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  • Paul, Mandira
    et al.
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Kiggundu, Charles
    Namugenyi, Rebecka
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda – a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives2014In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 14, no 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians’ and midwives’ perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care.

    Methods

    In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results

    Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified.

    Conclusions

    Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of nurses and midwives. Scaled-up task sharing in post-abortion care, along with misoprostol use for uterine evacuation would provide a systematic approach to improving the quality of care and accessibility of services, with the aim of reducing abortion-related mortality and morbidity in Uganda.

  • Winbo, Annika
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Univ Auckland, Dept Physiol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Stattin, Evalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Westin, Ida Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci Med & Clin Genet, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Norberg, Anna
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci Med & Clin Genet, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Persson, Johan
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Jensen, Steen M.
    Umea Univ, Heart Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis2017In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1AP sequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

    Methods: This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.

    Results: A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 +/- 36 ms (Y111C 483 +/- 34 ms; R518* 462 +/- 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 +/- 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, + 18 ms (p = 0.0007) and + 17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0. 001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of + 19 ms and + 8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.

    Conclusions: Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Woronik, Alyssa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A functional genomic investigation of an alternative life history strategy: The Alba polymorphism in Colias croceus2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history traits affect the timing and pattern of maturation, reproduction, and survival during an organism’s lifecycle and are the major components influencing Darwinian fitness. Co-evolved patterns of these traits are known as life history strategies (LHS) and variation occurs between individuals, populations, and species. The polymorphisms underlying LHS are important targets of natural selection, yet the underlying genes and physiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Mapping the genetic basis of a LHS and subsequently unraveling the associated physiological mechanisms is a challenging task, as complex phenotypes are often polygenic. However, in several systems discrete LHS are maintained within the population and are inherited as a single locus with pleiotropic effects. These systems provide a promising starting point for investigation into LHS mechanisms and this thesis focuses on one such strategy - the Alba polymorphism in Colias butterflies. Alba is inherited as a single autosomal locus, expressed only in females, and simultaneously affects development rate, reproductive potential, and wing color. Alba females are white, while the alternative morph is yellow/orange. About 28 of 90 species exhibit polymorphic females, though whether the Alba mechanism and associated tradeoffs are conserved across the genus remains to be determined. In this thesis I primarily focus on the species Colias croceus and integrate results from lipidomics, transcriptomics, microscopy, and genomics to gain insights to the proximate mechanisms underlying Alba and Alba’s evolution within the genus. Lipidomics confirm that, consistent with findings in New World species, C. croceus Alba females have larger abdominal lipid stores than orange, an advantage which is temperature dependent and arises primarily due to mobilized lipids. Gene expression data suggests differences in resource allocation, with Alba females investing in reproduction rather than wing color, consistent with previous findings in other Colias species. Additionally, I identify a morphological basis for Alba’s white wing color. Alba females from C. croceus, an Old World species, and Colias eurytheme, a New World species both exhibit a significant reduction in pigment granules, the structures within the wing scale that contain pigment. This is a trait that seems to be unique to Colias as other white Pierid butterflies have an abundance of pigment granules, similar to orange females. I also map the genetic basis of Alba to a single genomic region containing an Alba specific, Jockey-like transposable element insertion. Interestingly this transposable element​ is located downstream of BarH-1, a gene known to affect pigment granule formation in Drosophila. Finally, I construct a phylogeny using a global distribution of 20 Colias species to facilitate investigations of Alba’s evolution within the genus.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:00 Högbomsalen, Stockholm
    Szabo, Attila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Mathematical abilities and mathematical memory during problem solving and some aspects of mathematics education for gifted pupils2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports on two different investigations.

    The first is a systematic review of pedagogical and organizational practices associated with gifted pupils’ education in mathematics, and on the empirical basis for those practices. The review shows that certain practices – for example, enrichment programs and differentiated instructions in heterogeneous classrooms or acceleration programs and ability groupings outside those classrooms – may be beneficial for the development of gifted pupils. Also, motivational characteristics of and gender differences between mathematically gifted pupils are discussed. Around 60% of analysed papers report on empirical studies, while remaining articles are based on literature reviews, theoretical discourses and the authors’ personal experiences – acceleration programs and ability groupings are supported by more empirical data than practices aimed for the heterogeneous classroom. Further, the analyses indicate that successful acceleration programs and ability groupings should fulfil some important criteria; pupils’ participation should be voluntary, the teaching should be adapted to the capacity of participants, introduced tasks should be challenging, by offering more depth and less breadth within a certain topic, and teachers engaged in these practices should be prepared for the characteristics of gifted pupils.

    The second investigation reports on the interaction of mathematical abilities and the role of mathematical memory in the context of non-routine problems. In this respect, six Swedish high-achieving students from upper secondary school were observed individually on two occasions approximately one year apart. For these studies, an analytical framework, based on the mathematical ability defined by Krutetskii (1976), was developed. Concerning the interaction of mathematical abilities, it was found that every problem-solving activity started with an orientation phase, which was followed by a phase of processing mathematical information and every activity ended with a checking phase, when the correctness of obtained results was controlled. Further, mathematical memory was observed in close interaction with the ability to obtain and formalize mathematical information, for relatively small amounts of the total time dedicated to problem solving. Participants selected problem-solving methods at the orientation phase and found it difficult to abandon or modify those methods. In addition, when solving problems one year apart, even when not recalling the previously solved problem, participants approached both problems with methods that were identical at the individual level. The analyses show that participants who applied algebraic methods were more successful than participants who applied particular methods. Thus, by demonstrating that the success of participants’ problem-solving activities is dependent on applied methods, it is suggested that mathematical memory, despite its relatively modest presence, has a pivotal role in participants’ problem-solving activities. Finally, it is indicated that participants who applied particular methods were not able to generalize mathematical relations and operations – a mathematical ability considered an important prerequisite for the development of mathematical memory – at appropriate levels.

  • Berggren, ChristianChrbe53
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kågeson, Per
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm.
    Speeding up electro-mobility: How to electrify half of new car sales by 20302017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noxious diesel emissions far above official limits and the need to rapidly reduce-greenhouse gases generate widespread calls for banning fossil-fueled cars in Europe. This report shows that it is possible to electrify 50 per cent of all new cars in the EU by 2030.

     This, however, requires massive investment in European battery production capacity, and a long-term commitment to sustainable supply of critical materials. In addition a large-scale expansion of the charging infrastructure is needed, in particular at home and at work places, which account for around 95 per cent of all battery charging. Moreover, local grids will need enforcement in most countries. The additional electricity demand must be satisfied at a time when many coal-fired and nuclear-based power plants will be decommissioned.  Plug-in hybrids, which combine a downsized combustion engine with an electric motor, will probably play an important role, both to relieve long-distance drivers of range anxiety and to reduce the demand for scarce virgin metals, in particular cobalt.

     To make the shift happen, an EU-wide Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) mandate needs to be established from 2025, with planned stringency increases every second year or so. Such a regulation is less vulnerable to budget restraints and changing relative prices than financial incentives. At the same time, the regulatory demands on manufacturers to reduce CO2 emissions from combustions engines need to become more stringent and apply to all combustion engines, including those in plug-in hybrids. Such a combination of policies will make it possible to realize the overall target of 50 per cent electrification of new cars in a robust and flexible way.

  • Lindquist, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sol, Joeri
    van Praag, C.Mirjam
    Vladasel, Theodor
    On the Origins of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Sibling Correlations2017Report (Other academic)
  • Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the Informativeness of Non-Verbal Cues in Parent–Child Interaction2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017), Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, 2203-2207 p., 1143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal cues from speakers, such as eye gaze and hand positions, play an important role in word learning. This is consistent with the notion that for meaning to be reconstructed, acoustic patterns need to be linked to time-synchronous patterns from at least one other modality. In previous studies of a multimodally annotated corpus of parent–child interaction, we have shown that parents interacting with infants at the early word-learning stage (7–9 months) display a large amount of time-synchronous patterns, but that this behaviour tails off with increasing age of the children. Furthermore, we have attempted to quantify the informativeness of the different nonverbal cues, that is, to what extent they actually help to discriminate between different possible referents, and how critical the timing of the cues is. The purpose of this paper is to generalise our earlier model by quantifying informativeness resulting from non-verbal cues occurring both before and after their associated verbal references.

  • Karaoguz, Hakan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Bore, Nils
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Human-Centric Partitioning of the Environment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an object based approach for human-centric partitioning of the environment. Our approach for determining the human-centric regionsis to detect the objects that are commonly associated withfrequent human presence. In order to detect these objects, we employ state of the art perception techniques. The detected objects are stored with their spatio-temporal information inthe robot’s memory to be later used for generating the regions.The advantages of our method is that it is autonomous, requires only a small set of perceptual data and does not even require people to be present while generating the regions.The generated regions are validated using a 1-month dataset collected in an indoor office environment. The experimental results show that although a small set of perceptual data isused, the regions are generated at densely occupied locations.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson's disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, E2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • Ström, Annika
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric.
    Gyldenstolpe, Carl (Creator)
    Gyldenstolpe, Gustav (Creator)
    En frånvarandes samtal med en frånvarande: Bröderna Daniel, Carl och Gustav Gyldenstolpes brev till Nils Gyldenstolpe 1660–1679: Utgåva av latinsk text i urval, översättning samt inledning av Annika Ström2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok innehåller en utgåva med svensk översättning av 114 brev, skrivna på latin under den andra hälften av 1600-talet. Breven är författade av de tre bröderna Daniel, Carl och Gustav Gyldenstolpe och riktar sig med några få undantag till deras äldre bror Nils som flyttat från hemmet i Åbo till Stockholm för att göra ämbetsmannakarriär.

    I breven erbjuds vi många glimtar av dåtidens samhälle, av det skånska kriget där en av bröderna deltog, om privata händelser och av de vardagliga problem som ofta handlade om att hålla samman familjen under kärva förhållanden. Vi informeras även om de verksamheter som bedrevs av jurister och ämbetsmän i stormaktstidens svenska statsförvaltning med förgreningar kring hela Östersjön.

    Förutom sitt värde som historiska källor ger breven inblickar i dåtidens utbildningsväsen med ett särskilt fokus på inlärningen av latin och retorik. De visar också på den höga latinkompetens som individer besatt under tidigmodern tid i Sverige samt hur detta nylatin var ett kommunikationsmedel som smidigt kunde utnyttjas för alla förekommande sociala behov.

  • Thomson, Suzanne E.
    et al.
    Charalambous, Chloe
    Smith, Carol-Anne
    Tsimbouri, Penelope M.
    Déjardin, Theophile
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Hart, Andrew M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). The Centre for Cell Engineering, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Hillhead, Glasgow G128QQ, UK; Canniesburn Plastic Surgery Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 84 Castle Street, Glasgow G4 0SF, UK.
    Riehle, Mathis O.
    Microtopographical cues promote peripheral nerve regeneration via transient mTORC2 activation2017In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 60, 220-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite microsurgical repair, recovery of function following peripheral nerve injury is slow and often incomplete. Outcomes could be improved by an increased understanding of the molecular biology of regeneration and by translation of experimental bioengineering strategies. Topographical cues have been shown to be powerful regulators of the rate and directionality of neurite regeneration, and in this study we investigated the downstream molecular effects of linear micropatterned structures in an organotypic explant model. Linear topographical cues enhanced neurite outgrowth and our results demonstrated that the mTOR pathway is important in regulating these responses. mTOR gene expression peaked between 48 and 72 h, coincident with the onset of rapid neurite outgrowth and glial migration, and correlated with neurite length at 48 h. mTOR protein was located to glia and in a punctate distribution along neurites. mTOR levels peaked at 72 h and were significantly increased by patterned topography (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the topographical cues could override pharmacological inhibition. Downstream phosphorylation assays and inhibition of mTORC1 using rapamycin highlighted mTORC2 as an important mediator, and more specific therapeutic target. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the mTORC2 component rictor at the regenerating front where it co-localised with F-actin and vinculin. Collectively, these results provide a deeper understanding of the mechanism of action of topography on neural regeneration, and support the incorporation of topographical patterning in combination with pharmacological mTORC2 potentiation within biomaterial constructs used to repair peripheral nerves.

    Statement of Significance: Peripheral nerve injury is common and functionally devastating. Despite microsurgical repair, healing is slow and incomplete, with lasting functional deficit. There is a clear need to translate bioengineering approaches and increase our knowledge of the molecular processes controlling nerve regeneration to improve the rate and success of healing. Topographical cues are powerful determinants of neurite outgrowth and represent a highly translatable engineering strategy. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that microtopography potentiates neurite outgrowth via the mTOR pathway, with the mTORC2 subtype being of particular importance. These results give further evidence for the incorporation of microtopographical cues into peripheral nerve regeneration conduits and indicate that mTORC2 may be a suitable therapeutic target to potentiate nerve regeneration.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-09 09:15 Polhemssalen, Uppsala
    Bras, Patrice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sputtering-based processes for thin film chalcogenide solar cells on steel substrates2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin film chalcogenide solar cells are promising photovoltaic technologies. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based devices are already produced at industrial scale and record laboratory efficiency surpasses 22 %. Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTS) is an alternative material that is based on earth-abundant elements. CZTS device efficiency above 12 % has been obtained, indicating a high potential for improvement.

    In this thesis, in-line vacuum, sputtering-based processes for the fabrication of complete thin film chalcogenide solar cells on stainless steel substrates are studied. CIGS absorbers are deposited in a one-step high-temperature process using compound targets. CZTS precursors are first deposited by room temperature sputtering and absorbers are then formed by high temperature crystallization in a controlled atmosphere. In both cases, strategies for absorber layer improvement are identified and implemented.

    The impact of CZTS annealing temperature is studied and it is observed that the absorber grain size increases with annealing temperature up to 550 °C. While performance also improves from 420 to 510 °C, a drop in all solar cell parameters is observed for higher temperature. This loss is caused by blisters forming in the absorber during annealing. Blister formation is found to originate from gas entrapment during precursor sputtering. Increase in substrate temperature or sputtering pressure leads to drastic reduction of gas entrapment and hence alleviate blister formation resulting in improved solar cell parameters, including efficiency.

    An investigation of bandgap grading in industrial CIGS devices is conducted through one-dimensional simulations and experimental verification. It is found that a single gradient in the conduction band edge extending throughout the absorber combined with a steeper back-grading leads to improved solar cell performance, mainly due to charge carrier collection enhancement.

    The uniformity of both CIGS and CZTS 6-inch solar cells is assessed. For CZTS, the device uniformity is mainly limited by the in-line annealing process. Uneven heat and gas distribution resulting from natural convection phenomenon leads to significant lateral variation in material properties and device performance. CIGS solar cell uniformity is studied through laterally-resolved material and device characterization combined with SPICE network modeling. The absorber material is found to be laterally homogeneous. Moderate variations observed at the device level are discussed in the context of large area sample characterization.

    Power conversion efficiency values above 15 % for 225 cm2 CIGS cells and up to 5.1 % for 1 cm2 CZTS solar cells are obtained.

  • Pulina, Silvia
    et al.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Life & Environm Sci, I-09126 Cagliari, Italy..
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Calluna AB, S-11321 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environm Inst, Ctr Marine Res, Helsinki 00560, Finland..
    Padedda, Bachisio M.
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Grubisic, Lorena M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Satta, Cecilia T.
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Caddeo, Tiziana
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Farina, Pasqualina
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Sechi, Nicola
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Luglie, Antonella
    Univ Sassari, Dept Architecture Design & Urban Planning, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Effects of warming on a Mediterranean phytoplankton community2016In: Web Ecology, ISSN 1399-1183, E-ISSN 1399-1183, Vol. 16, 89-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the responses of organisms is a complex challenge especially when water temperature is expected to increase over the coming decades, as a result of global warming. In this work the effects of warming on phytoplankton communities were investigated. An indoor experiment was performed, where water from a Mediterranean lagoon was incubated at different temperatures. Three treatments were applied in triplicate incubation units: the control (11 degrees C), 3 degrees C increase (14 degrees C), and 6 degrees C increase (17 degrees C). Our results showed significant effects by warming on phytoplankton. The abundance of relatively smaller taxa (Chlorella sp. and Planktothrix agardhii-rubescens group) increased at 17 degrees C, whereas the abundance of relatively larger species (Cyclotella sp. and Thalassiosira sp.) decreased, compared with the control. This shift towards smaller taxa resulted in a higher total biomass but lower chlorophyll a concentrations at the highest temperature.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:00 Clas Ohlson, Borlänge
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Optimizing levodopa dosing routines for Parkinson’s disease2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis in the field of microdata analysis aims to introduce dose optimizing algorithms for the pharmacological management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects the motor functions of the patients and it is characterized as a movement disorder. The core symptoms of PD are: bradykinesia, postural instability, rigidity, and tremor. There is no cure for PD and the use of levodopa to manage the core symptoms is considered the gold standard. However, long term use of levodopa causes reduced medication efficacy, and side effects, such as dyskinesia, which can also be attributed to overmedication. When that happens precise individualized dosing schedules are required. The goal of this thesis is to examine if algorithmic methods can be used to find dosing schedules that treat PD symptoms and minimize manifestation of side effects. Data from three different sources were used for that purpose: data from a clinical study in Uppsala University hospital in 2015, patient admission chart data from Uppsala University hospital during 2011-2015, and data from a clinical study in Gothenburg University during 2016-2017. The data were used to develop the methods and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.The first algorithm that was developed was a sensor-based method that derives objective measurements (ratings) of PD motor states. The construction of the sensor index was based on subjective ratings of patients’ motor functions made by three movement disorder experts. This sensor-based method was used when deriving algorithmic dosing schedules. Afterwards, a method that uses medication information and ratings of the patients’ motor states to fit individual patient models was developed. This method uses mathematical optimization to individualize specific parameters of dose-effects models for levodopa intake, through minimizing the distance between motor state ratings and dose-effect curves. Finally, two different dose optimization algorithms were developed and evaluated, that had as input the individual patient models. The first algorithm was specific to continuous infusion of levodopa treatment, where the patient’s state was set to a specific target value and the algorithm made dosing adjustments to keep that patients motor functions on that state. The second algorithm concerned oral administration of microtables of levodopa. The ambition with this algorithm was that the suggested doses would find the right balance between treating the core symptoms of PD and, at the same time, minimizing the side effects of long term levodopa use, mainly dyskinesia. Motor state ratings for this study were obtained through the sensor index. Both algorithms followed a principle of deriving a morning dose and a maintenance dose for the patients, with maintenance dose being an infusion rate for the first algorithm, and oral administration doses at specific time points for the second algorithm.The results showed that the sensor-based index had good test-retest reliability, sensitivity to levodopa treatment, and ability to make predictions in unseen parts of the dataset. The dosing algorithm for continuous infusion of levodopa had a good ability to suggest an optimal infusion rating for the patients, but consistently suggested lower morning dose than what the treating personnel prescribed. The dosing algorithm for oral administration of levodopa showed great agreement with the treating personnel’s prescriptions, both in terms of morning and maintenance dose. Moreover, when evaluating the oral medication algorithm, it was clear that the sensor index ratings could be used for building patient specific models.

  • Roslund- Forenius, Ylva
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Flottningslämningar i Testeboån: En kulturhistorisk inventering2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Testeboån bildas bland annat av Kölsjöån, Svartån, Bresiljeån och Moån. De rinner ihop ovanför och i Åmot och mynnar ut i Gävlebukten med en sammanlagd längd av ca 11 mil. Inventeringsområdet utgörs av delen mellan Oslättfors och Gävlebukten, knappt 2 mil.

    Testeboån skriftar starkt i sitt lopp mellan Oslättfors och havet. Vid de lugnflytande partierna med flacka strånder är ån bred med jämna strandkanter och svämmar lätt över vid högvatten och där marken är kuperad och stenig delar ån upp sig i flera forsande småfåror. Den över delen går genom skogsmark medan den nedre går genom åkermark och bebyggelse.

    Sammanlagt påträffades 76 anläggningar fördelade på 57 nummer, Följande anläggningar framkom.31stenvallar, 14 stenarmar, 7 rastplatser, 4kanaler,3 moringar, 2 dubbla träkistor, 2traktorupplagda vallar, 2 länsar, 1 spång, 1 påle, 1 bro, 1 glacismur vid brofäste och 1 dammlucka. 

    Vallarna är till största del uppförda för hand under 1930-talet av AK- arbetar. De traktorupplagda vallarna innehåller i regel också en stor mängd mindre stenar, vilka man ej tagit med vid för hand upplagda vallar. Hur många som är traktorrensade är svårt att avgöra, då de mindre stenarna kan ha spolats bort. Detta går däremot att få fram genom mer ingående arkivstudier och en noggrannare dokumentation av varje anläggning.

    I de lugna vatten har pålar och dykdalber som fästanordningar varit dominerande och i de forsande och steniga avsnitten har strömrensningarna dominerat.

    Inom inventeringsområdet finns tre fasta fornlämningar, nr 231,232 och 233 i fornlämningsregistret för Hill socken. Dessa beskrivs inom delområde 3 och 4.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-13 09:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Fridlund, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Utan tvivel är en inte klok: En studie om personliga skavningar som resurs för praktisk klokhet inom svensk kommunal planering2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can you as a planner tackle messy realities without losing sight of possible problematic outcomes of what you put in practice? This study explores the value of everyday frictions as a resource for phronetic planning, i.e. the ability to make situated ethical judements of what is ’better’ or ’worse’ in a particular setting. The intent is to offer a situated gaze of frictions from the perspective of a civil servant of the well organised and innovative municipality of Botkyrka in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, Sweden. From this outset, an autoethnographical methodology from a poststructural approach, is used to explore the frictions that the author has experienced as a practicing planner. The study shows that frictions can be used as 'weak signals' to identify possible tricky consequences of the creation and the staging of planning 'simplifications'. Based on this insight a 'seismological' approach to planning is proposed. The argument is that planning practice should on the one hand utilize frictions when they arise and, on the other hand, actively challenge existing 'simplifications'. To achieve this, practical tools are offered to 'evoke', 'narrate' and 'diffract' on frictions and 'trickster-objects' within the constraints of the planner’s role as a municipal civil servant. 

  • Asp, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio historico-philosophica, de studio sapientum prisci ævi in eruditione comparanda; quam consensu ampliss. facult. philos. in regia academia Upsaliensi, publicæ bonorum disquisitioni sistunt auctor et præses Petrus M. Asp, O-Gothus, nec non respondens alumnus regius Nicolaus Paulin, Jemtius, in audit. Carol. maj. d. XIII. Martii, anni MDCCLVI. h. a. m. s.1756Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Printz, Abraham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio philosophica, de laude propria; quam, annuente amplissima facultat. philos. in regia acad. Upsal. præside ... Matthia Asp ... pro gradu, publico examini modeste submittit Abraham Printz, fil. Fierdhundrensis. In auditor. Gustav. major. d. XXVII Junii. Anni MDCCXXXVII. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1737Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Exercitium academicum, de Sudercopia; cujus partem priorem, indultu amplissimi senatus philosophici, sub præsidio, ... Matthiæ Asp ... publice examinandam sistit Magnus Samuel Södersten, Sudercopia Oster-Gothus, in audit. Gust. maj. d. X Julii, anni MDCCXXXVI, horis solitis.1736Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica de Nycopia metropoli Sudermanniæ; cujus partem priorem cum consensu ampliss. facult. philos. in reg. acad. Upsal., præside ... Matthia Asp ... publice ventilandam sistit alumnus Piperianus Johannes Sundler, Nycopia-Sudermannus. In audit Gust. maj. die 12 Junii an. MDCCXXXV, horis ante meridiem consvetis.1735Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio de Lincopia; cujus partem priorem, cum consensu ampliss. senat. philosoph. in reg. acad. Upsaliensi, præside ... Matthia Asp ... publicæ ventilationi modeste submittit Johannes S. Ryding, Lincopia-Ostergothus, in audit. Gustav. maj. ad d. II. Junii anni MDCCXXXV. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1735Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de societatibus literariis et scientiarum, præcipue hyperboreis, quam consensu ampliss. colleg. philos. ad almam academiam Upsaliensem, præside ... Matthia Asp ... ad publicum examen modeste defert Andreas Westén, And. fil. Ostro-Gothus. In audit. Gust. maj. die 20. Decembris, anni MDCCXXXIV. Horis ante meridiem consvetis.1734Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Asp, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de Medelpadia antiqua et hodierna; quam ... præside ... Matthia Asp ... publicæ censuræ modeste exhibet Carolus Jonæ Genberg Medelpadvs, in auditorio Carolin. majori ad d. XV. Junii, anno MDCCXXXIV.1734Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Chen, Genqiang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Wang, Wei
    Hong, Feng F.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconversion of waste fiber sludge to bacterial nanocellulose and use for reinforcement of CTMP paper sheets2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 9, 458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) for large-scale applications is restricted by low productivity in static cultures and by the high cost of the medium. Fiber sludge, a waste stream from pulp and paper mills, was enzymatically hydrolyzed to sugar, which was used for the production of BNC by the submerged cultivation of Komagataeibacter xylinus. Compared with a synthetic glucose-based medium, the productivity of purified BNC from the fiber sludge hydrolysate using shake-flasks was enhanced from 0.11 to 0.17 g/(L x d), although the average viscometric degree of polymerization (DPv) decreased from 6760 to 6050. The cultivation conditions used in stirred-tank reactors (STRs), including the stirring speed, the airflow, and the pH, were also investigated. Using STRs, the BNC productivity in fiber-sludge medium was increased to 0.32 g/(L x d) and the DPv was increased to 6650. BNC produced from the fiber sludge hydrolysate was used as an additive in papermaking based on the chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of birch. The introduction of BNC resulted in a significant enhancement of the mechanical strength of the paper sheets. With 10% (w/w) BNC in the CTMP/BNC mixture, the tear resistance was enhanced by 140%. SEM images showed that the BNC cross-linked and covered the surface of the CTMP fibers, resulting in enhanced mechanical strength.

  • Allgardsson, Anders
    et al.
    Andersson, C. David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Akfur, Christine
    Worek, Franz
    Linusson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ekström, Fredrik
    An unusual dimeric inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: cooperative binding of crystal violet2017In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 22, no 9, 1433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme that terminates cholinergic transmission by a rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. AChE is an important target for treatment of various cholinergic deficiencies, including Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. In a previous high throughput screening campaign, we identified the dye crystal violet (CV) as an inhibitor of AChE. Herein, we show that CV displays a significant cooperativity for binding to AChE, and the molecular basis for this observation has been investigated by X-ray crystallography. Two monomers of CV bind to residues at the entrance of the active site gorge of the enzyme. Notably, the two CV molecules have extensive intermolecular contacts with each other and with AChE. Computational analyses show that the observed CV dimer is not stable in solution, suggesting the sequential binding of two monomers. Guided by the structural analysis, we designed a set of single site substitutions, and investigated their effect on the binding of CV. Only moderate effects on the binding and the cooperativity were observed, suggesting a robustness in the interaction between CV and AChE. Taken together, we propose that the dimeric cooperative binding is due to a rare combination of chemical and structural properties of both CV and the AChE molecule itself.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:15 2446, Uppsala
    Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. SciLifeLab.
    Deep Neural Networks and Image Analysis for Quantitative Microscopy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding biology paves the way for discovering drugs targeting deadly diseases like cancer, and microscopy imaging is one of the most informative ways to study biology. However, analysis of large numbers of samples is often required to draw statistically verifiable conclusions. Automated approaches for analysis of microscopy image data makes it possible to handle large data sets, and at the same time reduce the risk of bias. Quantitative microscopy refers to computational methods for extracting measurements from microscopy images, enabling detection and comparison of subtle changes in morphology or behavior induced by varying experimental conditions. This thesis covers computational methods for segmentation and classification of biological samples imaged by microscopy.

    Recent increase in computational power has enabled the development of deep neural networks (DNNs) that perform well in solving real world problems. This thesis compares classical image analysis algorithms for segmentation of bacteria cells and introduces a novel method that combines classical image analysis and DNNs for improved cell segmentation and detection of rare phenotypes. This thesis also demonstrates a novel DNN for segmentation of clusters of cells (spheroid), with varying sizes, shapes and textures imaged by phase contrast microscopy. DNNs typically require large amounts of training data. This problem is addressed by proposing an automated approach for creating ground truths by utilizing multiple imaging modalities and classical image analysis. The resulting DNNs are applied to segment unstained cells from bright field microscopy images. In DNNs, it is often difficult to understand what image features have the largest influence on the final classification results. This is addressed in an experiment where DNNs are applied to classify zebrafish embryos based on phenotypic changes induced by drug treatment. The response of the trained DNN is tested by ablation studies, which revealed that the networks do not necessarily learn the features most obvious at visual examination. Finally, DNNs are explored for classification of cervical and oral cell samples collected for cancer screening. Initial results show that the DNNs can respond to very subtle malignancy associated changes. All the presented methods are developed using open-source tools and validated on real microscopy images.

  • Schedl, Markus
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Lemmerich, Florian
    Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Skowron, Marcin
    Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Austria.
    Knees, Peter
    Vienna University of Vienna, Austria.
    Indicators of Country Similarity in Terms of Music Taste, Cultural, and Socio-economic Factors2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the cultural background of users is known to improve recommender systems for multimedia items. In this work, we focus on music and analyze user demographics and music listening events in a large corpus (120,000 users, 109 events) from Last.fm to investigate whether similarity between countries in terms of cultural and socio-economic factors is reflected in music taste. To this end, we propose a tag-based model to describe the music taste of a country and correlate the resulting music profiles to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the Quality of Government data. Spearman’s rank-order correlation and Quadratic Assignment Procedure indeed indicate statistically significant weak to medium correlations of music taste and several cultural and socio-economic factors. The results will help elaborating culture-aware models of music listeners and in turn likely yield improved music recommender systems.

  • Nestor, Bo
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    ”Inte bara en kostnadsfråga” - ledningsgruppers tal om ”barn i behov”2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I describe and analyze everyday talk about “special needs children” in the schools as the subject of conditioned negotiations in management meetings at the administrative level. The focus of the analysis is on the talk and interaction in the negotiation rounds that take place among meeting participants – particularly school superintendents and principals – in a continual negotiation from discovery of the problem until the administrative decision.

    My theoretical premise is based on discourse analysis, meaning that talk and text are seen as part of the social practice in which language is used to carry out or accomplish something. In the everyday talk they produce, people create order, meaning, and context in their reality. People jointly construct the world through everyday conversation, which also has an impact on how the world can be understood by individuals.

    The analytical point of departure is thus talk as action and interaction. I have applied a qualitative approach with tools from discourse analysis. I report and analyze conversation excerpts to show how the negotiation rounds ensue and how meeting participants process, negotiate, and renegotiate what they are talking about, what should be done about the matter at hand, and the import of the action. Order, meaning, and context are created in the meeting participants’ reality in the talk they produce and in the negotiation rounds. The study is a substudy of a research project “School management and administration as discourse and discursive practice – the leading words” (Sundgren, 2001), which is aimed at exploring the meaning of language as a tool for school management and administration in the political and administrative arenas.

  • Stenling, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    The enterocyte in small intestinal adaption: an experimental and clinicopathological study with special reference to the ultrastructure of the brush border1984Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stenling, Roger; THE ENTEROCYTE IN SMALL INTESTINAL ADAPTION. An expe­rimental and clinicopathological study with special reference to the ultrastructure of the brush border. Umeå Univ, Med Di ss, New Series 122 - ISSN 0346-6612.

    The small intestine mucosa is known to be able to adapt itself to several kinds of both physiological and pathological conditions. The adaptive patterns of the structure of the enterocytes, particularly their apical surface (brush border), were studied in three models: (1) in rats, subjected to antrectomy or antral exclusion, combined with gastroduodenostomy and gastrojejunostomy; (2) in rats with alloxan dia­betes; (3) in children with coeliac disease; a) in its active phase; b) after long-term treatment with gluten-free diets; c) after long-term challenge with dietary gluten following treatment; d) after short-term elimination of dietary gluten. Gut mucosa from fasting or fed, normal or sham-operated rats, fasting cats, and short-statured children with no signs of gastrointestinal disease served as controls. - The specimens were prepared for light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitation of structural variables was achieved by means of LM and TEM morphometrical procedures.

    Differentiation of the rat enterocytes from the base to the crest of the villi was structurally reflected by doubling of their apical cell area, an increase in cell height, and a decrease of both nuclear and mitochondrial volume densities. In mature normal rat enterocytes, high- -power SEM showed regularly arranged, nude microvilli in thir apical surfaces, whereas in cat and man the apical surfaces were covered by a thick glycocalyx. - Fasting for 24 hours decreased the total length of the rat small intestine and the height of the enterocytes. Antrectomy and antral exclusion with gastrojejunostomy produced an increase of the apical surfaces of the enterocytes of the seif-emptying duodenal blind loop, whereas no changes occurred after antrectomy with gastroduodeno­stomy. In the jejunum, the apical surface area was reduced both after antrectomy and antral exclusion. In the diabetic rats a slight decrease of the apical surface area, together with an elongation of both the vil­li and the crypts, was observed in the jejunum, whereas no structural changes occurred in the duodenal mucosa.

    Both in active coeliac disease and after long-term challenge with dietary gluten, SEM analyses showed uniformly destructed villi. The api­cal surfaces of the enterocytes were frequently convex and irregular in size and delineation (the surface of the normal enterocytes was polygo­nal and flat). Ultrastructurally, the apical surfaces were severely damaged with a distortion of the glycocalyx and with marked irregularity of the microvilli. - After gluten elimination, the surface ultrastructu­re of the enterocytes in the coeliac gut mucosa generally showed a rapid, clear-cut restoration despite a remaining severe atrophy of the villi. Successful dietary treatment (after about one year of gluten-free diet) restored the small intestine mucosa to normal as assessed both by LM and low-power SEM. In contrast, high-power SEM often disclosed per­sisting lesions of the enterocytes. Another provocation with gluten for up to 9 days in clinically healed coeliac mucosa did not significantly alter the surface ultrastructure of the enterocytes.

  • Schedl, Markus
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Large-scale Analysis of Group-specific Music Genre Taste From Collaborative Tags2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the LFM-1b User Genre Profile dataset. It provides detailed information on musical genre preferences for more than 120,000 listeners and links to the LFM-1b dataset. We created the dataset by exploiting social tags, indexing them using two genre term sets, and aggregating the resulting annotated listening events on the user level. We foresee several applications of the dataset in music retrieval and recommendation tasks, among others to build and evaluate decent user models, to alleviate cold-start situations in music recommender systems, and to increase their performance using the additional abstraction layer of genre. We further present results of statistical analyses of the dataset, regarding genre preferences and their consistencies. We do so for the entire user population and for user groups defined by demographic similarities. Moreover, we report interesting insights about correlations between musical preferences on the genre level.

  • Velkova, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Sharing technology and media as digital commons: sensibilities and tensions from making invisible things visible2016In: Selected Papers of AoIR 2016: The 17th Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the internal social structures among producers who are radically committed to openness through sharing technology and content online. It foregrounds that in these practices, openness and sharing are not only about creating open knowledge, public digital culture and technologies, but also trigger practices of self-control, discipline, and contestation over what is to be made public and how. The author argues that the ways in which these are negotiated have implications for the broader domain of cultural production online. The next two papers each look at the social structures promoted through open source practices by exploring how actors committed to them are trying to affect institutional politics.

  • Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Snowmobile, motorcycle and moose-car accidents: aspects on injury control1985Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries related to snowmobiles, motorcycles and moose-car collisions have increased. The aim of the present thesis was to analyse mechanisms and consequences in fatal and non-fatal accidents of these types, and to penetrate possible preventive measures.

    Snowmobiles

    The median age of the injured was 30 and of the killed 32, males pre­dominating. A majority of the accidents occurred during weekends, and especially the fatal accidents occurred after dark. The extremities were the most commonly injured parts of the body, however, drowning, crushed chest and cranial injuries caused most of the fatalities. Among the fatalities, four out of five were under the influence of alcohol. The present Swedish laws regarding snowmobiles seem well motivated. "Built-in" safety measures in the construction of the snowmobiles, pro­perly designed snowmobile tracks and functional search and rescue sys­tems could reduce the injuries.

    Motorcycles

    The median age was 19 years for both the traffic injured and the kil­led. Half of the traffic accidents were collisions with other motor ve­hicles. In the fatally injured group, also collisions with fixed road­side objects were common. Of the fatally injured, more than every fifth person died in an accident where alcohol was an influential factor. In the injured group, lower extremity injuries (especially in off-road riding) were common and among the fatalities most riders died from injuries to the head or chest. Out of one thousand motorcycle riders interviewed, 45% reported wobbling experiences (8% reported severe wobbling). Possible injury reducing measures include increasing the licensing age, more discriminating driving test, "built-in" restriction of the motorcycle's top speed, elimination of motorcycles prone to wobbling, and a more intensive traffic supervision (speeding, alco­hol).

    Moose-car collisitions

    The median age of the drivers was 38 years. Most collisions happened at dusk or when dark (3/4). The median collision speed was 70 km/h. The damage to the car was typical, the roof and the windshield pillars were deformed downwards and backwards. The broken windshield was often pressed into the passenger compartment. Most of the injured car occu­pants suffered cuts predominantly to the head and upper extremities. Nearly all the fatally injured died of head and neck injuries. The injuries may be reduced by strengthening the roof and the windshield pillars, and by introducing anti 1 acerati ve windshields.

  • Velkova, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Between decommodification and recommodification: negotiations of value in open-source cultural production2015In: Selected Papers from Internet Research 16: The 16th Annual Meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors of this paper revitalize classic work on gift economies, exploring the ways in which the fiscal and moral economies are articulated together in commons-based production. Through a multi-sited ethnographic study of open source animation film-making communities tracing the movement between actors and objects across different regimes of value, the authors describe negotiated transitions from commons to commodity and back again. They argue that when engaging with producers’ own accounts of their community-based processes and the agonistic ethics holding sway there, we are better able to see the fluid dynamics of decommodification and recommodification taking place within commons production integrated into the commodity-based capitalist economic environment.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-03 13:15 Wigforss, House J (Visionen), Halmstad
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying for Timely and Reliable Applications in Wireless Networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications based on wireless networks involve distributed control. This implies high requirements on reliability, but also on predictable maximum delay. Further, for applications, it is vital to use off-the-shelf components, both due to cost constraints and requirements on interoperability with existing networks. This, in turn, implies that concurrent transmissions and multiuser detection are seldom possible. Instead, half-duplex time-division multiple access (TDMA) is typically used. Aiming to reduce the packet error rate given a deadline (a set of TDMA time-slots), this thesis proposes a relaying scheme, which can be implemented on top of off-the-shelf components. The relaying scheme selects the best sequence of relayers, given the number of time-slots allowed by the deadline, such that the resulting error probability is minimized at the targeted receiver(s). The scheme differs from existing work in that it considers both unicast as well as broadcast and assumes that all nodes can overhear each other, as opposed to separating source nodes, relay nodes and destination nodes into three disjoint sets. A full analysis of the resulting error probability is provided and complementary numerical results show that the proposed relay sequencing strategy significantly improves reliability given a certain maximum delay, or alternatively, reduces the delay, given a certain target reliability requirement. To illustrate the performance improvements of relay sequencing, it is incorporated in a platooning application. If the decision regarding which relayer to assign in each time-slot can be taken online, just before the transmission, much can be gained. To this end, a low-complexity algorithm is developed, which is shown to be highly likely to find the optimal combination of relaying nodes that minimizes the resulting error probability at the targeted receiver(s). Data packets in wireless automation networks is typically small. To enable timely and reliable all-to-all broadcast in such systems, relay sequencing using packet aggregation is proposed. The strategy assigns relayers to time slots, as well as determines which packets to aggregate in each slot, using the proposed low-complexity algorithm. To further increase the reliability, a clustering scheme is proposed. When a relayer in the sequence fails to overhear a correct copy, a backup relayer in the cluster takes over. This work thereby enables ultra-reliable communications with maintained end-toend delay using low-complexity techniques and off-the-shelf components.

  • Garmy, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO).
    Andre, Bengt
    Läkemedelsverket.
    Anrsvik Malmberg, Kerstin
    Barn och ungdomspsykiatri Stockholm.
    Gullberg, Ninna
    Läkemedelsverket.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet.
    Sömnstörningar hos barn: kunskapsdokument2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett möte med experter på barns sömnproblem genomfördes i februari 2014 varvid detta kunskapsdokument togs fram. Kunskapssammanställningen och rekommendationerna har tagits fram gemensamt av experterna och bygger på konsensus bland deltagarna. Läkemedelsverkets ansvar var att facilitera mötet samt att tillsammans med experterna sammanställa kunskapsdokumentet. Som stöd för kunskapsdokumentet finns bakgrundsdokument som respektive författare ansvarar för. I bakgrundsdokumenten finns, förutom detaljerad information om varje ämnesområde, även referenser. Socialstyrelsen medverkade vid expertmötet, liksom i framtagandet av kunskapsdokumentet. Inför mötet har SBU (2013) identifierat kunskapsluckor inom området, vilka publicerats i SBU:s databas över vetenskapliga kunskapsluckor, se www.sbu.se. En vetenskaplig kunskapslucka innebär att systematiska litteraturöversikter saknas eller att de visar på osäker effekt. Man fann att detta gäller "Melatonin till barn som har flera funktionsnedsättningar och sömnproblem", "Melatonin som behandling av sömnproblem hos barn med adhd" och " Melatonin för i övrigt friska barn med sömnproblem". SBU konstaterade tidigare (2010) att "Effekten av alimemazin vid behandling av sömnbesvär" också är envetenskaplig  kunskapslucka.

  • Lowndes, Bethany
    et al.
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Forsyth, Katherine
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abdelrahman, Amro
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Matthew, Sztajnkrycer
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Family Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Franz, III, Walter
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Blocker, Renaldo
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Hallbeck, Susan
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    A Preliminary Comparison of Three Tourniquet Instructions for Just-in-Time Guidance of a Simulated Tourniquet Application2017In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meeting, Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES , 2017, 1076-1080 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The American College of Surgeons (ACS) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) encourage the use of tourniquets as part of the “Stop the Bleed” campaign. Both have provided instructions for layperson tourniquet application in order to save the life of a hemorrhaging trauma victim. This study sought to compare the impact of using ACS and DHS instructions with manufacturer-provided instructions for the completion of simulated tourniquet application steps. Thirty surgical trainees completed a simulated tourniquet application with one of the three instruction sets. Their completion time and success for each step were measured. Participants that received ACS instructions failed the fewest number of steps (p < 0.01) and completed the task faster (Mean (SD) = 70 (33) seconds) compared to those with the manufacturer-provided instructions (p < 0.01). Tourniquet instruction sets need to be refined in order to optimize the success rate of just-in-time guidance for tourniquet application.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-09 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Proton pathways in energy conversion: K-pathway analogs in O2- and NO-reductases2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen and nitric oxide reductases are enzymes found in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, respectively. Both enzyme groups belong to the superfamily of Heme-Copper Oxidases, which is further divided into several subgroups: oxygen-reducing enzymes into A-, B- and C-type and nitric oxide reductases into qNORs and cNORs. Oxygen reducing enzymes use the energy released from oxygen reduction to take up electrons and protons from different sides of the membrane. Additionally, protons are pumped. These processes produce a membrane potential, which is used by the ATP-synthase to produce ATP, the universal energy currency of the cell. Nitric oxide reductases are not known to conserve the energy from nitric oxide reduction, although the reaction is highly exergonic.

    Here, the detailed mechanism of a B-type oxidase is studied with special interest in an element involved in proton pumping (proton loading site, PLS). The study supports the hypothesis that the PLS is protonated in one and deprotonated in the consecutive step of the oxidative catalytic cycle, and that a proton is pumped during the final oxidation phase. It further strengthens the previous suggestion that the PLS is a cluster instead of a single residue or heme propionate. Additionally, it is proposed that the residue Asp372, which is in vicinity of the heme a3 propionates previously suggested as PLS, is part of this cluster. In another study, we show that the Glu15II at the entry of the proton pathway in the B-type oxidase is the only crucial residue for proton uptake, while Tyr248 is or is close to the internal proton donor responsible for coupling proton pumping to oxygen reduction.

    The thesis also includes studies on the mechanism and electrogenicity of qNOR. We show that there is a difference in the proton-uptake reaction between qNOR and the non-electrogenic homolog cNOR, hinting at a different reaction mechanism. Further, studies on a qNOR from a different host showed that qNOR is indeed electrogenic. This surprising result opens up new discussions on the evolution of oxygen and nitric oxide reductases, and about how energy conservation can be achieved.

  • Hålenius, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hatert, Frédéric
    Université de Liège, Belgium..
    Pasero, Marco
    Università di Pisa, Italy..
    Mills, Stuart J.
    Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia..
    IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) Newsletter 392017In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 81, no 5, 1279-1286 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 41955Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Beckman, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Is there a Moral Right to Vote?2017In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question raised in this paper is whether legal rights to vote are also moral rights to vote. The challenge to the justification of a moral right to vote is that it is not clear that the vote is instrumental to the preservation of some critical interest of the voter. Because a single vote has ‘no impact’ on electoral outcomes, the right to vote is unlikely to serve the interests of the individual. The account developed in this paper holds that moral voting rights can be justified once we acknowledge that voting by a sub-set of citizens is among the necessary preconditions for democratic institutions making a significant difference to their collective interests. The justification of a moral right to vote does not, then, apply to each individual citizen but only to a sub-set of them. In order to justify inclusive moral voting rights, the further consideration must be added that individuals have critical interests in public recognition of equal status. An inclusive moral right to vote accordingly depends on both collective interest in the outcomes of democratic institutions and on individual interest in equal recognition.

  • Beckman, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deciding the demos: three conceptions of democratic legitimacy2017In: Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, ISSN 1369-8230, E-ISSN 1743-8772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing view is that democratic procedures are unable to confer democratic legitimacy to decisions about democratic procedures. This paper examines this claim in detail and uses referendums on the inclusion of previously disenfranchised groups in the demos as a running example. The paper distinguishes between pure, imperfect and quasi-pure models of procedural democratic legitimacy and sub-versions of them. To various extents, each model does have the capacity to confer legitimacy to demos decisions under well-defined circumstances. The paper argues that quasi-pure procedural legitimacy represents the most promising account of democratic legitimacy in cases where democratic procedures are the subject of collective decision-making. According to this model, the decision to revise the rules for membership in the demos is permissible by democratic standards if and only if the revision is not forbidden by democratic principles for inclusion. The point is that the range of alternatives that are not forbidden by democratic principles of inclusion are likely to be considerable due to vagueness of the principles themselves and/or them being subject to reasonable disagreement. The paper concludes with a discussion about the possibility of democratic legitimacy for democratic institutions not introduced as a result of democratic decision-making.

  • Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Fång, Johan
    Mätningar av läkemedelsrester i blod och urin från utter2017Report (Other academic)
  • Kinsman, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Bruijne, Kars
    Jalloh, Alpha M.
    Harris, Muriel
    Abdullah, Hussainatu
    Boye-Thompson, Titus
    Sankoh, Osman
    Jalloh, Abdul K.
    Jalloh-Vos, Heidi
    Development of a set of community-informed Ebola messages for Sierra Leone2017In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, no 8, e0005742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The West African Ebola epidemic of 2013-2016 was by far the largest outbreak of the disease on record. Sierra Leone suffered nearly half of the 28,646 reported cases. This paper presents a set of culturally contextualized Ebola messages that are based on the findings of qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in 'hotspot' areas of rural Bombali District and urban Freetown in Sierra Leone, between January and March 2015. An iterative approach was taken in the message development process, whereby (i) data from formative research was subjected to thematic analysis to identify areas of community concern about Ebola and the national response; (ii) draft messages to address these concerns were produced; (iii) the messages were field tested; (iv) the messages were refined; and (v) a final set of messages on 14 topics was disseminated to relevant national and international stakeholders. Each message included details of its rationale, audience, dissemination channels, messengers, and associated operational issues that need to be taken into account. While developing the 14 messages, a set of recommendations emerged that could be adopted in future public health emergencies. These included the importance of embedding systematic, iterative qualitative research fully into the message development process; communication of the subsequent messages through a two-way dialogue with communities, using trusted messengers, and not only through a one-way, top-down communication process; provision of good, parallel operational services; and engagement with senior policy makers and managers as well as people in key operational positions to ensure national ownership of the messages, and to maximize the chance of their being utilised. The methodological approach that we used to develop our messages along with our suggested recommendations constitute a set of tools that could be incorporated into international and national public health emergency preparedness and response plans.

  • Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    High-pressure microfluidics2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When using appropriate materials and microfabrication techniques, with the small dimensions the mechanical stability of microstructured devices allows for processes at high pressures without loss in safety. The largest area of applications has been demonstrated in green chemistry and bioprocesses, where extraction, synthesis and analyses often excel at high densities and high temperatures, which are accessible through high pressures. Capillary chemistry has been used since long but, just like in low-pressure applications, there are several potential advantages in using microfluidic platforms, e.g., planar isothermal set-ups, large local variations in geometries, dense form factors, small dead volumes and precisely positioned microstructures for control of reactions, catalysis, mixing and separation. Other potential applications are in, e.g., microhydraulics, exploration, gas driven vehicles, and high-pressure science. From a short review of the state-of-art and frontiers of high pressure microfluidics, the focus will be on our different solutions demonstrated for microfluidic handling at high pressures and challenges that remain.

  • Forsyth, Katherine
    et al.
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Lowndes, Bethany
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Matthew, Sztajnkrycer
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Heller, Stephanie
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Emergency Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Hallbeck, Susan
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Blocker, Renaldo
    Mayo Clinic, Robert D. and Patricia E. Kerns Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA / Mayo Clinic, Department of Health Sciences Research, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Improving Instructions to Stop the Bleed2017In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meting, Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES , 2017, 588-592 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stop The Bleed initiative was developed by the Department of Homeland Security to educate lay providers in bleeding reduction strategies. The current study evaluated: (1)three tourniquet instructions using a simulated tourniquet task and (2)participant confidence levels in tourniquet use and lay provider training. Thirty participants with limited clinical experience applied a tourniquet to a simulated limb using one of three instruction sets. Twelve of these participants (40%) participated in a tourniquet training session and focus group to discuss each instruction set. Participants preferred the most simple and pictoral instruction set, and identified opportunities for improvement in each set. Participant confidence in tourniquet use increased significantly following the task and the focus group. After the focus group, participant confidence in instructing lay providers on proper tourniquet use significantly increased. Adding key steps, contextual pictures, and indicators of success to instructions could support lay providers stop the bleed in life-threatening situations

  • Cruz, Javier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    High pressure inertial focusing for separation and concentration of bacteria at high throughput2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Jons, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Learning in the Framework of Calling and Responsibiliy. 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Borg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, University Library.
    Dyrman, Ann
    Karlstad University, University Library.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Guide till Zotero2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Donnelly, Liam
    et al.
    UCD Forestry, University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    O'€™Reilly, Connor
    UCD Forestry, University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Inter-and intra-annual wood property variation in juvenile wood between six Sitka spruce clones2017In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 51, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased growth rates have reduced rotation lengths, increasing the proportion of juvenile wood relative to mature wood, which may negatively affect mechanical performance of sawn timber. However, there is limited information available on the potential impact of breeding for vigour on juvenile wood in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) CarriÚre). In this study, the relationship between vigour (based on total height) and wood properties was investigated in six-year-old Sitka spruce clones grown in two replicated field trials in Ireland. Six clones were evaluated, two clones from each of three vigour (high, intermediate and low) classes. Discs were cut from the base of one ramet per replication for each clone to assess wood quality attributes. Radial tracheid width was significantly and positively correlated with ring width and height, and was negatively correlated with density. The wood of the most vigorous clone had significantly larger ring width with thinner cell walls and wider tracheids than all clones in the two other vigour classes, resulting in lower mean wood density. Latewood properties for all wood attributes measured differed significantly between the two sites. Wood property differences resulted primarily from variation in the proportions of early- and latewood in each annual ring. Additionally, the width of early- and latewood bands in each ring was found to be a more important determinant of juvenile wood quality than the characteristics of the cells within each band. Wood properties differed greatly between clones, suggesting that there is potential to improve juvenile wood properties through selective breeding.

  • Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Projektledning i korta projekt: Observationer av projektledares arbete i multiprojektmiljö2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As most of the project management models were developed for larger projects, there is a lack of understanding of what project managers in short duration projects do. Short-duration projects are projects in multi-project environments lasting for a number of weeks rather than a number of months. Even if they are common today, short-duration projects have not yet attracted the interest of project researchers. The present study aims to analyze what the project managers in short duration projects do and to develop a method for studying the project managers at work.

    A theoretical framework is built on earlier studies of managers’ work, suggesting three areas having impact on the project manager’s work. The impacting areas are the project, the project manager’s experience, and the organizational context of the project. The project manager and the assisting project manager were studied while managing a sub-project in a greater telecom system project. The project managers were studied one week each using participant observation and interviews. The findings indicate that much of the time at work was spent in meetings of different kinds, to deal with change, and to guard the production teams from being disturbed by changes in the environment. It was also found that studying a multi-project environment from the sub-project’s perspective gives a different view on multi-project environments that have earlier been presented as the project managers in the short-duration project constantly have to adjust to changes, inputs and demands from the surrounding projects and functional organizations. In the end some proposals on directions for further studies of managers of short-duration projects are made.