death rates due to acute coronary syndrome between the urban and rural patients after adjustment for the potential confounders.

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