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  • Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Practical method to determine the contribution of structural timber to the rate of heat release and fire temperature of post-flashover compartment fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a method to quantify the contribution of exposed timber to a fire was identified as one of the main gaps of knowledge concerning the challenges of building high-rise timber buildings, in a recent gap analysis performed by the NFPA. Recent experimental studies successfully quantified the contribution of large surfaces of exposed timber, in terms of rate of heat release. However, a method to predict these quantities has not been found in the literature.

    This report proposes a model that includes the contribution of exposed or protected timber to post-flashover fires in compartments with a floor area up to 100m2. The model consists of a one-zone model and a wood combustion model. Using the one-zone model, the temperatures in the room are estimated from the heat release rate. Using the wood combustion model, the heat release rate coming from exposed or protected timber is estimated. The influence of delamination of lamellas or fall-off of claddings can be estimated with some restrictions regarding accuracy.

    Comparative studies showed that predictions of the model correspond well with previous full scale compartment fire tests.

    Key words:

    Compartment fire, Timber, CLT, natural fire, charring rate, heat release rate, delamination, cladding failure

  • Lundmark, Annika
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Utbildningsvetenskapliga fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Optimering i organisk syntes: betingelser, system, syntesvägar1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with different optimization problems encountered in organic synthesis. The use of response surface, sequential simplex and PLS techniques, for simultanious optimization of yield and suppression of side reactions is investigated. This is illustrated by an example of enamine synthesis, were a side reaction was a serious problem. The problem of efficient screening to find suitable catalysts and solvents in new reactions is also investigated. Here, the use of principal properties as selection criterion, is demonstrated with a new process for the silylation of a,ß-unsaturated ketones. The extension of the new method to bis silylation of 1,2- and 1,3-diketones is demonstrated. The total synthesis of (±)-geosmin is investigated by an approach aimed to reduce the number of necessary steps involved. The suggested strategy, is to find compatible solvents through several transformations in the sequence to accomplish one-pot multistep reactions. In this context an improved method for the preparation of 1,10-dimethyl-l(9)-octalone-2 was established. Comparison with previously reported total syntheses of (±)-geosmin was done. 

  • Lundmark, Annika
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Teologiska fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Waxell, Anders
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Lindeborg, Anna-Klara
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Maandi, Camilla
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Ljunghammar Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Medicinska fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Ljunghammar Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Juridiska fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Björnermark, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Ljunghammar Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Ljunghammar Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, University Administration, Division for Quality Enhancement.
    Forskarutbildningen vid Uppsala universitet ur tre perspektiv: Doktorander, handledare och alumner vid Farmaceutiska fakulteten2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2017-03-08 13:15 9C203, Karlstad
    Sjöstrand, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Dewatering aspects at the forming section of the paper machine: Rewetting and forming fabric structure2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying motives of the research undertaken here are twofold: to obtain a deeper understanding of the dewatering mechanisms at the forming section of a papermaking machine and to develop numerical models that describe the flow through forming fabrics. More comprehensive knowledge of dewatering in the forming section allows suggestions to be made for improvements that reduce the amount of energy used in the process without affecting the quality of the end product.

     

    The objective of this thesis is to answer the following questions:

    • How and why does rewetting occur at the high vacuum suction boxes?
    • How does the structure of the forming fabric affect dewatering at the forming section?
    • Is it possible to create accurate numerical models for forming fabrics, and can these be used to predict the dewatering behaviour of new types of fabrics?

     

    Laboratory and pilot studies simulating high vacuum suction boxes were performed together with numerical modelling of the flow of air and water through both the forming fabric and the paper sheet.

     

    The conclusion drawn from the pilot study is that rewetting significantly lowers the dryness of the paper sheet exiting the suction boxes. The phenomenon is extremely rapid and is most likely driven by capillary forces. The high speed at which this rewetting occurs makes it difficult to impede by placing the suction boxes closer to the couch pick-up: the solution is more likely to be the use of new and improved designs of the forming fabric. The structure of the forming fabric has been shown to affect the dewatering rate at certain conditions of vacuum dewatering, and can possibly be connected partly to the fact that fibres penetrate the surface of the fabric to varying degrees and partly to the flow resistance of the different fabric structures. Numerical models of high accuracy can be constructed and used to predetermine how new fabric designs would affect dewatering at the forming section.

     

    This thesis quantifies aspects of dewatering such as rewetting and the influence of the forming fabric. Understanding these dewatering aspects further provides for the potential enhancement of energy efficiency in the forming section, and thereby the entire papermaking process. The forming fabric can play an important role in improving energy efficiency: rewetting after the high vacuum suction boxes occurs more rapidly than was previously known, so its design might be the only possible way of impeding it. The forming fabric can also improve the rate of dewatering: it is therefore likely that its design will be important in the next stage of developing energy efficiency and thereby play a part in achieving a more sustainable future.

  • Novakovic, Ana M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Krekels, Elke H.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Division of Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Centre of Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Munafo, Alain
    Merck Institute of Pharmacometrics, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Ueckert, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Karlsson, Mats O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Application of Item Response Theory to Modeling of Expanded Disability Status Scale in Multiple Sclerosis2017In: AAPS Journal, ISSN 1550-7416, E-ISSN 1550-7416, Vol. 19, no 1, 172-179 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we report the development of the first IRT model within a NLME (Non Linear Mixed Effect) framework to characterize the disease progression in MS (as measured by EDSS). Data were collected from a 96-week Phase III clinical study, involving 104206 item-level observations from 1319 patients with relapsing-remitting MS, treated with placebo or cladribine. Observed scores for each EDSS item were modelled describing the probability of a given score as a function of patients’ (unobserved) disability using a logistic model. Longitudinal data from placebo arms were used to describe the disease progression over time and the model was then extended to cladribine arms in order to characterize the drug effect. Sensitivity with respect to patient disability was calculated as Fisher information for each EDSS item, which were ranked according to the amount of information they contained. IRT model was able to describe baseline and longitudinal EDSS data on item and total level. Final model suggested that cladribine treatment significantly slows disease-progression rate, with a 20% decrease in disease-progression rate compared to placebo, irrespective of exposure, and effects an additional exposure-dependent reduction in disability progression. Four out of 8 items contained 80% of information for the given range of disabilities. This study has illustrated that IRT modelling is specifically suitable for accurate quantification of disease status and description and prediction of disease progression in Phase 3 studies on RRMS, by integrating EDSS item-level data in a meaningful manner.

  • Emilson, C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Demmelmaier, I.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergman, S.
    Research and Development Center Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lindberg, P.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Denison, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Åsenlöf, P.
    Department of Public Health, and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A 10-year follow-up of tailored behavioural treatment and exercise-based physiotherapy for persistent musculoskeletal pain2017In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 2, 186-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the long-term outcomes of two interventions targeting patients with sub-acute and persistent pain in a primary care physiotherapy setting. Design: A 10-year follow-up of a two-armed randomised controlled trial, initially including 97 participants. Interventions: Tailored behavioural medicine treatment, applied in a physiotherapy context (experimental condition), and exercise-based physiotherapy (control condition). Main measures: Pain-related disability was the primary outcome. The maximum pain intensity, pain control, fear of movement, sickness-related absence (register data) and perceived benefit and confidence in coping with future pain problems were the secondary outcomes. Results: Forty-three (44%) participants responded to the follow-up survey, 20 in the tailored behavioural medicine treatment group and 23 in the exercise-based physiotherapy group. The groups did not differ in terms of the change in the scores for the primary outcome (p=0.17) of pain-related disability between the experimental group (median: 2.5, Q1-Q3: -2.5-14.25), and the control group (median: 0, Q1-Q3: -5-6). Further, there were also no significant differences found for the secondary outcomes except for sickness-related absence, where the exercise-based physiotherapy group had more days of sickness-related absence three months before treatment (p= 0.02), and at the 10-year follow-up (p=0.03). Discussion: The beneficial effects favouring tailored behavioural medicine treatment that observed post-treatment and at the two-year follow-up were not maintained 10 years after treatment.

  • Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Chemical strengthening of flat glass by vapour deposition and in-line alkali metal ion exchange2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is a common material in the everyday life. It is widely used in a variety ofapplications e.g. architectural, automotive, containers, drinking vessels, displays,insulation and optical fibers due to its universal forming ability, transparency, chemicaldurability, form stability, hardness and relatively low price. Flat glass is a wide market ofthe glass industry and generally ninety percent of all flat glass produced worldwide ismanufactured using the float forming process. There is a large market strive for thinnerand stronger glass in order to reduce costs, save energy, reduce environmental footprint,find new applications and to improve the working environment for labour working withmounting flat glass.

    This study comprises the modification of flat/float glass surface by a novel route;exchange of ionic species originating from in-line vapour deposition of salt compared tothe conventional route of immersing the glass in molten salt baths. The aim of this workis to develop a novel process in order to improve the mechanical strength of flat/floatglass by introducing external material to the surface in a process with the obviouspotential to be automatic in industrial processes. Chemical strengthening has beenperformed by applying potassium chloride to the glass surface by vapour deposition andthermally activated ion exchange. The method presented here is anticipated to be used inproduction in the future and would make it possible to produce larger quantities ofchemically strengthened flat glass to a considerably lower cost.

  • Ekermo, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Roland
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Patienters och närståendes erfarenheter av de psykiatriska omvårdnadsteamen: Rapport från ett utvecklingsarbete i Landstinget Sörmland. Delrapport 4.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är den fjärde delrapporten i projektet "Utvärdering av mobila omvårdnadsteam inom psykiatrin i södra och västra Sörmland". I rapporten redovisas patienters och närståendes erfarenheter av omvårdnadsteamen och syn på verksamhetsidén med psykiatrisk vård och stöd i hemmet som alternativ till inläggning i slutenvården. 

    Rapporten bygger på intervjuer med 18 patienter som varit anslutna till omvårdnadsteamen och sju närstående. Rapporten riktar sig i första hand till de som direkt berörs av det pågående utvecklingsarbetet med mobila omvårdnadsteam inom psykiatrin i Landstinget Sörmland.

  • Ekermo, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Roland
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hur har de mobila omvårdnadsteamen påverkat användningen av psykiatrisk slutenvård?: Rapport från ett utvecklingsarbete i Landstinget Sörmland. Delrapport 3.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är den tredje delrapporten i projektet "Utvärdering av mobila omvårdnadsteam  inom psykiatrin i södra och västra Sörmland".  I rapporten redovisas i vilken utsträckning omvårdnadsteamen mål om minskad psykiatrisk slutenvård har uppnåtts, vad som går att utläsa efter två års verksamhet. 

    Rapporten bygger på patientstatistik hämtad från patientdatabasen och på information från ärendeblad som upprättats av omvårdnadsteamen när patienter anslutits. Rapporten riktar sig i första hand till de som direkt berörs av det pågående utvecklingsarbetet med mobila omvårdnadsteam inom psykiatrin i Landstinget Sörmland.

  • Ekermo, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Roland
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Vårdgrannarnas perspektiv på de psykiatriska omvårdnadsteamen: Rapport från ett utvecklingsarbete i Landstinget Sörmland. Delrapport 2.2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är den andra delrapporten i projektet "Utvärdering av mobila omvårdnadsteam inom psykiatrin i södra och västra Sörmland". I rapporten redovisas vårdgrannarnas; de psykiatriska öppenvårdsmottagningarna, akut- och  slutenvården inom landstinget samt den kommunala socialpsykiatrins erfarenheter av omvårdnadsteamens arbete.

    Utvärderingen bygger på enkäter och intervjuer med olika personalgrupper. Rapporten riktar sig i första hand till de som direkt berörs av det pågående utvecklingsarbetet med mobila omvårdnadsteam inom psykiatrin i Landstinget Sörmland. 

  • Public defence: 2017-03-10 13:15 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Galactic archaeology with metal-poor stars2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical fingerprints of old, metal-poor stars can be used to unravel the events of the newborn Universe and help us understand the properties of the first stars and star clusters. The study of nearby stars to infer properties in the distant past is often referred to as Galactic archaeology. However, the chemical composition of stars cannot be observed directly, but must be inferred by means of spectroscopic modelling. Traditionally, this modelling utilises one-dimensional (1D) stellar atmospheres in hydrostatic and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Today, we know that departures from LTE (known as NLTE), and differences between 1D model atmospheres and their hydrodynamical three-dimensional (3D) counterparts, become increasingly severe at lower metallicity. The development of NLTE modelling of spectral line formation in 3D atmospheres is still in its infancy, but constitutes a remarkable step forward that has been made possible by parallelised codes and supercomputers. The central theme of this thesis is the application of NLTE analyses to metal-poor stars, to help usher the field of Galactic archaeology forward with important consequences for the nature of the first stellar generations.

    I present a theoretical NLTE study of aluminium, where I validate the analysis using a set of bright standard stars and provide calculated NLTE effects for a large parameter space. I perform 3D NLTE calculations for the solar spectrum to better constrain the zero-point of the cosmic abundance scale, and find excellent agreement with the meteoritic aluminium abundance.

    I also present NLTE analyses of metal-poor stars in the globular clusters NGC 6397 and M4. While globular cluster stars were long expected to form from a chemically homogeneous medium, star-to-star abundance variations of light elements indicate multiple epochs of star formation. Massive first-generation stars polluted the interstellar medium from which later generations formed, and I use the observed abundance variations to deduce the properties of the polluting stars. Among the heavier elements, I uncover evolutionary abundance variations that match predictions of stellar evolution models with atomic diffusion. The results indicate that the chemical abundance ratios of unevolved metal-poor stars are affected by gravitational settling, with a bias of the order 25-50 %, increasing towards lower metallicity. This atmospheric depletion mechanism is a probable explanation to why the stellar abundances of lithium fall short of the predictions from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

    Finally, I apply a 3D NLTE abundance analysis to the red giant SMSS 0313-6708, which is the most iron-deficient star known. The chemical abundance pattern of this star indicates that it formed from gas affected only by Big Bang nucleosynthesis and a single faint supernova. Comparison of the inferred abundance pattern to theoretical predictions leads to constraints on the explosion mechanism and the mass of the metal-free progenitor star.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 10:00 Q2, Stockholm
    Huang, Yalin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Economic Regulation Impact on Electricity Distribution Network Investment Considering Distributed Generation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of EU’s actions against climate change is to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable resources by the year 2020 when the project was started. Now this target has increased to at least 27% by the year 2030. In addition, given that the renewable resources are becoming more economical to generate electricity from and that these resources are distributed geographically, more and more distributed generation (DG) is connected to power distribution. The increasing share of DG in the electricity networks implies re-distribution of costs and benefits among distribution system operators (DSOs), customers and DG owners. How the costs and benefits will be allocated among them depends on the established economic regulation.

    The established economic regulation regulates the DSOs’ revenue and performances. The time when the DSOs are remunerated based on their actual costs has passed. Nowadays the economic regulation is in place to steer efficient investments. Network investments are no longer just to satisfy the load growth, or to higher the investments does not bring higher revenue. Network investments are incentivised by the regulation to be more efficient. Furthermore, the potential of DG to defer network investment is widely recognized. Ignoring this potential of DG may decrease DSOs’ efficiency. Last but not the least; network unbundling is a common practice in Europe. Ignoring the fact that DSOs and DG owners are different decision makers in studies can lead to inaccurate analysis.

    Driven by the target of a higher DG integration and more efficient investments in the unbundled distribution networks, proper economic regulations are needed to facilitate this change. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the impact from regulations on distribution network investment considering DG integration. In other words, this thesis aims to develop methods assist regulators to design desirable regulations to encourage the DSOs to make the “smart” decisions. In order to achieve that, we propose a modelling approach to quantify the economic regulation impacts and the benefit of innovative investments. Regulations are encoded into the network investment model. The developed models, in other words, assist DSOs to make the “right” investment in the “right” place at the “right” time under the given regulation.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-22 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Fang, Yuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ions interacting with macromolecules: NMR studies in solution2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific ion effects, identified for more than hundred years, play an important role in a wide range of phenomena and applications. Several mechanisms such as direct ion interaction with molecules have been suggested to explain these effects, but quantitative experimental evidence remains scarce. Electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) has been emerging as a very powerful tool for studying molecular association and ionic transport in a variety of systems. Yet its potential in studying specific ion effect has been unexplored. In this thesis, eNMR was in part developed further as an analytical method and was in part used as one of the main techniques to study ions interacting with macromolecules in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions.

    The complexation of a large group of cations with poly ethylene oxide (PEO) in methanol was studied with eNMR. The binding of monovalent ions was demonstrated not to follow the Hofmeister order; multivalent cations except barium all showed negligible complexation. As a unifying feature, only cations with surface charge density below a threshold value were able to bind suggesting that ion solvation is critical. The binding mechanism was examined in greater detail for K+ and Ba2+ with oligomeric PEO of different chain lengths. Those two cations exhibited different binding mechanisms. K+ was found to bind to PEO by having at least 6 repeating units wrap around it while retaining the polymer flexibility. On the other hand, Ba2+ (and, to some extent, (BaAnion)+) needs a slightly shorter section to bind, but the molecular dynamics at the binding site slow considerably.

    The binding of anions with poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) in water was quantified at low salt concentration with eNMR and the binding affinity, though very weak, followed the Hofmeister order. This result indicates the non-electrostatic nature of this specific ion effects. The increase of binding strength with salt concentration is well described by a Langmuir isotherm.

    The specific ion binding to a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was also studied at pH values where BSA has either net positive and negative charges. Our results show that anions have the same binding affinity irrespective of the surface charge while the binding strength of cations is reversed with the change in net surface charge. This indicates different binding mechanisms for cations and anions.

    The ionization of cellobiose in alkaline solutions was measured quantitatively by eNMR. The results show a two-step deprotonation process with increasing alkaline strength. Supported by results from 1H-13C HSQC NMR and MD simulation, ionization was proposed to be responsible for the improved solubility of cellulose in alkaline solution. eNMR was also used to characterize the effective charge of tetramethylammonium ions in a variety of solvents. In solvents of high polarity, the results agree well with predictions based on Onsager’s limiting law but for nonpolar solvents deviations were found that were attributed to ion pair formation. 

  • Gällstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, W.R.
    Johansson, E.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Film extrusion of Crambe abyssinica/wheat gluten blends2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol. 2017, no 119, e54770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crambe abyssinica is a plant with potential for use in industrial (non-food) plant oil production. The side stream from this oil production is a high-protein crambe meal that has limited value, as it is not fit for food or feed use. However, it contains proteins that could potentially make it a suitable raw material for higher-value products. The purpose of this study was to find methods of making this side stream into extruded films, showing that products with a higher value can be produced. The study mainly considered the development of material compositions and methods of preparing and extruding the material. Wheat gluten was added as a supportive protein matrix material, together with glycerol as a plasticizer and urea as a denaturant. The extrudate was evaluated with respect to mechanical (tensile testing) and oxygen barrier properties, and the extrudate structure was revealed visually and by scanning electron microscopy. A denser, more homogeneous material had a lower oxygen transmission rate, higher strength, and higher extensibility. The most homogeneous films were made at an extruder die temperature of 125-130 °C. It is shown here that a film can be extruded with promising mechanical and oxygen barrier properties, the latter especially after a final compression molding step.

  • Nordisk samarbejde på social- og sundhedsområdet: Samarbejdsprogram 2017-20202017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Samarbejdsprogrammet beskriver de mål som skal styrke en bæredygtig velfærd og sundhed i Norden. I samarbejdsprogrammet kan du læse om prioriterede politiske mål og særlige fokusområder 2017-2020. Strategien bliver fulgt op af en årlig handlingsplan som kan ses på www.norden.org. Handlingsplanen viser hvordan sektoren arbejder for at nå målene, med oversigt over igangværende og planlagte indsatser.

  • Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Rudén, Christina
    Hanberg, Annika
    SciRAP workshop report: Bridging the gap between academic research and chemicals regulation - the SciRAP tool for evaluating toxicity and ecotoxicity data for risk assessment of chemicals2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report from a Nordic workshop on the SciRAP tools and their application in regulatory hazard and risk assessment, which was organised in Stockholm in November 2016. Thirty-one experts in toxicology and ecotoxicology from authorities and academia in the five Nordic countries attended the workshop. Participant presentations concerning specific issues and challenges in evaluating data for regulatory assessments of chemicals, as well as a pre-workshop exercise using the SciRAP tools provided the basis for discussions. Overall, the conclusion was that the SciRAP tools are useful to Nordic authorities when evaluating (eco)toxicity studies for hazard and risk assessment. Improvements to the SciRAP tools and website were suggested. The outcome of the workshop will be useful in moving forward and making further developments to the SciRAP tools to meet end-users’ needs.

  • Gustavsson, Laila
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Thulin, Susanne
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Barndom, Lärande och Utbildning (BALU).
    Lärares uppfattningar av undervisning och naturvetenskap som innehåll i förskolans verksamhet2017In: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 13, no 1, 81-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research project is to analyze and describe how pre-school teachers during an in-service training period develop theoretical knowledge about focusing the content when planning for teaching science in pre-school. The variation theory is used for analysis as well as for the planning for teaching in pre-school. The theory can be described in terms of learning object, critical aspects, discernment, simultaneity and differences. 30 pre-school teachers from nine different municipalities participated in the project. The empirical material consists of a questionnaire as the preschool teachers answered in the beginning and in the end of the training period and of group reports. The results can be discussed as a number of critical aspects in relation to teachers'learning as: ways of understand the concept of variation, to discern the object of learning and to discern o shared space of learning.

  • Sellén, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Beständighet för utomhusträ i Brf Viva2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brf Viva is an apartment building, housing society, planned for Gothenburg where one alternative for the façade and house structure is based on wood. The buildings have 6-8 floors with balconies on one or more sides, according to images in the prospectus from Riksbyggen 2014.

    By utilizing Report TVBK-3066 [1] (ISSN 0349-4969, ISBN 978-91-87993-01-5) from Lund Technical University and from there in published data, lifetimes of different wooden details of planned buildings, and their maintenance intervals, have been estimated and summed in this report.

    Details calculated consists of:

     Protected wood panel and topographically sheltered position and protection by buildings (A1)

     Protected wooden panel and unprotected position (A2)

     Wooden panel without roof overhang with topographically sheltered position and protection by buildings (B1)

     Wooden panel without roof overhang and unprotected position (B2)

     Protected wooden exterior corridor and balcony plate decking (C1). This detail is missing in the guide [1] and its results are therefore considered much more uncertain. Exposed wooden railings on the balcony with topographically sheltered position and protection by buildings (D1)

     Exposed wooden railings on balcony with unprotected position (D2)

    The calculated estimates of wooden details life expectancy varied between 12 and 38 years.

    Calculating other than those in the report TVBK-3066 [1] described facade panels should be seen more as an attempt to calculate and appears to yield unreasonably short life spans. Calculations on the exterior corridor (C1) is here only to illustrate the inability of the calculation model for the specific example above.

  • von Bahr, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Miljösystemanalys av Ekobalansprocess för pyrolys av slam2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utgör delprojekt 3 i Vinnova-projektet ”Slamförädling via pyrolys” som undersöker EkoBalans process för pyrolys av slam. Övriga delprojekt är mer inriktade på de tekniska processerna och användning av producerat biokol. Delprojektet är en miljösystemanalys som jämför tre olika sätt att försörja ett hektar åkermark med näringsämnen, och en del av indata har kommit från de andra delprojekten. Den funktionella enheten är: Att få ut en fullständig mängd näring med avseende på kväve, fosfor och kalium (N, P och K) under en specificerad växtföljd till ett hektar åkermark”. Växtföljden är fyraårig och består av höstvete, havre, höstvete och slutligen vårkorn.

    Fosfor är en globalt begränsad resurs och det är av största vikt att vara sparsam med denna resurs för att uppnå en långsiktig hållbar utveckling. Projektets fokus ligger på fosfor men eftersom åkermarken kräver stora mängder av andra näringsämnen som också kan kopplas ihop med fosfor så är även kväve och kalium med i analysen (avloppsslam innehåller t ex även kväve förutom fosfor).

    De tre olika försörjningssätten av näringsämnen är:

    1. Mineralgödsel

    2. Avloppsslam + Mineralgödsel

    3. Biokol + Mineralgödsel

    Växttillgängligheten för de tre näringsämnena antas vara likvärdiga mellan de tre alternativen. Mineralgödseln framställs via extraktion ur mark (fosfor- och kaliummineral) och luft (kvävebindning med hjälp av naturgas). Avloppsslammet kommer i avvattnad form från ett avloppsreningsverk, och lagras 6 månader i väntan på spridning. I biokol-alternativet så torkas det avvattnade avloppsslammet med spillvärme och genomgår därefter en pyrolysprocess. Avloppsslammet belastas inte med någon miljöpåverkan i kalkylen fram till den punkt det matas ut vid avloppsreningsverket. All bearbetning och transport därefter är däremot inkluderad. Den aktuella åkermarken antas ligga i södra Sverige. Transporterna har estimerats utifrån detta med realistiska transportavstånd.

    Resultatet är att avloppsslam är det alternativ som kräver minst energiinsats. På grund av klimatpåverande emissioner vid lagring av avloppsslam är det dock inte det bästa alternativet ur klimatsynpunkt, vilket visade sig vara biokol. Mineralgödsel och avloppsslam var likvärdiga ur klimatsynpunkt. Dessa slutsatser kräver dock att biokolen torkas med spillvärme utan miljöbelastning (vilket är ett fullt realistiskt antagande i ett systemperspektiv) samt att pyrolysgaserna kan förbrännas och driva pyrolysprocessen. Om inte detta uppnås blir biokolalternativet sämst ur båda perspektiven.

    Om den jämförande analysen fokuserar på näringsämnet fosfor så är biokol bäst ur både energi- och klimatsynpunkt. Biokol kräver väldigt lite energi i framställningen förutsatt att torkenergin tillförs i form av spillvärme. Fosfor från mineralgödsel kräver mycket energi för framställningen och fosfor från avloppsslam har större energibehov i form av transporter än biokol. För klimatpåverkan är det samma förhållande. Fosfor från mineralgödsel har större klimatpåverkan från produktionen än biokol, och fosfor från avloppsslam har större klimatpåverkan vid lagring, än biokol. Klimatpåverkan från alternativet biokol visade sig bli ”negativ” dvs man lagrar upp kol i marken vid detta alternativ.

    Framställning av mineralgödselkväve dominerar fullständigt både energibehov och klimatpåverkan i de tre fallen, eftersom alla tre fallen behöver tillföras kvävegödsel.

  • Furborg, Johan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Schüßler, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rönnbäck, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vedkaminen år 2020 - en del av boendemiljön2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wood Stove year 2020 - a part of the living environment

    This project is a collaboration between Nibe AB / Contura and SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. Based on earlier evaluations of six different technology tracks, three tracks were selected to further evaluate: CFD modeling, active control and catalyst technology, with the long term goals of particle emission, control of maximum output and long burning time. A literature review of available sensors for O2, CO and hydrocarbons have been conducted followed by a market research, focusing on developments during the last decade and experiences from biomass combustion. Sensors were long-term tested. The lambda probe works well and is affordable, while sensors for unburnt gases still need to be further optimized for accuracy and long-term stability and also become less expensive to be of practical use. Active control has been applied to a prototype and evaluated with good results. In further work with active control, emphasis should be on safety. A CFD method for stove combustion has led to an industrial application with significant cuts in time and resources. Advanced CFD simulation has been used to examine the impact of furnace temperature on wood conversion and how wood log size can be used to counteract an accelerating power output. Simulation results show that log size has good potential to contribute to an improved combustion, but should be combined with further design of the stove. A rig for evaluation of catalyst coatings has been built and experimental results are promising. CO was in principle eliminated from the flue gas and hydrocarbon concentration were reduced down to a level equivalent to 25-70% of the original content.

  • Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Utveckling av metodik för verifiering av beständighet hos system för lufttäthet, etapp 1 - utökning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of methodology for verification of the durability of systems for airtightness, stage 1 - extension

    This is a project that is intended to treat durability of airtightness systems for buildings with typically related details, such as foil, tape, prefabricated penetrations, etc.

    This stage of the project has included the development, design and construction of prototype equipment. This is so that dimensioning, heating method, the level of dynamic loading, etc. could be selected and tested. Some shorter pilot tests of dimensions stability have been performed and testing methodology has been documented.

    The test method has worked excellent in pilot tests. You see a change in air permeability in the measurement before and after the heat treatment. The test method is very accurate and sensitive so that the change in airtightness can be recorded.

    The test method should be a very good tool for producers of airtightness systems for product development. The method is also suitable for use in the evaluation of airtightness systems for different methods of approval and certification.

    All tested airtightness systems were very airtight before heat treatment. All systems show the results for 0.1 l/(s∙m2). However, after the heat treatment all the tested airtightness systems displayed an increase in air permeability in varying degrees.

    In the extended project, installation of airtightness systems was made in environments that have chosen to mimic realistic constructions on site conditions. All the investigated airtightness systems show changes in air density when the assembly had taken place in cold and humid environments and when installed in a dusty environment. The variation between the different systems, however, is quite large.

  • Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Lopez, Manuela
    Palmgren, Torsten
    Förkommersiell innovationsupphandling av kvicksilverfri COD-analys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organiskt material analyseras traditionellt i avloppsvattenprover med analysmetoden kemisksyreförbrukning, CODCr. Analysmetoden baseras på oxidation av organisk materialmed dikromat varvid förbrukningen av oxidationsmedel blir ett indirekt mått på mängdenorganiskt material i provet. Standardmetoden för CODCr innehåller kvicksilver för att minimerainterferens av kloridjoner. Användning av kvicksilver är förbjudet i Sverige ochCODCr används idag under ett tidsbegränsat undantag. För att avloppsreningsverken skakunna uppfylla rapporteringskravet på COD under avloppsvattendirektivet och bedriva ettbra drifts- och utvecklingsarbete måste en alternativ kvicksilverfri COD-metod tas fram. Mot den bakgrunden startades denna förkommersiella upphandling med målet att identifiera, utveckla och validera en kommersialiserbar anlysmetod som skulle vara kvicksilverfri och jämförbar med CODCr samt gärna dikromatfri. Upphandlingsfasen, Fas 1, ledde till att tre metoder från två leverantörer valdes ut för utvärdering:

    1. COD-analys med kloridelimination från Tyska Macherey-Nagel (CE-COD)

    2. COD-analys med kloriddetektion från Tyska Macherey-Nagel (CD-COD)

    3. COD-analys med PeCOD® från Kanadensiska Mantech (PeCOD).

    De tre metoderna testades parallellt vid tre olika laboratorier. Utvärdering och validering delades in i två faser där alla tre metoderna utvärderades översiktligt i Fas 2a medan endastmetoder som bedömdes ha god potential att nå kommersialisering inom ramen för projekttiden validerades i Fas 2b. För Fas 2a gjordes kontrollprover och validering på verkliga prover. För Fas 2b gjordes, förutom fortsatt validering på verkliga prover, också analyser för repeterbarhet, reproducerbarhet och kloridinterferens samt provningsjämförelse och en hållbarhetsstudie. En rigorös statistisk utvärdering har utförts i enlighet med standardförfarandet för validering av kemiska analysmetoder; riktighet, repeterbarhet, reproducerbarhet, kloridinterferens och hållbarhet utvärderades. Som referensmetod vid valideringen användes ampullmetoden CODCr från Hach-Lange. Resultaten i Fas 2a visade att metoden CE-COD inte var praktiskt användbar, dels på grund av att provberedningen med fällning och filtrering av provet var praktiskt svår att genomföra samt att filtreringen i sig endast möjliggjorde analys av filtrerad COD och intetotal COD. Metoden PeCOD testades i Fas 2a endast på filtrerade prover eftersom mätprincipen inte kan analysera partikulärt organiskt material. Förutom att metoden visade på bristande korrelation mot referensmetoden så meddelade leverantören att de inte skulle kunna leverera den utlovade upplösningsenheten för partikulärt material som skulle möjliggöraanalys av total COD. Varken CE-COD eller PeCOD gick vidare till validering iFas 2b. CD-COD från Macherey-Nagel var den metod som gav bäst resultat utifrån upphandlingens krav. Kloridinterferens kompenseras genom separat kloridmätning och reduktion av uppmätt COD-värde. Metoden gav resultat med hög riktighet och god repeterbarhet för inkommande prover. För utgående prover var riktigheten acceptabel på ett av tre laboratorier. På de laboratorier vars prover kom från stora reningsverk med höga utsläppskrav underskattade metoden COD-halten. Kloridkoncentrationen i provet kunde inte visas påverka mätresultatet. CD-COD är kvicksilverfri men inte dikromatfri. Metodenär färdig att kommersialisera för mätning på inkommande avloppsvatten. Även förutgående avloppsvatten kan analysmetoden användas om en laboratorie intern validering visar att riktigheten är acceptabel på specifika provtyper och provpunkter. För generell tillämpning på utgående prover behöver metoden utvecklas vidare.

  • Mossing, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology.
    Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. In winter, reindeer spent less time feeding  but more time ruminating and resting *than in summer. Synchronization  between individuals was also greatest in winter. It  is concluded that the described changes in the activity  pattern are due to an endogenous component and that this component  further controls food consumption and energy balance  of the reindeer.  Seasonal variations in behavioural patterns are described.  Several specific rutting behavioürs, sexual and agonostic,  emerge in the male during the prerut and persist until after  the rut. The preorbital gland is enlarged and secretory activity  is evident. The rut is cha'tabterized by the sudden appearance  of an odour in the breath of mature males followed a few  later by a strong odour in the urine. These odours persist for  a short time during the most intense period of rut. The amount  of androgen rizes sharply and reaches peak concentrations in  late September - early October, decreasing thereafter. The  described behavioural cues occur with a certain constancy in  time in concecutive seasons.  A quantification of the amounts of secretory epithelia in preorbital,  interdigital, caudal and tarsal glands reveals that  only the preorbital gland is subjected to any seasonal and  sexual variation. The apocrine epithelium in this gland is  most developed in mature males during the rutting season and  seems to be dependent upon the presence of an elevated androgen  concentration. The tarsal gland is the least developed  gland while the interdigital and caudal glands are more welldeveloped  and structurally complex. Scattered apocrine glands  are only developed on the legs, the ventral body, oral angle  and in the rump patch.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-10 13:00 MB503, Huddinge
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Anti-nuclear Movements in Discursive and Political Contexts​: Between Expert Voices and Local Protests2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy policies which maintain and extend nuclear energy are often opposed by anti-nuclear movements. Ambitious plans for developing nuclear energy in Russia, constructing a first nuclear plant in Poland, and lifting the ban on nuclear energy while allowing the replacement of old reactors in Sweden are examples of such energy policies. In contrast to the massive anti-nuclear movements of 1970-1990s, recent anti-nuclear movements are not organized as national protest campaigns. This thesis examines repertoires of anti-nuclear movements in the alleged “Nuclear Renaissance” period.  

    Repertoires of anti-nuclear actions are analyzed from the perspective of discursive and political opportunities of anti-nuclear movements. Discursive opportunities are enabled or hindered in the ordering of nuclear energy discourses, making messages and actions of social movements legitimate or illegitimate. While discourses of anti-nuclear movements are complex, official discourses of nuclear energy featuring arguments about profitability, energy security and environmental security in connection to nuclear energy development, resonate more with broader socio-political developments. Ordering of discourses is established in such a way that expert rhetoric becomes a standard approach for discussing nuclear energy, while references to emotions and subjective matters are unacceptable.

    Political contexts of anti-nuclear movements provide opportunities for environmental NGOs, one kind of actor in anti-nuclear movements, to pursue nonconfrontational strategies and engage in institutional channels, where they can contribute their expert knowledge. Concurrently, another actor in anti-nuclear movements, local anti-nuclear groups, on the one hand, share argumentative structures with environmental NGOs, and, on the other hand, attempt to mobilize local population and organize local protests. Due to limited opportunities for attention from the national media and focus on local issues, local protests are not featured in the national media, which is crucial for national protest actions.

    The differences in repertoires between these two kinds of actors and absence of actors opting for mass engagement provide insight into repertoires of anti-nuclear movements as a whole. This thesis demonstrates how discursive opportunities of social movements, which result from competing discourses of movements and their counter-agents, and political opportunities structure repertoires of actions of these movements.

  • Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ossman, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sandén, Björn
    Larsson, David
    En strategisk innovationsagenda för solel: Så tar vi del i potentialen på 1000 000 TWh2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som användandet av solenergi har växt exponentiellt det senaste decenniet,är fortfarande andelen solenergi i den globala energimixen bara omkring 1 procent.En kraftigt ökad andel solenergi samtidigt som energibehoven totalt sett ökar, skaparmöjligheter för fler aktörer och mer aktivitet inom marknaden. Svenska företag och aktörerär redan verksamma inom de flesta delar av värdekedjan, och inom spannet frånforskning till färdig produkt/tjänst på marknaden. I vissa delar av kedjan finns det fleraktörer, medan andra har färre eller bara någon enstaka. Solelområdet påverkas även avnärliggande områden såsom lagringsteknik, smarta nät och elektrifiering av transportsektorn.Även i kopplingarna till dessa angränsande områden finns många möjligheter.Med detta ser vi också möjligheter för nya aktörer på denna marknad, exempelvis ABVolvo och olika IT-företag.

    Ett antal nätverk med olika syften finns etablerade inom solelområdet och dessa kanutgöra en viktig grund för strategier framåt och samverkan inom området. Underagendaarbetet har det framkommit några prioriterade områden där de medverkandeaktörerna anser att det bör läggas extra resurser för att snabba på utvecklingen av desvenska aktiviteterna. Det första är ett samlande av insatser för att stärka den inhemskamarknaden, då denna anses vara avgörande för tillväxt och innovation inom området.Den andra är att öka samverkan mellan akademisk forskning och industri, då det finnsvärldsledande forskning inom material och celler samtidigt som Sverige besitter en starkinternationell industrisektor där kombinationen av dessa kan ge konkurrenskraftiga erbjudandenpå en global marknad. Den tredje och sista handlar om att utveckla specifikasvenska nischer inom området solel. Detta är viktigt då den globala konkurrensen är tuffinom vissa delar av värdekedjan, samtidigt som det finns stor utvecklingspotential inomandra. Det finns därmed möjligheter att dra nytta av svenska förmågor för att ta framnischprodukter och tjänster för en global solmarknad.

  • Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Mikroorganismer bakom keramiskaplattor i badrum2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms behind ceramic tiles in bathrooms

    In this study the interface between the backside of ceramic tiles and the waterproof membrane was investigated for microbial growth in 13 bathrooms. This interface is made up of the backside of the ceramic tile, tile adhesive and the waterproof membrane. In every day used bathrooms water will accumulate in this particular environment. It is calculated that a tiled wall exposed to water in 15 minutes needs approximately six months to dry out since water is sucked, by capillary actions, through the grout joints between the ceramic tiles. The wall dries through diffusion forces and diffusion force is a weaker than capillary force and therefore the drying need longer time than the wetting of the wall with a water accumulation in the interface as a result.

    Samples were taken from areas where the wall and floor had been exposed to free water regularly, due to showering.

    Mould and/or bacterial growth was found on 69 % of the analysed specimens from the most water exposed places in the bathrooms. No such growth was found on the samples from the dryer areas. The results shows that although the environment behind the tiles may seem to disadvantaged for microbial growth, due to a limited amount of organic substances and due to pH values not favourable for microbial growth, such growth is possible when the moisture conditions are high.

    To our knowledge the microbial occurrence in this particular environment has not been investigated before.

  • Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Missfärgning av byggnaders fasader: En kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discolouration of building facades. A knowledge survey

    Microorganisms that grow on facades can cause extensive discoloration, which often poses a problem for home owners as it can provide an aesthetically unfavourable impression of the building. Fouling occurs as a result of a complex process that involves several parameters, including biological factors, climatic factors and factors related to the building. This report describes and discusses these factors and their implications for the incidence of fouling, based on scientifically published research. One chapter of the report deals with cleaning and maintenance of facades. Based on the knowledge available in the literature suggestions are given for further research that can contribute to decreased problems with discoloured facades. Finally, the report provides references to a number of scientific articles categorized by keywords in order to make it easier for those who want to read more on the topic.

  • Carleheden, Mikael
    Sociologförbundet har ordet2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 89-90 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 82-88 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Widerberg, Karin
    University of Oslo.
    Tiredness in the Light of Institutional Ethnography2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 74-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Erlingsson, Gissur Ö
    Varför bildas nya partier?2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 42-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do people engage in high-cost political activities such as forming new political parties? Start-up costs are high. Moreover, rewards are unclear and uncertain. Since political parties are collective goods, people demanding new political parties face a collective action problem. It is therefore somewhat puzzling that new parties emerge. Drawing on theories from economics, sociology and political science, I argue that we, in order to understand the emergence of new parties, need to analytically move in on party-entrepreneurs to elucidate what motivates them. Methodologically inspired by the debate on bridging the gap between deductive and inductive strategies, I process-trace and compare three cases. The case studies identify individual level-mechanisms producing the decision toform a new party. People that voice demands within established parties, and face outright rejection, have experienced bad treatment from established politicians. These experiences contribute to disappointment, anger, and a sense of indignation - i.e. “intense emotions”- that mobilize entrepreneurs. Intense emotions create a lust for revenge, which becomes a psychological selective incentive, and is important for understanding why people engage themselves in high-cost political activities.

  • Tigervall, Carina
    Umeå universitet.
    "Invandrarfilm" som ideologisk och kulturell praktik2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 22-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article is to summarise three theoretical perspectives in order to explain the most common way ‘immigrants’ are represented in Swedish films during the last 30 years - 1970-2000. On the one hand ‘the immigrant’ is represented as sympathetic, which I interpret as an anti-racist counter discourse. On the otherhand most of the films also, in accordance with the dominant discourse, represent ‘the immigrant’ as fundamentally different. ‘The immigrant’ is used as a tool in different internal and historically specific political debates to embody the solution to the conflicts experienced in society at large. One main conclusion is that the films reproduce and challenge dominant discourses at the same time; they can be seen as both reproductive and subversive practices. When modern urban society is criticized, ‘the immigrant’s’ role is to represent values belonging to the traditional society. ‘The immigrant’ can thereby be said to represent an utopian desire, insofar as s/he and his/her culture are constructed as the positive opposite of what is seen as negative in Swedish society during a specific historical period.

  • Ulrich, Lotten
    et al.
    Ulrich, Edla
    Journaux personnels polyglottes des soeurs Ulrich: tenus au Palais royal de Stockholm, à Djurgården et dans la province, de 1830 à 18552016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    Johan Ulrich était secrétaire privé du roi Karl XIV Johan (J.-B. Bernadotte). Ses filles, Lotten (1806–1887) et Edla (1816–1897), étaient donc de bonne famille, bien que leur père ne fût ni noble ni riche. Dans leurs journaux elles rendent compte de leur vie quotidienne: fréquentations, lectures, sorties au théâtre et aux concerts, etc. Le journal de Lotten commence au Palais royal de Stockholm en 1830 et se termine à Norrköping en 1847. Elle note tout, des banalités aussi bien que de grands événements et étoffe son texte de commérages et de ce qu’elle a lu dans la presse. Edla se limite à ce qu’elle trouve mémorable, dont ses séjours agréables chez la famille Adlercreutz. Elle communique aussi ses expériences de gouvernante et les impressions de ses voyages à Copenhague et à des stations thermales dans le sud de la Suède. Les soeurs décrivent des personnes de toutes les classes sociales, dont plusieurs de renom, telles Jenny Lind, Bernhard Crusell, Lars Johan Hierta, Bernhard von Beskow, André Oscar Wallenberg, Johan Olof Wallin et les membres de la famille royale. Ces journaux offrent ainsi aux lecteurs beaucoup d’images concrètes de la vie culturelle de l’époque, des us et coutumes, de l’éducation des frères et soeurs et d’un Stockholm où les quartiers hors de la vieille ville d’aujourd’hui sont qualifiés de faubourgs. Margareta Östman est docteur des lettres. Publications récentes: Au Champ d’Apollon. Écrits d’expression française produits en Suède (1550–2006). Filologiskt arkiv 47 (2008, en collaboration avec Hans Östman), Glanures servant de suite à Au Champd’Apollon [...] Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Romanica Stockholmiensia 29 (2012), et Systrarna Ulrichs dagböcker från Stockholms slott, Djurgården och landsorten 1830–1855 (2015), édition en suédois des journaux des deux soeurs.

  • Fransson, Ola
    Malmö högskola.
    Så blev vi alla rasister: Om forskning som bländar och förblindar2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 5-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Structural oppression” has become a key concept in contemporary Swedish debate on migration and ethnic issues. The aim of this article is to critically examine this explanatory concept that has caused confusion among researchers and politicians. There is a tendency among the advocates of the concept to not accept alternative interpretations. By scrutinizing the theoretical foundations of the perspective this propensity is criticized. When every difference between immigrants and ethnic Swedes is characterized as oppression you confuse a descriptive structuralism with a normative structuralism. One argument in the article is that by doing this you will miss the opportunity to identify social problems other than an oppressive Swedish population. The inability of the perspective to include active subjects is discussed in this context. One consequence is that normative structuralism can not explain the complexity of multicultural relations. In short, the concept of structural oppression can not explain the process that has lead to the present social situation. Normative structuralism therefore comes with a reductionism, which is criticized. As an alternative it is argued for a pluralistic research policy. Another peculiarity with the use of “structural oppression” in contemporary debate is that there is a conceptual drift from “oppression” towards “racism”. This drift is damaging because the interpretation of “racism” in the structuralistic framework makes the majority of the population racist. But, who can be accused for racism if everybody is a racist?

  • Ek, Jens
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritly Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    En kartläggning av hur kommuner i Västernorrland hanterar frågan med socialt utsatta EU-medborgare2017Report (Other academic)
  • Hellström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine.
    Granule-containing cells of rat carotid body and their biogenic amines: an electron microscopic and biochemical study1975Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Sjöberg, Katarina
    Lunds universitet.
    Mångfald och frihet i valårets Sverige2006In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 43, no 3, 2- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Sjöberg, Katarina
    Lunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2006:32006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Auchar Zardari, Muhammad
    et al.
    Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science and Technology: Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Khalid, Muhammad S.
    Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lund, Björn
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam2017In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, 5389308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes

  • Löfdahl Hultman, Annica
    et al.
    Karlstad universitet.
    Thelin, Katina
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hjalmarsson, Maria
    Karlstad universitet.
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Advanced teachers in Swedish schools – proud missionaries with visions of development2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s schools, teachers’ work and teachers’ professional knowledge are increasingly challenged and questioned, and politicians tend to seek quick solutions to the schools’ so called ‘academic crisis’. One such solution was the reform of career positions for advanced teachers put in place in 2013 to support the careers of individual teachers and contribute to increased goal achievement and local school development in general. 

    This paper is part of a project aimed at examining how the teacher profession is ‘done’ regarding this ongoing reform and how teacher professionalism can be understood as part of school development. We stress the importance of exploring various conditions that might contribute to the ambitions of the reform and thereby the need of research that takes into consideration the fact that the teacher profession is ‘done’ in local contexts and diverse social geographies (Ball, 2006). As a first step, the purpose of the paper is to shed light on how advanced teachers express the meaning of being an advanced teacher from their own perspective. 

    The project is based on theories of teacher professionalism, gender and school development, shaping a theoretical model where the theories are used to examine and describe the advanced teachers’ integrated profession and work and to support theoretical and empirical syntheses on the individual, local organizational and system level (Gaskell & Mullen, 2009, Fullan, 2001). The empirical material from this first step consists of interviews from six teachers and a survey with open questions sent to advanced teachers in one municipality a few months after they had begun working as such. The focus in both the interviews and the survey was to spot the opportunities, challenges and expectations related to these teachers’ new mission. 

    Preliminary analyses from the survey show a considerable lack of clarity about the mission, although one important element is described as ‘getting colleagues on the track’, as colleagues’ attitudes are of great importance. From the interviews, the analysis shows that the teachers consider themselves to be door openers, both figuratively and literally. 

  • Thelin, Katina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstads universitet.
    Swedish teachers and school leaders as researchers within their own practice2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports findings from a Swedish school development project in which the development process was designed and structured as a course in systematic-knowledge-building based on day-to-day issues. The concept knowledge-building is frequently used inthe presentation and denotes learning processes in which the learners are active co-creators of knowledge by acting as researchers. Findings suggest that teachers’ motivationto engage in the work is dependent on their choice of questions to work with and howthey construct these questions. As a more general result, we found that variation plays animportant role in these processes and that teachers’ capacity to handle and make use ofvariation when learning together is essential. On the basis of these findings, it is suggestedthat school leaders at least to some extent take on the role of a research leader within theirown school. 

  • Thelin, Katina
    Karlstads universitet.
    Ways of seeing the role of an advanced teacher in relation to school development in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ways of seeing the role of an advanced teacher in relation to school development in Sweden

    In today’s schools, the teachers’ work and professional knowledge are increasingly challenged and questioned, and politicians tend to seek quick solutions to the schools’ so-called crisis. One such solution was the implementation of a career position reform for advanced teachers in 2013.The 2013 career position reform for advanced teachers (SKOLF 2013: 147) allows schools to apply for state funding to establish careers for teachers in primary and secondary schools. Fully developed, the reform will include 17,000 teachers in 2016/2017. The reform includes a small number of lecturers (with a doctorate degree), but the project in which this study is carried out is restricted to research on the career positions of advanced teachers.

    The reform was introduced to offer support to individual teachers and their careers as well as contribute to school development. To what extent this is achievable depends on many different factors; including the conditions created for and by the teachers selected for this position, which, among others factors, is dependent on how the reform is interpreted by various actors. 

    Research on School Effectiveness (see for instance Sammons, Hillman, & Mortimore, 1997)has contributed to knowledge of the characteristics of effective schools, namely schools that, in comparison to other schools, achieve good results. The starting point of the research is that something can be learned from schools that have proven to be successful. When effectiveness research starting points are transferred to local school practices, it seems essential to first identify effective teachers, teachers who, compared to others, achieve particularly good results with their students. And secondly, to work to ensure that their knowledge and teaching methods will be spread throughout the school. One way to interpret the reform is by equating the advanced teacher with the effective teacher, who has access to and can transfer knowledge to their colleagues on how to achieve good results.

    On the other hand, more process- and learning-oriented research about the development of schools has contributed to knowledge relevant for teachers learning in Professional Learning Communities (DuFour, 2004; Louise, 2006; Stoll & Louise, 2007; Wald & Castleberry, 2000), for teachers’ engagement in knowledge building processes based on every day practices as grounds for development (Thelin & Scherp, 2014) and for schools’ developmentinto Learning Organizations (Leitwood & Louise, 1998). Within such theoretical frameworks, school development takes the shape of a problem-solving process (Hameyer, 2001, Scherp, 2003). The perspective of school development as an open ended sense making process opens up for other interpretations of the role and work of the advanced teacher; than those based on the efficiency perspective. Instead of being considered a consumer of knowledge, the teacher is regarded as a producer or co-creator of learning and teaching knowledge.The aim of the study presented in this paper is to explore the ways in which the role of an advanced teacher is seen in relation to school development within Swedish educational context, by teachers selected for the position.

    Methods

    Qualitative research methods were used to construct and analyze the data. The data consisted of 40 responses to an open-question survey that was distributed to all advanced teachers in one Swedish municipality several months after commencing work. The municipality was chosen within my professional network through convenience sampling (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011). From a total population of 106 teachers selected for an advanced teacher position in the municipality, 40 participated in the study. Further to the appointment process, which was carried out in two steps, data needed to be collected at two different occasions. From 28 teachers selected for the position in 2013, 19 responded to the survey. In 2014, 21 out of the 78 selected teachers responded.  

    During the period 2013-2014 my research colleges and I conducted interviews with six advanced teachers working in different municipalities. The interviews included several semi-structured questions, which was followed up by unstructured questions (See Löfdahl Hultman, Thelin, Hjalmarsson & Westman, 2014). Thanks to the broader approach, the greater number of questions and the possibility to follow up on the answers, these interviews contributed to a richer and deeper understanding of the complexity of the reform and has thus been useful when interpreting advanced teachers’ written answers in this study. 

    Analysis was informed by variation theory (Marton & Tsui, 2004). Variation theory has also been used in defining ways of seeing as a research object.

    Tentative results

    Results suggest that variation in ways of seeing the advanced teachers’ role in relation to school development can be described by the use of four categories. In this paper these categories are labeled Role model, Educator, Developer and Learning leader. 

    Seeing the advanced teacher as a Role model means focusing on what has already been accomplished rather what needs to be further developed. Through the reform advanced teachers are rewarded for their good work. 

    Seeing the advanced teacher as an Educator means focusing on the sharing of knowledge to other teachers. Advanced teachers are considered experts on teaching and instruction. This way of seeing is typically associated with lecturing or tutoring activities.Seeing the advanced teacher as a Developer means focusing on developing instruction. From this point of view, efforts can be directed towards on subjects such as mathematics or towards specific teaching methods like flipped classroom.

    Seeing the advanced teacher as a Learning leader means focusing on collegial learning as a foundation for school development. Seen this way the advanced teacher becomes a team leader responsible for organizing developmental processes throughout the whole school.

    If the variation described in this paper reflects a variation among advanced teachers in general, the effects of the reform can be expected to vary. The question then will be, not only if or to what degree it will have an impact on practice but rather what impact it will have. The results have implications for the conditions set up for the Advanced Teachers (as well as other teachers), the work carried out by the Advanced Teachers, the Advanced Teachers relationships to their teacher colleagues, the result of the carrier position reform.

    Based on the results of the study, school leaders and advanced teachers are advised to learn more about the various perceptions of the reform’s intention as well as the role these teachers play in relation to school development. Different views need to be addressed and communicated.