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  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 14:00 Hörsal K2, Stockholm
    Stefanov, Kalin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Recognition and Generation of Communicative Signals: Modeling of Hand Gestures, Speech Activity and Eye-Gaze in Human-Machine Interaction2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal communication is essential for natural and effective face-to-face human-human interaction. It is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual, but also auditory) signals between people. Consequently, a natural and effective face-to-face human-machine interaction requires machines (e.g., robots) to understand and produce such human-like signals. There are many types of nonverbal signals used in this form of communication including, body postures, hand gestures, facial expressions, eye movements, touches and uses of space. This thesis investigates two of these nonverbal signals: hand gestures and eye-gaze. The main goal of the thesis is to propose computational methods for real-time recognition and generation of these two signals in order to facilitate natural and effective human-machine interaction.

    The first topic addressed in the thesis is the real-time recognition of hand gestures and its application to recognition of isolated sign language signs. Hand gestures can also provide important cues during human-robot interaction, for example, emblems are type of hand gestures with specific meaning used to substitute spoken words. The thesis has two main contributions with respect to the recognition of hand gestures: 1) a newly collected dataset of isolated Swedish Sign Language signs, and 2) a real-time hand gestures recognition method.

    The second topic addressed in the thesis is the general problem of real-time speech activity detection in noisy and dynamic environments and its application to socially-aware language acquisition. Speech activity can also provide important information during human-robot interaction, for example, the current active speaker's hand gestures and eye-gaze direction or head orientation can play an important role in understanding the state of the interaction. The thesis has one main contribution with respect to speech activity detection: a real-time vision-based speech activity detection method.

    The third topic addressed in the thesis is the real-time generation of eye-gaze direction or head orientation and its application to human-robot interaction. Eye-gaze direction or head orientation can provide important cues during human-robot interaction, for example, it can regulate who is allowed to speak when and coordinate the changes in the roles on the conversational floor (e.g., speaker, addressee, and bystander). The thesis has two main contributions with respect to the generation of eye-gaze direction or head orientation: 1) a newly collected dataset of face-to-face interactions, and 2) a real-time eye-gaze direction or head orientation generation method.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:15 F3, Stockholm
    Saglietti, Clio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    On optimization of natural convection flows2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different techniques are presented for enhancing the thermal  performance of natural convection cooled heat sinks. The physics is  described by solving the conjugate heat transfer problem with a  spectral element method. The temperature distribution is computed in  two sub-domains, whose solution is then conjugated. Additionally, the  contribution of the natural convection to the heat transfer is  evaluated by solving the complete incompressible Navier–Stokes  equations in the fluid domain. One method focuses on the natural convection driven flow. The  disturbances about a base flow are sought, which yield the maximal  transient growth of a quadratic functional measuring the thermal  performance. The “optimal initial condition” method is used for  identifying the above mentioned perturbations. The control variable is  the initial state of the perturbation and the problem is subject to  the constraints enforced by the linearized governing equations. This  method is validated in a simple two--dimensional setup and then  applied to a periodic heat sink. The second approach is a topology optimization of the heat sink  itself. The design of the solid is optimized for maximizing the heat  flux. The control variable is a so-called material distribution  function that describes the presence of solid and fluid in the domain.  By modifying the design of the heat sink, the flow is optimally  conveyed and, by convection, it  extracts the maximal possible amount  of heat from the solid. The constraints are given by the governing  equations, the position of the heat sink, and some manufacturing  constraints (\textit{i.e.}, the maximal volume, or the minimal  thickness). After a validation in a two--dimensional setup, the method  is applied to a three--dimensional case. Complex tree-like shaped heat  sinks induce an increase of the thermal performance by 5 to 16\%,  depending on the conditions considered.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 09:00 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Robo, Céline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Bone-compliant cements for vertebral augmentation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acrylic bone cement based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is commonly used during vertebral augmentation procedures for the treatment of osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures. However, the high stiffness of the cement compared to that of the surrounding trabecular bone is presumed to facilitate the formation of new fractures shortly after surgery. The aim of the thesis was to develop and evaluate a PMMA-based bone cement that better matches the mechanical properties of vertebral trabecular bone. To fulfill this objective, different compounds were added to the initial formulation of bone cement to modify its functional properties. Linoleic acid (LA) was found to give the best combination of strength and stiffness without negative effects on the handling properties and its use was therefore further investigated. In particular, different application-specific mechanical properties of LA-modified cement as well as itsin vivoperformance in an ovine model were assessed. 

    In summary, LA-modified cement exhibited bone-compliant mechanical properties immediately after incorporation of the additive, as well as adequate handling properties, in particular a lower polymerization temperature and appropriate setting time. The screw pullout strength from low-modulus cement was substantially reduced compared to regular PMMA cement, but comparable to some calcium phosphate based cements. The fatigue limit of LA-modified cement was considerably lower compared to regular PMMA bone cement when tested in physiological solution, but still higher than stresses measured in the spine during daily activities. The modified cement displayed similar inflammatory response in vivoto conventional cement, with no evidence of additional cytotoxicity due to the presence of LA. Finally, it was possible to sterilize the additive without significantly compromising its function in the PMMA cement.

    The results from this thesis support further evaluation of the material towards the intended clinical application. 

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 13:15 Gunnelsalen Auditorium, Uppsala
    Otterman, Gabriel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Health sector and community response to child maltreatment in Sweden and in a European context2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Child maltreatment is a public health problem of global magnitude. This thesis examined different aspects of the multi-sector response to child maltreatment in Sweden and in Europe.

    Aims To explore how child physical abuse (CPA) is disclosed and how adolescents perceive adult support when they report physical abuse. To examine how police-reported cases of suspected CPA were associated with criminal investigation procedures and prosecutions. To assess how physicians who care for maltreated children across Europe are organised to recognise and respond to child abuse and neglect. To investigate time trends in rates of childhood deaths in Sweden recorded as due to external, ill-defined and unknown causes, from 2000 to 2014.

    Methods We analysed data from a school-based national survey of adolescents, police records of reported suspected CPA in a metropolitan area, a purposeful survey of European child abuse physicians and individual-level data from the Swedish cause of death register. We used quantitative methods to calculate prevalence, descriptive statistics, odds ratios, logistic regression and trends in mortality rates. Qualitative methods included content analysis and narrative synthesis.

    Results Only a minority of reported CPA was brought to the attention of professionals and the most prominent barrier to disclosure was lack of trust in adults or authorities. The police-reported cases of suspected CPA were characterised by high severity, but only a small proportion of the 158 alleged child victims were physically examined and only half were forensically interviewed. All 88 responding physicians in 22 European countries described multidisciplinary involvement in the management of suspected child maltreatment, but wide variations in the organisational approaches were revealed. A sustained decline in childhood deaths from external causes during a 15-year period was observed. A sizeable number of infant deaths were recorded each year as ill-defined or with incomplete documentation from clinicians.

    Conclusions The results presented in this thesis suggest that the multi-sector response in Sweden and in Europe is insufficiently organised, with no clear mandate for the health sector to robustly combat child maltreatment, and that this may undermine the ability of society to adequately protect children.

  • Carlson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Ahlqvist, Eric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    The cohomology ring of the ring of integers of a number fieldManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We compute the étale cohomology ring H^*(Spec O_K,Z/nZ) where O_K is the ring of integers of a number field K. As an application, we give a non-vanishing formula for an invariant defined by Minhyong Kim.

  • Carlson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Schlank, Tomer
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    The unramified inverse Galois problem and cohomology rings of totally imaginary number fieldsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ methods from homotopy theory to define new obstructions to solutions of embedding problems. By using these novel obstructions we study embedding problems with non-solvable kernel. We apply these obstructions to study the unramified inverse Galois problem. That is, we show that our methods can be used to determine that certain groups cannot be realized as the Galois groups of unramified extensions of certain number fields. To demonstrate the power of our methods, we give an infinite family of totally imaginary quadratic number fields such that Aut(PSL(2,q^2)) for q an odd prime power, cannot be realized as an unramified Galois group over K, but its maximal solvable quotient can. To prove this result, we determine the ring structure of the \'etale cohomology ring H^*(Spec O_K;Z/2Z) where O_K is the ring of integers of an arbitrary totally imaginary number field K.

  • Carlson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Tensor products of affine and formal abelian groupsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study tensor products of affine abelian group schemes over a perfect field k. We first prove that the tensor product G_1 ⊗ G_2 of two affine abelian group schemes G_1,G_2  over a perfect field k exists. We then describe the multiplicative and unipotent part of the group scheme G_1 ⊗G_2. The multiplicative part is described in terms of Galois modules over the absolute Galois group of k. We describe the unipotent part of G_1 ⊗ G_2 explicitly, using Dieudonn\'e theory in positive characteristic. We relate these constructions to previously studied tensor products of formal group schemes.

  • Nikander, Hannele
    et al.
    Andersson, Agnes
    Sverdlilje, Vanja
    Jakobsen, Dorte
    Vihreiden jätteiden siirrot2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Näihin ohjeisiin on koottu tietoja vihreiden jätteiden siirtoihin liittyvistä edellytyksistä. Pääsääntöisesti jätteen siirto maasta toiseen edellyttää lupaa. Poikkeuksena tästä ovat vaarattomien ns. vihreiden jätteiden siirrot hyödyntämistä varten. Oikeudellinen tausta on esitetty jätteensiirtoasetuksessa (EY) N:o 1013/2006. Asetuksen 3 ja 18 artiklat koskevat vihreiden jätteiden siirtoja.

  • Korpi, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tåhlin, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    On-the-job training:A skill match approach to the determinants and outcomes of lifelong learning2018Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:15 sal A1:111a, Uppsala
    Skinnars Josefsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Food Service and Nutritional Care in Swedish Elderly Care: The Progress of National Actions and their Local Interpretations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to study local level outcomes regarding food service and nutritional care in Swedish elderly care in relation to the progress of national actions. Study I compared results from a repeated national survey using a questionnaire investigating the general structure and organisation of food service in elderly care. Study II built on data merged from a questionnaire, open comparison survey data and records from the quality registry Senior Alert to investigate nutritional care practice, focusing on quality indicators related to food service. Study III was a web-based questionnaire that described perceived facilitators in the process of adopting a national regulation that aims to prevent and treat malnutrition. Study IV explored associations between the level of adoption of the regulation and registrations in Senior Alert using registry data and results from a questionnaire.

           Differences were found primarily between rural and city municipality groups. The predominant food service organisation was public, but city municipalities reported a higher and increased use of private providers, chilled production and meal choices. The number of clinical/community dietitians had declined significantly between the surveys. Access to this profession was associated with being well-nourished. Food service dietitians and private providers were positively associated with meal satisfaction, while the food production system cook-chill was negatively associated. One year after the launch of the regulation, 50% of municipalities had adopted new routines. The odds for adoption were higher in municipalities where preventive work was already in progress, the regulation was considered helpful, and where facilitators had long experience of working in elderly care. The most important support factors for the adoption of new routines were cooperation between professions and well-defined goals. There was no significant difference in nutritional screening scores associated with adoption rate, but, in general, the number of individuals registered in Senior Alert increased after the entry into force of the regulation.

         In conclusion, this thesis contributes increased knowledge about the different outcomes in local level practices in relation to central actions. The results indicate a strong local autonomy and the importance of local access to sufficient capacity and knowledge.

  • Sigmundsson, Thorir Svavar
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Perioperat Med & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Öhman, Tomas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Perioperat Med & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hallbäck, Magnus
    Maquet Crit Care AB, Solna, Sweden..
    Redondo, Eider
    Hosp Navarra, Dept Intens Care Med, Pamplona, Spain..
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain..
    Wallin, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Maquet Crit Care AB, Solna, Sweden..
    Oldner, Anders
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Perioperat Med & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sander, Caroline Hällsjö
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Perioperat Med & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björne, Håkan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Perioperat Med & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Performance of a capnodynamic method estimating effective pulmonary blood flow during transient and sustained hypercapnia2018In: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, ISSN 1387-1307, E-ISSN 1573-2614, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 311-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capnodynamic method is a minimally invasive method continuously calculating effective pulmonary blood flow (COEPBF), equivalent to cardiac output when intra pulmonary shunt flow is low. The capnodynamic equation joined with a ventilator pattern containing cyclic reoccurring expiratory holds, provides breath to breath hemodynamic monitoring in the anesthetized patient. Its performance however, might be affected by changes in the mixed venous content of carbon dioxide (CvCO2). The aim of the current study was to evaluate COEPBF during rapid measurable changes in mixed venous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PvCO2) following ischemia-reperfusion and during sustained hypercapnia in a porcine model. Sixteen pigs were submitted to either ischemia-reperfusion (n = 8) after the release of an aortic balloon inflated during 30 min or to prolonged hypercapnia (n = 8) induced by adding an instrumental dead space. Reference cardiac output (CO) was measured by an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the pulmonary artery trunk (COTS). Hemodynamic measurements were obtained at baseline, end of ischemia and during the first 5 min of reperfusion as well as during prolonged hypercapnia at high and low CO states. Ischemia-reperfusion resulted in large changes in PvCO2, hemodynamics and lactate. Bias (limits of agreement) was 0.7 (-0.4 to 1.8) L/min with a mean error of 28% at baseline. COEPBF was impaired during reperfusion but agreement was restored within 5 min. During prolonged hypercapnia, agreement remained good during changes in CO. The mean polar angle was -4.19A degrees (-8.8A degrees to 0.42A degrees). Capnodynamic COEPBF is affected but recovers rapidly after transient large changes in PvCO2 and preserves good agreement and trending ability during states of prolonged hypercapnia at different levels of CO.

  • Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Intonation preferences for major thirds with non-beating ensemble sounds1996In: Proc. of Nordic Acoustical Meeting: NAM'96, Helsinki, 1996, p. 359-365, article id F2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency ratios, or intervals, of the twelve-tone scale can be mathematically dejned in several slightly diferent ways, each of which may be more or less appropriate in different musical contexts. For maximum mobility in musical key, instruments of our time with fixed tuning are typically tuned in equal temperament, except for performances of early music or avant-garde contemporary music. Some contend that pure intonation, being free of beats, is more natural, and would be preferred in instruments with variable tuning. The sound of choirs is such that beats are very unlikely to serve as cues for intonation. Choral performers have access to variable tuning, yet have not been shown to prefer pure intonation. The difference between alternative intonation schemes is largest for the major third interval. Choral directors and other musically expert subjects were asked to adjust to their preference the intonation of 20 major third intervals in synthetic ensemble sounds. The preferred size of the major third was 395.4 cents, with intra-subject averages ranging from 388 to 407 cents.

  • Jakobsson, Peter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Arbetarklassens symboliska utplåning i medelklassens medier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport redovisas resultat från den existerande forskningen – både i Sverige och internationellt – kring relationerna mellan samhällsklass och medier. Bland annat ser vi att arbetarklassen är kraftigt underrepresenterad och osynliggjord – den undanhålls både röst och erkännande – i svenska medier och att avsaknaden av representation i medierna kan leda till en (berättigad) känsla av osynliggörande som i sin tur kan ligga till grund för ett avståndstagande från medierna. Vidare ser vi att klasserna är betydligt mer ”segregerade” i televisionens genresystem i dag än vad som var fallet för 35 år sedan; arbetarklassen har i det närmaste försvunnit från nyheter och faktaprogram och återfinns istället huvudsakligen i film, drama och reality-program. Just reality-tv ger dramatisk form till dominerande ideologier som på samma gång exploaterar klass – för att skapa narrativ dramatik – och förnekar eller undertrycker frågan om klass och klasskonflikter. Inte minst gestaltas personer från arbetarklassen på ett stereotypt, nedsättande och hånfullt sätt. Avsaknad av röst och erkännande kan blockera formeringen av klassidentitet och minska arbetarrörelsens möjligheter att organisera sig och formera sig för politisk kamp. Vad gör dagens svenska arbetarrörelse på detta område?

  • van Dijkman, Sven C.
    et al.
    Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, Div Pharmacol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Wicha, Sebastian G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Danhof, Meindert
    Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, Div Pharmacol, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Della Pasqua, Oscar E.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Clin Pharmacol Modelling & Simulat, Uxbridge, Middx, England.;UCL, Clin Pharmacol & Therapeut, London, England..
    Individualized Dosing Algorithms and Therapeutic Monitoring for Antiepileptic Drugs2018In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 663-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) models exist for most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Yet their use in clinical practice to assess interindividual differences and derive individualized doses has been limited. Here we show how model-based dosing algorithms can be used to ensure attainment of target exposure and improve treatment response in patients. Using simulations, different treatment scenarios were explored for 11 commonly used AEDs. For each drug, five scenarios were considered: 1) all patients receive the same dose. 2) Individual clearance (CL), as predicted by population PK models, is used to personalize treatment. 3-5) Individual CL, obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) according to different sampling schemes, is used to personalize treatment. Attainment of steady-state target exposure was used as the performance criterion to rank each scenario. In contrast to current clinical guidelines, our results show that patient demographic and clinical characteristics should be used in conjunction with TDM to personalize the treatment of seizures.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:00 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Deyanova, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Seagrass productivity: from plant to system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses form one of the most productive habitats on earth and are recognized as very efficient carbon sinks. The levels and patterns of productivity within and across different seagrass systems vary widely due to natural or human-induced factors. Seagrass plants, being the foundation species of seagrass meadows, have a substitutional role as primary producers to the overall productivity of their habitat. Clarifying the variation in the carbon capture potential of these plants on physiological and ecological levels is essential to understand of the whole system’s carbon balance. In this thesis, the photosynthetic performance and productivity of seagrass plants were studied in relation to factors that have large impact on productivity, such as tissues age, season and water depth. Furthermore, the seagrass response, in terms of capacity to capture and sequester carbon, to human-induced stress factors such as shading and simulated grazing was evaluated in a tropical seagrass meadow. The research has included a multitude of seagrass productivity assessments from plant- to system level.

    The results showed that age has a significant effect on the photosynthetic performance of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina L., both within a single shoot and between shoots. When comparing leaves among the same shoot, the photosynthetic capacity and efficiency were highest in mature tissues and significantly reduced in very young tissues as well as in tissues undergoing senescence. In response to high light stress, very young tissues seemed to cope better with dissipating excess light energy, which was demonstrated by the higher values of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) observed compared to mature and senescent tissues. Such an effect was also observed when comparing the oldest and youngest shoots from the same genet; the youngest shoot showed higher ability to dissipate excess light energy compared to the oldest one, and might thus be able to better withstand light stress.

    On a larger spatiotemporal scale, the areal productivity of seagrass plants was significantly affected by light availability and temperature, leading to a strong seasonal variation. In addition, depth had a strong site-specific effect on plant productivity in terms of biomass. On a yearly basis, productivity rates varied substantially, reaching up to 20 g C m-2 24h-1 in the summer months. This high carbon capture potential was, however, outbalanced by the high respiration rates of the benthic community. Overall, the whole system had a low but positive yearly carbon balance.

    Both shading and simulated grazing negatively affected seagrass plants and the whole habitat after five months of experimental disturbance. On the plant level, photosynthesis, productivity and growth were all reduced. On the system level, a reduction in community productivity was recorded. The long-term refractory carbon was, however, not affected although erosion was observed in treatments subjected to simulated grazing.

    In summary, this thesis has established that age, season, depth and exposure are factors highly responsible for natural variation in seagrass plant- and habitat productivity, and that seagrasses respond to human-induced stress by significantly reducing their productivity. Even though seagrass plants are generally capable of surviving stress periods, these results suggest that prolonged deteriorating stress conditions will lead to serious harm on the plants as well as the entire habitat, and thereby compromising the carbon burial capacity of the seagrass system.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 09:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Human olfaction: Associations with longitudinal assessment of episodic memory, dementia, and mortality risk2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A declining sense of smell is a common feature in older age. Above and beyond diminished smelling capacity due to normal processes of human aging, impairments in olfactory function have also been linked to numerous ill-health related outcomes, such as cognitive dysfunctions, dementia pathology and even an increased risk of death. Based on population-based data from the Swedish Betula Prospective Cohort Study, the aim of this thesis was to further our understanding regarding the role of olfaction in long-term memory decline, dementia, and mortality. Furthermore, this thesis investigated the predictive utility of self-reported olfactory dysfunction for assessing the risk of conversion to later dementia and to mortality, as well as the predictive utility of long-term subjective olfactory decline for an actual long-term decline in odor function. Study I explored associations of olfactory deficits with memory decline and found that impairments in an odor identification test were related to an ongoing and long-term decline in episodic memory only in carriers of the e4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Study II investigated the predictive utility of olfactory ability for conversion to common forms of dementia in participants with intact baseline cognition during a follow-up time-span of 10 years. The results showed that lower odor identification scores, as well as subjectively assessed odor impairment, were associated with an increased risk for dementia conversion, and that the effects of objective and subjective odor function were cumulative. Study III investigated whether olfactory ability could predict mortality and showed that lower odor identification scores, as well as subjective odor impairments, were associated with an elevated risk of death within a follow-up time-span of approximately 10 years. Crucially, this effect could not be explained by dementia conversion prior to death. Study IV showed that a subjectively assessed long-term and ongoing olfactory decline was predictive of an objectively assessed long-term and ongoing decline in odor function. Subjective olfactory impairments might thus be indicative of an actual olfactory decline in older adults. Overall, the findings of this thesis indicate that sense of smell is closely related to processes of memory decline and dementia as well as mortality in older adults. Furthermore, the results of these investigations shed a new light on the role of subjectively experienced olfactory decline, which might reflect an actual intra-individual change in olfactory ability in older adults.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 09:30 Magnéli Hall, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm
    Zhu, Chuantao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nanocellulose and Its Biohybrids for Water Purification: Atomic Force Microscopy as a Tool to Probe Surface Properties and Interactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose has been explored extensively in recent years as an adsorbent due to its promising performance in the removal of charged contaminants from water. In this thesis, various atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are used to understand the surface characteristics and specific interactions of nanocellulose with water contaminants (heavy metal ions and dyes) and nanoscale entities (Graphene Oxide (GO) and Graphene Oxide nanocolloids (nanoGO)), and explain the mechanisms related to adsorption, metal ion clustering, self-assembly and mechanical reinforcement.

    AFM probes functionalised with microscale and nanoscale celluloses were used as colloidal probes to study specific surface interactions with heavy metal ions and dyes in the aqueous medium. This approach enabled quantitative measurements of the adhesion force between nanocellulose and the water pollutants under in situ conditions by direct or in-direct methods. Adhesion forces, including the piconewton range, were measured, and the forces depended on the surface groups present on the nanocellulose.

    AFM imaging in dry and/or wet conditions was successfully used to investigate the adsorption, self-assembly, morphology and mechanical properties of nanocellulose and its bio-hybrids. The self-assembly, the metal nanolayer and the nanoclusters on the surface of nanocellulose and its biohybrids after adsorption were confirmed and explained by advanced microscopy, spectroscopy and computational modelling.

    The adhesion and stiffness measurement of single nanocellulose fibers using in situ PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical (PF-QNM) characterization confirmed the adsorption of metal ions on the surface in the liquid medium. PF-QNM mapping of the freestanding biohybrid membranes also revealed the enhanced modulus of the biohybrid membrane compared with the TEMPO(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxylradical)-mediated oxidation nanofibers (TOCNF) membrane, which explained the hydrolytic stability and recyclability of these membranes.

    The established methodology, which combines advanced microscopy with spectroscopy and modelling techniques, can be extended to other biobased macromolecular systems to investigate the adsorption behaviour and/or surface interactions in bio nanotechnology.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Marseglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Computing abelian varieties over finite fields2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we address the problem of developing effective algorithms to compute isomorphism classes of polarized abelian varieties over a finite field and of fractional ideals of an order in a finite product of number fields.

    There are well-known methods to efficiently compute the classes of invertible ideals of an order in a number field, but not much has previously been known about non-invertible ideals. In Paper I we produce algorithms to compute representatives of all ideal classes of an order in a finite product of number fields. We also extend a theorem of Latimer and MacDuffee about  conjugacy classes of integral matrices.

    There are equivalences established by Deligne and Centeleghe-Stix between the category of abelian varieties over a finite field and the category of finitely generated free abelian groups with an endomorphism satisfying some easy-to-state axioms, which in certain cases can be described in terms of fractional ideals of orders in finite products of number fields. In Paper II we use this method to produce an algorithm that computes the isomorphism classes of abelian varieties in an isogeny class determined by an ordinary square-free q-Weil polynomial or by a square-free p-Weil polynomial with no real roots (where p denotes a prime and q is a power of a prime). In the ordinary case we also produce an algorithm that computes the polarizations up to isomorphism and the automorphism groups of the polarized abelian varieties. If the polarization is principal, we can compute a period matrix of the canonical lift of the abelian variety.

    In Paper III we extend the description of the second paper to the case when the Weil polynomial is a power of a square-free polynomial which fulfills the same requirements as in Paper II.

    In Paper IV we use the results of the second and third papers to study questions related to base-field extension of the abelian varieties over finite fields.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:00 JMK-salen, Garnisonen, Stockholm
    Thor, Tindra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Painting the City: Performative Cosmopolitanism and the Politics of Space and Art2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding everyday urban practices as performative, political, and potentially transformative, this dissertation aims to explore how graffiti- and street art use, subvert, and, via media, extend urban space in Stockholm. Drawing upon a performative ethnographic approach, the study focuses on both the practice of and the various forms of social commentary and critique generated by graffiti and street art in Stockholm. The findings illustrate the diversity of positionalities that abide in this cultural cluster, noting, in particular, the ambiguities, juxtaposition and tensions therein. Furthermore, the dissertation explores the cosmopolitan potentials of graffiti and street art as transnational movements, which create connections through shared imaginaries and senses of belonging. The analysis is based upon in-depth interviews, nine months of fieldwork, and numerous photographs, and addresses three research questions: (1) how is contemporary Stockholm graffiti- and street art culture articulated and performed by its makers and in what ways the culture collapse with other media than “writing”/painting?, (2) what characterizes the scope of social critique articulated as part of the performative repertoires of Stockholm graffiti and street art discourses? and, (3) what are the critical and aesthetic cosmopolitan potentials and/or deficits of graffiti- and street art culture and under which conditions do they materialize?

    Theoretically, the study draws on the concept of aesthetic cosmopolitanism in order to explore and analyze the acts and practices of “world-making” through aesthetic performances. By linking aesthetic cosmopolitanism with ancient Cynic philosophy, the concept of performative cosmopolitanism is introduced. Performative cosmopolitanism captures the varieties of outlooks and spaces that open up through critical, sensorial, and, in certain cases, even transformative, interventions in the city and their mediated extensions. Using mediatization as a paradigmatic approach, both an increase in digital dissemination and visibility and a decrease in actual performances and visibility are observed. In this respect, the mediatization of graffiti and street art remains a paradoxical process. Given the entanglement of different media with graffiti and street art performances, the study further introduces the concept of hyper-mediatization to articulate an interdependent relationship between the actual and virtual forms of these urban performances: they fundamentally affect and extend each other by both sustaining and expanding existing imaginaries and connections and generating emergent ones. 

    The dissertation paints the image of a contested, controversial and subversive urban culture and its contemporary mediatized extensions. It shows how graffiti and street art can be understood, both culturally and politically, as a critical, alternative and essentially anti-capitalist aesthetization of the urban. Utilizing the concept of regimes of cosmopolitanism, the author highlights the potentials and deficits of “comingtogetherness” through and during creative practice and the dual dynamics of hospitality and encapsulation. Particular emphasis is placed upon the tensions related to gender and the ways in which such tensions factor into the social relations within these artistic communities and the aesthetics they produce. 

  • Public defence: 2018-06-09 10:00 Auditorium 215, Humanistvillan, Stockholm
    Ohlsson, Hélène
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    ”Gudomlig, ingenting mindre än gudomlig!”: Skådespelerskan Ellen Hartmans iscensättningar på scen och i offentlighet2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the diva femininity, career strategies, and acting style of the Swedish actress Ellen Hartman (1860-1945). The aim is to highlight her importance to Swedish theater during the fin-de-siècle. The dissertation is a contribution to the history of actresses and explores her gender performance and diva codes and how they influenced her career strategies and acting style. The analysis is based on Tracy C. Davis’s feminist historiography, Mimi Schippers’s notion of pariah femininity, and Wayne Koestenbaum's concept of diva codes.

    Historical contextualisation, critical imaginativeness, and actors’ embodied knowledge are the methodologies used in the present thesis. The study emphasizes the close interplay of the gendered contexts and structures that framed Hartman’s career strategies, acting style and performance. The conclusion thereby underlines the idea that Hartman as a popular actress challenged the gender norms of her time and contributed to the empowerment of women in Sweden. As an actress, Hartman was a forerunner and thereby became a pioneer of Swedish modern acting.

  • Chraibi, S.
    et al.
    Philips Lighting B.V., Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Creemers, P.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Rosenkötter, C.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    van Loenen, E. J.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Rosemann, A. L. P.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Dimming strategies for open office lighting: User experience and acceptance2018In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor-triggered control strategies can limit the energy consumption of lighting by considering the presence of users in the office and dimming lighting down when it is not needed. In multi-user offices, the application of occupancy-based dimming at room level limits the energy saving potential. However, zone- or desk-based dimming may affect the comfort of co-workers due to its dynamics. This paper reports the assessment by 17 participants (30–50 years of age) of occupancy-based dimming in a mock-up office, using different dimming speeds. Participants consisted of co-workers experiencing changes triggered by others, and actors triggering these light changes. While the participants performed an office-based task, the luminaire above the actors’ desk was dimmed from approximately 550 lx to 350 lx (average horizontal illuminance), and vice versa. The participants evaluated the dimming conditions regarding their noticeability and acceptability. The study showed that the noticeability of light changes due to dimming, increases when fading times become shorter. Dimming with a fading time of at least two seconds was experienced as acceptable by more than 70% of the participants. The results of this experiment provide insights to system behaviour that does not compromise user experience while addressing energy efficient use of electric lighting.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:00 Air and Fire, Science for Life Laboratory, Solna
    Alneberg, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bioinformatic Methods in Metagenomics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial organisms are a vital part of our global ecosystem. Yet, our knowledge of them is still lacking. Direct sequencing of microbial communities, i.e. metagenomics, have enabled detailed studies of these microscopic organisms by inspection of their DNA sequences without the need to culture them. Furthermore, the development of modern high- throughput sequencing technologies have made this approach more powerful and cost-effective. Taken together, this has shifted the field of microbiology from previously being centered around microscopy and culturing studies, to largely consist of computational analyses of DNA sequences. One such computational analysis which is the main focus of this thesis, aims at reconstruction of the complete DNA sequence of an organism, i.e. its genome, directly from short metagenomic sequences.

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the subject followed by five papers. Paper I describes a large metagenomic data resource spanning the Baltic Sea microbial communities. This dataset is complemented with a web-interface allowing researchers to easily extract and visualize detailed information. Paper II introduces a bioinformatic method which is able to reconstruct genomes from metagenomic data. This method, which is termed CONCOCT, is applied on Baltic Sea metagenomics data in Paper III and Paper V. This enabled the reconstruction of a large number of genomes. Analysis of these genomes in Paper III led to the proposal of, and evidence for, a global brackish microbiome. Paper IV presents a comparison between genomes reconstructed from metagenomes with single-cell sequenced genomes. This further validated the technique presented in Paper II as it was found to produce larger and more complete genomes than single-cell sequencing.

  • Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Ruuth, Anders
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Liselott
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Mercury concentrations in pregnant women in circumpolar Sweden (Kiruna)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High exposure to mercury have been found in populations living in circumpolar areas, due to high consumption of sea food and accumulation of mercury closer to the north pole. The developing fetus is especially sensitive to effects of mercury. Exposure to mercury has previously been examined in pregnant women in Sweden, but not in pregnant women residing in Sweden north of the polar circle.

    In the years 2015-2016, mercury was measured in whole blood from 51 pregnant women living in the city of Kiruna in circumpolar Sweden, taking part in an international comparison between eight circumpolar countries. This report presents the Swedish results on mercury concentrations and associations with some exposure determinants. Also, compliance to dietary advice on fish consumption, appointed to fertile women, was examined.

    The median concentration of total-Hg in whole blood was 0.40 μg/L (min, max; <0.40, 1.88) among the 51 pregnant women in Kiruna. This is similar or lower compared to concentrations of mercury in pregnant women in other parts of Sweden. None of the women in the study had concentrations of mercury that are considered as dangerous.

    Mercury concentrations were associated with total fish consumption but not to consumption of predatory fish, known to be higher in mercury. All of the women in the study had knowledge about dietary advice on fish consumption. One woman exceeded the recommended consumption of predatory fish, limited due to risk of high mercury content, but this woman did not have high concentrations of mercury. While the vast majority of women thus followed the recommendations of not eating too much polluted fish, only 15 % of the women reported sufficient fish consumption to comply with the dietary advice (2-3 times/week).

    In conclusion, pregnant women in circumpolar Sweden have low exposure to mercury, and do not deviant from pregnant women in other parts of Sweden. Knowledge about dietary advice on fish consumption appointed to fertile women is very good. The public health concern though, is that pregnant women in circumpolar Sweden do not eat enough fish.

  • Dosio, Alessandro
    et al.
    Mentaschi, Lorenzo
    Fischer, Erich M.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Extreme heat waves under 1.5 degrees C and 2 degrees C global warming2018In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 054006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Falk Delgado, Alberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Falk Delgado, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Home institution bias in the New England Journal of Medicine?: A noninferiority study on citation rates2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 607-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in the four top journals of humanities, an institutional bias towards publication of authors from Harvard and Yale was shown. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is today the highest ranked general medical journal. It is unknown if there exists institutional bias favoring publication of articles originating from Harvard University, since the NEJM is produced by the Massachusetts Medical Society with close connections to the Harvard University. We examined if studies originating from the Harvard University published in the NEJM were noninferior in terms of citation rates compared to articles with an origin outside Harvard University. We evaluated original research articles published in the NEJM in 2000 up until June 2001. A two-sample noninferiority test based on the primary endpoint of citations was performed. Twenty-two studies were affiliated to the Harvard University and 280 studies were not affiliated to the Harvard University. The mean number of citations for Harvard affiliated studies was 625 (95% CI 358-952, median 354) and for non-Harvard affiliated studies 493 (95% CI 421-569, median 303). The mean difference was not statistically different between affiliations, but fulfilled the requirements for noninferiority [132 (95% CI - 138-402, P = 0.343), Delta 200]. In summary, citation rates were comparable between studies origination from the Harvard University compared to non-Harvard Institutions. Based on these results there appears to be low risk of institutional bias in the publishing process of original studies in the NEJM.

  • Wu, Lichuan
    et al.
    Hristov, Tihomir
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Vertical Profiles of Wave-Coherent Momentum Flux and Velocity Variances in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer2018In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 625-641Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:00 FA32, Stockholm
    Ignatova, Nina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. Siberian Federal University.
    Multimode resonant X-ray scattering of free molecules2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on the role that nuclear dynamics plays in the formation of X-ray absorption (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of multimode free molecules. A combined approach based on ab initio electronic structure methods and quantum nuclear wave packet dynamics is applied to two systems -- water and methanol in the gas phase. An IR-pump – X-ray-probe spectroscopy of vibrationally excited water and its isotope substitutions is employed to explore different vibrational progressions of the final electronic state due to a spatial filtration of the vibrations in the core-excited state and selection rules. It was demonstrated the possibility to use RIXS as a tool to study X-ray absorption from a selected vibrational level of the ground state. IR-pump – X-ray-probe spectroscopy applied to the HDO molecule sheds light on the old classical problem of wave function collapse: we demonstrate numerically the gradual collapse of the initially localised vibrational wave function in the HDO molecule. It is also explained the dynamical nature of the splitting of the 1b1 peak in the RIXS spectrum of H2O, HDO and D2O molecules. This splitting is referred to close-lying molecular and atomic-like peaks. In order to study the methanol molecule a special theoretical tool for studies of multimode molecules has been developed. This approach combines the advantages of the quantum wave packet technique for simulations of the dynamics in dissociative states with the efficiency of the Franck-Condon method for computing transitions between bound states. It is shown that the multimode nuclear dynamics plays an important role in XAS and RIXS spectra of methanol. The XAS and RIXS spectra formation was explained taking into account different dynamics in different core-excited potential energy surfaces, as well as the entanglement of vibrational modes by anharmonicity and by the life-time vibrational interference.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:00 William Olsson-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Blomqvist, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Samtal om skrivbedömning: Lärares normer, beslut och samstämmighet2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports and discusses results from a qualitative study of Swedish teachers' writing assessment in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study investigates teachers' interactions, expressions of norms and decisions when assessing and grading students' writing in the subject of Swedish.

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyze how teachers interact and what they pay attention to when discussing writing assessment. In relation to this aim the following three research questions were posed: (1) What characterizes the teachers' conversations about writing assessment? (2) What assessment norms do the teachers express? (3) What decisions do they make?

    The theoretical perspectives are dialogical and pedagogical. From a dialogical point of view, the assessment conversations are considered as social acts where teachers in interaction collectively create meaning. Furthermore, the assessment conversations are considered as pedagogical, as a part of teachers' reflective work to discuss how to assess students' work and how to make decisions about further instructions and grading. The methods used to describe and analyze interactional patterns, expressions of norms and decisions in these assessment conversations are topic analysis and initiative-response-analysis.

    The empirical data consists of audio and video recordings from three teacher groups' conversations about writing assessment, comprising a total of 17 Swedish teachers from three upper secondary schools. Data was also collected via a questionnaire with the individual teacher's grading of the students' writing and evaluation of the assessment conversations.

    The results show that teachers' assessments of students' writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about student texts focus mostly on communicative quality, language style and text structure but also on content and the use of sources. The pedagogical decisions, on the other hand, almost exclusively focus on text structure and the use of sources.

    The results also show that shortcomings in the students' texts are crucial for teachers' summative assessments. Meanwhile, the teachers also express that students' age, their writing development in the course and the national test must be considered. These assessment norms can be compensatory and have a substantial impact on these teachers' decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show considerable variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

    Finally, the teachers demonstrate a high degree of consistency within each teacher group when discussing summative assessment of students' writing. However, the assessments that individual teachers make after the discussions comply only to some extent with the group's decisions. The least degree of consistency was shown by the teacher group who, in the discussion, seemed the most consistent. Decision-making processes in these discussions are characterized by low intensity, where few assessment alternatives are being considered. The overall assessment consistency between the teacher groups was found to be low.

  • Moshi, Haleluya
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Kilimanjaro Cristian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Sahlén, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Anthea, Rhoda
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Coping Resources for Persons With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in A Tanzania Rural Area2018In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in Tanzanian rural settings face a variety of geographical and socioeconomic challenges that make life almost impossible for them. However, some have managed to live relatively long lives despite these difficult conditions. This study aimed at exploring secrets behind successful lives of persons with TSCI in typical resource-constrained rural Tanzanian settings.

    METHODS: A modified constructivist grounded theory was employed for the analysis of data from 10 individuals who have lived between 7 and 28 years with TSCI in typical Tanzanian rural area. The 10 were purposively selected from 15 interviews that were conducted in 2011. The analysis followed the constructivist approach in which data was first open and axial coded, prior to categories being constructed. The categories were frequently reviewed in light of the available literature to determine the over-arching core category that described or connected the rest.

    RESULTS: Nine categories (identified as internal and external coping resources) were constructed. The internal coping resources were: secured in God, increase in awareness on health risk, problem-solving skills and social skills. External coping resources were: having a reliable family, varying support from the community, a matter of possession and left without means for mobility. Acceptance was later identified as a core category that determines identification and utilization of the rest of the coping resources.

    CONCLUSION: Persons with traumatic spinal cord injury can survive for a relatively long time despite the hostile environment. Coping with these environments requires the employment of various coping resources, acceptance being the most important.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 09:00 Vårdvetarhusets aula, Umeå
    Ann, Jacobsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Exploring firefighters' health and wellbeing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This thesis supports the assumption that firefighters’ health and mental well-being is important, in order to cope with the stress that the profession implies. As health is an essential part of everyday life, it seems substantially to understand how an almost exclusively male workforce of firefighters construct their discourse in relation to health and well-being. The overall purpose of this thesis is to explore health and ill-health among firefighters in relation to their work environment, including coping strategies, critical incidents and ‘ordinary’ day-to-day work at the fire and rescue service station.

    Methods: In Study I, 180 firefighters (16 women, 164 men) answered an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used based on free text answers and focused on critical incidents. Study II, was based on a cross-sectional survey measuring burnout, psychosocial work environment and coping strategies. Participants were randomly selected and the final sample consisted of 476 firefighters (58 women, 418 men) and analyzed with multiple linear regression. In Study III and Study IV, a total of 28 fire-fighters (4 women and 24 men) participated in the study. Regarding Study IV a strategic sample of policy documents was also included. For Study III and IV, the research questions was dealt with applying critical discourse analysis on the focus group discussions (FGD) and individual interviews. In Study IV the analysed material also included policy documents.

    Results: Findings from Study I were presented in four categories; ‘overwhelming critical situations’, ‘risks of delay, ‘risk of failure’ and ‘risks to oneself’. Women in Study I described their experiences in a more distanced account, while men described their experiences more vividly. Results from Study II showed overall low mean values in the burnout scales of emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among both women and men. Only 2 % of women and 1% of men scored high levels of EE, and only 2% of women and 3% of men scored high level of DP. A multiple linear regression showed that high demand and lack of social support contributed significantly to predicting EE among men. The coping strategies among firefighters influence the level of EE and DP, and these strategies were different between women and men. In Study III six dominant themes were identified. A strong sense of the firefighter community was articulated as health promoting. The physical exercise at work and the balance between emergency and station work were also two recurrent theme supporting firefighters’ health. Another health-promoting theme concerns clarity of roles among firefighters. Peer support and tolerance in the work group was another common theme, alongside with expressions of the firefighter as hero or helper. Themes described as hindrances to health and well-being in firefighters’ discourse were; diversity, preventive work and education. All hindrance themes were articulated as important struggles in the firefighter discourse against changes in work. In Study IV, we have identified two sides in the struggles, on the one hand we have the ‘insiders’, a majority of male firefighters working in the fire and rescue services representing a collective defending its autonomy and traditions. On the other hand we have the ‘outsiders’, represented by the government, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, (MSB), municipalities, politicians at different levels and academic researchers.

    Conclusion: Firefighters described critical incidents at work as overwhelming situations, along with negative experiences of organizational and practical tasks. Despite these experiences firefighters were reported as healthy according to EE and DP (Study I and II). Results of Study II also showed a relationship between psychosocial work environment and burnout among men, but not among women. The coping strategies among firefighters influence the level of burnout, and these strategies differ between women and men. The well-being in firefighters’ discourse, at least partly, is gained from a strong sense of belonging to a homosocial group characterized by closeness to each other and peers who take care of each other. The firefighters in our studies articulate this community-sense, and describe the importance of the similarity, rather than diversity (Studies III and IV). Findings from our studies regarding health and well-being, add knowledge to the current explanations relating to firefighters’ resistance to change.

  • Kusetogullari, Huseyin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Yavariabdi, Amir
    KTO Karatay University, TUR.
    Unsupervised Change Detection in Landsat Images with Atmospheric Artifacts: A Fuzzy Multiobjective Approach2018In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2018, p. 1-16, article id 7274141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new unsupervised approach based on a hybrid wavelet transform and Fuzzy Clustering Method (FCM) with Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MO-PSO) is proposed to obtain a binary change mask in Landsat images acquired with different atmospheric conditions. The proposed method uses the following steps: preprocessing,  classification of preprocessed image, and  binary masks fusion. Firstly, a photometric invariant technique is used to transform the Landsat images from RGB to HSV colour space. A hybrid wavelet transform based on Stationary (SWT) and Discrete Wavelet (DWT) Transforms is applied to the hue channel of two Landsat satellite images to create subbands. After that, mean shift clustering method is applied to the subband difference images, computed using the absolute-valued difference technique, to smooth the difference images. Then, the proposed method optimizes iteratively two different fuzzy based objective functions using MO-PSO to evaluate changed and unchanged regions of the smoothed difference images separately. Finally, a fusion approach based on connected component with union technique is proposed to fuse two binary masks to estimate the final solution. Experimental results show the robustness of the proposed method to existence of haze and thin clouds as well as Gaussian noise in Landsat images.

  • Bayisa, Fekadu L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Liu, Xijia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Garpebring, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Computed Tomography Image Estimation by Statistical Learning MethodsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing interest in computed tomography (CT) image estimations from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The estimated CT images canbe utilised for attenuation correction, patient positioning, and dose planningin diagnostic and radiotherapy workflows. This study presents a statisticallearning method for CT image estimation. We have used predefined tissuetype information in a Gaussian mixture model to explore the estimation.The performance of our method was evaluated using cross-validation on realdata. In comparison with the existing model-based CT image estimationmethods, the proposed method has improved the estimation, particularly inbone tissues. Evaluation of our method shows that it is a promising methodto generate CT image substitutes for the implementation of fully MR-basedradiotherapy and PET/MRI applications.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 09:15 Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Norrköping
    Eilertsen, Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The high dynamic range imaging pipeline: Tone-mapping, distribution, and single-exposure reconstruction2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Techniques for high dynamic range (HDR) imaging make it possible to capture and store an increased range of luminances and colors as compared to what can be achieved with a conventional camera. This high amount of image information can be used in a wide range of applications, such as HDR displays, image-based lighting, tone-mapping, computer vision, and post-processing operations. HDR imaging has been an important concept in research and development for many years. Within the last couple of years it has also reached the consumer market, e.g. with TV displays that are capable of reproducing an increased dynamic range and peak luminance.

    This thesis presents a set of technical contributions within the field of HDR imaging. First, the area of HDR video tone-mapping is thoroughly reviewed, evaluated and developed upon. A subjective comparison experiment of existing methods is performed, followed by the development of novel techniques that overcome many of the problems evidenced by the evaluation. Second, a largescale objective comparison is presented, which evaluates existing techniques that are involved in HDR video distribution. From the results, a first open-source HDR video codec solution, Luma HDRv, is built using the best performing techniques. Third, a machine learning method is proposed for the purpose of reconstructing an HDR image from one single-exposure low dynamic range (LDR) image. The method is trained on a large set of HDR images, using recent advances in deep learning, and the results increase the quality and performance significantly as compared to existing algorithms.

    The areas for which contributions are presented can be closely inter-linked in the HDR imaging pipeline. Here, the thesis work helps in promoting efficient and high-quality HDR video distribution and display, as well as robust HDR image reconstruction from a single conventional LDR image.

  • Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Ansari, Farhan
    Stanford University, US ; KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Gowda V, Krishne
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Chen, Pan
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Roth, Stephan V
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden , Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Kotov, Nicholas A
    University of Michigan, US.
    Söderberg, L Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Tecnology, Sweden.
    Multiscale Control of Nanocellulose Assembly: Transferring Remarkable Nanoscale Fibril Mechanics to Macroscale Fibers.2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale building blocks of many materials exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties due to their defect-free molecular structure. Translation of these high mechanical properties to macroscopic materials represents a difficult materials engineering challenge due to the necessity to organize these building blocks into multiscale patterns and mitigate defects emerging at larger scales. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), the most abundant structural element in living systems, has impressively high strength and stiffness, but natural or artificial cellulose composites are 3-15 times weaker than the CNFs. Here, we report the flow-assisted organization of CNFs into macroscale fibers with nearly perfect unidirectional alignment. Efficient stress transfer from macroscale to individual CNF due to cross-linking and high degree of order enables their Young's modulus to reach up to 86 GPa and a tensile strength of 1.57 GPa, exceeding the mechanical properties of known natural or synthetic biopolymeric materials. The specific strength of our CNF fibers engineered at multiscale also exceeds that of metals, alloys, and glass fibers, enhancing the potential of sustainable lightweight high-performance materials with multiscale self-organization.

  • Bennet, Louise
    et al.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology/Lund University Diabetes Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Zöller, Bengt
    Groop, Leif
    Family history of diabetes and its relationship with insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in Iraqi immigrants and native Swedes: a population-based cohort study2018In: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Middle Eastern immigrants to western countries are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, the heritability and impact of rst-degree family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion and action have not been adequately described. Methods Citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30–75 years born in Iraq or Sweden were invited to participate in this population- based study. Insulin secretion (corrected insulin response and oral disposition index) and action (insulin sensitivity index) were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Results In total, 45.7% of Iraqis (616/1348) and 27.4% of native Swedes (201/733) had FH in parent(s), sibling(s) or single parent and sibling, i.e., FH+. Approximately 8% of Iraqis and 0.7% of Swedes had ≥ 3 sibling(s) and parent(s) with diabetes, i.e., FH++. Irrespective of family size, prediabetes and diabetes increased with family burden (FH− 29.4%; FH+ 38.8%; FH++ 61.7%) without signi cant di erences across ethnicities. With increasing level of family burden, insulin secretion rather than insulin action decreased. Individuals with a combination of ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes presented with the lowest levels of insulin secretion.

    Conclusions The Iraqi immigrant population often present with a strong familial burden of type 2 diabetes with the worst glycemic control and highest diabetes risk in individuals with ≥ 3 siblings and parents with diabetes. Our data show that in a population still free from diabetes familial burden in uences insulin secretion to a higher degree than insulin action and may be a logical target for intervention. 

  • Siewert, Matthias B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1663-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1 x 1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 +/- 8.0 kg C m(-2) and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 +/- 6.2 kg C m(-2). The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 10:00 Akvariet J 503, Sundsvall
    Appelberg, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Gilla oss!: En studie av fyra svenska medieföretags arbete med sociala medier2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation contains an exploratory study of how four Swedish media companies has decided to use social media in their daily work, and also how they in fact use them. What are the goals with implementing social media, how do they differ between different companies and do the goals transfer into the newsrooms?

    The four companies studied are Sveriges Radio, Aftonbladet, Dalarnas Tidningar and Gotlands Media. Media companies that differ from one another both in size, geographical coverage and economy. They range from small local newspapers to national public service radio and the biggest tabloid on the Swedish market. The methods used are qualitative research interviews and field studies as well as quantitative data analysis. The theoretical chapter helps define traditional journalism and journalistic practice. The concepts of boundaries, participatory cultures and normalizing of work methods are also discussed and helps build a context for the analysis of the empirical data.

    Some key findings from the study are that there are more similarities than differences between the various companies in both how they aim to use social media and how they in fact use them. That the digital development in the surrounding society are much faster than the implementation of new technologies in the newsrooms. Also, that there are differences between how the companies aim to use social media and the actual usage. For instance, all companies strive for a more active dialog with the audience in their visionary work, but has a hard time turning this into reality.

    There is also notable that social media in this study do not change the journalistic fundamental routines and traditions. The studied journalists are still in control of their own content and they aim to meet the same standard in journalistic quality when working in social media. It is also evident that Facebook is invaluable for all the studied companies, which gives Facebook an interesting indirect power over the journalistic work process and product. Finally, the study finds that it is hard to engage the audience in an active collaboration even when working with social media.

  • Lajus, D.
    et al.
    Stogova, D.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The implementation of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification in Russia: achievements and considerations2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 90, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification program in Russia is now well established and, in addition to fishery clients and stakeholders, involves environmental NGOs and experts familiar with the local management system. The present study aims to analyze the current status of the program and constitutes the first study covering all Russian MSC certifications. Based on certification reports and twenty semi-structured interviews with stakeholders, it was shown that problems with certification vary among fisheries. The most advanced in terms of management are the Barents Sea codfish fisheries, which are co-managed by Russia and Norway. The main concern of these fisheries is the use of bottom trawls, which may seriously affect bottom communities. The Alaska pollock fishery in the Sea of Okhotsk experienced serious pressure from rival fisheries during the certification process. In the Far East, interviewees dealing with the salmon fisheries note a high level of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and insufficient scientific data for comprehensive stock assessment. For small-scale inland perch fisheries from the central part of the country, recreational and illegal fishing are important problems that are difficult to quantify. Many interviewees repeatedly mentioned communication issues, difficulties with access to scientific and management information, and the overall complexity of the MSC certification process. The study shows that important preconditions to expanding certification are making the process manageable for export-oriented companies and developing a national market for sustainable seafood.

  • Wu, Pianpian
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eklöf, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Futter, Martyn
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hultberg, Hans
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Martin, Jaclyn
    Environm Resources Management, Charlotte, NC USA..
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Does forest harvest increase the mercury concentrations in fish?: Evidence from Swedish lakes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622-623, p. 1353-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have evaluated the effects of forest harvest on mercury (Hg) concentrations and exports in surface waters, but few studies have tested the effect from forest harvest on the change in fish Hg concentrations over the course of several years after harvest. To address this question, mercury (Hg) concentrations in perch (Perca fluviatilis) muscle tissue from five lakes were analyzed for two years before (2010-2011) and three years after (2013-2015) forest harvest conducted in 2012. Fish Hg concentrations in the clear-cut catchments (n = 1373 fish specimens) were related to temporal changes of fish Hg in reference lakes (n = 1099 fish specimen) from 19 lakes in the Swedish National Environmental Monitoring Programme. Small (length < 100 mm) and large perch (length >= 100 mm) were analyzed separately, due to changing feeding habitats of fish over growing size. There was considerable year-to-year and lake-to-lake variation in fish Hg concentrations (-14%-121%) after forest harvest in the clearcut lakes, according to our first statistical model that count for fish Hg changes. While the effect ascribed to forest harvest varied between years, after three years (in 2015), a significant increase of 26% (p < 0.0001) in Hg concentrations of large fish was identified in our second statistical model that pooled all 5 clearcut lakes. The large fish Hg concentrations in the 19 reference lakes also varied, and in 2015 had decreased by 7% (p = 0.03) relative to the concentrations in 2010-2011. The majority of the annual changes in fish Hg concentrations in the clearcut lakes after harvest were in the lower range of earlier predictions for high-latitude lakes extrapolated primarily from the effects of forest harvest operations on Hg concentrations in water. Since the risk of forest harvest impacts on Hg extends to fish and not just surface water concentrations, there is even more reason to consider Hg effects in forestry planning, alongside other ecosystem effects.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 10:30 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Johansson, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metaproteogenomics-guided enzyme discovery: Targeted identification of novel proteases in microbial communities2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial biotechnology is a large and growing industry as it is part of establishing a “greener” and more sustainable bioeconomy-based society. Using enzymes as biocatalysts is a viable alternative to chemicals and energy intense industrial processes and is en route to a more sustainable industry. Enzymes have been used in different areas for ages and are today used in many industrial processes such as biofuels production, food industry, tanning, chemical synthesis, pharmaceuticals etc. Enzymes are today a billion-dollar industry in itself and the demand for novel catalysts for various present and future processes of renewable resources are high and perfectly in line with converting to a more sustainable society.

    Most enzymes used in industry today have been identified from isolated and pure cultured microorganisms with identified desirable traits and enzymatic capacities. However, it is known that less than 1% of all microorganisms can be can be obtained in pure cultures. Thus, if we were to rely solely on pure culturing, this would leave the 99% of the microorganisms that constitutes the “microbial dark matter” uninvestigated for their potential in coding for and producing valuable novel enzymes. Therefore, to investigate these “unculturable” microorganisms for novel and valuable enzymes, pure-culture independent methods are needed.

    During the last two decades there has been a fast and extensive development in techniques and methods applicable for this purpose. Especially important has been the advancements made in mass spectrometry for protein identification and next generation sequencing of DNA. With these technical developments new research fields of proteomics and genomics have been developed, by which the complete protein complement of cells (the proteome) and all genes (the genome) of organisms can be investigated. When these techniques are applied to microbial communities these fields of research are known as meta-proteomics and meta-genomics.

    However, when applied to complex microbial communities, difficulties different from those encountered in their original usage for analysis of single multicellular organisms or cell linages arises, and when used independently both methods have their own limitations and bottlenecks. In addition, both metaproteomics and metagenomics are largely non-targeting techniques. Thus, if the purpose is still to - somewhat contradictory – use these non-targeting methods for targeted identification of novel enzymes with certain desired activities and properties from within microbial communities, special measures need to be taken.

    The work presented in this thesis describes the development of a method that combines

    metaproteomics and metagenomics (i.e. metaproteogenomics) for the targeted discovery of novel enzymes with desired activities, and their correct coding genes, from within microbial communities. Thus, what is described is a method that can be used to circumvent the pure-culturing problem so that a much larger fraction of the microbial dark matter can be specifically investigated for the identification of novel valuable enzymes.

  • Ljung, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Sundström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Smeds, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Ketonen, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Patterns of comorbidity and disease characteristics among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study2018In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 647-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the development of comorbidities in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is limited. The aim of this study was to analyse associations between AS disease characteristics and comorbidity and to evaluate patterns of comorbidities in patients with AS. Patients with AS, fulfilling the modified New York Criteria, were identified (n =3D 346, mean age 56 +/- 15 years, 75% men, 99% HLA B27 positive). Through a review of the patient records, data on disease activity parameters, laboratory results, disease manifestations, and diagnoses of any clinically significant comorbidity was obtained. Four categories of comorbidities of interest were identified: A. arrhythmias, conduction disorders, and valvular heart disease; B. atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic CVD; C. spinal and non-spinal fractures; and D. obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Associations between AS disease characteristics and comorbidities in categories were assessed in logistic regression models. Differences in proportions of comorbidities was analysed using two-sided chi-square. Age was associated with all four categories of comorbidities, and male sex with arrhythmias, conduction disorders, valvular heart disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Early disease onset and long disease duration, respectively, were associated with arrhythmias, conduction disorders, and valvular heart disease. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease had an increased risk of most other comorbidities, similar to, but more pronounced than patients with arrhythmias, conduction disorders and valvular heart disease. Comorbid conditions motivate clinical awareness among patients with AS. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish preventive measures.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-08 13:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
    Drott, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Neurotoxic side effects and impact on daily life in patients with colorectal cancer with adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. Chemotherapeutic drugs are frequently used in postoperative treatment. The platinum compound oxaliplatin (OXA) is an option for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected CRC, and has been shown to improve survival. OXA-induced neurotoxic side effects are common (e.g. sensitivity to cold, numbness). Neurotoxicity can interfere with the patient’s daily living and affect ability to carry out activities. Because there is no evidence for effective treatment in terms of eliminating neurotoxic side effects, the most successful approaches include early identification, reduction of dose and interruption of treatment. Current research has identified a need for patient-oriented evidence in terms of long-term follow-up of neurotoxicity.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore OXA-induced neurotoxic side effects in patients with colorectal cancer, and the influence on patients’ daily lives during and post OXA treatment.

    Methods: The thesis is based on four studies, and includes an analysis of medical records, as well as prospective quantitative and qualitative approaches with longitudinal data collection through a mobile phone-based system. The studies were performed at oncology departments in four hospitals in Sweden. Inclusion criteria were that patients should be at least 18 years of age, and should have been treated with chemotherapy, including OXA (FOLFOX, XELOX), in an adjuvant setting for CRC stages II-III. Study I had a retrospective design, and data involved (n=61) medical records. A structured protocol was used to evaluate the documentation of patients’ neurotoxic side effects. In studies II and III, ten patients were recruited using a strategy of purposeful and consecutive selection according to the inclusion criteria, where OXA-related neurotoxic side effects were assessed. A total of 10 interviews were carried out when neurotoxic side effects appeared (II), and after completed OXA treatment (3, 6 and 12 month’s follow-up) 25 repeated interviews were conducted (III). The prospective longitudinal study IV aimed to identify and assess patient-reported outcomes in terms of neurotoxic side effects, and their impact on patients’ daily activities (n=46). An Oxaliplatin-associated Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (OANQ) was administered in real time to indicate patientreported outcomes. In total, 370 questionnaire responses were available for analysis.

    Results: The results from the retrospective study (I) showed that a free description of the degree of neurotoxic side effects was given in the patients’ medical records. No formal assessment had been used in the documentation. The findings of the two qualitative studies contribute knowledge about how patients endure neurotoxic side effects early in the treatment phase, and how they learn to live with neurotoxicity in the long-term perspective. Patients coped with their side effects by developing different self-care strategies to restore normality in their daily lives (II-III). Neurotoxic side effects interferes with the patient’s daily activities in a variety of ways. These side effects change in terms of their character and their location in the body over time. The most frequent side effects during treatment were cold-precipitated tingling in the upper extremities and in the mouth/throat. At the end of treatment, neurotoxicity in the lower extremities was considered high and interfered with the patients’ daily activities. The results show significant differences between baseline data, and nine of the patients had not returned to baseline after one year (IV).

    Conclusion: Neurotoxic side effects affect patients’ daily activities in different ways, with an impact on their physical, psychological, emotional and social life. Patients endured and coped with their side effects in different ways involving self-care strategies to restore normality. The patients’ daily lives were affected by numbness and tingling in the legs and tingling in upper extremity, and they had learned to live with these side effects. The neurotoxic side effects changed character and localisation over time. These results should be taken into account when patients are informed about treatment, and in the dialogue about the benefits and risks.

  • Eriksson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Visual management for a dynamicstrategic change2018In: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 712-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Strategic changes in an organization will face challenges not only related to the changes as suchbut also with regard to how the vision of the future is interpreted and understood by the organization.Visual management is a field of research that could contribute to change management research as a meansto facilitate management of the dynamics in a change process and to facilitate the process ofcommunication. The purpose of this paper is to problematize episodic change processes with regard tocommunication and to contribute with a proposed model on how to facilitate dynamic strategic changemanagement using visual management.Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses an interdisciplinary approach by linking changemanagement literature to visual communication to be used for visual management.Findings – A proposed model presents how a dynamic episodic change process can be managed in terms ofvisual management, potential pitfalls to avoid, and what ambidextrous capabilities are needed throughout thecomplete episodic change.Research limitations/implications – The proposed model is still yet theoretical, based on a literaturereview of dynamic change management and visual communication. Future research will validate the model inpractice to confirm its robustness.Practical implications – An implementation of visual management in Kotter’s (1995) eight steps on how tostrategically manage change in combination with theories on ambidexterity and episodic change is suggested.Originality/value – The paper contributes to how visual management can support change management bycombining visual communication and change management.Keywords Quality management, Change management, Strategic planning, Operations management,Visual management, Visual

  • Public defence: 2018-06-12 10:00 FA32, Stockholm
    Vaz da Cruz, Vinicius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Quantum Nuclear Dynamics in Resonant X-ray Scattering of Gas-Phase and Liquid Systems2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the role of the nuclear degrees of freedom in X-ray induced molecular processes. An important part of it is devoted to establishing theoretical principles to model and interpret high-resolution resonant X-ray scattering experiments in gases and liquids. Our investigations address the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) of H2O(g), H2O(l) and CH3OH(g) and Auger emission induced by hard X-rays in CO(g). The simulations for gas-phase systems are based on a multi-mode wave packet formalism and on potential energy surfaces computed with multi-configurational approaches.

    For liquid systems, we propose a classical/quantum formalism for simulating RIXS based on a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics, density functional theory calculations and quantum nuclear wave packet propagation. The developed model is able to reproduce the experimental observation of shortening of the vibrational progression in H2O(l).

    We show that electronically-elastic RIXS has an intrinsic capability to map the potential energy surface and to carry out vibrational analysis of the electronic ground state in free molecules as well as liquids. For gas-phase water, we see that the landscape of different core-excited states cause the nuclear wave packet to be localized along specific directions thus allowing to reconstruct one-dimensional potential energy curves. For liquid water, we propose a model for deriving, from experiment, confidence intervals for the molecular potential energy curves along the OH bonds, which are determined by the local arrangement of the hydrogen bond network.

    We also investigate the role of ultra-fast rotations induced by photoionization by hard X-rays. In this case, the ejection of a fast photoelectron results in an ultra-fast rotational motion of the molecule, which combined with the anisotropy of the Auger process causes the spectral profile to be split due to a dynamical Doppler effect.

  • Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gönczi, Mikaela
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Växtskyddsmedel som regelbundet överskrider riktvärden för ytvatten – en undersökning av bakomliggande orsaker2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten undersöks varför vissa godkända växtskyddsmedelssubstanser återkommande överskrider sina riktvärden eller uppmäts i förhöjda halter i ytvatten. Cyprodinil, diflufenikan, esfenvalerat, imidakloprid, MCPA, metribuzin, pikoxystrobin, pyraklostrobin, tiakloprid och triflusulfuronmetyl inkluderades i undersökningen då de återkommande överskrider sina riktvärden. Även bentazon och glyfosat inkluderades då de relativt ofta uppmäts i halter över 0,1 μg/l. I rapporten undersöks om de förhöjda halterna beror på substansernas fys/kem-egenskaper, substansernas användning eller om deras riktvärden bör ses över. Data som använts i Kemikalieinspektionens (KemI) miljöriskbedömning jämförs med de halter som uppmätts inom den nationella miljöövervakningen (NMÖ) samt de riktvärden som används för att utvärdera dessa data.

    Alla PNEC från KemI är högre än de riktvärden som tillämpas inom NMÖ. PNEC från EFSA är i de flesta fallen också högre än riktvärden inom NMÖ. Imidakloprid är den enda substans med lägre PNEC från EFSA än riktvärdet inom NMÖ. Alla PEC från KemI ligger bland de högsta uppmätta halterna i NMÖ och är i de flesta fallen högre än de riktvärden som tillämpas inom NMÖ. En jämförelse av uppmätta halter i NMÖ för de utvalda substanserna med PNEC från KemI visar att endast ett fåtal prover uppvisar halter över PNEC.

    Undersökningen av samband mellan ett större urval substansers (49 st) användning och egenskaper och vad som uppmäts i NMÖ visade ett statistiskt signifikant samband mellan uppmätt halt och totalt använd mängd av en substans i området och med substansens halveringstid i jord samt adsorption/löslighet. Även den procentuella förlusten av substanserna i NMÖ har ett statistiskt signifikant samband med substansens halveringstid i jord samt adsorption/löslighet. Utifrån de undersökta faktorerna kan ingen tydlig förklaring ges till varför de 12 utvalda substanserna verkar utgöra en större risk för miljön än övriga växtskyddsmedel. Projektet har dock visat på vikten av att en översyn av officiella riktvärden för växtskyddsmedel genomförs så att miljöövervakningsresultat för alla substanser kan utvärderas utifrån tillförlitliga bedömningsgrunder.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-07 13:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
    Sundström, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prosodic and Phonological Ability in Children with Developmental Language Disorder and Children with Hearing Impairment: In the Context of Word and Nonword Repetition2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many children with developmental language disorder (DLD) exhibit difficulties with phonology, i.e. the sounds of language. Children with any degree of hearing impairment (HI) are at an increased risk of problems with spoken language, including phonology. The cause of these difficulties is unknown in children with DLD, and is often assumed to result from reduced hearing acuity in children with HI. Variability in terms of language outcomes is large in both groups, and determining if a child’s language ability is within normal limits or not is problematic. A task that has proven useful in differentiating typical from atypical language development is nonword repetition, in which the child listens to a word form without meaning and repeats it back immediately. Performance in nonword repetition tasks is a potential indicator of language ability in both children with DLD and children with HI. However, it has not been established exactly what the task measures.

    In the present thesis, the ability to repeat prosodic and segmental features of real words and nonwords was investigated in Swedish-speaking four- to six-year-old children with DLD and HI, as well as in children with normal hearing and typical language development (TLD) (papers I, II and III). Further, relations of word and nonword repetition ability to language and hearing were explored (papers II and III), along with comparisons of phonological and grammatical production between the groups (paper IV).

    The findings indicated that the prosodic features stress and tonal word accent affect repetition performance in children with DLD, HI, and TLD. In general, the children with DLD and HI achieved lower results than the children with TLD on repetition of segments (consonants and vowels) and prosodic features, but tonal word accent was repeated with relatively high accuracy. Tonal word accent 1 was more accurately repeated than tonal word accent 2 by the DLD and HI children. The children with TLD repeated tonal word accent with few errors, but segments in nonwords with tonal word accent 2 were easier to repeat than segments in nonwords with tonal word accent 1.

    The results further revealed that the ability of children with DLD to repeat stress in real words is related to expressive grammar, but repetition of prosodic features does not reflect general language knowledge. In contrast, repetition of both segmental and prosodic nonword features may be indicative of receptive vocabulary, phonological production during naming of familiar words, and expressive grammar in children with HI. Repetition performance might be related to the degree of HI before cochlear implantation or fitting of hearing aids.

    Children with DLD and children with HI demonstrate similar strengths and weaknesses in phonological and grammatical production, despite the fact that they develop language under different conditions—with and without normal hearing. Tonal word accent use and syntax are relatively unimpaired in DLD and HI children.

    This thesis highlights prosodic and phonological strengths and weaknesses in children who have, or are at risk of, deficits in language and communication abilities. It also supports word and nonword repetition as potential predictors of some aspects of language ability in children with DLD and HI. Further, it emphasizes the importance of taking prosody into account when constructing, or interpreting results from, repetition tasks. Future research aiming to investigate the relationship between prosody in repetition and language, cognition and hearing, should use longitudinal study designs, and include younger children. Studies comparing prosodic and phonological ability in children with DLD and children with HI should employ both quantitative and qualitative analyses.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-05 13:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Site and Mechanism of Action of Resin Acids on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that open or close their gates when the voltage across the membrane is changed. They underlie the electrical activity that enables the heart to pump blood and the brain to receive and send signals. Changes in expression, distribution, and functional properties of voltage-gated ion channels can lead to diseases, such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and pain-related disorders. Drugs that modulate the function of voltage-gated ion channels control these diseases in some patients, but the existing drugs do not adequately help all patients, and some also have severe side effects.

    Resin acids are common components of pine resins, with a hydrophobic three-ringed motif and a negatively charged carboxyl group. They open big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels and voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. We aimed to characterize the binding site and mechanism of action of resin acids on a KV channel and explore the effect of a resin acid by modifying the position and valence of charge of the carboxyl group. We tested the effect on several voltage-gated ion channels, including two KV channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and several voltage-gated ion channels expressed in cardiomyocytes. For this endeavour different electrophysiological techniques, ion channels, and cell types were used together with chemical synthesis of about 140 resin-acid derivatives, mathematical models, and computer simulations.

    We found that resin acids bind between the lipid bilayer and the Shaker KV channel, in the cleft between transmembrane segment S3 and S4, on the extracellular side of the voltage-sensor domain. This is a fundamentally new interaction site for small-molecule compounds that otherwise usually bind to ion channels in pockets surrounded by water. We also showed that the resin acids open the Shaker KV channel via an electrostatic mechanism, exerted on the positively charged voltage sensor S4. The effect of a resin acid increased when the negatively charged carboxyl group (the effector) and the hydrophobic three-ringed motif (anchor in lipid bilayer) were separated by three atoms: longer stalks decreased the effect. The length rule, in combination with modifications of the anchor, was used to design new resin-acid derivatives that open the human M-type (Kv7.2/7.3) channel. A naturally occurring resin acid also reduced the excitability of cardiomyocytes by affecting the voltage-dependence of several voltage-gated ion channels. The major finding was that the resin acid inactivated sodium and calcium channels, while it activated KV channels at more negative membrane voltages. Computer simulations confirmed that the combined effect on different ion channels reduced the excitability of a cardiomyocyte. Finally, the resin acid reversed induced arrhythmic firing of the cardiomyocytes.

    In conclusion, resin acids are potential drug candidates for diseases such as epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia: knowing the binding site and mechanism of action can help to fine tune the resin acid to increase the effect, as well as the selectivity.

  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de Cannensi pugna, quam, consentiente ampliss. facult. philosoph. in illustri athenæo Upsaliensi, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman, ... publicæ censuræ modeste submittit alumnus Danckwardtianus Claudius Joh. Livin Jonæ fil. Ostro-Gothus. In auditorio Carol. majori die 27 Junii horis ante meridiem consvetis. Anni MDCCXLI.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, de panico terrore, quam, consentiente ampliss. facult. philosoph. in regia Upsaliensi academia, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman, ... publico bonorum examini modeste committit, Olavus Hedenstedt, Medelpadus. In auditorio Gustav. majori d. 26 Junii, anno MDCCXLI. Horis ante meridiem solitis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
  • Ekerman, Petrus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Philosophy.
    Dissertatio academica, merita Philippi Melanchthonis in eloquentiam leviter delineatura, quam, adnuente incluto collegio philosophico in regia academia Upsaliensi, sub præsidio ... Petri Ekerman, ... publico examini modeste committit Carolus Axelius Een, Sudermannus. In auditor. Gustav. majori d. 20 Junii, anno MDCCXLI. horis ante meridiem solitis.1741Dissertation (older thesis) (Other academic)
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