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  • Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ali-Reza, Rezaie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Adaptive Anomaly Detection in Performance Metric Streams2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 14, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous detection of performance anomalies such as service degradations has become critical in cloud and Internet services due to impact on quality of service and end-user experience. However, the volume and fast changing behaviour of metric streams have rendered it a challenging task. Many diagnosis frameworks often rely on thresholding with stationarity or normality assumption, or on complex models requiring extensive offline training. Such techniques are known to be prone to spurious false-alarms in online settings as metric streams undergo rapid contextual changes from known baselines. Hence, we propose two unsupervised incremental techniques following a two-step strategy. First, we estimate an underlying temporal property of the stream via adaptive learning and, then we apply statistically robust control charts to recognize deviations. We evaluated our techniques by replaying over 40 time-series streams from the Yahoo! Webscope S5 datasets as well as 4 other traces of real web service QoS and ISP traffic measurements. Our methods achieve high detection accuracy and few false-alarms, and better performance in general compared to an open-source package for time-series anomaly detection.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 KB.E3.01, Umeå
    Borén, Eleonora
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Off-gassing from thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Off-gassing of hazardous compounds is, together with self-heating and dust explosions, the main safety hazards within large-scale biomass storage and handling. Formation of CO, CO2, and VOCs with concurrent O2 depletion can occur to hazardous levels in enclosed stored forest products. Several incidents of CO poisoning and suffocation of oxygen depletion have resulted in fatalities and injuries during cargo vessel discharge of forest products and in conjunction with wood pellet storage rooms and silos. Technologies for torrefaction and steam explosion for thermal treatment of biomass are under development and approaching commercialization, but their off-gassing behavior is essentially unknown.

    The overall objective of this thesis was to provide answers to one main question: “What is the off-gassing behaviour of thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass during storage?”. This was achieved by experimental studies and detailed analysis of off-gassing compounds sampled under realistic conditions, with special emphasis on the VOCs.

    Presented results show that off-gassing behavior is influenced by numerous factors, in the following ways. CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing levels from torrefied and stream-exploded biomass and pellets, and accompanying O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding from untreated biomass. The treatments also cause major compositional shifts in VOCs; emissions of terpenes and native aldehydes decline, but levels of volatile cell wall degradation products (notably furans and aromatics) increase. The severity of the thermal treatment is also important; increases in torrefaction severity increase CO off-gassing from torrefied pine to levels comparable to emissions from conventional pellets, and increase O2 depletion for both torrefied chips and pellets. Both treatment temperature and duration also influence degradation rates and VOC composition. The product cooling technique is influential too; water spraying in addition to heat exchange increased CO2 and VOCs off-gassing from torrefied pine chips, as well as O2 depletion. Moreover, the composition of emitted gases co-varied with pellets’ moisture content; pellets of more severely treated material retained less moisture, regardless of their pre-conditioning moisture content. However, no co-variance was found between off-gassing and pelletization settings, the resulting pellet quality, or storage time of torrefied chips before pelletization. Pelletization of steam-exploded bark increased subsequent VOC off-gassing, and induced compositional shifts relative to emissions from unpelletized steam-exploded material. In addition, CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing, and O2 depletion, were positively correlated with the storage temperature of torrefied softwood. Similarly, CO and CH4 emissions from steam-exploded softwood increased with increases in storage temperature, and VOC off-gassing from both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood was more affected by storage temperature than by treatment severity. Levels of CO, CO2 and CH4 increased, while levels of O2 and most VOCs decreased, during storage of both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood.CO, CO2 and O2 levels were more affected by storage time than by treatment severity. Levels of VOCs were not significantly decreased or altered by nitrogen purging of storage spaces of steam-exploded or torrefied softwood, or controlled headspace gas exchange (intermittent ventilation) during storage of steam-exploded bark.

    In conclusion, rates of off-gassing of CO and CO2 from thermally treated biomass, and associated O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding rates for untreated biomass. Thermal treatment induces shifts in both concentrations and profiles of VOCs. It is believed that the knowledge and insights gained provide refined foundations for future research and safe implementation of thermally treated fuels as energy carriers in renewable energy process chains.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 Aulan, Kiruna
    Ramstad, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Ion escape from Mars: measurements in the present to understand the past2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Present-day Mars is a cold and dry planet with a thin CO2-dominated atmosphere comprising only a few ­­­mbar pressure at low altitudes. However, the Martian surface is marked with valley networks, hydrated mineral clays, carbonates and the remains of deltas and meandering rivers, i.e. traces of an active hydrological cycle present early in the planet's geological history. A strong greenhouse effect, and thus a thicker atmosphere, would have been required to sustain a sufficiently warm environment, particularly under the weaker luminosity of the early Sun. The fate of this early atmosphere is currently unknown.

    While several mechanisms can remove atmospheric mass over time, a prominent hypothesis suggests that the lack of an intrinsic Earth-like global magnetic dipole has allowed the solar wind to erode the early Martian atmosphere by imparting energy to the planet's ionosphere which subsequently flows out as ion escape, over time depleting the greenhouse gasses and collapsing the ancient hydrological cycle. Previous studies have found insignificant ion escape rates under present-day conditions, however, the young Sun emitted significantly stronger solar wind and photoionizing radiation flux compared to the present. The geological record establishes the time of collapse of the hydrological cycle, estimated to have occurred in the mid-late Hesperian period (~3.3 billion years ago) at latest. To constrain the amount of atmosphere lost through ion escape since, we use the extensive database of ion flux measurements from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) particles package on the Mars Express orbiter (2004-present) to quantify the ion escape rate dependence on upstream solar wind and solar radiation conditions.

    The Martian ion escape rate is shown to be insensitive to solar wind parameters with a weak inverse dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure, and linearly dependent on solar ionizing photon flux, indicating efficient screening of the bulk ionosphere by the induced magnetic fields. The impact of an extreme coronal mass ejection is studied and found to have no significant effect on the ion escape rate. Instead, intense solar wind is shown to only increase the escaping energy flux, i.e. total power of escaping ions, without increasing the rate by accelerating already escaping ions. The orientation of the strongest magnetized crustal fields are shown to modulate the ion escape rate, though to have no significant time-averaged effect. We also study the influence of solar wind and solar radiation on the major Martian plasma boundaries and discuss factors that might limit the ion escape rate, including solar wind-ion escape coupling, which is found to be ≲1% and decreasing with increased solar wind dynamic pressure. The significant escape rate dependencies found are extrapolated back in time, considering the evolution of solar wind and ionizing radiation, and shown to account for only 4.8 ± 1.1 mbar equivalent surface pressure loss since the time of collapse of the Martian hydrosphere in the Hesperian, with ~6 mbar as an upper estimate. Extended to the late Noachian period (3.9 billion years ago), the found dependencies can only account for ≲10 mbar removed through ion escape, an insignificant amount compared to the ≳1 bar surface pressure required to sustain a warm climate on early Mars.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Lindblom, Ina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Känslans patriark: sensibilitet och känslopraktiker i Carl Christoffer Gjörwells familj och vänskapskrets, ca 1790-18102017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of how the culture of sensibility was expressed in the everyday practices and social relations of the Gjörwell family. Headed by publicist, publisher and royal librarian Carl Christoffer Gjörwell (1731-1811), the Gjörwell family served as the centre of a wide circle of friends in late 18th-century Stockholm. Gjörwell has been regarded as one of the first Swedish representatives of 18th-century sensibility as well as an archetype of the Swedish cult of friendship. Due to his effusive emotional expressiveness and passionate friendships with other men, Gjörwell has largely been derided as effeminate by researchers from the 19th century onwards.

    Using theoretical perspectives from the field of the history of emotions (more concretely the perspectives of William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein and Monique Scheer) this study centres on the emotional practices of the Gjörwell family, especially taking aspects of gender, class, sexuality and power into account. Gjörwell’s vast collection of family and friendship correspondence forms the empirical basis of this study.

    This study shows that the Gjörwell family and circle of friends in many ways could be regarded as an emotional community in which primarily emotions of happiness and joy are expressed. Furthermore, this study shows how the exercise of power could form part in the creation of an emotional community, as Gjörwell makes constant attempts to influence the way family members and friends manage their emotions, strongly dissuading them from the expression of melancholy.

    Although he has been viewed as effeminate by posterity, Gjörwell in fact regards himself as manly. This is due to his ability to remain joyful through adversities which testifies to his strong, and therefore manly, nervous organisation. This study thus further illustrates how a marked shift in masculine gender norms took place between the 18th and 19th centuries.

    This study also shows how expression of tender emotion could be a way of reinforcing personal status. This was due to the close association made between sensibility and virtue, in itself a central concept during this era. As Gjörwell is denied recognition in his professional life, the expression of tender emotion – and thus of virtue – becomes an important aspect of his personal life. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 N320, Umeå Universitet, Umeå
    Renström, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    The involvement of the TNF-alpha system in skeletal muscle in response to marked overuse2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Painful conditions having the origin within the musculoskeletal system is a common cause for people to seek medical care. Between 20-40% of all visits to the primal care in Sweden are coupled to pain from the musculoskeletal system. Muscle pain and impaired muscle function can be caused by muscles being repetitively overused and/or via heavy load. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue which can undergo changes in order to fulfill what is best for optimal function. However, if the load is too heavy, morphological changes including necrosis, as well as pain can occur. The extension of the skeletal muscle is the tendon. Tendinopathy refers to illness and pain of the tendon. The peritendinous tissue is of importance in the features related to tendon pain. Common tendons/origins being afflicted by tendinopathy/pain are the Achilles tendon and the extensor origin at the elbow region.    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that is involved in several biological processes. It is well-known for its involvement in the immune system and is an important target for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is not known to what extent the TNF-alpha system is involved in the process of muscle inflammation and damage due to overuse.

       Studies were conducted on rabbit and human tissue, tissues that either had undergone an excessive loading activity or tissue that was removed with surgery due to painful conditions. The tissues were evaluated via staining for morphology, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.

       Unilateral experimental overuse of rabbit muscle (soleus muscle) led to morphological changes in the soleus muscle tissue bilaterally. The longer the experiment extended, the more was the tissue affected. This included infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue (myositis) and abnormal muscle fiber appearances. TNF-alpha mRNA was seen in white blood cells, in muscle fibers interpreted to be in a reparative stage and in white blood cells that had infiltrated into necrotic muscle fibers.  There was an upregulation in expressions of TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor type 2 (TNFR2) in muscles that were markedly overused, with expressions in white blood cells, fibroblasts, blood vessel walls and muscle fibers. Immunoreactions for the receptors were seen in nerve fascicles of markedly overused muscles but only occasionally in normal muscles. The upregulations were seen for both experimental and contralateral sides. Overall the two receptors showed somewhat different expression patterns. Tendinopathy is associated with an increase in blood flow and infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue adjacent to the tendon. It is called the peritendinous tissue and is also richly innervated. The white blood cells and the blood vessels walls in this tissue were showing immunoreaction for TNFR1 and TNFR2. Two types of nerve fascicles were found in this tissue, one normally appearing when staining for nerve markers and one type with signs of axonal loss. The latter had clearly strong immunoreactions for TNFR1 and TNFR2.

       The findings suggest that the TNF-alpha system is involved in both myopathies occurring due to overuse and in features in the peritendinous tissue in the tendinopathy situation. TNF-alpha and its receptors seem to be involved in degeneration but also in regeneration and healing of the tissue. The findings also suggest that TNF-alpha has effects on nerves showing axonal loss. The changes in the TNF-alpha system were seen both on the experimental side and contralaterally.

  • Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Dániel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk-based planning of assessment actions for fatigue life prediction2017Inngår i: procedia structural integrity, Vol. 5, 1221-1228 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to extend the service life of existing bridges as far as possible as a means for improved sustainability leading to reduced economic cost and resource consumption. This requirement is especially valid for bridges which are critical components of highly vulnerable infrastructure systems. Achieving this aim requires enhanced methods involving various actions and methods influencing different aspects of the assessment process. A framework is presented in this paper based on three common factors used to describe the assessment actions of existing bridges; (i) model sophistication, (ii) uncertainty consideration, and (iii) knowledge content. The framework elucidates the influence of different decisions on the assessment process and facilitates the planning of appropriate assessment actions. Furthermore, it provides a basic scheme for a risk-based decision analysis for determining suitable assessment actions or activities. A fatigue assessment of an existing bridge detail is used to demonstrate the application of the framework in practical cases.

  • Lundberg, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Analyzing tax reforms using the SwedishLabour Income Microsimulation Model2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour income taxation is a central policy topic because labour income makes up the majority of national income and most taxes are in the end taxes on labour. In order to quantify how behavioural responses of labour income earners affect tax revenue, the Swedish Labour Income Microsimulation Model (SLIMM) is constructed and used to evaluate tax reforms. The model simulates taxable income responses, participation responses and income effects. Elasticities are calibrated to match midpoints of estimates found in the quasiexperimental literature. SLIMM is solidly microfounded and uses administrative register data. The model is used to analyze changes to the earned income tax credit (EITC), municipal income taxes and the central government income tax paid by high-income earners. The simulations indicate that the EITC has increased employment by 128,000 and has a degree of self-financing of 21 percent. Almost half of the revenue increase from higher municipal tax rates would disappear due to behavioural responses. Tax cuts for the richest fifth of working Swedes are completely self-financing.

  • Honfi, Dániel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017Inngår i: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

  • Sepahvand, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University,.
    Individual’s Risk Attitudes in sub-Saharan Africa:Determinants and Reliability of Self-reported Risk in Burkina Faso2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Krüger, Niclas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does infrastructure really cause growth?: the time scale dependent causality nexus between infrastructure investments and GDP2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between infrastructure investments and economic activity in Sweden for the period 1800-2000. In order to overcome the problem of endogeneity, independent time scales are used to analyze the relationship. The paper also examines the dynamics between the variables by testing for causality in the Granger sense and constructing a vector autoregressive model separately for each time scale. The finding is that the causality nexus between growth and transport infrastructure investment is timescale-dependent since it reverses in a comparison of the short-run dynamics (2-4 years) and the longer-run dynamics (8-16 years). This causality reversal is unique for infrastructure investments compared to investments in other sectorsof the economy.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    The impact of stochastic properties of traffic demand on real option value in road projects2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the stochastic properties that long term aggregate traffic demand exhibits. Based on the results of the time series analysis, we examine how fractionally integrated processes affect real option valuation in road projects. We conclude that the long memory property we find in long term aggregate traffic demand using Swedish data, implying that a shock in demand has persistent positive effects on future demand, leads to higher option values in road projects compared to the values from a standard model using geometric Brownian motion.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fakhraei Roudsari, Farzad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Freight Train Delays: Evidence from Sweden2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how freight train delays are distributed with respect to size, location and time of their occurrence. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data covering all freight train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. Moreover, the link between capacity usage and expected delay is analyzed using the fact that demand fluctuates on different time scales, especially due to the economic chock in 2009. Since the distribution of delays on different scales describe reliability and vulnerability in the rail transport system, the results have potentially important policy implications for rail investment appraisal

  • Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.

  • Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    IgG3-antigen complexes are deposited on follicular dendritic cells in the presence of C1q and C32017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IgG3, passively administered together with small proteins, induces enhanced primary humoral responses against these proteins. We previously found that, within 2 h of immunization, marginal zone (MZ) B cells capture IgG3-antigen complexes and transport them into splenic follicles and that this requires the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2. We have here investigated the localization of IgG3 anti-2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)/biotin-ovalbumin-TNP immune complexes in the follicles and the involvement of classical versus total complement activation in this process. The majority (50-90%) of antigen inside the follicles of mice immunized with IgG3-antigen complexes co-localized with the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network. Capture of antigen by MZ B cells as well as antigen deposition on FDC was severely impaired in mice lacking C1q or C3, and lack of either C1q or C3 also impaired the ability of IgG3 to enhance antibody responses. Finally, IgG3 efficiently primed for a memory response against small proteins as well as against the large protein keyhole limpet hemocyanine.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 10:15 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Posadzy, Kinga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social and Economic Factors in Decision Making under Uncertainty: Five Essays in Behavioral Economics2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of human behavior that goes beyond monetary rewards. In particular, it investigates social influences in individual’s decision making in situations that involve coordination, competition, and deciding for others. Further, it compares how monetary and social outcomes are perceived. The common theme of all studies is uncertainty. The first four essays study individual decisions that have uncertain consequences, be it due to the actions of others or chance. The last essay, in turn, uses the advances in research on decision making under uncertainty to predict behavior in riskless choices.

    The first essay, Fairness Versus Efficiency: How Procedural Fairness Concerns Affect Coordination, investigates whether preferences for fair rules undermine the efficiency of coordination mechanisms that put some individuals at a disadvantage. The results from a laboratory experiment show that the existence of coordination mechanisms, such as action recommendations, increases efficiency, even if one party is strongly disadvantaged by the mechanism. Further, it is demonstrated that while individuals’ behavior does not depend on the fairness of the coordination mechanism, their beliefs about people’s behavior do.

    The second essay, Dishonesty and Competition. Evidence from a stiff competition environment, explores whether and how the possibility to behave dishonestly affects the willingness to compete and who the winner is in a competition between similarly skilled individuals. We do not find differences in competition entry between competitions in which dishonesty is possible and in which it is not. However, we find that due to the heterogeneity in propensity to behave dishonestly, around 20% of winners are not the best-performing individuals. This implies that the efficient allocation of resources cannot be ensured in a stiff competition in which behavior is unmonitored.

    The third essay, Tracing Risky Decision Making for Oneself and Others: The Role of Intuition and Deliberation, explores how individuals make choices under risk for themselves and on behalf of other people. The findings demonstrate that while there are no differences in preferences for taking risks when deciding for oneself  and for others, individuals have greater decision error when choosing for other individuals. The differences in the decision error can be partly attributed to the differences in information processing; individuals employ more deliberative cognitive processing when deciding for themselves than when deciding for others. Conducting more information processing when deciding for others is related to the reduction in decision error.

    The fourth essay, The Effect of Decision Fatigue on Surgeons’ Clinical Decision Making, investigates how mental depletion, caused by a long session of decision making, affects surgeon’s decision to operate. Exploiting a natural experiment, we find that surgeons are less likely to schedule an operation for patients who have appointment late during the work shift than for patients who have appointment at the beginning of the work shift. Understanding how the quality of medical decisions depends on when the patient is seen is important for achieving both efficiency and fairness in health care, where long shifts are popular.

    The fifth essay, Preferences for Outcome Editing in Monetary and Social Contexts, compares whether individuals use the same rules for mental representation of monetary outcomes (e.g., purchases, expenses) as for social outcomes (e.g., having nice time with friends). Outcome editing is an operation in mental accounting that determines whether individuals prefer to first combine multiple outcomes before their evaluation (integration) or evaluate each outcome separately (segregation). I find that the majority of individuals express different preferences for outcome editing in the monetary context than in the social context. Further, while the results on the editing of monetary outcomes are consistent with theoretical predictions, no existing model can explain the editing of social outcomes.

  • Khoshnood, Behzad
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Grabbe, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    A proteomics approach to identify targets of the ubiquitin-like molecule Urm1 in Drosophila melanogaster2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 9, e0185611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By covalently conjugating to target proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) act as important regulators of target protein localization and activity, thereby playing a critical role in the orchestration of cellular biology. The most ancient and one of the least studied UBLs is Urm1, a dual-function protein that in parallel to performing similar functions as its prokaryotic ancestors in tRNA modification, also has adopted the capacity to conjugate to cellular proteins analogous to ubiquitin and other UBL modifiers. In order to increase the understanding of Urm1 and its role in multicellular organisms, we have used affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify putative targets of Urm1 conjugation (urmylation) at three developmental stages of the Drosophila melanogaster lifecycle. Altogether we have recovered 79 Urm1-interacting proteins in Drosophila, which include the already established Urm1 binding partners Prx5 and Uba4, together with 77 candidate urmylation targets that are completely novel in the fly. Among these, the majority was exclusively identified during either embryogenesis, larval stages or in adult flies. We further present biochemical evidence that four of these proteins are covalently conjugated by Urm1, whereas the fifth verified Urm1-binding protein appears to interact with Urm1 via non-covalent means. Besides recapitulating the previously established roles of Urm1 in tRNA modification and during oxidative stress, functional clustering of the newly identified Urm1-associated proteins further positions Urm1 in protein networks that control other types of cellular stress, such as immunological threats and DNA damage. In addition, the functional characteristics of several of the candidate targets strongly match the phenotypes displayed by Urm1(n123) null animals, including embryonic lethality, reduced fertility and shortened lifespan. In conclusion, this identification of candidate targets of urmylation significantly increases the knowledge of Urm1 and presents an excellent starting point for unravelling the role of Urm1 in the context of a complex living organism.

  • Zhang, Yi
    et al.
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Gan-Lin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Xu
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Cao, Ke-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Shang, Ya-Wen
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Mu-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Cong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Nan, Nan
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Ming-Wei
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Guo-Wang
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiao-Min
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Gubenyiliu II Inhibits Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis Associated with Decreased Heparanase Expression and Phosphorylation of ERK and AKT Pathways2017Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 22, nr 5, 787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gubenyiliu II (GYII), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula used in our hospital, has shown beneficial effects in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of GYII on murine breast cancer models. GYII showed significant inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis in the murine breast cancer model. Additionally, GYII suppressed the proliferation of 4T1 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A better inhibitory effect on 4T1 cell proliferation and migration was found in the decomposed recipes (DR) of GYII. Moreover, heparanase expression and the degree of angiogenesis were reduced in tumor tissues. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of heparanase and growth factors in the cells treated with GYII and its decomposed recipes (DR2 and DR3), and thereby a reduction in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and serine-threonine kinase (AKT). These results suggest that GYII exerts anti-tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects in the murine breast cancer model. The anti-tumor activity of GYII and its decomposed recipes is, at least partly, associated with decreased heparanase and growth factor expression, which subsequently suppressed the activation of the ERK and AKT pathways.

  • Wilms, Torben
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    Coates, Philip J
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap. Masaryk Mem Canc Inst, RECAMO, Zluty Kopec 7, Brno, Czech Republic; Univ Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMRS1162, 27 Rue Juliette Dodu, Paris, France .
    Hassani, Asma
    Philip, Pretty S
    Norberg Spaak, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Califano, Luigi
    Colella, Giuseppe
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Loizou, Christos
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Franco, Renato
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 9, e0184201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs), EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH) showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases.

  • Cao, Sha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Huseby, Douglas L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Brandis, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Alternative Evolutionary Pathways for Drug-Resistant Small Colony Variant Mutants in Staphylococcus aureus2017Inngår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00358-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants. Compensation occurs by two distinct bypass mechanisms: (i) translational suppression of the initial SCV mutation by mutant tRNAs, ribosomal protein S5, or release factor 2 and (ii) mutations that cause the constitutive activation of the SrrAB global transcriptional regulation system. Although compensation by translational suppression increases growth rate, it also reduces antibiotic susceptibility, thus restoring a pseudo-wild-type phenotype. In contrast, an evolutionary pathway that compensates for the SCV phenotype by activation of SrrAB increases growth rate without loss of antibiotic resistance. RNA sequence analysis revealed that mutations activating the SrrAB pathway cause upregulation of genes involved in peptide transport and in the fermentation pathways of pyruvate to generate ATP and NAD(+), thus explaining the increased growth. By increasing the growth rate of SCVs without the loss of aminoglycoside resistance, compensatory evolution via the SrrAB activation pathway represents a threat to effective antibiotic therapy of staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are a significant clinical problem, causing persistent and antibiotic-resistant infections. However, SCVs are unstable and can rapidly evolve growth-compensated mutants. Previous data suggested that growth compensation only occurred with the loss of antibiotic resistance. We have used selection with serial passaging to uncover four distinct pathways of growth compensation accessible to SCVs. Three of these paths (reversion, intragenic suppression, and translational suppression) increase growth at the expense of losing antibiotic resistance. The fourth path activates an alternative transcriptional program and allows the bacteria to produce the extra ATP required to support faster growth, without losing antibiotic resistance. The importance of this work is that it shows that drug-resistant SCVs can evolve faster growth without losing antibiotic resistance.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Brandén, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umea Univ, Heart Ctr, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Misclassification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: validation of diagnostic codes2017Inngår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 9, 403-410 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate diagnostic codes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), analyze misclassfications, and estimate the prevalence of HCM in an unselected Swedish regional cohort. Patients and methods: Using the hospitals' electronic medical records (used for the Swedish National Patient Register), we identified 136 patients from 2006 to 2016 with the HCM-related codes 142.1 and 142.2 (International Classification of Diseases). Results: Of a total of 129 residents in the catchment area, 88 patients were correctly classified as HCM (positive predictive value 68.2%) and 41 patients (31.8%) were misclassified as HCM. Among the 88 HCM patients (52.2% males), 74 were alive and 14 were dead (15.9%). This yields an HCM prevalence of 74/ 183,337, that is, 4.0 diagnosed cases per 10,000 in the adult population aged =18 years. The underlying diagnoses of misclassified cases were mainly hypertension (31.7%) and aortic stenosis (22.0%). Other types of cardiomyopathies accounted for several cases of misclassification: dilated (nonischemic or ischemic), left ventricular noncompaction, and Takotsubo. Miscellaneous diagnoses were amyloidosis, pulmonary stenosis combined with ventricular septal defect, aortic insufficiency, athelete's heart, and atrioventricular conduction abnormality. The mean age was not significantly different between HCM and misclassified patients (65.8 +/- 15.8 vs 70.1 +/- 13.4 years; P=0.177). There were 47.8% females among HCM and 60.8% females among misclassified (P=0.118). Conclusion: One-third of patients diagnosed as HCM are misclassified, so registry data should be interpreted with caution. A correct diagnosis is important for decision-making and implementation of optimal HCM care; efforts should be made to increase awareness of HCM and diagnostic competence throughout the health care system.

  • Aung, Su Htike
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, POB 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Oo, Than Zaw
    Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    2-(4-Butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide: An Efficient Preadsorber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2017Inngår i: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 2, nr 5, 1820-1825 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical modification of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes by 2-(4-butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide (BPHA) before dye adsorption is investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Two organic dyes, LEG4 and Dyenamo blue, were used in combination with the cobalt (II/III) tris(bipyridine) redox couple. The photovoltaic performance of the DSCs is clearly enhanced by BPHA. Preadsorption of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes with BPHA lowered the amount of adsorbed dye but improved the shortcircuit current densities and the power conversion efficiencies by 10-20%, while keeping the open-circuit potential essentially unaffected. Notably, BPHA improved the LEG4 performance, whereas it has been reported for this dye that chenodeoxycholic acid as a coadsorbent lowers solar cell efficiency. Faster dye regeneration was found to be one reason for improved performance, but improved electron injection efficiency may also contribute to the favorable effect of BPHA.

  • Coutinho, Jose
    et al.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Phys, Campus Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Torres, Viktor J.B.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Phys, Campus Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Demmouche, Kamel
    Ctr Univ Belhadj Bouchaib Ain Temouchent, Inst Sci, Route Sidi Bel Abbes,BP 284, Ain Temouchent 46000, Algeria.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Theory of the carbon vacancy in 4H-SiC:: Crystal field and pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects2017Inngår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, nr 17, 174105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon vacancy in 4H-SiC is a powerful minority carrier recombination center in as-grown material and a major cause of degradation of SiC-based devices. Despite the extensiveness and maturity of the literature regarding the characterization and modeling of the defect, many fundamental questions persist. Among them, we have the shaky connection of the EPR data to the electrical measurements lacking sublattice site resolution, the physical origin of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect, the reasoning for the observed sublattice dependence of the paramagnetic states, and the severe temperature dependence of some hyperfine signals, which cannot be accounted for by a thermally activated dynamic averaging between equivalent Jahn-Teller distorted structures. In this work, we address these problems by means of semilocal and hybrid density functional calculations. We start by inventorying a total of four different vacancy structures from the analysis of relative energies. Diamagnetic states have well defined low-energy structures, whereas paramagnetic states display metastability. The reasoning for the rich structural variety is traced back to the filling of electronic states which are shaped by a crystal-field-dependent (and therefore site-dependent) pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect. From calculated minimum energy paths for defect rotation and transformation mechanisms, combined with the calculated formation energies and electrical levels, we arrived at a configuration-coordinate diagram of the defect. The diagram provides us with a detailed first-principles picture of the defect when subject to thermal excitations. The calculated acceptor and donor transitions agree well with the binding energies of electrons emitted from the Z(1/2) and EH6/7 traps, respectively. From the comparison of calculated and measured U-values, and correlating the site-dependent formation energies with the relative intensity of the DLTS peaks in as-grown material, we assign Z(1) (EH6) and Z(2) (EH7) signals to acceptor (donor) transitions of carbon vacancies located on the h and k sublattice sites, respectively.

  • Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Ett särskilt perspektiv på högre studier?: Folkhögskoledeltagares sociala representationer om högskola och universitet2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen syftar till att undersöka folkhögskoledeltagares sociala representationer om högskola och universitet. Enligt teorin om sociala representationer är folkhögskoledeltagarnas sociala representationer om högskola och universitet något som skapas socialt och förändras beroende på deltagarnas erfarenheter av högskola och universitet. Avhandlingen syftar också till att undersöka dessa sociala representationers ursprung och framväxt, liksom om de har påverkats av andra sociala representationer exempelvis dem om folkhögskolans särart. För att identifiera folkhögskole­deltagarnas sociala identitet och sociala representationer har jag använt mig av empiriska data insamlat genom fria associationer och intervjuer med folkhögskoledeltagare och före detta folkhögskoledeltagare. För att undersöka representationernas ursprung har jag genomfört en dokument­studie på folkhögskolelärarnas tidskrift. Resultaten visar att folkhögskolans företrädare genom hela folkhögskolans historia har förhållit sig till två huvudidéer, den om folkhögskolans särart och den om att folkhögskolan är en institution som anpassar sig efter det omkringliggande samhället och dess krav. Dessa båda idéer förklarar varför olika sociala identiteter och olika sociala representa­tioner existerar bland folkhögskoledeltagarna. Grundidén att folkhögskolan har en särart leder till representationer om folkhögskolan som ett alternativ till annan utbildning och högskola och universitet som något som inte är likt folkhögskola. Den andra grundläggande idén om folkhögskolan som en institution som ständigt anpassar sig leder till representationer om folkhögskolan som en andra chans och högskolan som mål.

  • Mohapatra, Sonisilpa
    et al.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Choi, Heejun
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, Janelia Res Campus, Ashburn, VA USA..
    Ge, Xueliang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Weisshaar, James C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Spatial Distribution and Ribosome-Binding Dynamics of EF-P in Live Escherichia coli2017Inngår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00300-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P. Fast imaging at 2 ms/frame helps to distinguish ribosome-bound (slowly diffusing) EF-P from free (rapidly diffusing) EF-P. Wild-type EF-P exhibits a three-peaked axial spatial distribution similar to that of ribosomes, indicating substantial binding. The mutant EF-P-K34A exhibits a homogeneous distribution, indicating little or no binding. Some 30% of EF-P copies are bound to ribosomes at a given time. Two-state modeling and copy number estimates indicate that EF-P binds to 70S ribosomes during 25 to 100% of translation cycles. The timescale of the typical diffusive search by free EF-P for a ribosome-binding site is tau(free) approximate to 16 ms. The typical residence time of an EF-P on the ribosome is very short, tau(bound) approximate to 7 ms. Evidently, EF-P binds to ribosomes during many or most elongation cycles, much more often than the frequency of Pro-Pro motifs. Emptying of the E site during part of the cycle is consistent with recent in vitro experiments indicating dissociation of the deacylated tRNA upon translocation. IMPORTANCE Ribosomes translate the codon sequence within mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain, which in turn ultimately folds into functional protein. At each codon, bacterial ribosomes are assisted by two well-known elongation factors: EF-Tu, which aids binding of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, and EF-G, which promotes tRNA translocation after formation of the new peptide bond. A third factor, EF-P, has been shown to alleviate ribosomal pausing at rare Pro-Pro motifs, which are translated very slowly without EF-P. Here, we use superresolution fluorescence imaging to study the spatial distribution and ribosome-binding dynamics of EF-P in live E. coli cells. We were surprised to learn that EF-P binds to and unbinds from translating ribosomes during at least 25% of all elongation events; it may bind during every elongation cycle.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Biopharmaceutical investigations of doxorubicin formulations used in liver cancer treatment: Studies in healthy pigs and liver cancer patients, combined with pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical modelling2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently two types of drug formulation in clinical use in the locoregional treatment of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the emulsion LIPDOX, the cytostatic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is dissolved in the aqueous phase, which is emulsified with the oily contrast agent Lipiodol® (LIP). In the microparticular system DEBDOX, DOX is loaded into the drug-eluting entity DC Bead™.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to improve pharmaceutical understanding of the LIPDOX and DEBDOX formulations, in order to facilitate the future development of novel drug delivery systems. In vivo release of DOX from the formulations and the disposition of DOX and its active metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) were assessed in an advanced multisampling-site acute healthy pig model and in patients with HCC. The release of DOX and disposition of DOX and DOXol where further analysed using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and biopharmaceutical (PBBP) modelling. The combination of in vivo investigations and in silico modelling could provide unique insight into the mechanisms behind drug release and disposition.

    The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX is not extended and controlled, as it is from DEBDOX. With both formulations, DOX is released as a burst during the early phase of administration. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX was faster than from DEBDOX in both pigs and patients. The release from DEBDOX was slow and possibly incomplete. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX and DEBDOX could be described by using the PBBP model in combination with in vitro release profiles.

    The disposition of DOX and DOXol was modelled using a semi-PBPK model containing intracellular binding sites. The contrast agent Lipiodol® did not affect the hepatobiliary disposition of DOX in the pig model. The control substance used in this study, cyclosporine A, inhibited the biliary excretion of DOX and DOXol but did not alter metabolism in healthy pigs. The disposition of DOX is similar in healthy pigs and humans, which was shown by the ease of translation of the semi-PBPK pig model to the human PBBP model.

  • Svensson, Robin J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Gillespie, Stephen H.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Med, St Andrews KY16 9TF, Fife, Scotland..
    Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Improved power for TB Phase IIa trials using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach compared with commonly used analysis methods2017Inngår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 72, nr 8, 2311-2319 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process.

    Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials.

    Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model. cfu data were simulated over 14 days for patients taking once-dailymonotherapy at four different doses per drug and a reference (10mg/kg rifampicin). The simulated data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA, mono-and bi-exponential models and a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach (MTP model) to establish their respective power to find a drug effect at the 5% significance level.

    Results: For the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach, t-test, ANOVA, mono-exponential model and bi-exponential model, the sample sizes needed to achieve 90% power were: 10, 30, 75, 20 and 30 (drug A); 30, 75, 245, 75 and 105 (drug B); 70, > 1250, 315, > 1250 and >1250 (drug C); and 30, 110, 710, 170 and 185 (drug D), respectively.

    Conclusions: A model-based design and analysis using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach can reduce the number of patients required to determine a drug effect at least 2-fold compared with current methodologies. This could significantly accelerate early-phase TB drug development.

  • Aho, Anna Carin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: affected young adults’ and parents’ perspectives, studied througha salutogenic framework2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis, using a salutogenic framework, was to develop knowledge about experiences and perceptions of living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and its influences on health, from the affected young adults’ and their parents’ perspectives.

    Methods: A qualitative explorative and descriptive study design was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 young adults diagnosed with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, aged 20–0 years, and 19 parents. Data analyses were conducted using content analysis (I, II, III) and phenomenography (IV). In order to mirror the interview data, the participants also answered the 13-item sense of coherence questionnaire.

    Findings: Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy has a major impact on the affected young adults’ and their parents’ lives as the disease progresses. Health described in terms of well-being was thus perceived to be influenced, not only by physical, emotional and social consequences due to the disease and worry about disease progression but also by external factors, such as accessibility to support provided by society and other people’s attitudes. There was, however, a determination among the participants to try to make the best of the situation. The importance of being able to mobilize internal resources, having social support, meaningful daily activities, adapted environment, the young adult being seen as a person and having support from concerned professionals, including personal assistance when needed, was thereby described. Self-rated sense of coherence scores varied. Those who scored above or the same as median among the young adults (≥56) and the parents (≥68) expressed greater extent satisfaction regarding social relations, daily activities and external support than those who scored less than median.

    Conclusion: This thesis highlights the importance of early identification of personal perceptions and needs to enable timely health-promoting interventions. Through dialogue, not only support needed for the person to comprehend, manage and find meaning in everyday life can be identified, but also internal and external resources available to enhance health and well-being, taking into account the person’s social context as well as medical aspects.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 v159, Kalmar
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Families' life situation when living with cancer: aspects of health and family sense of coherence2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate families’ perceived life situation when living with cancer, with a focus on health and family sense of coherence.

    Methods: Study I is a population-based register study that explored how cancer influenced the health of cohabitating partners of persons with cancer in Sweden by examining the onset of new diagnoses, health care use, and health care costs among the partners. Study II focused on familial interaction patterns for families living with cancer in a palliative phase, based on family interviews, and analysed using Gadamerian hermeneutics. In study III, Family Sense of Coherence scale (S-FSOC-S) was culturally adapted and evaluated for reliability and validity, using psychometric analyses. Study IV explored associations between family sense of coherence and hope, anxiety, and symptoms of depression using descriptive statistics and nested linear regression.

    Results: Study I showed that the partners of persons with cancer had significantly increased health care use and health care costs both one and two years after the cancer diagnosis, and that use patterns and costs varied according to the type of cancer that had been diagnosed. Study II revealed that the familial interaction patterns were adjusted in response to changes in family life - changes which encompassed three different, but interrelated, patterns: power dynamics in the family, the “secret game” in the family, and multifaceted closeness and distance in the family. Study III suggested that S-FSOC-S is useful for assessing familial coherence and shows satisfactory reliability and validity. Study IV showed that stronger family sense of coherence was associated with higher hope and lower anxiety and symptoms of depression levels in both persons with cancer and their family members.

    Conclusions: Families’ life situation was affected by the cancer diagnosis, which had an impact on both individual family members and the family as a unit. The type of cancer may help to determine partners’ risk of ill health. The changed familial interaction patterns increased the families’ ability to deal with family life without hurting each other. The S-FSOC-S is a useful instrument for assessing family sense of coherence and can help identify families with weak family sense of coherence, who may need professional support.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-07 13:00 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Makris, Georgios
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Suicide Seasonality: Theoretical and Clinical Implications2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although suicide seasonality has been well-documented, surprisingly little is known about its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: In this thesis, data from three Swedish registers (Cause of Death Register, National Patient Register, Prescribed Drugs Register) and data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute were used.

    In Study I, the amplitude of suicide seasonality was estimated in completed suicides in 1992-2003 in individuals with different antidepressant medications or without antidepressants.

    In Study II, monthly suicide and sunshine data from 1992-2003 were used to examine the association between suicide and sunshine in groups with and without antidepressants.

    In Study III, the relationship between season of initiation of antidepressant treatment and the risk of suicidal behavior was explored in patients with a new treatment episode with antidepressant medication.

    In Study IV, the complex association between sunshine, temperature and suicidal behavior was investigated in patients with a new treatment episode with an antidepressant in two exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the event.

    Findings: Study I: Higher suicide seasonality was found in individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) compared with those given a different antidepressant treatment or those without any antidepressant treatment.

    Study II: In individuals treated with SSRIs, there was a positive association between sunshine and suicide, with the association stronger in men treated with SSRIs compared with men treated with other antidepressants. An effect modification by age was observed.

    Study III: The elderly (65+) had a higher risk of suicide when initiating antidepressant treatment in summer and a higher risk of suicide attempt when starting antidepressant therapy in spring and summer. Younger patients (0-24) demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempt when treatment was initiated in autumn.

    Study IV: In the elderly (65+), a harmful association was observed between the risk of suicide attempt and the average daily temperature during the four weeks before the suicide attempt, as well as with average daily sunshine during both exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the suicide attempt.

    Significance: Our results provide epidemiological support for the role of the serotonergic system in seasonality of suicide in which both medication and climate may be involved.

  • Gronholm-Nyman, Petra
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Soveri, Anna
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Ek, Emilia
    Student Hlth Care, Porvoo, Finland..
    Nyholm, Alexandra
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Laine, Matti
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Turku Brain & Mind Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, 69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre-and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  • Hadzialic, Aida
    et al.
    Skarheim, Petter
    Wilhelmsson, Thomas
    Framtida nordiskt utbildningssamarbete: Svar på dagens och morgondagens utmaningar2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ministrarna för utbildning och forskning (MR-U) har i sitt samarbetsprogram satt som mål att Norden även i framtiden ska vara en ledande region för kunskap och välfärd. I detta sammanhang genomfördes ett strategiskt arbete inom utbildningsområdet som syftar till ett förnyat och förstärkt nordiskt utbildningssamarbete, vilket ska bidra till att ge konkreta lösningar på de utmaningar vi har idag och framtiden.

    Gruppen bakom rapporten är tidigare gymnasie- och kunskapslyftsminister Aida Hadzialic, departementsråd Petter Skarheim och kansler Thomas Wilhelmsson.

  • Jannisa, Gudmund
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap.
    The not so noble art of boundary-negotiating2017Inngår i: Merdeka Östtimorinformation, nr 73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Wangel, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Produkt- och tjänstedesign. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Kanulf, Gabriel
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Ljunggren, Andrejs
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Vitiden: en energifiktion2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi måste acceptera den föreliggande verkligheten – endast därigenom har vi utsikt att förstå den, att relatera till den för att påverka den och skapa kultur som är ett smidigt redskap för omställningen.

    Så inleds Vitiden – en energifiktion där övergången till ett mer hållbart samhälle utforskas i ett samspel mellan text och bild. I det framåtsyftande manifestet skissas Vitiden upp som ett svar på dagens ekologiska och sociala utmaningar. Manifestets höga tonläge och ambitioner kommenteras av en bildburen framtidsarkeologi, uppbyggd kring fiktiva fragment från framtiden. Infällda bilder ur acceptera-manifestet1, vilket även parafraseras i Vitidens inledande stycke, sätter energifiktionen i relation till det modernistiska samhällsbygget och kritiken därav. En generös notapparat bidrar med ytterligare perspektiv.

    Vitiden utforskar hur ett energi- och klimatmässigt hållbart Sverige skulle kunna te sig, med fokus på vardagslivets praktiker. Bokens titel Vitiden pekar på ett framtida samhälle där det gemensamma är centralt, och energi är en högt värderad resurs. Vitiden är baserad på ett av Energimyndighetens scenarion (Legato) ur framtidsstudien "Fyra framtider: energisystemet efter 2020".

    Vitidens syfte är att bjuda in till samtal, reflektion och diskussion om hur vårt samhälle kan organiseras för att klimatmålen ska nås. Genom en kombination av text och bild skapas en komplex bild av omställningen som ger utrymme för såväl moraliska ställningstaganden, utopiska drömmar och vardagstristess.Vitiden är uppbyggd av fyra huvudsakliga delar:

    1. Ett manifest, där vi ger scenariot Legato röst att tala om behovet av omställning i relation till fyra vardagspraktiker "Vi bor", "Vi äter", "Vi reser" och "Vi arbetar och har fritid".
    2. En framtidsarkeologi, som representerar hur samhället och vardagslivet skulle kunna te sig om Legato infrias.
    3. Inklippta bilder ur acceptera-manifestet som publicerades 1931, och som manade på funktionalismens och modernismens genombrott i Sverige. Denna omställning är av samma magnitud som den vi nu står inför, varför en samläsning av Legato och acceptera är intressant.
    4. En notapparat där vi forskare kommenterar manifestet genom att hänvisa till forskning samt en liten dos poesi.

    Vitiden är utvecklad av forskare vid Green Leap, KTH tillsammans med grafiska formgivare och illustratörer. Projektet är finansierat av Energimyndigheten.

    1 Asplund, G., Gahn, W., Markelius, S., Paulsson, G., Sundahl, E., Åhrén, U. 1980[1931] acceptera. Tiden förlag. Faksimil.

  • Mishra, Madhav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Model-Based Prognostic Approach for Battery Variable Loading Conditions: Some Accuracy Improved2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Conference of  the Prognostics and Health Management Society 2017, 2017, 147-149 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) using a proper condition-based maintenance (CBM) deployment is a worldwide-accepted strategy and has grown very popular in many industries and academia over the past decades. PHM can provide a state assessment of the future health of systems or components, e.g. when a degraded state has been found. Using this technology, one can estimate how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, in future operating conditions and future environmental conditions.

    This paper deals with the improvement of prognostic accuracy for battery discharge prediction and compares with previous results done by the other researchers. In this paper, physical models and measurement data were used in the prognostic development in such a way that the degradation behaviour of the battery could be modelled and simulated in order to predict the end-of-discharge (EoD). A particle filter turned out to be the method of choice in performing the state assessment and predicting the future degradation. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-13 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Blystad, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Clinical Applications of Synthetic MRI of the Brain2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a high soft-tissue contrast with a high sensitivity for detecting pathological changes in the brain. Conventional MRI is a time-consuming method with multiple scans that relies on the visual assessment of the neuroradiologist. Synthetic MRI uses one scan to produce conventional images, but also quantitative maps based on relaxometry, that can be used to quantitatively analyse tissue properties and pathological changes. The studies presented here apply the use of synthetic MRI of the brain in different clinical settings.

    In the first study, synthetic MR images were compared to conventional MR images in 22 patients. The contrast, the contrast-to-noise ratio, and the diagnostic quality were assessed. Image quality was perceived to be inferior in the synthetic images, but synthetic images agreed with the clinical diagnoses to the same extent as the conventional images.

    Patients with early multiple sclerosis were analysed in the second study. In patients with multiple sclerosis, contrast-enhancing white matter lesions are a sign of active disease and can indicate a need for a change in therapy. Gadolinium-based contrast agents are used to detect active lesions, but concern has been raised regarding the long-term effects of repeated use of gadolinium. In this study, relaxometry was used to evaluate whether pre-contrast injection tissue-relaxation rates and proton density can identify active lesions without gadolinium. The findings suggest that active lesions often have relaxation times and proton density that differ from non-enhancing lesions, but with some overlap. This makes it difficult to replace gadolinium-based contrast agent injection with synthetic MRI in the monitoring of MS patients.

    Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumours with contrast enhancement due to a defective blood-brain barrier. However, they also grow in an infiltrative, diffuse manner, making it difficult to clearly delineate them from surrounding normal brain tissue in the diagnostic workup, at surgery, and during follow-up. The contrast-enhancing part of the tumour is easily visualised, but not the diffuse infiltration. In studies three and four, synthetic MRI was used to analyse the peritumoral area of malignant gliomas, and revealed quantitative findings regarding peritumoral relaxation changes and non-visible contrast enhancement suggestive of non-visible infiltrative tumour growth.

    In conclusion, synthetic MRI provides quantitative information about the brain tissue and this could improve the diagnosis and treatment for patients.

  • Castegren, Elias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Wrigstad, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Reference Capabilities for Concurrency & Scalability: an Experience Report2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Deconstructing resistance to organizational change: A social representation theory approach2014Inngår i: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 22, nr 3, 342-355 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Social representation theory (SRT) is a growing theory in social psychology research. SRT is about how individuals co-construct representations of various objects in different social settings. These social representations govern the attitudes and actions of individuals and groups. In spite of the growing interest in SRT in various fields, no studies have used SRT to understand resistance to organizational change. Thus, the purpose of this work is to illustrate how SRT can be used to understand the concept of resistance to change.

    Design/methodology/approach - Review of the relevant literature on resistance to change and SRT in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding resistance from the standpoint of SRT.

    Findings - We develop a model that illustrates how three interrelated objects, i.e. the organizational process and the pre- and post-change situation, are co-constructed in social contexts. Also, we discuss how representations of these objects can co-exist (cognitive polyphasia). Our study illustrates the complexity of resistance to change by deconstructing the concept.

    Originality/value - Application of SRT in order to analyze resistance to organizational change is a novel approach that provides several new insights. For example, whereas most publications regard advocates of change as sense-givers in the change recipient’s sense-making process, we argue for a more constructionist approach. Thus, all actors involved in the change process will affect each other and together co-construct the social representations. These social representations govern attitudes to change.

  • Wrigstad, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Castegren, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Mastery Learning-Like Teaching with Achievements2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Ali, Nour
    et al.
    Brunel University, London, UK.
    Baker, Sean
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O’Crowley, Ross
    Red Orkid Limited, Dublin, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Buckley, Jim
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Architecture consistency: State of the practice, challenges and requirements2017Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, 1-35 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture Consistency (AC) aims to align implemented systems with their intended architectures. Several AC approaches and tools have been proposed and empirically evaluated, suggesting favourable results. In this paper, we empirically examine the state of practice with respect to Architecture Consistency, through interviews with nineteen experienced software engineers. Our goal is to identify 1) any practises that the companies these architects work for, currently undertake to achieve AC; 2) any barriers to undertaking explicit AC approaches in these companies; 3) software development situations where practitioners perceive AC approaches would be useful, and 4) AC tool needs, as perceived by practitioners. We also assess current commercial AC tool offerings in terms of these perceived needs. The study reveals that many practitioners apply informal AC approaches as there are barriers for adopting more formal and explicit approaches. These barriers are: 1) Difficulty in quantifying architectural inconsistency effects, and thus justifying the allocation of resources to fix them to senior management, 2) The near invisibility of architectural inconsistency to customers, 3) Practitioners’ reluctance towards fixing architectural inconsistencies, and 4) Practitioners perception that huge effort is required to map the system to the architecture when using more formal AC approaches and tools. Practitioners still believe that AC would be useful in supporting several of the software development activities such as auditing, evolution and ensuring quality attributes. After reviewing several commercial tools, we posit that AC tool vendors need to work on their ability to support analysis of systems made up of different technologies, that AC tools need to enhance their capabilities with respect to artefacts such as services and meta-data, and to focus more on non-maintainability architectural concerns.

  • Bowers, Robert M.
    et al.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Kyrpides, Nikos C.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Stepanauskas, Ramunas
    Bigelow Lab Ocean Sci, East Boothbay, ME USA..
    Harmon-Smith, Miranda
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Doud, Devin
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Reddy, T. B. K.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Schulz, Frederik
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Jarett, Jessica
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Rivers, Adam R.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA.;ARS, USDA, Genom & Bioinformat Res Unit, Gainesville, FL USA..
    Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Tringe, Susannah G.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA.;Univ Calif Merced, Sch Nat Sci, Merced, CA 95340 USA..
    Ivanova, Natalia N.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Copeland, Alex
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Clum, Alicia
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Becraft, Eric D.
    Bigelow Lab Ocean Sci, East Boothbay, ME USA..
    Malmstrom, Rex R.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA..
    Birren, Bruce
    Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Podar, Mircea
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA..
    Bork, Peer
    European Mol Biol Lab, Struct & Computat Biol Unit, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Weinstock, George M.
    Jackson Lab Genom Med, Farmington, CT USA..
    Garrity, George M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Biomed Phys Sci, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Dodsworth, Jeremy A.
    Calif State Univ San Bernardino, Dept Biol, San Bernardino, CA 92407 USA..
    Yooseph, Shibu
    J Craig Venter Inst, San Diego, CA USA..
    Sutton, Granger
    J Craig Venter Inst, Rockville, MD USA..
    Gloeckner, Frank O.
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Microbial Genom & Bioinformat Res Grp, Bremen, Germany..
    Gilbert, Jack A.
    Argonne Natl Lab, Biosci Div, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.;Univ Chicago, Dept Surg, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Nelson, William C.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Earth & Biol Sci Directorate, Biol Sci Div, Richland, WA USA..
    Hallam, Steven J.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Jungbluth, Sean P.
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Dark Energy Biosphere Invest, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Ettema, Thijs J. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Tighe, Scott
    Univ Vermont, Canc Ctr, Adv Genom Lab, Burlington, VT USA..
    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, Atlanta, GA USA..
    Liu, Wen-Tso
    Univ Illinois, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Urbana, IL USA..
    Baker, Brett J.
    Univ Texas Austin, Marine Sci Inst, Dept Marine Sci, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Rattei, Thomas
    Univ Vienna, Dept Microbiol & Ecosyst Sci, Vienna, Austria..
    Eisen, Jonathan A.
    Univ Calif Davis, Genome Ctr, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Hedlund, Brian
    Univ Nevada, Sch Life Sci, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.;Univ Nevada, Nevada Inst Personalized Med, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA..
    McMahon, Katherine D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Bacteriol, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fierer, Noah
    Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Boulder, CO USA..
    Knight, Rob
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Microbiome Innovat, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Pediat, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Finn, Rob
    Welcome Trust Genome Campus, European Bioinformat Inst, European Mol Biol Lab, Cambridge, England..
    Cochrane, Guy
    Welcome Trust Genome Campus, European Bioinformat Inst, European Mol Biol Lab, Cambridge, England..
    Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene
    NIH, Nat Ctr Biotechnol Informat, Natl Lib Med, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Tyson, Gene W.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Australian Ctr Ecogen, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Rinke, Christian
    Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Australian Ctr Ecogen, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lapidus, Alla
    St Petersburg State Univ, ITBM, Ctr Algorithm Biotechnol, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Meyer, Folker
    Argonne Natl Lab, Biosci Div, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 USA..
    Yilmaz, Pelin
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Microbial Genom & Bioinformat Res Grp, Bremen, Germany..
    Parks, Donovan H.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Australian Ctr Ecogen, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Eren, A. M.
    Knapp Ctr Biomed Discovery, Chicago, IL USA..
    Schriml, Lynn
    NCI, Frederick, MD 21701 USA..
    Banfield, Jillian F.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hugenholtz, Philip
    Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Australian Ctr Ecogen, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Woyke, Tanja
    Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA 94598 USA.;Univ Calif Merced, Sch Nat Sci, Merced, CA 95340 USA..
    Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea2017Inngår i: Nature Biotechnology, ISSN 1087-0156, E-ISSN 1546-1696, Vol. 35, nr 8, 725-731 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two standards developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting bacterial and archaeal genome sequences. Both are extensions of the Minimum Information about Any (x) Sequence (MIxS). The standards are the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG), including, but not limited to, assembly quality, and estimates of genome completeness and contamination. These standards can be used in combination with other GSC checklists, including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum Information about a Metagenomic Sequence (MIMS), and Minimum Information about a Marker Gene Sequence (MIMARKS). Community-wide adoption of MISAG and MIMAG will facilitate more robust comparative genomic analyses of bacterial and archaeal diversity.

  • Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Tidsandan kring miljöåret 19882017Inngår i: Havet 1988, 10-13 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Ore, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Hanson, Lars
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Virtual evaluation of industrial human-robot cooperation: An automotive case study2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industries in the developed countries face challenges in terms of increased competition that puts demands on productivity, and a demographic change leading to an older population. One way of managing these challenges is through closer cooperation between human operators and robots. The robots can perform heavy, repetitive and hazardous tasks in a workstation, while the human operator does the more complex and flexible operations.

    Most industrial human-robot interaction research focuses on the safety aspects, often performed and presented in the form of physical demonstrators, while little research is made on virtual simulations. Several simulation and visualisation tools for robot evaluation exist, as well as tools for digital human modelling. However, few tools can be found that virtually combines human and robot.

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to narrowing that gap by presenting a method for virtual evaluation and optimisation of industrial human-robot cooperation. The new software demonstrator developed for this is based on the DHM tool IMMA. The presented method was implemented in a truck industry case comparing three assembly scenarios; fully manual, fully robotised or human-robot cooperation assembly. The method considers three dimensions which are compared and optimised for the human and robot; reach, operation time and biomechanical load.

    The software demonstrator presents a virtual simulation of industrial human-robot cooperation. The result from this simulation can be used to find the optimal ergonomic manufacturing system based on biomechanical loads as well as finding the system with shortest operation time. The specific industrial case verifies the statement that a human-robot collaborative assembly system gives a less physically demanding workstation compared to a manual system, and thus is better adapted to an elderly workforce. This is achieved at the same time as the operation time decreases and productivity increases, which is necessary to meet the global competition. There are though safety issues to be solved and safety standards to be changed before these benefits can be applied in practise in industry. However, the software can be used to analyse different kind of human-robot interactions that are less cooperative and can be implemented within current regulations.

  • Rastegari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: INTRODUCING CURRENT INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference on Production Research, ICPR 2013, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an introductory review of CBM practice applied in manufacturing industry, focusing the technical constituents within condition monitoring. The empirical base for the study is a case study of two major manufacturing sites in Sweden, complemented with a brief benchmark of data from two reference manufacturing sites from France and Brazil. The data from the main studies were collected by interviews and document analysis. The result indicates that there is a wide range within current practice of applying CBM. The implementations are dependent on process type (machining, assembly or heat treatment) and product type. By analysing the empirical data, gaps and challenges for implementing CBM in industry are presented, primarily focusing condition monitoring within manufacturing industry. The paper concludes with a discussion on possible future trends and research areas, needed to increase the industrial use of CBM.

  • Ng, Winda L.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Clin Diabet & Epidemiol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Geelong, Vic, Australia.;Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Peeters, Anna
    Deakin Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Geelong, Vic, Australia.;Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Ottosson, Johan
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Johansson, Kari
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Clin Diabet & Epidemiol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bruze, Gustaf
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Change in Use of Sleep Medications After Gastric Bypass Surgery or Intensive Lifestyle Treatment in Adults with Obesity2017Inngår i: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 25, nr 8, 1451-1459 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the change in use of hypnotics and/or sedatives after gastric bypass surgery or intensive lifestyle modification in adults with obesity.

    Methods: Adults with obesity who underwent gastric bypass surgery or initiated intensive lifestyle modification between 2007 and 2012 were identified through the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry and a Swedish commercial weight loss database. The two cohorts were matched on BMI, age, sex, education, history of hypnotics and/or sedatives use, and treatment year (surgery n = 20,626; lifestyle n = 11,973; 77% women, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 41 kg/m(2)). The proportion of participants with filled hypnotics and/or sedatives prescriptions was compared yearly for 3 years.

    Results: In the matched treatment cohorts, 4% had filled prescriptions for hypnotics and/or sedatives during the year before treatment. At 1 year follow-up, following an average weight loss of 37 kg and 18 kg in the surgery and intensive lifestyle cohorts, respectively, this proportion had increased to 7% in the surgery cohort but remained at 4% in the intensive lifestyle cohort (risk ratio 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.1); at 2 years, the proportion had increased to 11% versus 5% (risk ratio 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4); and at 3 years, it had increased to 14% versus 6% (risk ratio 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.6).

    Conclusions: Gastric bypass surgery was associated with increased use of hypnotics and/or sedatives compared with intensive lifestyle modification.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-04 13:15 Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Linköping
    Wokiyi, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Non-linear inverse geothermal problems2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse geothermal problem consist of estimating the temperature distribution below the earth’s surface using temperature and heat-flux measurements on the earth’s surface. The problem is important since temperature governs a variety of the geological processes including formation of magmas, minerals, fosil fuels and also deformation of rocks. Mathematical this problem is formulated as a Cauchy problem for an non-linear elliptic equation and since the thermal properties of the rocks depend strongly on the temperature, the problem is non-linear. This problem is ill-posed in the sense that it does not satisfy atleast one of Hadamard’s definition of well-posedness.

    We formulated the problem as an ill-posed non-linear operator equation which is defined in terms of solving a well-posed boundary problem. We demonstrate existence of a unique solution to this well-posed problem and give stability estimates in appropriate function spaces. We show that the operator equation is well-defined in appropriate function spaces.

    Since the problem is ill-posed, regularization is needed to stabilize computations. We demostrate that Tikhonov regularization can be implemented efficiently for solving the operator equation. The algorithm is based on having a code for solving a well- posed problem related to the operator equation. In this study we demostrate that the algorithm works efficiently for 2D calculations but can also be modified to work for 3D calculations.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 13:00 MB503, Huddinge
    Velkova, Julia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Media Technologies in the Making: User-driven Software and Infrastructures for Computer Graphics Production2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades there have emerged greater possibilities for users and consumers of media to create or engage in the creation of digital media technologies. This PhD dissertation explores the ways in which the broadening of possibilities for making technologies, specifically software, has been taken advantage of by new producers of digital culture – freelancers, aspiring digital media creators and small studios – in the production of digital visual media. It is based on two empirical case studies that concern the making of free software for computer graphics animation production in two contexts: by a loose collective of anime fans in Siberia, Russia, and by a small animation studio in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The case studies are presented and analysed in the scope of four journal articles and one book chapter which form the core of the dissertation.

    The dissertation draws on a media practice perspective and an understanding of software as an artefact that concentrates and mediates specific infrastructural arrangements that entangle politics of technological production, economic interests and practice-related concerns. The analytical focus of the research problematises in particular practices of software decommodification and its further repair and development by non-programmers; the anchoring of software development and repair in actual production practices of computer graphics animations; and a commitment to sharing software, animations and other artefacts online as commons. The thesis combines several concepts from anthropology and science and technology studies to theorise these practices: – politics and regimes of value (Appadurai, 1986); repair and artful integrations (Jackson, 2014; Suchman, 2000); gifting (Baudrillard, 1981; Mauss, 1925/2002) and autonomy (cf Bourdieu, 1993). Bringing together these concepts, the dissertation regards them as constitutive and indicative of what I refer to as ‘media-related infrastructuring practices’, or practices in which non-programmers generate infrastructures through creating and mediating arrangements around technical artefacts like software.

    The results of the dissertation indicate how making free software for computer graphics media is entangled in diverse conditions of technological unevenness that may enable, but also limit, the possibilities of aspiring media creators to improve their status or work positions in the broader field of digital media.

  • Cardoso Pereira, Susana
    et al.
    Marta-Almeida, Martinho
    Carvalho, Ana
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Heat wave and cold spell changes in Iberia for a future climate scenario2017Inngår i: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    : This study investigates the impacts of climate change scenario on summer heat waves’ (HWs) and winter cold spells’ (CSs) characteristics for 12 locations over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). These characteristics are duration, recovery factor and intensity. Two future time slices of the chosen scenario are studied, namely, the periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 which are compared with a reference climate for the recent-past (1986–2005). The RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenario is considered. The minimum and maximum daily temperature were obtained for these periods through regional model simulations using the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model forced with the MPI-ESM-LR model. The model was validated against EOBS and SPAIN02 datasets. The model shows 90th/10th percentile temperature (i.e. thresholds to identify HW/CS) biases. Therefore, HW/CS numbers and properties were evaluated using the model’s respective thresholds. HW/CS numbers and characteristics were also compared between the model and EOBS derived data. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the duration, recovery factor and intensity show significant changes in the mean and variance for the summer HWs. Differences, between future and recent-past climate in the extremes are evaluated by the 95th percentile which show an increase in the duration and intensity of the HWs for the future time slices. Very few CSs were detectable in the mid-term future (2046–2065) and none in the long-term future (2080–2100), except for Barcelona. For most locations, the CS for the future are of smaller duration and intensity. The PDF of the recovery factor suggests smaller absolute differences between the minimum and maximum temperature during winter which is also confirmed by the percentile analysis. The increase in the duration and intensity of HWs is greater in the long-term future than in the mid-term future, pointing for a warmer IP with more and longer HWs towards the end of the XXI century

  • Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Eriksson, Nomie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Bergström, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Kompetensbehov och kompetensförsörjning inom informationssäkerhet från ett samhällsperspektiv2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) har en studie genomförts med syftet att komplettera resultatet från en tidigare genomförd förstudie (Åhlfeldt m.fl., 2014) med en analys av kompetensförsörjning och kompetensbehov på informations­säkerhetsområdet från ett samhällsperspektiv. Arbetet har genomförts av forskare från två lärosäten, Högskolan i Skövde och Karlstad Universitet, samt inom tre forskningsdiscipliner: pedagogik, informationssäkerhet och företagsekonomi.

    Uppdraget har varit att besvara följande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka är kompetensbehoven för att ha en god och balanserad informationssäkerhet som bidrar till samhällets informationssäkerhet?
      • Samtida kompetensbehov (nuläget)
      • Framtida kompetensbehov
      • Hur ska nödvändig kompetens erhållas och på vem ligger ansvaret?
      • Utifrån ovanstående frågeställningar, vilka är de viktigaste framgångsfaktorerna?

    Arbetet har genomförts i form av fokusgrupper med representanter från myndigheter och företag som har en nära verksamhetskoppling till samhällets informationssäkerhet och som är viktiga för att samhällets informationssäkerhet ska fungera.

    Resultatet visar att det finns stora brister avseende informationssäkerhetskompetens på alla nivåer i samhället. Tre tydliga områden pekas ut 1) nationellt - ökat behov av starkare styrning och ledning samt kravställning 2) organisation - ökat behov av kompetens från ledning till medarbetare men med starkt fokus på kompetenshöjande åtgärder på ledningsnivå samt vid upphandling och 3) medborgarperspektivet där framförallt skolområdet lyfts fram som ett viktigt insatsområde för kompetenshöjande åtgärder.

    För att uppnå nödvändig kompetens krävs utbildningsinsatser på alla ovan angivna områden. Dels utbildningar på akademisk nivå för informationssäkerhetsexperter men även övriga utbildningar inom t ex juridik och ekonomi. Även yrkesverksamma på organisationsnivå behöver riktade kompetenshöjande åtgärder som sätter informationssäkerhet i fokus utifrån organisationens verksamhetsbehov, allt ifrån ledningsnivå till medarbetarnivå.

    Resultatet visar även att ansvaret för samhällets kompetensförsörjning för informationssäkerhet ligger även den på alla ovan nämnda tre områden men med tydlig betoning på nationell nivå. Här betonas behovet av nationella krav för att medvetandegöra och lyfta informations­säkerheten i samhällsviktig verksamhet för att nå så många medborgare som möjligt.  

    Förslag på framtida arbete avseende utveckling av metoder för framtida studier av kompetensförsörjningen pekar främst på metoder för att angripa bristen på helhetssyn samt kompetensförsörjning för management och medborgare.

  • Nawaf, Maher G.
    et al.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Ulvmar, Maria H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Withers, David R.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    McConnell, Fiona M.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Gaspal, Fabrina M.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Webb, Gwilym J.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Jones, Nick D.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Yagita, Hideo
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Juntendo Univ, Sch Med, Dept Immunol, Tokyo 1138421, Japan..
    Allison, James P.
    Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Immunol, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Lane, Peter J. L.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Immunol & Immunotherapy, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Inst Biomed Res, Coll Med & Dent Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Concurrent OX40 and CD30 Ligand Blockade Abrogates the CD4-Driven Autoimmunity Associated with CTLA4 and PD1 Blockade while Preserving Excellent Anti-CD8 Tumor Immunity2017Inngår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 199, nr 3, 974-981 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although strategies that block FOXP3-dependent regulatory T cell function (CTLA4 blockade) and the inhibitory receptor PD1 have shown great promise in promoting antitumor immune responses in humans, their widespread implementation for cancer immunotherapy has been hampered by significant off-target autoimmune side effects that can be lethal. Our work has shown that absence of OX40 and CD30 costimulatory signals prevents CD4 T cell-driven autoimmunity in Foxp3-deficient mice, suggesting a novel way to block these side effects. In this study, we show that excellent antitumor CD8 T cell responses can be achieved in Foxp3(KO) mice deficient in OX40 and CD30 signals, particularly in the presence of concurrent PD1 blockade. Furthermore, excellent antitumor immune responses can also be achieved using combinations of Abs that block CTLA4, PD1, OX40, and CD30 ligands, without CD4 T cell-driven autoimmunity. By dissociating autoimmune side effects from anticancer immune responses, this potentially shifts this antitumor approach to patients with far less advanced disease.