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  • Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    The impact of education on environmental policy decision-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants in governmental agencies regularly both propose environmental policies for the elected politicians and make own decisions. In making these decisions they may be influenced by legal norms, agency policy and culture, professional norms acquired through education as well as personal political preferences. This study tests how students in late stages of professional training in economics, biology and social sciences handle information in order to make a stylized choice of a national nutrient limit for lake water, or choose a program at a municipal level to lower the nutrient level in a local lake. The purpose is to test whether professional norms acquired during academic education and/or the presence of an international standard influences decision-making. We examine three hypotheses. Firstly, students’ political attitudes affect their choice of major, i.e. biology, economics or social sciences, and thereby indirectly their decisions. We find that the distribution of the political values among disciplines is compatible with the hypothesis, which therefore is not rejected. Secondly, a student’s major influences the kind of information they use and consequently the policy choice they will recommend. In plain words we expected biology students to go for environmentally more ambitious (lower) nutrient limits and economics students to prefer economically efficient (higher) levels. The central result is that while economics majors are more likely than biology or social science majors to choose a cost-efficient nutrient limit, the mean and median values of the nutrient levels chosen by the three groups do not differ from one another in a statistically significant way. Economists thus have a higher standard deviation in their answers than the other majors. The third hypothesis is that the presence of an internationally approved standard level for the nutrient content will significantly influence the choice of national nutrient limit. We find that biology students are influenced to set a lower nutrient limit when presented with the standard than otherwise, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis for this group. For students in economics and social sciences, no significant effect is found. Our results have implications for the feasibility of micromanagement in government agencies as recruiting economists to environmental agencies may not be sufficient to ensure economically efficient decisions. The findings also should sound a warning about the skills learned by economics majors at the two largest universities in Sweden: while some students seem familiar with the concepts of optimality and cost efficiency and able to use them, this applies to far from all of them.

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Congdon Fors, Heather
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The influence of individual characteristics and institutional norms on bureaucrats’ use of CBA in environmental policy: a model and a choice experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists regularly criticize the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which has led to much focus being placed on investigating the possible biases related to its results. Recent research shows that CBA is not routinely done prior to environmental, energy, and climate policymaking in Sweden, and in countries where a CBA is made, the results have little influence on political decisions. This paper investigates obstacles to using CBA information with a focus on bureaucrats. We use empirical data from Sweden, where the ministries are small by international standards and hence government agencies have a sizeable influence on policymaking. We construct a theoretical model and then test the theoretical predictions with empirical data collected from five Swedish government agencies. The empirical results lend support both for the assertion that risk aversion concerning the environmental outcome, the bureaucrats’ environmental attitudes, and the cost of taking CBA information into account have a considerable impact on the probability of using information from a CBA. Hence risk averse and bureaucrats with strong environmental preferences are less likely and bureaucrats with low cost of doing a CBA more likely than other bureaucrats to use CBA information. Finally, a binding governmental budget constraint may positively influence a bureaucrat’s choice of undertaking a CBA. A tentative conclusion is therefore that it may be possible to increase the use of CBA by making the budgetary consequences of policies much clearer and demanding due consideration of costs.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bergström, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area: an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been recognized that emissions from traffic have a negative impact on human health. In recent years there has been emerging consensus that the main influence is due to particulate matter. From an economic point of view these negative effects are external costs caused by traffic that, if not accounted for in decision making regarding transport, will result in a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses. To be able to implement road pricing measures, but also for the evaluation of other control measures through benefit-cost analysis, information on the external cost of traffic emissions is needed. In the Impact pathway approach (IPA), that has been developed in the ExternE projects, the external cost is calculated as the product of exposure, effect and value. In this study the effect we focus on is health impacts (mortality). Regarding particulate matter (PM) there is recognition among the research community that there are different types of PM and that it is likely that their impact on human health differs. Still the current practice is to treat fine PM (which are considered to be most detrimental to health) as equally harmful irrespective of origin. In the TESS project the purpose has been to investigate how important the external health cost of road traffic generated PM is in relation to the cost of other sources of PM. To do this we have both investigated how the exposure varies between sources but also assessed if it is reasonable to assume that the impact differs between PM from different sources. Whether or not to assume that PM of different origin is equally harmful is of particular interest in Sweden where non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to the concentrations of PM in urban areas. In the project we have used Stockholm as a case study and we have focused on mortality since this is the health impact that has been found to have the largest impact on health cost in other studies.

  • Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Transportstyrelsens arbete med konsekvensutredningar: metodik för samhällsekonomisk analys med beräkningshandledning i bilaga2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is an area where the public sector plays an important role for the design and the functioning of the system. In Sweden the overriding goal for transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and businesses throughout the country. When making changes to the system there is a need for information on the advantages and disadvantages of different policy options so that the decisions are based on balanced evidence. To meet these ends, the methodology of cost-benefit analysis is applied as a decision support tool, especially regarding decision related to infrastructure investment. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency have the main responsibility for the design and functioning of the transport system in Sweden. The former is responsible for the infrastructure while the latter is more concerned with the management of traffic and the design of rules and regulations. The Swedish Transport Agency also exercises supervision. In 2012 the Swedish Transport Agency commissioned VTI to develop a first version of a calculation handbook to be used in the impact assessments performed by the Agency, together with a plan for education on how to perform this type of assessment. Our proposition is presented in this report. Based on a number of case studies of impact assessment recently performed at the Agency we have assessed what kind of information that needs to be included in their impact assessments. We have also investigated which methods are used internationally, and by the Swedish Transport Administration, to perform this type of analysis. Using this information we present a draft for a calculation handbook based on the experience and material used at the Swedish Transport Administration. We also present an education plan. However, since there is a difference between issues related to investments in infrastructure and management issues, we also suggest a plan for development of the calculation handbook and its use within the Agency.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Valuing statistical lives or life years?: a choice experimental study2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Although the value of reducing mortality risks and that of reducing life year losses are closely related to each other, the valuation literature seems to treat them rather separately resulting in conflicting value estimates. While the former is more concerned with saved statistical lives from accidents, the latter is more directed to the lost life years due to air pollution etc. In this paper, we attempt to conduct an integrated valuation study for both types of values in the same choice experimental design. We formulate an econometric model which simultaneously takes into account both mortality risk reduction and life year loss. The results indicates that conditional on given remaining life years upon survival, the marginal willingness to pay is constant for each statistical life saved, which indicates strong scope effect. The marginal value per extra life year, however, is a diminishing function of the number of life years. We have also examined the effect of other covariates such as the respondents’ characteristics (e.g. gender and age), their self-confidence in making choices, and possible categorical behavior on the final value estimates.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: The case of Sweden2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In recent years large efforts have been devoted in EU-funded research projects, i.e. the ExternE-projects, to the development of an approach that can be used to estimate the external costs of air pollution. The calculation in these projects is based on the so called Impact pathway approach where the impacts from air pollution are assessed and valued. This approach has now been used to estimate the cost of air pollution of transport in Sweden for the year 2000. In addition, we have used abatement cost estimates to include the costs due to acidification and eutrophication. This is a joint project between VTI, TFK and IER at the University of Stuttgart. This report presents and discusses the results from this project, "the all-modes study", regarding air pollutants with a local and regional dispersion. It also relates the results from this project to cost estimates in other studies. Cost estimates have been calculated for all transport modes. For road transport, estimates were calculated for extra urban and urban traffic and also for two cases, Skellefteå and Stockholm. The purpose was to obtain information on the variation in costs between different traffic situations. Such information is an input in the evaluation of infrastructure investments and is also a basis for marginal cost pricing. The costs vary since there is a large number of variables that influence the estimates. Costs will depend upon which pollutant we consider and where the emissions occur. Costs will also depend upon other relationships such as the number of people being asthmatics in a population and the value placed on an asthma attack. For the latter, the assumptions used in the all-modes study are the same as those used in the EU-funded UNITE-project.  

  • Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Politisk handlingskraft i en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport förordas att regeringen ska inrätta en varaktig utvecklingsmiljö inom kommittéväsendet. Det skulle ge ytterligare politisk handlingskraft. Avsikten skulle vara att bekä­mpa sådana sektorsövergripande samhällsutmaningar som involverar ett system av aktörer och som visat sig svåra att bemästra genom ordinarie styrning och samverkan. Som exempel kan nämnas punktligheten i järnvägstrafiken eller den fara för patientsäkerheten som uppstår när livsviktiga läkemedel saknas vid landets apotek.

    Både i fråga om kvalitet och kostnad kan betydande samhällsekonomiska vinster då hämtas hem. Samtidigt skulle varken utvecklingsmiljön eller de lösningar den frambringar medföra någon belastning på statsbudgeten. Myndigheternas ansvar påverkas inte och deras deltagande skulle inte medföra några juridiska konsekvenser. Inte heller krävs det någon ny mottagarkapacitet eller andra förstärkningar inom Regeringskansliet.

    Med en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö skulle Sverige ansluta till en lång rad av länder som redan etablerat vad som ofta kallas för labb eller som mera kraftfullt beskrivs som en insatsstyrka.  Poängen är dock inte att tvinga fram eller att styra utformningen av de lösningar som utvecklas, ej heller att ta över ägarskapet.

    I utvecklingsmiljön skulle aktörerna få den kvalificerade hjälp de efterfrågar för att gemensamt lösa ut frågor som ”trillat mellan stolarna” och där ansvaret tycks ligga på ”ingen, någon, vemsomhelst eller alla”. Nackdelarna med den annars relativt väl fungerande sektorsindelningen och resultatstyrningen skulle kunna minska. En del av kritiken mot den så kallade stuprörsförvaltningen skulle kunna stillas. 

    Idén är inte ny. Andra har tidigare argumenterat för liknande åtgärder. Föreliggande rapport bidrar med en extensiv genomgång av relevant litteratur samt en kartläggning av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt, förmågor och tillkortakommanden. För att undersöka vad myndigheterna själva kan hantera har det även gjorts praktiska försök samt kartlagts vilka förmågor som finns i befintliga svenska utvecklingsmiljöer. 

    Försöken och kartläggningarna visar att myndigheternas egna ansvar att samverka räcker långt. Av naturliga skäl saknar de dock uppdrag och mandat att självsvåldigt anpassa och använda andra aktörers resurser i tjänstesystemet. Många myndighetsöverskridande utmaningar blir svåra att åtgärda när inte alla ställer upp. Myndigheternas representanter efterfrågar därför en aktörsneutral arena på regeringens överordnade nivå där de ges vägledning och professionellt stöd. Något sådant stöd har hittills inte kunnat påräknas.

    Genom kartläggningen av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt blir det tydligt varför idén om en utvecklingsmiljö inte tidigare har tagits tillvara. Kansliet är helt enkelt utformat för beredning av ärenden och styrning och inte lämpat för praktisk utveckling. 

    Förutsättningarna är däremot bättre inom kommittéväsendet. Där skulle den efterfrågade miljön kunna inrättas utan en bortre tidsgräns, som fallet varit med Expertgruppen för Studier i Offentlig ekonomi (ESO).

    Kommittéväsendets relativa närhet till regeringen gör att de aktörer som bjuds in till miljön sannolikt kommer att vilja delta. Genom att låta uppdragen tilldelas av Statsrådsberedningen skulle även många av de oavsiktliga hinder kunna undanröjas som följer av att styrningen är sektorsindelad och primärt inte avsedd för gränsöverskridande frågor.

  • Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Miljöpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund: en fallstudie om styrmedlet miljökvalitetsnormer för partiklar och kvävedioxid2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards for nitrodioxid and particles in air. Such assessments arc regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision- making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. A finding in this study is that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in a number of activities at different levels of society. At the municipality level measurements of air quality are undertaken and information on these levels is provided to the public, while the Swedish EPA develops regulations and also makes assessments and decides on research programmes. The impact of the standards on air quality and societal costs however has so far been limited since few of the abatement measures presented in the action programmes have been implemented and these are to some extent introduced for other reasons than air quality. There is however a risk that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in abatement measures which have had a minor impact on human health. The conclusion is that socioeconomic analysis and quantified assessments are and have been lacking in the decision making regarding environmental policies for improved air quality in Sweden. Therefore policy makers are not notified about possible conflicts between improvements in air quality and other objectives in society and neither are they notified about possible synergies between different abatement measures. Quantified economic analysis is used in the transport sector partly for the reason of assessing trade-offs and possible conflicts between different policy objectives. This is also likely to be an important aspect to consider in the design of environmental policies and it is therefore troublesome that this kind of a systematic approach to evaluation is not used on a regular basis.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Länsstyrelsen Dalarna.
    Miljökvalitetsnormer och luftkvaliteten i Dalarna: resultat, diskussion, mätning och modellering2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige antogs en ny Luftkvalitetsförordning i juni 2010 (2010:477). Den reglerar vilka ämnen som omfattas av miljökvalitetsnormer för luftkvalitet samt hur detta styrmedel ska tillämpas. Enligt denna förordning ansvarar kommunerna för att kontrollera luftkvaliteten för de flesta miljökvalitetsnormerna, i samverkan eller på egen hand. Dalarnas Luftvårdsförbund samordnar detta arbete i Dalarna och de arbetar nu med att utforma ett nytt program. Ett sådant program ska baseras på den kunskap som finns om luftkvaliteten i samverkansområdet. I denna rapport beskrivs resultaten från den övervakning som skett fram till nu och utifrån detta diskuteras vad ett nytt program för övervakning av luftkvalitet behöver innehålla. I Dalarna är det risk för överskridande av nedre utvärderingströskeln (NUT) för partiklar och kvävedioxid på vissa gator i Borlänge respektive Falun. Det finns även risk för överskridande av miljökvalitetsnormen för kvävedioxid (det svenska gränsvärdet för dag och timme) i Falun. Detta innebär att Falun åtminstone måste ha en mätstation för kvävedioxid. Eftersom övre utvärderingströskeln (ÖUT) överskrids måste denna kompletteras med ytterligare en mätstation alternativt modellering på någon plats i samverkansområdet. För partiklar gäller att NUT överskrids och därmed måste det finnas två mätstationer i samverkansområdet. Risk för överskridande av NUT finns inte för övriga ämnen och därmed kan enklare mätning alternativt modellering användas för dessa. Programmet bör utformas för att både övervaka långsiktiga förändringar och ge underlag för att bedöma om behov finns för genomförande av åtgärder. Detta sker genom fasta mätpunkter som är strategiskt placerade på platser där det kan förmodas vara för länet högsta halter. Om miljökvalitetsnormer eller den övre eller nedre utvärderingströskeln inte överskrids på dessa platser är sannolikheten liten att halter av aktuella föroreningar överskrids på andra platser i länet. Vid dessa mätstationer samlas även information om aktiviteter som bidrar till halter av luftföroreningar för att mätningarna ska kunna användas för att kalibrera modeller för förhållanden i Dalarna. Eftersom Falun och Borlänge är tätorterna med högst halter bör de fasta mätstationer som lagen kräver ska finnas i samverkansområdet placeras där. I Falun måste mätning av kvävedioxid genomföras medan Borlänge har störst problem med partiklar. Det är därför lämpligt att mätning av kvävedioxid sker i Falun (gärna två platser som representerar gatunivå och urban bakgrund) medan mätningar av partiklar på motsvarande sätt sker i Borlänge (gatunivå för PM 10 och urban bakgrund för PM2,5). Givet att annan relevant information som trafikarbete samlas in vid mätpunkterna kommer denna information kunna användas för att både använda och kalibrera modeller. Utöver dessa fasta mätstationer behöver kontroll av luftkvalitet genomföras med jämna mellanrum i andra kommuner i länet. Detta kan ske genom ambulerande mätningar, alternativ modelleringar, på olika platser i länet som utformas utifrån lokala behov. Exempel på sådana lokala behov är att kommunerna bedriver tillsyn och de har exempelvis skyldighet att övervaka betydelsen av småskalig vedeldning för luftkvaliteten. Eftersom detta är en källa med begränsad lokal påverkan är det svårt att fånga dess inverkan genom centralt placerade mätstationer. Det finns även variationer över tid i trafikarbetet som kan leda till förhöjda halter på vissa platser periodvis. Även bidraget från olika industrier kan vara intressant att kartlägga mer i detalj för att ge underlag för arbetet med tillsyn.

  • Abramian, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    REFACING: RECONSTRUCTING ANONYMIZED FACIAL FEATURES USING GANS2019In: 2019 IEEE 16TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOMEDICAL IMAGING (ISBI 2019), IEEE , 2019, p. 1104-1108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymization of medical images is necessary for protecting the identity of the test subjects, and is therefore an essential step in data sharing. However, recent developments in deep learning may raise the bar on the amount of distortion that needs to be applied to guarantee anonymity. To test such possibilities, we have applied the novel CycleGAN unsupervised image-to-image translation framework on sagittal slices of T1 MR images, in order to reconstruct, facial features from anonymized data. We applied the CycleGAN framework on both face-blurred and face-removed images. Our results show that face blurring may not provide adequate protection against malicious attempts at identifying the subjects, while face removal provides more robust anonymization, but is still partially reversible.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    Measuring the external health cost of particulate matter from road traffic and other sources in Stockholm, Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper measures the external health cost due to emissions from different sources in the Stockholm area using the Impact pathway approach. The estimated health impact is the result of detailed dispersion modelling with high spatial resolution. We make separate calculations for the impact that occur within the Stockholm area, the surrounding region and the rest of Europe. The pollutants considered are combustion and secondary particulate matter (PM) from the burning of fuels and also road wear (non-exhaust PM) that makes a large contribution to measured concentrations of PM locally in Stockholm. We also investigate the influence of assumptions made regarding the exposure-response functions used in these calculations since PM of different origin are expected to have different health impacts. According to the results road traffic makes important contributions to the external health cost both on a local and a regional scale compared to other sources. This is in part due to emissions being released in close proximity to where people live but also because of the amount of pollutants emitted. Although non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to local population exposure within Stockholm the external health cost is relatively small which is due to other health impact being relevant for this emission source. Residential heating also makes an important contribution to exposure and external health cost on a local scale while power plants have a large influence regionally.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Andelius, Camilla
    Marginalkostnadsberäkning av luftburna föroreningar från fordon: problem med differentiering, interdependens och variabilitet2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en del i ett forskningsprojekt vid VTI kallat "Implementering av marginalkostnadsprissättning i transportsektorn - problem med variabilitet, differentiering, interdependens och osäkerhet". Denna studie ingår i delprojektet luftföroreningar som ska behandla miljöproblem i form av utsläpp som sprids via luften och som är kopplade till användningen av transportsystemet. Meningen med denna förstudie är att ge en översikt över de problem med luftburna föroreningar från fordon som finns idag och vilka metoder som idag används för att beräkna marginalkostnaderna av dessa, samt diskutera vad som ytterligare behöver utforskas utifrån perspektivet av en framtida marginalkostnadsprissättning av transporter. Vi behandlar dock inte klimatpåverkande gaser i detta arbete av två skäl; dels för att dessa effekter är så vittomspännande vilket gör kostnadsberäkningen oerhört osäker, dels för att de kostnader som de ger upphov till inte varierar beroende på var utsläppen sker eftersom påverkan är global. Vi har i studien delvis fokuserat på en modell för beräkning av transportsektors marginalkostnader som tagits fram i ett europeiskt projekt, ExternE Core/Transport. Detta eftersom denna modell baserar sig på aktuell kunskap och även används för att beräkna kostnaderna för transporter på europeisk nivå. I vissa delar har vi jämfört beräkningarna i den modellen med de beräkningar som de nu aktuella svenska värdena baserar sig på.  

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Management by good intentions and best wishes: on sustainability, tourism and transport investment planning in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government, despite a possible value conflict with the ambitious Swedish climate mitigation objectives, has stated that tourism development is an important basis for economic growth, not least in rural areas. This paper explores how the Swedish policy making system, and ambitious environmental and traffic safety objectives, influence transport investment planning at the regional level. Our point of reference for evaluating the system is the work with good regulatory policy advocated by the OECD and used by the EU. The main finding is that the Swedish government and parliament lack a strategic “whole-of-government approach” to sustainable transport development. There are many principles and objectives with good intentions established at the national level that are incompatible in practice. The conflicts that follow are handed down to lower government levels to solve with best wishes. The problem with this type of management is the “tragedy of the commons.” Without clear guidance, individuals (and administrations) acting independently and rationally based on self-interests are likely to behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group (society).

    Making choices based on a more holistic assessment of impacts and benefits and costs could help to prevent this kind of outcome. However, from the data collected it appears that many investments are undertaken without being assessed due to the lack of government instructions on regulatory impact assessment. Other investments are undertaken despite having a negative net benefit. One reason for this is specific instructions given by the government that points to certain investments. Another reason seems to be the Vision Zero policy established by the parliament. In recent years this policy has been a strong driver of improvements of the road system. Seen from an environmental perspective, the unwanted consequence of the priorities made is that state roads become faster and safer and thereby a more attractive alternative to other travel modes. Seen from a regional development and tourism perspective, this may have diverted resources away from investments that would have yielded a greater benefit to the tourism industry in “rural” areas.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Johansson, Christer
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Luftföroreningarnas externa kostnader: Förslag på beräkningsmetod för trafiken utifrån granskning av ExternE-beräkningar för Stockholm och Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2002 the external costs of air pollution from the Swedish transport sector were calculated using the methodology developed within the EU-funded ExternE-projects. A comparison of these estimates with those presently in use in Swedish transport analysis revealed important differences, especially for particulate matter. The main purpose of this project was to examine the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study and based on the findings from this examination propose a method to be used for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impacts. In addition, the methods used for the cost calculation for pollutants with regional impact should be described. In the report, the results are presented in two parts. In the first part, the method we propose for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impact is presented. We suggest that the calculation is based on three components; exposure estimates, effects estimates and values. The product of these three gives the final cost. In this part of the report we also present the approaches currently used to calculate the cost for pollutants with a regional impact. In part two of the report we present in greater detail the findings from the examination of the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Infrastrukturpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A government committee, Trafikverksutredningen, has commissioned VTI to review the national infrastructure policy regarding construction and maintenance of roads and railways as well as concerning policies to ascertain its appropriate use. Based on our review, recommendations are given relative to the appropriate organisation of a future infrastructure agency and the ways in which responsibilities for different types of decisions can be split between the political and administrative/agency level in order to enhance efficiency in the use of scarce resources. The report has also been published as Appendix 2 to the official committee report (SOU 2009:31).

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hälsoeffekter, påverkar de acceptansen för prissättning av vägtrafik?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Road traffic makes important contributions to the pollution levels in urban areas. Of the pollutants, particulate matter, makes the greatest contribution to the external cost due to their detrimental impact on human health. Economic policy measures such as road pricing can be used for the regulation of traffic, thereby improving local air quality, but there is often a large resistance towards these types of measures. The purpose of this study has been to investigate if it is likely that the health impact of traffic emissions influences the acceptance for road pricing. In this study we have done a literature survey to explore this issue. The conclusion is that it is unlikely that the health impact influences the acceptance. An important reason is that the public knowledge about this health impact is low and therefore the health risks are underestimated. We have also found that there is a need for deeper investigation into people´s knowledge about traffic emissions and their health impact and how this in turn influences their decisions regarding policy measures, such as road pricing that aims at reducing the health impact. The conclusion is that the best method for this would be a so-called Stated Preference study.

  • Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar: kunskapsläget avseende påverkan på ekosystemet i Sverige, betydelsen av var utsläppen sker samt kostnader för utsläpp från svensk sjöfart2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s second government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost2). In this study, we have estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact on the ecosystem and emissions from shipping.

    In the earlier study of air pollution in Samkost was concluded that a largely unexplored question was how much the transport sector contributes to secondary pollution and the impact these have on population exposure and impact on the ecosystem. It was found that this is an important issue because it is these pollutants that are the focus of the EU’s air quality policy. To carry out impact assessments of the proposals at EU level in this field, and to compare the results of different studies, it is important to clarify the pollution that has been the basis for the analysis.

    For this reason, the focus of Samkost2 on air pollution became how to perform calculations for the secondary pollutants. There was also a desire to gain more knowledge about the marginal costs of emissions from Swedish shipping, and on how impacts on ecosystems can be included in these calculations. To carry out these calculations required information in the form of dispersion modelling. Therefore, SMHI was commissioned to provide data on emissions at sea and their dispersion. Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and dispersion modelling involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Only emissions from Swedish shipping and not from the other modes were included. To get some information about geographical differences in the impact of emissions that occur in different places separate calculations for three different areas was conducted; Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Baltic Sea south of Åland and the Baltic Sea north of the Åland Islands. Specific effects, i.e. exposure, were only modelled for the population and not for different types of ecosystems.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • Söderfeldt, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Berglund, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature, Sociology of Literature.
    Lindström, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Towards mining the history of the active patient.: A mixed-methods discourse analysis of the journal Allergia, 1957–19902019Report (Other academic)
  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of traffic emission control: targeting strategies under uncertainty2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Emissions from traffic impose negative effects on human health, and recent evidence indicates that particulate matters (PM) are the detrimental air pollutant that causes most life years lost. To improve the efficiency of resource allocation, various mitigation measures have been proposed for reducing these emissions. However, whether or not the policy instruments are welfare improving, and if yes, how much more efficient they can be remain to be studied. To answer the questions, we need to both assess the economic cost of emission control and the health benefit due to the reduced PM emission by all proposed control instruments. This paper focuses on the cost efficiency for reaching pre-determined emission targets. We are concerned with reducing the concentrations of PM in Stockholm by local policy measures. Contrary to other cost-efficiency studies we have in this study included adaptations in behaviour in addition to the conventional technical measures alone. Since there are different emissions of PM, targeting PM10 may not be a good indicator of the health benefits. We therefore compare the performance of targeting PM and of targeting years of life lost (YOLL) and found interesting differences. We find that if the ultimate objective is to save lives or say life-years, it should be more appropriate to target YOLL, provided that YOLL can be properly predicted. Moreover, since the collected data on the effectiveness and cost of the policy instruments involve large uncertainty, we have employed a stochastic control model to explore the implications of the degree of uncertainty. We find that the higher fulfilment probability, the larger the marginal cost as expected. Also, for a given fulfilment probability, the more uncertain we are about the true effectiveness parameters, the larger the marginal costs.

  • Loxbo, Karl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blombäck, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hinnfors, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Demker, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hagevi, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Reliability testing of coded election manifesto data in the DIPAC-project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The data described in this report were collected for the DIPAC-project.1 The project’s aim was to closer investigate the proposed crisis of parties and party systems in Western Europe during the last decades.  To fulfil this aim, one of our main goals was to collect electoral manifestos from all parties in the respective party system for all selected years, and code their ideological contents. The main reason for our choice to code manifestos was to provide a more detailed and nuanced foundation for analyzing ideological polarization and ideological change in Western European party system than the saliency-oriented perspective that has hitherto dominated manifesto-research. In this report, we conclude that the DIPAC coding of ideological position has yielded highly reliable measures, whereas the coding of saliency should be interpreted with some caution with regard to the GAL-TAN dimension and sub-dimensions. 

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of local policy measure to improve air quality in Stockholm: an exploratory study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the research undertaken in the project TESS - Traffic Emissions, Socioeconomic valuation and Socioeconomic measures. In this report, we have studied the cost-effectiveness of particulate matter (PM) reductions from local emission sources in the Stockholm area. The input in the analysis is cost and effectiveness data collected from other studies and reports on reductions in emissions from traffic and residential heating. Contrary to other cost-effectiveness studies we have also included abatement measures where the effect is mainly due to adaptations in behavior. One example is congestion charging that we have assumed have a zero cost. We have also investigated the effect of different targeting strategies. Either the focus is on achieving air quality limit values for PM10 or the focus is on improvement in human health. In the first case we have assumed that the aim is to reduce emissions of PM10. In the second case the aim has been formulated as a reduction of the number of years of life lost (YOLL) in the population that would result if we reduce the concentrations of particulate matter in the city. The cost-effective analysis is done with a simple linear programming model. According to our results, congestion charging, a change to low-emission vehicles and installation of accumulator tanks are the least cost abatement measures irrespective of the target used in the analysis. For congestion charging and low-emission vehicles this is due to the assumption made that the abatement cost is zero. Thereafter however, the choice of measures depends on the choice of target. While less use of studded tires is efficient in order to reduce PM10 emissions, this is not a measure that has a large impact on the reduction of YOLL. This result relies on the assumptions made regarding the mortality impact of non-exhaust PM versus combustion PM.

  • Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Skonhoft Johannesen, Hedvig
    Fakultet for lærerutdanning og internasjonale studier, OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Editorial: Spring 20192019In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. iii-viArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-11-01 10:00 Ång/10132 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Saketi, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Investigation of Topography, Adhesion and Diffusion Wear in Sliding Contacts during Steel and Titanium Alloy Machining2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis work is to increase the fundamental knowledge of the tribological contact between the cutting tool and the work material in three different cutting operations, i.e. hard milling of cold work tool steels, turning in 316L stainless steel and turning in Ti6Al4V alloy, respectively. The influence of cutting parameters and tool surface topography on the initial material transfer tendency and resulting wear and wear mechanisms were investigated under well controlled cutting conditions. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface analysis, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), were used in order to characterize the worn cutting tools on a sub-µm scale and deepen the understanding of the wear mechanisms prevailing at the tool / work material interface. The characterization work includes the analysis of worn tool surfaces as well as cross-sections of these. Also, the back side of collected chips were analysed to further understand the contact mechanisms between the tool rake face and chip.

    The results show that the transfer tendency of work material is strongly affected by the surface topography of the rake face and that an appropriate pre- and post-coating treatment can be used in order to reduce the transfer tendency and the mechanical interaction between a coated cutting tool and 316L stainless steel. The continuous wear mechanisms of the cutting tools were found to be dependent on the work materials and the cutting parameters used. In hard milling of cold work tool steels, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride shows a combination of tribochemical wear, adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear. In the turning of 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V alloy, using medium to high cutting speeds/feeds, the wear of cemented carbide is mainly controlled by diffusion wear of the WC phase. Interestingly, the diffusion wear processes differ between the two work materials. In contact with 316L stainless steel crater wear is controlled by atomic diffusion of W and C into the passing chip. In contact with Ti6Al4V crater wear is controlled by the diffusion of C into a transfer work material layer generating a W layer and TiC precipitates which repeatedly is removed by the passing chip. The experimental work and results obtained illustrates the importance of in-depth characterization of the worn surfaces in order to increase the understanding of the degradation and wear of tool materials and coatings in metal cutting operations.

  • Berg, Monika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Building Institutional Trust Through Service Experiences: Private Versus Public Provision Matter2019In: Journal of public administration research and theory, ISSN 1053-1858, E-ISSN 1477-9803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare service experiences are known to shape citizens' trust in public institutions and their sup-port of the welfare state. But, there is poor understanding of how this relationship is shaped in systems of mixed provision, that is, welfare states that use public in-house as well as contracted private providers for publically funded services. Drawing on the notion of system trust this article provides a theoretical account of how mixed-provision welfare systems condition the relationship between service experience and trust, affecting the legitimacy of the state. Utilizing a random-ized vignette experiment with participants in a general citizen survey in Sweden, we investigate whether it matters for the formation of institutional trust if the welfare service is provided by a public or third-party private provider. The main result show that the spillover of trust from positive service experiences with the provider to trust in public institutions is higher in cases of public ser-vice provision. Thus, the possibility of using welfare services to build trust in the welfare system seems to be greater when public provision is used.

  • Flinkfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Näsman, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet.
    På tal om pengar: Problembeskrivningar, hjälp och bemötande när barnfamiljer ringer till Försäkringskassan2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten redovisar resultat från forskningsstudien “På tal om pengar: Problembeskrivningar, hjälp och bemötande när ekonomiskt utsatta barnfamiljer ringer till Försäkringskassan”. I studien har samtalsanalys och tematisk analys använts för att kvalitativt undersöka inspelade telefonsamtal till Försäkringskassans kundtjänst. Samtalen rör familjeförmånerna bostadsbidrag, underhållsstöd, föräldrapenning och barnbidrag. Försäkringskassans förmåner är viktiga för familjer som lever i ekonomisk utsatthet, men de ofta komplicerade regelverken och processerna gör att socialförsäkringen kan upplevas som svår att navigera i. När kunder i sådana lägen kontaktar Försäkringskassans kundtjänst för information eller vägledning är det viktigt att de både får relevant hjälp och bemöts på ett bra sätt. Kunders tillit och förtroende för Försäkringskassan har också i tidigare studier kopplats till handläggares bemötande.

    Forskningsstudien bidrar med ny kunskap i framför allt två avseenden.

    1. För det första visar den att kunder i de flesta fall inte behandlar ekonomisk utsatthet som relevant att berätta om för handläggaren, trots att socialförsäkringens olika förmåner generellt sett är viktiga för att komma tillrätta med sådana svårigheter. Att människor befinner sig i en ekonomiskt utsatt position räcker med andra ord inte för att de ska lyfta fram detta när de ringer till Försäkringskassan. I samtal som rör bostadsbidrag och underhållsstöd förekommer dock tal om ekonomisk utsatthet i ungefär en fjärdedel respektive en tredjedel av samtalen. Den ekonomiska utsattheten fungerar i dessa fall som en samtalsresurs och kunder förhåller sig till den ekonomiska utsatthetens moraliska dimensioner.

    Tidigare forskning har visat att när personer som lever i ekonomisk utsatthet söker hjälp hos socialtjänsten är moral, förtjänthet och hur stort behovet är aspekter som står på spel. Det visar sig bland annat i hur klienter pratar om sin situation i samtal med socialtjänsten. Försäkringskassans verksamhet framhålls gärna som annorlunda i detta avseende, bland annat eftersom socialförsäkringsförmånerna är mindre stigmatiserade och handläggarnas utrymme för individualiserad bedömning är mer begränsat. Den här forskningsstudien visar dock hur ekonomisk utsatthet trots detta synliggörs, förklaras och problematiseras i samtal till Försäkringskassan. Även om de flesta samtal till Försäkringskassans kundtjänst är rutinartade serviceutbyten, innebär detta att handläggare regelbundet ställs inför svåra berättelser om ekonomiskt utsatta situationer. Det gäller särskilt handläggare som tar emot samtal som rör förmåner som riktar sig till eller i stor utsträckning berör ekonomiskt utsatta barnhushåll, såsom bostadsbidrag och underhållsstöd. Det kan till exempel handla om att föräldrar säger att deras inkomster är otillräckliga, att de inte har råd att betala sin hyra, att barnen drabbas om pengarna inte räcker till mat, och att det finns litet utrymme för oförutsedda utgifter. Det förekommer också att kunder är känslosamma, oroliga och uppgivna när de beskriver sin situation.

    Genom att lyfta fram en ekonomiskt utsatt situation när de ringer till Försäkringskassan behandlar kunder utsattheten som relevant och meningsfull information för myndigheten, oberoende av om utsattheten faktiskt har någon reell inverkan på beslut. Analysen i den här rapporten visar också att kunder i dessa beskrivningar förhåller sig till liknande moraliska dimensioner som tidigare visats genomsyra kontakter med socialtjänsten. Bland annat handlar det om att visa att den ekonomiska situationen inte är deras fel, att de är ekonomiskt ansvarsfulla och att de prioriterar nödvändiga kostnader och sätter barnens behov främst. Det kan med andra ord finnas anledning att nyansera distinktionen mellan socialförsäkringens mer byråkratiska processer och det sociala arbetets praktik.

    2. För det andra identifierar studien mönster i handläggares bemötande och kartlägger hur väl olika strategier fungerar, både när det gäller att hantera kunders tal om ekonomisk utsatthet och att förklara beslut som innebär en ekonomisk påfrestning.

    När handläggare ställs inför beskrivningar av svåra ekonomiska situationer är den vanligaste responsen att fokusera på att ge relevant service. I de flesta fall bemöts därför inte den ekonomiska utsattheten i sig. Hur handläggare hanterar tal om ekonomisk utsatthet – och hur väl deras strategier i sin tur fungerar – är emellertid något som varierar beroende på vilken funktion som den ekonomiska utsattheten har i samtalen. I de flesta fall fungerar ekonomisk utsatthet som en resurs för att hantera det legitima i att söka Försäkringskassans hjälp och service. Det gäller särskilt när ekonomisk utsatthet tas upp i början av samtalen. Handläggarnas typiska respons i detta läge är att påbörja service (till exempel svara på en fråga som ställts eller kontrollera en uppgift). Genom att göra detta bekräftar handläggarna på ett effektivt sätt att kundens ärende är legitimt.

    Läget är dock ett annat när kunden redan fått den efterfrågade servicen, särskilt i de fall där serviceutfallet är negativt för kunden (till exempel om kunden får veta att han eller hon inte kommer att få några fler utbetalningar). Beskrivningen av ekonomisk utsatthet är då ett sätt att göra motstånd mot beskedet. När handläggarna i de analyserade samtalen bemöter kundens tal om ekonomisk utsatthet i detta läge är strategin att ge vidare service (till exempel att upprepa eller utveckla förklaringar) utan att på något sätt uttrycka empati något som snarare leder till problem i samtalet. Problemen visar sig bland annat i verbaliserat motstånd från kunden, långa tystnader och höjda röster. I de fall när handläggare enbart uttrycker empati, utan att ge vidare service, behandlar kunder dock detta som otillräckligt. Den strategi som visar sig fungerar bäst i det här sammanhanget är istället att ge fortsatt service, men ‘bädda in’ den i empatiska uttryck. På så sätt visar handläggaren att han eller hon förstår kundens perspektiv och den fortsatta servicen framstår som att den har kundens bästa för ögonen. Detta kan göra upprepade negativa besked lättare att acceptera, då de ges en mindre konfrontativ karaktär. Sammantaget är en empatisk ”inbäddning” av service en strategi för att bemöta kunders tal om ekonomisk utsatthet som är förknippad med mer välfungerande samtal.

    Ett annat vägval som handläggare i Försäkringskassans kundtjänst ställs inför är hur de bäst förklarar beslut, regelverk eller handläggningsprocesser. En särskilt viktig situation är när personer som har haft bostadsbidrag får ett återkrav, eftersom detta ofta är förenat med ekonomiska påfrestningar. Om de inte förstår varför de ska betala tillbaka pengar kan de ringa kundtjänsten. Analysen indikerar att handläggares strategier för att förklara dessa beslut fungerar olika väl. Medan en regelorienterad förklaring redogör för regelverket på ett generellt sätt, förhåller sig en kundorienterad förklaring till det specifika ärendet och de uppgifter som finns där används som en resurs i förklaringen. Inom den kundorienterade modellen sker förklaringen också stegvis, vilket underlättar för kunden att följa med och även invända om någon detalj skulle vara felaktig eller svår att förstå. Utfallet för de båda förklaringsmodellerna skiljer sig åt på ett tydligt sätt. Den regelorienterade förklaringen möts överlag av motstånd och svaga uppvisade tecken på förståelse, medan kunder i respons till den kundorienterade förklaringen snarare uppvisar att ny förståelse nåtts.

    Genom att visa hur handläggarnas strategier i de analyserade kundtjänstsamtalen i olika utsträckning är förenade med tecken på ett välfungerande samspel mellan handläggaren och kunden, bidrar studien med kunskap som kan användas för att utveckla Försäkringskassans kundtjänstverksamhet.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-06 14:00 C305K, Falken, Kalmar
    Smits, Vivian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Studio Västsvensk Konservering, Sweden.
    Att skapa ett kulturarv2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at improving cooperation and communication between actors in the field of Swedish contract archaeology in order to maximize the benefits of their work. It addresses two research questions: How did the development of archaeology into contract archaeology as an independent business affect museum collections in Sweden? And: How do communication and terminology affect the processes that transform material culture into cultural heritage?

    Departing from “actor-network-theory” and taking a linguistic perspective, I first examine closely some important processes and structures behind the making of heritage. The background of contemporary contract archaeology is then illuminated through a literature study focusing on the history of and current practices in contract archaeology, conservation practice and museum management. Later, I investigate the particular effects of contract archaeology on museum collections. This is based in part on a comparative analysis of selection and de-selection processes of artefacts in collections and partly on a survey among contract archaeologists. I conclude with a discourse analysis of policies and other governing documents, highlighting the significance of communication and terminology in processes during which archaeological artefacts acquire a new identity as cultural heritage.

    The study shows how the contemporary system of contract archaeology creates a biased representation of (pre-)history, as selection and de-selection processes of artefacts in museum collections are affected by various internal practices and external demands that ultimately shape cultural heritage. This bias is not helped by the fact that those collecting the artefacts in the field use different terminology compared with those collecting in museums. I argue that behind this gap lies the “cultural heritage paradox” which derives from different understandings and aims of cultural heritage by different actors. 

  • Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    How to train your fillers: uh and um in spontaneous speech synthesis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Betz, Simon
    et al.
    Zarrieß, Sina
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Wagner, Petra
    The greennn tree - lengthening position influences uncertainty perception2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic speech can be used to express uncertainty in dialogue systems by means of hesitation. If a phrase like “Next to the green tree” is uttered in a hesitant way, that is, containing lengthening, silences, and fillers, the listener can infer that the speaker is not certain about the concepts referred to. However, we do not know anything about the referential domain of the uncertainty; if only a particular word in this sentence would be uttered hesitantly, e.g. “the greee:n tree”, the listener could infer that the uncertainty refers to the color in the statement, but not to the object. In this study, we show that the domain of the uncertainty is controllable. We conducted an experiment in which color words in sentences like “search for the green tree” were lengthened in two different positions: word onsets or final consonants, and participants were asked to rate the uncertainty regarding color and object. The results show that initial lengthening is predominantly associated with uncertainty about the word itself, whereas final lengthening is primarily associated with the following object. These findings enable dialogue system developers to finely control the attitudinal display of uncertainty, adding nuances beyond the lexical content to message delivery.

  • Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Hooiveld, Guido J.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    de Vos, Willem
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre and Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Allogenic Faecal Microbiota Transfer Induces Immune-Related Gene Sets in the Colon Mucosa of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome2019In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe–host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.

  • Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Off the cuff: Exploring extemporaneous speech delivery with TTS2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Spontaneous conversational speech synthesis from found data2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Wagner, Petra
    KTH.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    THE WRYLIE-BOARD: MAPPING ACOUSTIC SPACE OF EXPRESSIVE FEEDBACK TO ATTITUDE MARKERS2018In: Proc. IEEE Spoken Language Technology conference, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Lindqvist, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strategies to cope with emotionally challenging situations in teacher education2019In: Journal of Education for Teaching, ISSN 0260-7476, E-ISSN 1360-0540, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to teach is an emotional endeavour and student teachers challenging emotions are recurrently created in teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate student teachers'€™ coping with emotionally challenging situations in teacher education. In the study, 22 student teachers studying their last year of teacher education participated through semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methodology. The findings revealed that coping with emotionally challenging situations was connected to student teachers’ main concern of the discrepancies between idealistic conceptions and experiences. This included wanting to have an extensive impact on future pupils as a student teacher and experiencing the ambition as potentially exhausting. In coping with this discrepancy, three strategies were used: change advocacy, collective sharing and responsibility reduction. The coping strategies are discussed in the light of existing literature and potential implications are addressed.

  • Ngailo, Edward
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    On functions of a Wishart matrix and a normal vector with applications2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two papers which take a critical look on functions of an inverse Wishart matrix and a Gaussian vector. In the first paper, the product expression, of which the inverse of the pooled estimator of the covariance matrix is inverse Wishart distributed and the difference of sample means is multivariate normally distributed, is investigated by exploring the distributional properties via a stochastic representation for both the finite sample case and the infinite sample case under the large-dimensional asymptotic regime. A test theory is developed to study the contribution of population coefficients in the discriminant function. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of the classification analysis based on the discriminant function. In the second paper, the expression of the product of the inverse sample covariance matrix and the sample mean vector with regard to the derivation of moments of the estimated tangency portfolio weights is studied. In particular, higher order central and non-central moments of the elements of such a product are obtained. Moreover, the closed-form expressions of the second, the third and the fourth central moments are provided whose expressions do not depend on special mathematical functions, like the confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, we deduce analytical expressions for the mean, the variance, the skewness, and the kurtosis from the higher-order central and non-central moments of the tangency portfolio weights. Finally, the developed results have been successfully applied to real weekly data of eight stocks traded on NASDAQ.

  • Veulemans, Mathieu
    et al.
    Bakka, Loella
    Kvien, Ingvild
    Sørensen, Karin B.
    Rahm, Charlotte
    Westlund, Camilla
    Salamäki, Tiia
    Baldursson, Eiríkur Þ.
    Bragason, Ísak Sigurjón
    Nordic enforcement project on give-away products2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic chemicals agencies have jointly controlled the Nordic market of give-away products. These products were controlled against the requirements of several EU-legislations (REACH Regulation, Toy Safety Directive, RoHS Directive, POPs Regulation and the Battery Directive).

    The results show that economic operators lack knowledge of the applicable requirements, as well as lacking understanding of the extent of their obligations. They are missing appropriate systems to comply with the rules. Nevertheless, the Nordic chemicals agencies have observed an interest from business organisations to be better at understanding and complying with the applicable rules.

    This joint enforcement project has also contributed to creating closer collaboration between the Nordic chemicals agencies resulting in sharing more information and ensuring better resource efficiency.

  • Simons, Greg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Turiba University, Latvia; Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
    The Anatomy of a Moral Panic: Western Mainstream Media's Russia Scapegoat2019In: Changing Societies & Personalities, ISSN 2587-6104, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2014, there has been a very concerted campaign launched by the neo-liberal Western mainstream mass media against Russia. The format and content suggest that this is an attempt to induce a moral panic among the Western publics. It seems to be intended to create a sense of fear and to switch the logic to a series of emotionallybased reactions to assertion propaganda. Russia has been variously blamed for many different events and trends around the world, such as the “destroying” of Western “democracy”, and democratic values. In many regards, Russia is projected as being an existential threat in both the physical and intangible realms. This paper traces the strategic messages and narratives of the “Russia threat” as it is presented in Western mainstream media. Russia is connoted as a scapegoat for the failings of the neo-liberal democratic political order to maintain its global hegemony; therefore, Russia is viewed as the “menacing” other and a desperate measure to halt this gradual decline and loss of power and influence. This ultimately means that this type of journalism fails in its supposed fourth estate role, by directly aiding the hegemonic political power.

  • Elander, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Guban, Peter
    Statistiska Centralbyrån, SCB.
    Återanvändning av textil via utvalda online marknadsplatser och appar: Undersökning avseende åren 2016 och 20172019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMED har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket undersökt mängden textilier som förmedlades för återanvändning via online marknadsplatser och appar från utvalda företag. Undersökningen omfattar uppgifter från sex företag som tydligt är aktiva på den svenska marknaden. Ingen uppräkning har gjorts för företag som valt att inte lämna uppgifter (bortfall). Den totala mängden textilier som förmedlas mellan konsumenter i Sverige via online marknadsplatser och appar bedöms därför vara större.

    De sex företag som ingick i undersökningen förmedlade totalt 970 ton kläder och hemtextil för återanvändning år 2016. Motsvarande siffra för 2017 är 1 300 ton, vilket motsvarar en ökning med 32 procent. År 2017 dominerades de förmedlade textilierna av damkläder (46 procent), följt av barnkläder (31 procent) och herrkläder (15 procent). Endast mindre mängder hemtextil förmedlades.

    Den totala mängden textil som 2017 förmedlades för återanvändning via de sex företagen i undersökningen motsvarade 0,13 kilogram per person i Sverige. Det motsvarar runt en procent av nettoimporten av nya textilier till den svenska marknaden. År 2016 motsvarade den totala mängden textil som förmedlas för återanvändning via de sex företagen i undersökningen bara runt tre procent av den totala mängden begagnade textilier som återanvändes via välgörenhetsorganisationer men 12 procent av mängden begagnade textilier som återanvändes i Sverige via välgörenhetsorganisationer.

  • Wänman, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Marklund, Susanna
    Treatment outcome of supervised exercise, home exercise and bite splint therapy, respectively, in patients with symptomatic disc displacement with reduction: A randomised clinical trial2019In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The best treatment strategy for disturbing temporomandibular clicking sounds is not known. The aim was to evaluate the effect of exercise and bite splint therapy, respectively, in patients with symptomatic disc displacement with reduction. The study was a randomised clinical trial of subjects with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking sounds with a reported severity/intensity of ≥4 on a numerical rating scale (0-10) and signs fulfilling the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) for disc displacement with reduction. Thirty subjects each were randomised to bite splint, home exercise, or supervised exercise programme at the clinic. Two examiners (authors), blinded to the treatment modality, examined the same subject at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Non-parametric statistical methods were applied for analyses. A P-value <.05 was considered statistically significant. The dropout rate was highest in the home exercise group. About 50% of the participants reported improvement of their TMJ sounds with no significant difference between treatments. In the supervised exercise and the bite splint groups, approximately 2/3 of the patients reported 30% or more improvement of their TMJ sounds and half reported 50% improvement or more. The supervised exercise group also showed reductions in TMD pain, neck disability, mood disturbances and somatisation. Jaw exercise programmes and bite splint treatments had positive effects on TMJ clicking. The supervised exercise programme had an additional effect on the subject's well-being and thus may help to encourage patient's empowerment and coping strategies.

  • Holmberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Lagergren, Anniqa
    Bøen, Elin
    Lindberg, Hanna
    Lundkvist, Marina
    Tjäru, Sofie
    Pétursdóttir, Svava
    Hjartarson, Torfi
    Lagergren, Anniqa (Editor)
    Hjartarson, Torfi (Editor)
    Bøen, Elin (Editor)
    Lek och lärande med digitala verktyg i nordiska förskolor: Erfarenheter från två Nordplus-projekt 2015–20192019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I boken "Lek och lärande med digitala aktiviteter i nordiska förskolor" kommer läsaren nära det som händer när barn och förskollärare möter den digitala teknologin. Författarna har under flera år följt utvecklingen i Norden och med den här boken delar de med sig av sina erfarenheter. Det är engagerande beskrivningar som synliggör de digitala verktygens möjligheter i arbetet med digitala kompetenser i förskolan. Genomgående med ett perspektiv på barn som aktörer och kunskapsproducenter, men också utifrån ett genuint intresse för att skapa goda förutsättningar för alla barn oavsett bakgrund. Med andra ord ger boken viktiga insikter för alla som är nyfikna på hur barns lärande och digital teknik med enkla medel kan knytas samman.

  • Palmgren, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Categories with families and first-order logic with dependent sorts2019In: Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, ISSN 0168-0072, E-ISSN 1873-2461, Vol. 170, no 12, article id 102715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-order logic with dependent sorts, such as Makkai's first-order logic with dependent sorts (FOLDS), or Aczel's and Belo's dependently typed (intuitionistic) first-order logic (DFOL), may be regarded as logic enriched dependent type theories. Categories with families (cwfs) is an established semantical structure for dependent type theories, such as Martin-Löf type theory. We introduce in this article a notion of hyperdoctrine over a cwf, and show how FOLDS and DFOL fit in this semantical framework. A soundness and completeness theorem is proved for DFOL. The semantics is functorial in the sense of Lawvere, and uses a dependent version of the Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra for a DFOL theory. Agreement with standard first-order semantics is established. Applications of DFOL to constructive mathematics and categorical foundations are given. A key feature is a local propositions-as-types principle.

  • Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Gender studies.
    Mit Glück und Geschick2007In: TAZ Tageszeitung, ISSN 0941-1526, no 8 März, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [de]

    Warum gibt es in Schweden feministische Minister, während die Deutschen nichts von Emanzen wissen wollen? Die Schwedinnen waren schon in den Dreißigern berufstätig. Und der Staat war für die Frauen immer ein Partner. In Deutschland dagegen war er Obrigkeit, Nazistaat und dann Männerbund

  • Public defence: 2019-11-07 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Stigsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Structural Uncertainties of Rock Fractures and their Effect on Flow and Tracer Transport2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A clear understanding of solute flow and transport through the network of fractures in the rock mass is essential for accurate long-term safety assessments of geological storage of hazardous waste. In a discrete fracture network (DFN) model, flow and transport of solutes are described by chains of flow paths through single fractures, each of which contributes to the total flow and transport properties of the rock mass. Hence, knowledge of the flow and transport properties of each single fracture is essential for accurate safety assessment.The void space that forms a fracture is a derivative of the roughness of the bounding surfaces and the normal force acting on the fracture and is hence dependent on accurate measurement of these properties. As all measurements are associated with uncertainties stemming from e.g. instrument imprecision, external disturbances and human factors, the measured value of the properties will not be single values, but probability distributions. Depending on the set of values drawn from these distributions, interpretations of flow and transport properties of sheared fractures in crystalline hard rock will vary.This thesis examines how flow and transport properties through single fractures are affected by uncertainties in fracture orientation and in roughness. By inferring the orientation and its uncertainty from the fracture intercepts in boreholes, a probability space for the orientation of the fracture is obtained. For a given stress state, this uncertainty in orientation will result in a distribution of normal stresses acting on the fracture. The roughness of the fracture and its uncertainty can be inferred from the small intersecting surfaces of the rock core, if the resolution is sufficient and the surface is representative of the fracture. The inferred roughness affects the correlation structure of the void between the two surfaces defining the fracture and, together with the distribution of normal stresses, produces different flow paths and hence different properties of flow and transport of solutes. Depending on the parameter combinations, the median and variance of the aperture field will change, as will the correlation structure of apertures. Since the flow and transport properties depend on the geometrical framework, the uncertainty will affect path length, travel time, transport resistance and flow-wetted surface. Higher normal stress acting on the fracture will typically result in longer travel times, longer travel lengths, higher transport resistance and larger flow-wetted surface. A rougher fracture will typically result in shorter travel times, longer travel lengths, lower transport resistance and smaller flow-wetted surface. The conclusion is, hence, that uncertainties in the geometric framework will affect flow and tracer transport properties.

  • Danielsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Arbetstidsförkortning sex timmars arbetsdag - en väg till både hälsa och effektivitet?: Resultatrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Österundshems projekt med arbetstidsförkortning har följts upp under ett och ett halvt år. Denna slutrapport baseras på en enkätundersökning som genomförts tre gånger under projektets gång samt analys av företagets frånvarostatistik.

    Sammantaget ser man att välbefinnande och sömnkvalitet blivit bättre under projektet med arbetstidsförkortning, och upplevelse av kompetens har ökat. Hälsoeffekterna är störts bland kvinnor. Sjukfrånvaron minskade under det första halvåret, men ökade sedan under slutet av 2018, till samma nivå som innan projektet startade, en förändring som sannolikt främst har att göra med de turbulenta händelser i företaget som kulminerade under hösten 2018. Det som främst lyfts fram som positivt med projektet är möjligheten att själv styra sitt arbete, dvs det förtroende som givits medarbetarna att själva bedöma när arbetet är klart för dagen. Man kan också se att sjukfrånvarostatistiken följer de positiva och negativa perioderna i företagets utveckling under projekttiden. Detta visar på att arbetssituationen inte endast påverkas av faktorer i själva arbetet, utan också vad som sker på organisations- och ledningsnivå.

  • Blomgren, Roger
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Public libraries as public sphere institutions: A comparative study of perceptions of the public library's role in six Europeas countries2019In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of public libraries as institutions underpinning a democratic public sphere as reasons legitimizing libraries compared to reasons that are more traditional and the actual use of libraries as public sphere arenas.

    Design/methodology/approach – A survey of representative samples of the adult population in six countries – Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany, Hungary and Switzerland – was undertaken.

    Findings – Legitimations related to the libraries role as a meeting place and arena for public debate are ranked as the 3 least important out of 12 possible legitimations for upholding a public library service. Libraries are, however, used extensively by the users to access citizenship information and to participate in public sphere relevant meetings.

    Originality/value – Few studies have empirically analyzed the role of libraries in upholding a democratic and sustainable public sphere. This study contributes in filling that gap.