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  • Sandvig, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnell, Kai
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Analysis of Codman microcerebrospinal fluid shunt2018In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e01002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ventriculo-peritoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt is the most common method of treating pediatric hydrocephalus. The Codman microadjustable valve (CMAV) is a CSF shunt constructed for children. The objective of the study was (a) to analyze complications after insertion of a CMAV shunt in hydrocephalic children, (b)to analyze complications after replacing a CMAV by an adult-type Codman Hakim adjustable valve shunt (CHAV), and to (c) analyze the in vitro characteristics of the CMAV shunt and correlate the findings with the clinical performance of the shunt.

    Methods: A retrospective study analyzed a cohort of hydrocephalic children who had received a CMAV shunt and later replaced by a CHAV shunt. We report on the complications that resulted from replacing the CMAV with the CHAV. We tested six CMAV shunts with or without an antisiphon device (ASD) in which opening pressure, resistance, sensitivity to abdominal pressure, ASD position dependency, and function were determined. The test results were correlated with the clinical performance of the shunt in the retrospective study.

    Results: Thirty-seven children (19 boys, 18 girls) were identified. Within the first month after shunt placement, a total of 10 patients (27%) developed complications including infections, hygromas, and shunt dysfunction. Shunt survival varied from 1week to 145 months. Over the 10-year follow-up period, 13 children had their shunts replaced, six of them with a CHAV without any further complications. A bench test of the CMAV was done to test whether the opening pressure was in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications. Our results were generally in agreement with specifications stated by the manufacturer.

    Conclusion: Replacing a CMAV with a CHAV was well tolerated by the patients. Bench test results were generally in agreement with manufacturers specifications. Replacing a CMAV with a CHAV in pediatric hydrocephalus patients can be accomplished safely.

  • Jacques, Tristan
    et al.
    Pantheon Sorbonne Univ, Inst Hist Econ & Sociale, Paris, France.
    Sandgren, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Retail Trade, Consumption, and the Construction of Markets2018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 127-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Chahlafi, Zahra
    et al.
    Alvarez, Laura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Berenguer, José
    The role of conserved proteins DrpA and DrpB in nitrate respiration of Thermus thermophilus2018In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 3851-3861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Thermus thermophilus strains, nitrate respiration is encoded in mobile genetic regions, along with regulatory circuits that modulate its expression based on anoxia and nitrate presence. The oxygen‐responsive system has been identified as the product of the dnrST (dnr) operon located immediately upstream of the nar operon (narCGHJIKT), which encodes the nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrate/nitrite transporters. In contrast, the nature of the nitrate sensory system is not known. Here, we analyse the putative nitrate‐sensing role of the bicistronic drp operon (drpAB) present downstream of the nar operon in most denitrifying Thermus spp. Expression of drp was found to depend on the master regulator DnrT, whereas the absence of DrpA or DrpB increased the expression of both DnrS and DnrT and, concomitantly, of the NR. Absence of both proteins made expression from the dnr and nar operons independent of nitrate. Polyclonal antisera allowed us to identify DrpA as a periplasmic protein and DrpB as a membrane protein, with capacity to bind to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we propose a role for DrpA/DrpB as nitrate sensors during denitrification.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 13:15 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Schött, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Theoretical and Computational Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems: Dynamical Mean Field Theory, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Analytical Continuation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis encompasses theoretical and computational studies of strongly correlated elec-tron systems. Understanding how electrons in solids interact with each other is of great im-portance for future technology and other applications. From a fundamental point of view, the Coulomb interaction in a solid leads to a very challenging many-body problem, encapsulating many physical phenomena, e.g. magnetism. Treating this interaction, with a focus on local contributions, is the subject of this thesis. Both models and materials have been investigated, to obtain insight on the mechanisms determining the macroscopic properties of matter. This thesis is divided in four parts, each corresponding to a different project or topic.

    In the first project a many body method called dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) is used to study the paramagnetic phase of the Hubbard model. A stochastic version of the exact di-agonalization technique is developed for solving the effective impurity model arising in DMFT and generating real frequency spectral functions. In the next project, by combining density functional theory (DFT) with a static solution of the DMFT equations (DFT+U), magnetic ex-change interactions in transition metal oxides (TMOs) are investigated. The spin dependence of the functional is shown to be important for mapping magnetic excitations form the quantum mechanical system to a classical model.

    The next topic in this thesis concerns the x-ray absorption spectroscopy of TMOs. Spectral functions, in good agreement with experimental data, are calculated by combining DFT with multiplet ligand field theory (MLFT). The effects of the presence of a core-hole are studied in detail for NiO, as well as double counting issues related to higher order terms of the multiple ex-pansion of the Coulomb interaction. A strained induced linearly polarized spectrum is obtained for CaTiO3. Lastly, charge disproportionation is seen in Mo doped LaFeO3.

    Finally, a critical step in DMFT, called analytical continuation, to obtain physical observ-ables of interest is investigated. Analytical continuation means a transformation of a function in the complex plane. Several methods for performing this transformation are explained, and in particular steps for improving the robustness and accuracy of the Padé approximant method are described.

  • Li, Hu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Papadakis, Raffaello
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Jafri, Syed Hassan Mujtaba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Michler, Johann
    Empa, Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Lab Mech Mat & Nanostruct, CH-3602 Thun, Switzerland.
    Ottosson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Superior adhesion of graphene nanoscrolls2018In: COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICS, ISSN 2399-3650, Vol. 1, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging material in the carbon family, a graphene nanoscroll (GNS) is composed of tubularly scrolled monolayer graphene and has shown superlubricity and large current sustainability, surpassing the properties of monolayer graphene itself. Here we report on the superior adhesion of GNS prepared with a high yield synthesis method that allows for mass production of high quality GNSs. Raman spectra indicate that the GNS still maintains the signature of monolayer graphene, implying the lacking of pi-stacking between adjacent layers. Importantly, adhesion measurements using atomic force microscopy reveal these GNSs with height range of 120-130 nm show a 2.5-fold stronger adhesion force than pristine graphene. This result potentially indicates that the GNS has higher adhesion than monolayer graphene and even higher than the liquid-solid and hydrogen-bonding enhanced interfaces which are essential types of adhesions involved in the field of physical adhesions and thus, GNS could be a new candidate for super-strong and lightweight devices.

  • Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The marginal cost of track reinvestments in the Swedish railway network: using data to compare methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the difference between survival and corner solution models in estimating the marginal cost of reinvestments. Both approaches describe the reinvestment process in rather intuitively similar ways but have several methodological distinctions. We use Swedish railway data on track segment and section levels over the period 1999-2016 and focus on reinvestments in track superstructure. Results suggest the marginal costs from survival and corner solution models are SEK 0.0041 and SEK 0.0103, respectively. The conclusion is that the corner solution model is more appropriate, as this method consider the impact traffic has on the risk of reinvestment as well as on the size of the reinvestment cost. The survival approach does not consider the latter, which is problematic when we have systematic variations in costs due to traffic and infrastructure characteristics.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-10 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Rajput, Moeen ud din Saeed
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Damage Tolerance of Impacted Composite Sandwich Structures2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with damage tolerance of impacted sandwich structures for load bearing applications. Composite sandwich structures find wide application as lightweight solutions in aerospace components, since weight reduction and less fuel emissions are primary concerns for aircraft manufactures. Sandwich structures are built of stiff face-sheet materials bonded to a low-density core material. In this thesis, the face-sheets are composite materials reinforced with carbon fibre non-crimp fabrics whereas the core consists of a closed cell foam material. Sandwich structures are susceptible to impact damage and even a small amount of damage can reduce the residual strength of components significantly. Therefore, damage tolerance assessment of such structures is essential and needs to be taken into account in the design process.

    Main objective of this thesis is assessment of test methodologies for estimation of compressive properties of foam core materials. An extensive experimental study of different densities of closed cell foam materials is presented and existing test standards are evaluated in this regard. Two different test methods were investigated for strain measurements of the foam material during compression testing assisted by a digital image correlation technique. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the effect of in-plane specimen size on the compressive modulus measurements. Both homogenized and stochastic finite element models are used to back the experimental observations. Different types of boundary conditions were used to simulate the effects of in-plane specimen size and prediction of compressive modulus. The findings were also used as basis for recommendations for updating current test standards.

    A part of the thesis work concerns the design and construction of a new drop-weight impact rig for low-velocity impact testing of sandwich structures. A test setup was designed to capture the true impact response without adulteration by oscillations. A novel catch mechanism was designed and implemented for preventing secondary impact. A detailed experimental evaluation and uncertainty analysis was also performed to evaluate the drop-weight rig in terms of repeatability and precision.

    The developed drop-weight rig was used to perform low-velocity impact characterization of sandwich structure with different face-sheet thicknesses. A range of impact energies were investigated for the identification of low level damage (LLD), barely visible impact damage (BVID) and visible impact damage (VID). A thorough fractography study was performed to understand the damage mechanisms at different energy levels and for different face thicknesses. A finite element model was developed to simulate the impact response and delamination extent, including both inter-laminar and intra-laminar damage modes.

    Finally, the impact damaged specimens were tested for damage tolerance assessment. Both symmetric and asymmetric specimen configurations with different face-sheet thicknesses were investigated. The effect of face-sheet thickness on the residual strength of sandwich structures was studied. Three different test methodologies for damage tolerance testing were investigated and the results were compared. A finite element model was developed for simulation of the edgewise compression test methods and the residual strength predictions were compared with the experimental results.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Interaction delay and marginal cost in Swedish bicycle traffic2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the method presented by Johansson (2018) to estimate a volume delay function and marginal cost for bicycle traffic on cycling paths separated from motorized traffic based on point measurements of speed and lateral positions from seven sites in Sweden. The results indicate that a quadratic volume – delay function fits the data well in the observed range of volumes, and that there are significant delays already at volumes far below the capacity due to the heterogeneity of the desired speed over the population. The total marginal cost of delay per unit flow is estimated to €9×10-5 h/km.

  • Jansen, Philip
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Reijers, Wessel
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Douglas, David
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Sattarov, Faridun
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Gurzawska, Agata
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Kapeller, Alexandra
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Brey, Philip
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Benčin, Roc
    Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia.
    Warso, Suzanna
    Helsi nki Foundation for Human Rights, Finland.
    Braun, Robert
    nstitute for Advanced Studies Vienna, Austira.
    SATORI A reasoned proposal for shared approaches to ethics assessment in the European context2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a comprehensive proposal for a common ethics assessment framework for research and innovation (R&I) in the European Union member states. It details recommendations for good practices for ethics assessment, which includes the development of ethics assessment units and the protocols of these units. More specifically, the report presents a general toolkit for ethics assessment of R&I, as well as specialised tools and toolkits for specific types of organizations that deal with ethics assessment, and for different scientific fields. In addition, the report offers recommendations for the general institutional structure of ethics assessment in the EU and its member states. Due to the length of this report, a summary of its findings and recommendations is available. There are also several annexes that expand on particular sections of the report. These a nnexes are also available on the website of the SATORI project.

    In chapter 2, we analyse the stakeholders’ expectations about the intended outcome of the SATORI project: a shared European framework for ethics assessment of R&I. This analysis is based on 153 interviews with different kind s of stakeholders, including both et hics assessors and non - assessors. Both benefits and obstacles were identified and are listed in this chapter. Furthermore, three main challenges are identified: the differences in ethics/values, the need for stakeholder buy - in, and the need for the ethics assessment framework to be a long - term process. Nonetheless, it is found that a significant majority of interviewees were positive or conditionally positive towards the desirability of a common approach to ethics assessment in R&I.

    In chapter 3, we propose a framework of ethical issues and principles, which are applicable to a broad array of types of scientific R&I. The research areas discussed in depth are the natural sciences, the engineering sciences, and the medical and life sciences, information and communication technology (ICT), Internet research, the social sciences, and the humanities. It provides a basis of ethical issues and principles that apply to all types of research. It also specifies the principles and issues that apply to specific research contexts. This chapter also includes a section on how potential conflicts between ethical principles may be resolved.

    In chapter 4, we outline recommendations for best practice in Ethics Assessment Units (EAUs). These recommendations are structured around a series of parameters common to all EAUs that review R&I activity. These parameters include the appropriate composition of an EAU, the appointment, training, and expertise of its members, the procedures for performing assessment, and how to assess the quality and efficiency of the EAU’s work. The cultural and organisational factors that may affect the work of an EAU are also briefly considered. The chapter concludes with a summary of the recommendations presented within it.

    In chapter 5, we offer a short overview of the Common Framework for Ethical Impact Assessment (EIA) that is described further in Annex 1. This chapter can be used by governance bodies to set up new regulations with regard to ethics assessment in R&I , research funding organisations to set up new procedures for conducting EIAs in the projects they fund , and by local research organisations and companies for establishing internal procedures for conducting an EIA of the R&I projects they organise.

    In section 6, we present recommendations for specialised forms of ethics assessment and guidance. Specifically, we outline standards, tools and best practices for (1) policy - oriented assessment and guidance of new developments and practices in R&I (with a focus on governmental organisations, national ethics committees, and civil society organisations); (2) guiding, assessing and supporting ethical professional behaviour by scientists and innovators; an d (3) the ethics assessment of innovation and technology development plans.

    In chapter 7, we discuss ethics assessment (EA) and ethics guidance (EG) in the context of four specific types of organisation: universities, civil society organisations, industry and research funding organisations.

    In chapter 8, we outline proposals for the institutional structure of ethics assessment in eight types of organisations that perform ethics assessment in the EU member states: universities, national science academies, RFOs, RECs, NECs, academic and professional organisations, CSOs, and companies. In addition, we present recommendations for the institutionalisation of ethics assessment in selected European countries.

    I n chapter 9, we assess the compatibility of existing ethics assessment frameworks with the SATORI framework. This covers international regulations and guidelines as well as the approaches to ethics assessment in the United States and China.

    Finally, in chapter 10, we present a summary of the recommendations contained in this report, and conclude in chapter 11 with a list of the annexes to this report.  

  • Sandberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Institutionally Shaped Response to the Introduction of National Guidelines: Case Studies in the Swedish Regional Health Policy Arena2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the institutionally shaped response to the introduction of the national guidelines on the Swedish regional health policy arena. The thesis consists of two case studies. Adapting a qualitative approach, the data is based on individual interviews and these were analysed thematically. The first paper explores the response by four Swedish regional health authorities to the introduction of the National Guidelines for Cardiac Care, while the second paper aims to broaden the understanding of how the national guidelines are used for strategic purposes among politicians.

    As illustrated in this thesis, organizations will respond, adjust and react to external pressure according to conditions shaped by the institutional context. Key findings here are that the national guidelines are a complex policy instrument that, beyond being able to be used in an instrumental fashion by the medical managment, can also serve a legitimizing function for political decision-makers.

    The goals of the national guidelines, i.e. equal and efficient care, and the uncertainty about who, among multiple stakeholders, is responsible for the guidelines in the regional health authority, is a source of ambiguity and potential conflict. Those who are potentially responsible represent different rationales – a political rationale and a scientific rationale. The dominating scientific rationale of the national guidelines can create instability, when pushing towards the use of explicit priority-setting.

    Priority-setting in the institutional setting of a regional health authority has strong elements of becoming “wicked problems” since the dilemma of prioritization remains regardless of ambitions to apply a “technocratic fix”. A wicked problem is characterized by high complexity and being persistently hard to solve (Williams et al. 2012). A recurring dilemma is that priority-setting still contains many wicked problems, as social values and political considerations remain important parts of the policy process. One weakness of the national guidelines, identified in this thesis, is that the guidelines discuss each service area separately, and thereby reinforce a silo mentality in the Swedish health policy arena.

    To sum up, the national guidelines create a multifaceted and complex response in the Swedish health policy arena where different rationalities collide, and where conflicts appear and are dealt with within the regional health authorities.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Estimating interaction delay in bicycle traffic from point measurements2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for bicycle traffic is getting increasingly popular in cities, often motivated by that it is beneficial for the environment and the public health, and that it is a space efficient mode of transport. However, research on bicycle traffic has traditionally focused mainly on safety and mode choice, and less on traffic engineering topics such as investigating travel times, delays, and capacities. This study contributes to filling this gap by presenting a general method to estimate a volume -- delay function for bicycle traffic based on point measurements of passage time, speed, and lateral position, and, using estimates of the value of time in bicycle traffic, estimating the marginal cost of the interaction delay.

    The proposed method is based on an established method to estimate the distribution of desired speeds, and extends this to estimate the delay of the observed cyclists. The method is demonstrated using a data set from a bridge in Stockholm, Sweden, showing that there is significant interaction delay and associated cost even for relatively modest volumes, implying that interaction delay and its cost should be considered when planning for bicycle traffic.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-05 13:00 B42, Uppsala
    Talibov, Vladimir O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Interaction kinetic analysis in drug design, enzymology and protein research2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented here is focused on the phenomenon of molecular recognition – the mutual ability of biological molecules to recognize each other through their chemical signatures. Here, the kinetic aspects of recognition were evaluated, as interaction kinetics reveal valuable dimensions in the description of molecular events in biological systems. The primary objects studied in this thesis were human proteins and their interaction partners. Proteins serve a fundamental role in living organisms, supporting the biochemical machinery by means of catalysis, signalling and transport; additionally, proteins are the main targets for drugs.

    In the first study, carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes were employed as a model system to address the problem of drug selectivity. Kinetic signatures preferable for the design of selective sulphonamide-based inhibitors were identified. In a follow up study, the recognition between CA and sulphonamides was separated into two parts, uncovering intrinsic recognition features that genuinely reflect the interaction mechanism. For the first time, the concept of intrinsic interaction kinetics was applied to a drug-target system.

    Another model protein studied in this thesis was calmodulin (CaM), as its interactions with other proteins should have specific kinetic signatures to support the dynamics of calcium-dependent signalling. The study evolved around calcium-dependent CaM interactions with the neuronal protein neurogranin (Ng), and revealed its complex nature. Ng was found to interact with CaM both in presence and absence of calcium, but with different kinetics and affinity. This finding supports development of a mechanistic model of calcium sensitivity regulation.

    The last two projects were more applied, exploring the druggability of an emerging class of pharmaceutical targets – epigenetic enzymes. Expertise and methodology for biophysically guided drug discovery towards histone demethylase LSD1 and histone methyltransferase SMYD3 were developed. For LSD1, the project assisted the rational design of active site-targeting macrocyclic peptides, and resulted in the development of competitive inhibitors with a well described mechanism of action. A novel biophysical platform for screening was developed for SMYD3. It proved to be successful, as it identified previously unknown allosteric ligand binding site. Both projects were supported by structural studies, expanding the druggable space of epigenetic targets.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 09:15 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Nyström, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Microgels as Carriers for Antimicrobial Peptides: Surface-bound microgels, and factors affecting peptide interactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing number of multi-resistant bacteria against conventional antibiotics, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobial therapeutics. One example that has gained considerable interest is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). For AMPs to reach their full potential as therapeutics, as well as for other peptide and protein drugs, the right drug delivery system may overcome reported shortcomings, such as fast clearance in the bloodstream and proteolytic degradation. Microgels are weakly cross-linked polymer colloids, which can be made responsive to various stimuli. In the context of drug delivery, microgels are of particular interest as carriers for biomacromolecular drugs, such as peptides and proteins, as their water-rich environment offers both protection against enzymatic degradation and triggered release possibilities. Combining these, the aim of this thesis was to investigate electrostatically triggered surface-bound microgels as a delivery system for AMPs, as well as evaluate such systems as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory coating for biomaterials.

    Results presented in this thesis demonstrate effects of microgel charge density, pH, and ionic strength on microgel volume transitions at solid interfaces, surface-induced microgel deformation and nanomechanical properties. In addition, effects of both microgel properties (charge density) and peptide properties (molecular weight, charge density, and posttranslational modifications) on peptide loading and release from surface-bound microgels were investigated. The presented thesis also reports in vitro studies of AMP-loaded microgels in dispersion and surface-bound, as either mono- or multilayers. Notably, the interplay between surface- and release-related effects for the antimicrobial properties of AMP-loaded microgels are investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory properties of AMP-loaded microgels are also reported.

    Taken together, microgels prove an interesting and versatile drug delivery system for AMPs. Results obtained in this thesis have demonstrated that several key factors need to be taken into consideration in the development of surface-bound microgels as a carrier for AMPs, and that small changes in microgel and peptide properties can alter peptide loading and release profiles.

  • Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Internalisering av godstrafikens externa effekter – konsekvensanalyser med Samgodsmodellen: en delrapport inom SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned to review the current knowledge of social marginal costs for using the country’s national infrastructure, Government Decision N2017/01023/TS. As a part of this commission VTI is asked to assess the effects of a full internalisation of external costs within the transport sector.

    In this report the effects on freight transports of gods being traded within and to/from Sweden is assessed using the Swedish national freight flow model Samgods. The analysis includes calculating the appropriate levels of tax and/or fees needed for decisionmakers in the freight transport market to fully take in to account the external effects of traffic with different types of vehicles. In a second step the freight flow model is used to estimate effects on ton-kilometers transported on road, rail and sea respectively.

    Results show that the resulting change in relative costs for transporting with different modes of transport will increase ton-kilometers transported by sea. A full internalization of external cost will decrease ton-kilometer transported by rail and on road. The largest decrease being calculated for rail. To fully take account for external effects track fees in Sweden will have to be four times higher. In total we estimate a small but positive effect on the climate.

  • Sataøen, Hogne L.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Regulokratene: Den nye styringsprofesjonen?2018In: Norsk sosiologisk tidsskrift, ISSN 1590-7929, E-ISSN 1936-4660, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 481-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What characterizes the regulocrats within the higher education sector in Norway andSweden? How can the regulocrats’ role be related to the development of specific instituti-onal designs within the higher education sector? These questions are answered by meansof empirical studies of regulocrats in Norway and Sweden, within the field of higher edu-cation regulation. The regulocrats are an emerging profession working in autonomoussingle purpose regulatory agencies. The profession is increasingly important to the imp-lementation of policy and regulation. There is surprisingly little empirical evidence aboutthis professional role, and the article shows that the professionalization of the regulocratsis related to the ideal of independence. The emerging profession contributes to the insti-tutional design of regulocracy or regulatory capitalism, which implies a transformation ofthe classical bureaucracy in the modern administrative state, where all (both organizations,groups and individuals) are expected to invest more in regulation, understood as monito-ring, supervision, transparency and control. Within the higher education sector, regulati-ons are perceived as important because they benefit (the individual) students and creategood conditions for making rational choices in the education market. Although the regu-locrats in Norway and Sweden share much of the same professional ideals, there are alsodifferences between the two countries. Where the Swedish regulocrats are formalistic, theNorwegian counterpart is sensitive.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 10:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Vachon, Rémi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Dynamic Modelling of Physical Processes in Magmatic Systems: Dyke Emplacement and Flow-Induced Crystal Rotations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main motivation for this thesis is to develop and improve numerical tools and methods that help further our comprehension of the volcanic plumbing system and its dynamics.

    The commonly used standard elastic model predicts solutions of dyke shape, thickness, over-pressure and fracturing criteria that do not always fit natural observations. In the first part of the thesis, we want to test whether other host-rock rheologies leads to more realistic dykes. We examine three different rheologies: 1) elasticity with pressure dependent elastic moduli, 2) elastoplasticity with plastic failure in regions of high shear stresses and 3) viscoelasticity to describe ductile flow of rocks by creeping mechanisms in regions of high temperature. Solu-tions from the three tested models give dykes with more rectangular shapes relative to solutions computed from the model of linear elasticity. In addition, the calculated magma pressure for an intrusion of a given thickness is reduced for all tested rheologies. Greatest differences with the linear elastic solution are given by the elastoplastic model, in which computed magma over-pressures are lower than elastic solutions by a factor of 2 to 10. Computed overpressures from this type of rheological model are approximately of the same order than natural magma over-pressures estimated by other methods (1 to 5 MPa). For the model of dyke propagation, the incorporation of brittle failure mechanisms in regions of high stresses strongly affects the dyke propagation criteria because of the energy dissipated by frictional sliding and fracturing in the large process zone located at the intrusion tips.

    The second part of the thesis deals with the rotation of crystals suspended in magmatic flows. We proceed by coupling the rotation dynamics equation of elongated particles, with the Navier-Stokes equation of large-scale flows. The results of the model are first extensively tested for simple flows with known analytical solutions. Results show a perfect fit between both numerical and analytical solutions. Additionally, the numerical methods are applied to more complex flow fields that relate to realistic systems of magma circulation. Results show that elongated crystals mainly align in the direction of flow in convergent systems (e.g. magma flowing from a large reservoir inside a conduit or from a deflating magma chamber). However, the pattern of crystal orientation in divergent flows (e.g. magma flowing from a conduit into a large reservoir or in an inflating magma chamber) does not align in the direction of the flow but instead is globally oriented sub-parallel to the maximum principal strain.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 14:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Pyrolysis and Detoxification of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) for Feedstock Recycling2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trends in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generation shows that their volume constantly increases, while the current waste management technologies have proven to be insufficient in order to meet the strict criteria and the new legislations of the European Union. Pyrolysis and thermal treatment in general could be a valuable solution for closing the loop of materials and could contribute to the energy demands of modern society.

    Pyrolysis as a process and combination of other pre-treatment techniques was investigated with a focus on energy production, metal separation and feedstock recycling. In this work, several fractions of real WEEE have been tested based on the process requirements and the focus of each individual study.

    Firstly, the investigation was focused on the primary products of the process, revealing most of the environmental pollutants as well as the valuable monomers that can enhance feedstock recycling. A correlation of the process’ final temperature with the evolution of the major products was performed. Moreover, a conceptual reaction mechanism of Bisphenol A decomposition was suggested based on the process products.

    Then, a reduction of the bromine content of the initial WEEE fraction was achieved by solvent extraction pre-treatment. Isopropanol and toluene were tested as solvents capable of removing one of the main flame retardants at WEEE fractions, Tetrabromobisphenol A. The results indicate that the reduction of bromine was successfully performed even at ~37%. This result was further confirmed by the reduction or total removal of brominated species in the pyrolysis products. The toluene seems to be a valuable option for the pre-treatment, since it can be provided by the pyrolysis process itself, making the entire treatment more sustainable and in accordance with the concept of circular economy.

    Density separators used in the sorting of WEEE materials usually produced high moisture content fractions. As soon as those fractions follow thermal treatment, the moisture will eventually become steam, which influences the process. Therefore, WEEE materials were pyrolysed in nitrogen and steam atmospheres and their decomposition was evaluated. Steam had a negative impact on the products, since several high molecular weight products were detected, revealing that steam limits secondary cracking reactions. Additionally, the results show that the presence of steam complicates the separation of oils and favours the migration of antimony to the gas phase. Therefore, a drying step before using pyrolysis for this fraction is necessary.

    Low temperature pyrolysis was also investigated for making the WEEE more fragile to enhance metal separation from the carbonised solid residue while the fate of bromine was also monitored. The results indicate that the separation is possible at low temperatures for minimising the energy consumption of the process but it should be at least 40 ° higher than the onset temperature of the selected material. The separation was also evaluated with fractionation of the solid residue, revealing that the produced bromine-free solid carbonised material can be further utilised for energy production.

    Finally, the entire process was tested in a continuous screw reactor for overall process evaluation. The results indicate that the liquid products of pyrolysis can be used for feedstock recycling, producing necessary organic compounds that can be used for manufacturing new plastics or can be used as liquid fuel. The brominated compounds tend to migrate to the gas phase, as the temperature of the process increases, making the recycling of metals from the solid residue easier. The process in general can be self-sustained since the energy needed for the system to heat up can be covered from its gas production.

  • Juras, Anna
    et al.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Human Evolutionary Biol, Inst Anthropol, Fac Biol, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Chylenski, Maciej
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Archaeol, Fac Hist, Umultowska 89D, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Ehler, Edvard
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Human Evolutionary Biol, Inst Anthropol, Fac Biol, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland.;ASCR, Lab Genom & Bioinformat, Inst Mol Genet, Vvi, Videnska 1083, Prague 14220 4, Czech Republic..
    Malmström, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zurkiewicz, Danuta
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Archaeol, Fac Hist, Umultowska 89D, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Wlodarczak, Piotr
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Archaeol & Ethnol, Slawkowska Str 17, PL-31016 Krakow, Poland..
    Wilk, Stanislaw
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Archaeol, Golebia 11, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Peska, Jaroslav
    Archaeol Ctr Olomouc, U Hradiska 42-6, Olomouc 77900, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ Olomouc, Philosoph Fac, Sect Archaeol, Dept Hist, Hrade 5, Olomouc 77180, Czech Republic..
    Fojtik, Pavel
    Inst Archaeol Heritage Brno, Vvi, Kaloudova 30, Brno 61400, Czech Republic..
    Kralik, Miroslav
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Lab Morphol & Forens Anthropol LaMorFA, Dept Anthropol, Kotlarska 267-2, CS-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Libera, Jerzy
    Marie Curie Sklodowska Univ, Inst Archaeol, Maria Curie Sklodowska Sq 4, PL-20031 Lublin, Poland..
    Baginska, Jolanta
    Muzeum Reg Janusza Petera, Ul Zamojska 2, PL-22600 Tomaszow Lubelski, Poland..
    Tunia, Krzysztof
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Archaeol & Ethnol, Slawkowska Str 17, PL-31016 Krakow, Poland..
    Klochko, Viktor I.
    Natl Univ Kyiv Mohyla Acad, Inst Archaeol, Hryhoriya Skovorody St 2, UA-04655 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Dabert, Miroslawa
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Biol, Mol Biol Tech Lab, Umultowska 89, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Johannesburg, Ctr Anthropol Res, Auckland Pk, ZA-2006 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosko, Aleksander
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Archaeol, Fac Hist, Umultowska 89D, PL-61614 Poznan, Poland..
    Mitochondrial genomes reveal an east to west cline of steppe ancestry in Corded Ware populations2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From around 4,000 to 2,000 BC the forest-steppe north-western Pontic region was occupied by people who shared a nomadic lifestyle, pastoral economy and barrow burial rituals. It has been shown that these groups, especially those associated with the Yamnaya culture, played an important role in shaping the gene pool of Bronze Age Europeans, which extends into present-day patterns of genetic variation in Europe. Although the genetic impact of these migrations from the forest-steppe Pontic region into central Europe have previously been addressed in several studies, the contribution of mitochondrial lineages to the people associated with the Corded Ware culture in the eastern part of the North European Plain remains contentious. In this study, we present mitochondrial genomes from 23 Late Eneolithic and Bronze Age individuals, including representatives of the north-western Pontic region and the Corded Ware culture from the eastern part of the North European Plain. We identified, for the first time in ancient populations, the rare mitochondrial haplogroup X4 in two Bronze Age Catacomb culture-associated individuals. Genetic similarity analyses show close maternal genetic affinities between populations associated with both eastern and Baltic Corded Ware culture, and the Yamnaya horizon, in contrast to larger genetic differentiation between populations associated with western Corded Ware culture and the Yamnaya horizon. This indicates that females with steppe ancestry contributed to the formation of populations associated with the eastern Corded Ware culture while more local people, likely of Neolithic farmer ancestry, contributed to the formation of populations associated with western Corded Ware culture.

  • Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Letter imaging through light scattering eye media in the absence and presence of glaring light1994In: Vision and its application: OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994). / [ed] Optical Society of America, Washington, 1994, p. 94-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cataractous eyes, part of the incomming light is directly transmitted through the optical media and part is scattered or absorbed by opacities in the lens. Wide angle, diffusively scattered light results in a veiling luminance which mhich mainly reduces

  • Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Circular Business Models for Extended EV Battery Life2018In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Haage, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Forensic Toxicological Aspects of Tramadol: Focus on Enantioselective Drug Disposition and Pharmacogenetics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most difficult parts in forensic toxicology is to interpret obtained drug concentrations. Was it therapeutic, toxic or even lethal to the particular individual that the blood sample was drawn from? Concentrations of opioid drugs are especially difficult to interpret, because of large interindividual differences in innate and acquired tolerance.

    Tramadol is a complex drug. Not only is it an opioid, it is also a racemic drug with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the parent compound and metabolites showing different pharmacological effects. Further, it is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, which may affect the amounts of metabolites formed and possibly the enantiomer ratios of the parent compound and its metabolites. It has been speculated that particularly the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio of O-desmethyltramadol is related to the risk of adverse effects, and it has been shown that the ratio is affected by CYP2D6 genotype.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to evaluate if forensic interpretations of tramadol, regarding toxicity and time since drug administration, may be improved by the use of genotyping and enantioselective concentration determination of tramadol and its three main metabolites.

    To simultaneously quantify the enantiomer concentrations of tramadol, Odesmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol in whole blood, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and validated. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4 (encoding the tramadol metabolizing enzymes), ABCB1 (encoding a transport protein) and OPRM1 (encoding the μ-opioid receptor) was investigated, using pyrosequencing, xTAG, and TaqMan analysis. The methods were applied to the blood samples of two study populations; 19 healthy volunteers administered a therapeutic, single tramadol dose, and 159 tramadol positive autopsy cases.

    The most important finding was the positive correlations between all four enantiomer ratios and time since tramadol administration in the healthy volunteers. All enantiomer ratios except the one of tramadol was also affected by the CYP2D6 genotype, which was apparent among the autopsy cases as well. Genetic variation in CYP2D6 and possibly CYP2B6 was shown to have an impact on tramadol pharmacokinetics, although no association to neither drug related symptoms nor tramadol related causes of death was found. Tramadol intoxications were predominantly characterized by low age (median 26 years) and male sex, often with a history of substance abuse and with other drugs (at fairly low concentrations) detected in blood.

    In conclusion, enantiomer concentration determination combined with genotyping seems promising regarding estimations of time since drug administration, although is of low value concerning interpretations of toxicity in autopsy cases.

  • Hansen, Julie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Slavic Languages.
    Lysén, IrinaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Slavic Languages.Nuorluoto, JussiRosén, ThomasUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages.Spasenic, JelenaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Modern Languages, Slavic Languages.
    Slovo: Journal of Slavic Languages, Literatures and Cultures, No. 57, 20162016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Lysén, Irina
    Editorial2016In: Slovo: Journal of Slavic Languages, Literatures and Cultures , ISSN 2001-7395, Vol. 57, p. 7-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Muskala, Johan
    Bibliography for 20152016In: Slovo: Journal of Slavic Languages, Literatures and Cultures , ISSN 2001-7395, Vol. 57, p. 95-99Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Mikhaylov, Nikita
    News from Uppsala2016In: Slovo: Journal of Slavic Languages, Literatures and Cultures , ISSN 2001-7395, Vol. 57, p. 92-94Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Oliveira e Costa, Sandra
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Tunström, Moa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Stege, trappa eller kub – hur analysera dialoger i stadsplanering?2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    This policy brief has been produced within the project The Impact of Participation: mapping and developing the scope, forms and impacts of the communicative turn in urban planning (TIPTOP) (Medborgardeltagandets effekter: en kartläggning och utveckling av den kommunikativa planeringens omfattning, former och resultat) and is therefore written in Swedish.

    Projektet Medborgardeltagandets effekter: en kartläggning och utveckling av den kommunikativa planeringens omfattning, former och resultat undersöker inbjudet medborgardeltagande i stadsplaneringsprocesser i tolv svenska kommuner mellan år 2000 och 2015. Deltagare i projektet är Förvaltningshögskolan Göteborgs universitet, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Nordregio samt kommunerna Stockholm, Nacka, Botkyrka, Upplands Väsby, Göteborg, Alingsås, Tjörn, Lerum, Malmö, Helsingborg, Lund och Landskrona. Associerade partners är: Trafikverket, Mistra Urban Futures, Boverket och SKL. Projektet finansieras av FORMAS, Mistra Urban Futures och Trafikverket. Projektet avslutas under 2019.

  • Lönngren, Tamara
    Архив профессора Олафа Брока в Норвежской Национальной Библиотеке2016In: Slovo: Journal of Slavic Languages, Literatures and Cultures , ISSN 2001-7395, Vol. 57, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    The present article, "Professor Olaf Broch’s archive in the National Library of Norway," provides a preliminary description of the archive of the Norwegian professor of Slavic languages Olaf Broch (1867-1961), whose heritage is represented not only by well-known works in the field of Slavic phonetics but also by abundant correspondence held in archives of various countries. The greater part of this correspondence is deposited in the archive of the Norwegian National Library. There is currently no description of this archive, but according to a preliminary evaluation, the epistolary section of Broch’s archive comprises letters from approximately 500 correspondents, of whom approximately 140 wrote in Russian. Correspondence with academician Alexey A. Shakhmatov holds a special place within Broch’s correspondence with philologists. Broch was in communication with many Russian linguists, historians, literary scholars, writers and poets, as well as with diplomats and politicians: there are letters written to him by S. V. Arsen’ev, V. A. Bereznikov, K. N. Gulkevch, A. M. Kollontay and A. V. Lunacharskiy. Of special significance is his correspondence with Ukrainian scholars and politicians, through which a previously unknown Ukrainian chapter in the biography of Norwegian Slavist has been discovered. In addition to the epistolary legacy, many other materials have been discovered in Broch’s archive, including a manuscript containing previously unknown memoirs by E. A. Masal'skaja-Surina and poems-in-prose by S. Šil'. 

  • Löf, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University.
    Olaison, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Centre for Social Work - CESAR. Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University.
    I don’t want to go back into the closet just because I need care”: Recognition of older LGBTQ adults in relation to future care needs2018In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTThere is increasing awareness in research about the social service needs ofolder LGBTQ adults. However, there are few studies that deal withdifferences in this community regarding elder care services. As a rule,transgender individuals are not included in these studies. This studyfocuses on how older Swedish LGBTQ adults reason about openness inan elder care context concerning their future needs for services andadopts Nancy Fraser’s theoretical framework of recognition. The materialconsists of fifteen semi-structured interviews with older LGBTQ adults.The results indicate that the main concern for older LGBTQ individuals isbeing accepted for their preferred sexual orientation and/or genderidentity in elder care. However, there were differences regarding thatconcern in this LGBTQ group. There were also a variety of approaches inthe group as to preferences for equal versus special treatment withrespect to their LGBTQ identity. In addition, there were differences as towhether they prefer to live in LGBTQ housing or not. The findingscontribute to existing knowledge by highlighting the diverse views onelder care services in both this group of interviewees and its subgroups.These findings emphasise the importance of the social work practicerecognising different preferences and having an accepting approach.The results can further provide guidance on how to design elder careservices for older LGBTQ adults.

  • Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Integrationspolitik i lokala valkampanjer2018In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, Lars, Grusell, Marie, Bolin, Niklas & Falasca, Kajsa, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, DEMICOM , 2018, p. 77-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 09:30 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Basu, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Ion-Crosslinked Nanocellulose Hydrogels for Advanced Wound Care Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A current trend in the field of wound care is the development of wound healing materials that are designed to address specific types of wounds or underlying pathologies to achieve improved healing. At the same time, there is a societal drive to replace synthetic materials with renewable alternatives. The work presented in this thesis was therefore carried out to investigate the use of wood nanocellulose, produced from the world’s most abundant biopolymer, cellulose, in advanced wound care applications.

    Wood-based nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was chemically functionalized and crosslinked using calcium to obtain a self-standing hydrogel. The NFC hydrogel was evaluated in terms of its physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, blood interactions, bacterial interactions, in vivo wound healing ability and, finally, as a protein carrier. Parallel with the assessment of the NFC hydrogel, modified versions of the material were tested to investigate the tunability of the above-mentioned characteristics.

    The ability of the hydrogel to maintain a moist wound bed was demonstrated. Evaluation of the biocompatibility showed that the material was cytocompatible and did not trigger inflammatory mechanisms. Furthermore, the NFC hydrogel supported cell proliferation, and was shown to possess hemostatic properties. It was also discovered that the material had a slight bacteriostatic effect and the ability to act as a barrier against bacteria. When tested in vivo, the hydrogel was found to significantly improve wound healing.

    Modifications through the incorporation of additives to the hydrogel matrix, as well as exchange of the crosslinking ion, were shown to influence the biological response to the material. Moreover, the results presented here demonstrate the possibility of using the NFC hydrogel as a protein carrier; the easily adjustable charge property being identified as a central parameter for manipulation to regulate the release profile.

    In conclusion, this work has demonstrated the extensive wound healing ability of the calcium-crosslinked NFC hydrogel, and represents an important milestone in the research on NFC towards advanced wound care applications. It is expected that the easily modifiable nature of the material can be exploited to further develop the NFC hydrogel to suit the treatment needs for a broad range of wound types.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 14:00 FB54, 114 21 Stockholm
    Gallego-Marcos, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.
    Steam condensation in a water pool and its effect on thermal stratification and mixing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pressure Suppression Pool (PSP) of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is a large heat sink designed to limit the containment pressure by condensing steam released from the primary coolant system. The development of thermal stratification is a safety concern since it leads to higher containment pressures than in completely mixed conditions, and can affect the performance of systems such as the emergency core cooling and containment spray, which the use PSP as a source of water.The goal of this thesis is to develop and validate models for the prediction of the PSP behavior during a steam injection in a Nordic BWR. The framework of the Effective Heat Source and Effective Momentum Source (EHS/EMS) models is used to provide the integral heat and momentum sources induced by the steam condensation. The EHS/EMS can be implemented in a containment thermal-hydraulic or a CFD code, where the pool is modelled with a single-phase liquid solver.EHS/EMS models are developed for the low steam mass flux regimes appearing in (i) large diameter blowdown pipes connecting the drywell to the wetwell pool; and (ii) multi-hole sparger pipes connecting the primary system to the pool.Empirical correlations are developed to predict the effective momentum induced by chugging in the blowdown pipes. The correlations are implemented in GOTHIC, where a containment model is proposed to enable capturing the feedback between pool conditions and drywell pressure. Validation is performed against the PPOOLEX experiments.Conceptual designs are proposed for a set of large-scale pool experiments with spargers in the PPOOLEX and PANDA facilities. Correlations are proposed for the erosion velocity of a cold layer, and ranges are estimated for the angle, profile and turbulence of the momentum sources created by steam injection. CFD simulations of the experiments is done to calibrate the momentum sources in the oscillatory bubble regimes. A concept of the Separate Effect Facility (SEF) is proposed to provide a measurements of the effective momentum. Empirical correlations for the bubble radius, velocity, heat transfer coefficient, etc. are also developed and compared to available data from the literature.Application of the developed CFD and EHS/EMS models to full-scale containment behavior shows that thermal stratification can occur during prototypic steam injection conditions. Recommendations are given on how to avoid this.

  • Sjölund, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattias, Vesterlund
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Nicolas, Delbosc
    Dassault Systémes Madrid, Spain.
    Khan, Amirul
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Summers, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. University of Leeds, UK.
    Validated thermal air management simulations ofdata centers using remote graphics processing units2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation tools for thermal management of datacenters help to improve layout of new builds or analyse thermalproblems in existing data centers. The development of LBMon remote GPUs as an approach for such simulations is discussedmaking use of VirtualGL and prioritised multi-threadedimplementations of an existing LBM code. The simulation isconfigured to model an existing and highly monitored test datacenter. Steady-state root mean square averages of measured andsimulated temperatures are compared showing good agreement.The full capability of this simulation approach is demonstratedwhen comparing rack temperatures against a time varyingworkload, which employs time-dependent boundary conditions.

  • Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Location choices of Swedish independent schools – how does allowing for private provision affect the geography of the education market?2018Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Chang, Tingru
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper-based alloys in architecture: from native surface oxides to fully developed patinas2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper and copper-based alloys are commonly used in both ancient and modern architecture. This requires an in-depth fundamental and applied understanding on their atmospheric corrosion behavior at different climatic, environmental and pollutant levels and how these parameters influence e.g. corrosion initiation, patina characteristics, aesthetic appearances, corrosion rates, and runoff rates. This doctoral thesis elucidates the role of native surface oxides on the corrosion performance, corrosion initiation, formation and evolution of corrosion products from hours to months, years and even centuries, to diffuse dispersion of metals from Cu metal/Cu alloy surfaces focusing on the roles of alloying elements, microstructure, and deposition of chlorides. In-depth investigations have been performed at both laboratory and field conditions on commercial Cu metal and copper-based alloys of a golden alloy (Cu5Zn5Al1Sn) and Sn-bronzes (Cu4Sn, Cu6Sn). Patina characteristics and relations to the presence of microstructural inclusions have in addition been investigated for historic patinas of Cu metal roofing of different age and origin, highlighted with data for a 400 years old Cu patina exposed at urban conditions.

    A multi-analytical approach comprising microscopic, spectroscopic and electrochemical methods was employed for in-depth investigations of surface characteristics and bulk properties. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was utilized to characterize the microstructure. Auger electron spectroscopy (scanning-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) were employed for surface chemical compositional analysis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to assess the amount of metal release from the patinas. Cathodic reduction (CR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to assess the amount and corrosion resistance of corrosion products formed at laboratory conditions. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (CRM), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) were used to identify the phases of corrosion products. Colorimetry was used to assess surface appearances.

    Cu5Zn5Al1Sn and Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn exhibit favorable bulk properties with respect to corrosion in terms of smaller grain size compared with Cu metal and show non-significant surface compositional variations. The presence of multi-component native oxides predominantly composed of Cu2O enriched with Sn-oxides on Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn, and with ZnO, SnO2 and Al2O3 on Cu5Zn5Al1Sn, improves the barrier properties of the native surface oxides and the overall corrosion resistance of Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn and Cu5Zn5Al1Sn. The formation of Zn/Al/Sn-containing corrosion products (e.g. Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O) significantly reduces the corrosion rate of Cu5Zn5Al1Sn in chloride-rich environments. Alloying with Sn reduces the corrosion rate of Sn-bronze at urban environments of low chloride levels but results in enhanced corrosion rates at chloride-rich marine conditions.

    A clear dual-layer structure patina was observed for centuries-old naturally patinated copper metal with an origin from the roof of Queen Anne's Summer Palace in Prague, the Czech Republic. The patina comprises an inner sub-layer of Cu2O and an outer sub-layer of Cu4SO4(OH)6/Cu3SO4(OH)4. Abundant relatively noble inclusions (mainly rosiaite (PbSb2O6)) were observed and incorporated in both the copper matrix and the patina. The largest inclusions of higher nobility than the surrounding material create significant micro-galvanic effects that result in a fragmentized patina and large thickness ratios between the Cu4SO4(OH)6/Cu3SO4(OH)4 and the Cu2O sub-layer, investigated via a statistical analysis of inclusions and patina characteristics of eight different historic urban copper patinas.

  • Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    In situ measurements of thermal properties of building fabrics using thermography under non-steady state heat flow conditions2018In: Infrastructures, ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a quantitative method using thermography to measure the thermal properties of building fabrics that are subjected to non-steady state heat flow due to consistently changing meteorological conditions. The method includes two parts. First, the convection heat transfer coefficient is measured by thermography and heat flux meters on a small segment of the examined building fabric with uniform surface temperature. Then, thermal properties of large building fabrics are evaluated by thermography. The two parts are measured simultaneously. The method was tested on 140/160/190 mm thick massive laminated spruce timber walls of a test facility cabin located in Östersund, Sweden. The results varied by only a few percent in comparison to validation measurements performed with heat flux meters and in comparison, to values from the literature. Due to rapid changes in weather conditions the measured values had large disparity, but still a linear regression with low confidence interval was obtained. Obtaining an accurate value of convection heat transfer was important for achieving high measurement accuracy and, therefore, the value of this parameter should be measured. Other important factors to consider are solar radiation, reflected infrared (IR) radiation from nearby objects and the number of thermal images.

  • Lindgren, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Characterization of visual and IR reflectivity for soft car targets2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving (AD) vehicles rely heavily on optical sensors. Extensive testing of optical sensors is required and typically performed at test tracks like AstaZero. Soft surrogate targets are used for safety reasons, but the optical characteristics of surrogate targets may differ considerably from that of real vehicles. During tests the quality of the soft surrogate targets deteriorates due to repeated impacts and reassembly of the targets, and there is a need for methods to secure the quality of the soft surrogate targets over time.

    RISE has conducted a project together with Volvo Cars and Veoneer to develop and validate accurate and repeatable measurement methods of the optical characteristics of 3D soft car targets. The goal is to support international standardisation (ISO) with standard methods enabling future verification and calibration of optical characteristics of active safety 3D soft car targets.

    The poster presents results from optical measurements on soft car targets and real cars, performed in the project. One target was subjected to 100 rear-end collisions during which the reflectivity was measured.

  • Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Eschmann, Sascha
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, France.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; Aalto University, Finland.
    Flieller, Damien
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, France.
    Towards an Open Model for Data Center Research: from CPU to Cooling Tower2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data centers are important players in the energy infrastructure. Aiming at addressing environmental challenges, large data centers such as Facebook, Google, Yahoo, etc., are increasing share of green power in their daily energy consumption. Such trends drive research into new directions, e.g. sustainable data centers. The research often relies on expressive models that provides sufficient details however practical to re-use and expand. There is a lack of available data center models that capture dynamics of the facility from the CPU to the cooling tower. It is a challenge to develop a model that allows to describe complete data center of any scale including its connection to the grid. This paper proposes such a model building on existing work. The challenge was to put the pieces of data center together and describe dynamics of each element so that interdependencies between components and parameters are captured correctly and in sufficient details. The proposed model was used in the project “Data center microgrid integration” and proven to be adequate and important to support such study.

  • Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments,and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-FamilyDwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

  • Svendsen, Jens Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Därför var Sverigedemokraternas valaffischer skicklig propaganda2018In: ResuméArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why Does Deliberative Community Consultation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions Fail?: A Critical Analysis of Mozambican Experiences2018In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 164-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community consultation prior to large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) is a cornerstone that justifies the portrayal of projects as partnerships or land grabs. This study focuses on one of the countries most targeted by LSLA in the last decade, namely, Mozambique. We examine the legal and theoretical bases that support community consultations and analyse their corresponding everyday practices in Mozambique. The article argues that, although the existence of these participatory forums is inspired by normative ideals of popular deliberation, the prevailing practices in these spaces are diametrically opposed to deliberative foundations and values. As shown in this study, this mismatch between theory that is institutionalized in legal frameworks and practice derives largely from the interplay of hierarchical relations anchored in, inter alia, formal and customary ethnically based realms, gender disparities, and livelihood orientations. A core argument of the article is that any attempt to ameliorate these practices must consider critical insights regarding the centrality of enhancing social equality and inclusion in participatory spaces —challenges that are immense in places marked by deep structural inequalities.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 09:00 Sal D, byggnad 1D, Tandläkarhögskolan, Umeå
    Isehed, Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Folktandvården Gävleborg AB, Region Gävleborg.
    Peri-implantitis: treatment and effects of enamel matrix derivative2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological complications affecting osseointegrated dental implants are a growing treatment problem in clinical practice. Since the number of implant carriers has increased in recent decades, this is an urgent topic in dentistry. Peri-implantitis, inflammatory degradation of the implant-supporting jawbone, affects approximately 20% of all implant carriers and approximately 10% of all implants.

    Implant surfaces are colonised by microbes that may cause an inflammatory process in the soft tissue around the implant. In some sensitive individuals, the inflammatory response leads to disturbed jawbone remodelling, with increased recruitment and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, which could ultimately lead to implant loss. The corresponding degradation of the bone supporting the teeth is denoted as periodontitis. The current view is that factors such as proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins, produced by leukocytes and cells of mesenchymal origin in the inflamed connective tissue, are responsible for local osteoclast recruitment and activation. Pro-inflammatory factors and tissue degradation products will leak into the exudate in the peri-implant sulci and the gingival pockets around the teeth. Analysis of the exudate could be of use for predicting and monitoring peri-implantitis, as well as identifying new targets for treatment.

    The standard treatment for peri-implantitis is surgery in combination with mechanical cleaning of the implant surface and optimisation of oral hygiene, with the goal of achieving infection control and pocket reduction. This treatment has a moderate effect on healing of the peri-implantitis lesion around the dental implant. The use of adjunctive bone grafts, membranes and antimicrobials has thus far not been shown to achieve a more successful outcome. Adjunctive treatment with enamel matrix derivative (EMD) during regenerative periodontal surgery contributes to wound healing and increased tissue support, but the adjunctive effect of EMD during surgical treatment of peri-implantitis remains unknown.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the outcome of a regenerative surgical treatment approach with and without adjunctive EMD treatment from the short- and long-term perspectives and to increase our knowledge of microbial flora and biomarkers in the peri-implant sulci before and after treatment. Furthermore, an additional aim of this work was to investigate whether EMD could directly affect osteoclast formation and activity.

    We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial of a surgical intervention for peri-implantitis with and without EMD. In multivariate modelling, an increased marginal bone level at the implant site 12 months after surgery was significantly associated with EMD, the number of osseous walls in the peri-implant bone defect and a gram-positive/aerobic microbial flora, whereas a reduced bone level was associated with a gram-negative/anaerobic microbial flora and the presence of bleeding and pus, with a cross-validated predictive capacity (Q2) of 36.4%. Similar trends were observed for bone level, pocket depth, plaque, pus and bleeding, but these associations were statistically non-significant in the univariate analysis. Five years after treatment, no significant differences in bone level changes were observed between groups, but fewer implants were lost to follow-up due to reinfections in the EMD-treated group.

    We used mass spectrometry to analyse the protein content in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) before and up to 12 months after treatment. The total protein amount and diversity displayed decreasing trends 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Multivariate analysis of the PICF protein content revealed two major groups, cluster 2 and cluster 3, of which cluster 2 was associated with an increased risk of implant loss. EMD treatment was associated with cluster 3, which was in turn associated with increased implant survival.

    To test whether EMD affects osteoclast formation or bone resorption, we added purified EMD to RANKL-stimulated mouse bone marrow macrophage cultures in plastic dishes and counted the number of osteoclasts. We also cultured the cells on bone slices and measured the secretion of TRAP5b and the release of CTX-1 into the culture medium as biomarkers of osteoclast numbers and bone resorption, respectively, but no effect of EMD was observed.

    In conclusion, adjunctive EMD during surgical treatment of peri-implantitis changed the microbial flora to a less pathogenic microbiota, and similar changes in the inflammatory protein profile of PICF were observed; these effects were associated with implant survival. However, the trend toward a positive healing response after EMD treatment was not associated with a significant radiographic bone gain in this study and needs to be further explored. In addition, our finding that EMD did not affect osteoclast formation or bone resorption in vitro indicates that the effect of EMD on bone regeneration, as seen in periodontitis treatment, does not seem to depend on a direct inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation or bone resorption.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 09:00 Betula, målpunkt L, by 6M, plan 0, Umeå
    Toppe, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    End stage renal disease in type 1 diabetes: time trends and risk factors2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Sweden has a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the incidence is increasing worldwide. The incidence is now twice as high as when the registration of childhood onset T1D in Sweden started in 1977. One of the major risk factors for developing late complications such as renal failure (ESRD) is duration of T1D. With a disease onset early in life this could lead to young patients with serious complications. It is therefore of interest to follow these patients to see how the risk for complications develops over time. In the first study, time trends in onset of ESRD due to diabetes (type 1 and 2) and other causes of kidney failure were studied as well as the age at onset of ESRD. To follow up on this, the aim of the second study was to look at cumulative incidence in ESRD and analyse possible time trends and gender differences in a younger diabetes population with known T1D duration. An earlier study had shown a low incidence of ESRD and now 8 more years of follow up could be added. Besides genetics, metabolic control is a factor with strong impact on the future risk of complications. The social environment of the child and adolescent with diabetes influence the understanding and management of the disease and hence the blood glucose control. Social vulnerability and/or low education imposes even more stress on the individual which could negatively influence disease management. The aim of the third study was therefore to study the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on the risk of developing ESRD in the young diabetes population. The aim of the fourth study was to analyse time trends in the treatment choices once the patients develop ESRD, the survival and cause of death in treatment and how it has developed over time.

    Study population: In all studies, data from the Swedish Renal Register (SRR) were used. The data on the T1D patients with onset before the age of 15, used in studies II-IV, came from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register (SCDR).  In study II we also retrieved data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) and the Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS). All registers have national coverage. The diabetes registers were linked to the SRR to find the patients who had developed ESRD. In study III we used the linkage between the SCDR, the SRR and Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labour market studies (LISA).

    Results: Even though the incidence of ESRD in Sweden remained stable, the incidence of ESRD due to T1D decreased over the studied years, 1991-2010. We did not see a concurrent change for T2D. The age when the T1D patients developed ESRD had increased by 3 years and this was not seen in patients with other causes of ESRD. For patients in the SCDR the increase in age was almost 6 years. The cumulative incidence of ERSD in Sweden due to T1D is still low, 5.6% at a maximum follow up of 38 years (median 23). The incidence of ESRD is decreasing when comparing onset of T1D in the 1970´s and 80´s to onset in the 90´s, even when adjusting for T1D duration. Once they had developed ESRD, the survival in renal replacement therapy (RRT) had also improved over the years. The longest survival was seen after receiving a kidney transplant which about 50% of the patients do.

    When analysing social risk factors for development of ESRD we found that the educational level of both parents, but especially the mothers, affected the child’s risk of developing ESRD. The strongest association of education however was seen in the T1D patients own education. There was also an increased risk of developing ESRD if any or both of the parents had received income support.

    Conclusion: The incidence of ESRD due to T1D is decreasing in Sweden and the age at onset of ESRD has increased by at least 3 years. There was a significant decrease in development of ESRD over time. The patients have a longer survival once in RRT today and many of them are transplanted, further improving their survival. Growing up in families with a lower SES increases the risk of later developing ESRD, a finding worthy of recognition in the clinical setting.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 10:00 N450, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Hausmaninger, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mid- and near-infrared NICE-OHMS: techniques for ultra-sensitive detection of molecules in gas phase2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is a technique for ultra-sensitive detection of molecular absorption and dispersion. For highest performance, the technique combines cavity enhancement (CE) with frequency modulation (FM); while the former increases the effective interaction length between the light and the analyte by several orders of magnitudes, the latter removes the in-coupling of 1/f noise and makes the signals background free. The combination of CE and FM also gives the technique an immunity to amplitude noise caused by the jitter of the laser frequency relative to the cavity resonance frequencies. All these properties make the technique suitable for ultra sensitive trace gas detection in the sub-parts-per-trillion (ppt) range. The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of the NICE-OHMS technique and to increase its range of applications.

    The work in this thesis can be divided into three areas:Firstly, a mid-infrared (MIR)-NICE-OHMS instrumentation was developed. In a first realization an unprecedented white-noise equivalent absorption limit for Doppler broadened (Db) detection in the MIR of 3×10-9 cm-1Hz-1/2was demonstrated. This was subsequently improved to 2.4×10-10 cm-1Hz-1/2allowing for detection methane and its two main isotopologues (CH3D and 13CH4) at their natural abundance.Secondly, further development of an existing near-infrared NICE-OHMS system was performed. This resulted in an improved longtime stability and the first shot-noise limited NICE-OHMS system for Db detection with a noise equivalent absorption limit of 2.3×10-14 cm-1detected over 200 s. Thirdly, models and theoretical descriptions of NICE-OHMS signals under strong absorption conditions and from methane under high laser power were developed. It was experimentally verified that the models allow for a more accurate evaluation of NICE-OHMS signals under a wide range of conditions.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 13:00 HumlabX, Umeå Arts Campus
    Kuenen, Stoffel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Aesthetics of being together2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design deals with matters of aesthetics. Historically, aesthetics in industrial design refers to the designed artifact: aesthetics of objects. When designed artifacts include digital technologies, aesthetics in design refers to what happens between people and artifacts as well: aesthetics of interaction. Now that these artifacts increasingly mediate our social lives, what aesthetics in design quite obviously also refers to, is what happens between people.

    This dissertation proposes an aesthetic of being together, as a necessary addition to current notions of aesthetics in interaction design practice, when it engages with digital systems that are part of people’s social life. It does not answer the question what Aesthetics is in general, instead it examines the work that particular notions of aesthetics do in interaction design practice.

    The practice based design research assembled in this dissertation starts from current notions of aesthetics in interaction design to explore the social experiences that mediated interactions between groups of people offer. What I found, through designing digital systems, is that current notions of aesthetics in interaction design are not conducive to addressing the kind of social experience people have with such systems. On the contrary, current notions actually inhibit interaction design to approach any experiences that cannot in the first place be conceived of as useful in terms of instrumental task performance. Yet, being social is hardly like performing a task or using other people in that sense.

    An aesthetic of being together is a proposition of a different fundament for interaction design practice. In addition to referring to properties of things and qualities of interacting with things, it refers to the kind of relations that come to expression between people interacting with each other with these things. Consequently, interaction design needs to resolve basic issues in what it considers and brings to expression, i.e. people’s relations with things and people at the same time. This requires (re-) considering what the designed thing is, what interaction is about and what the role of design is in bringing those to expression.

    My work contributes to the field of interaction design research an example of how, through practice, fundamental issues can be addressed. By orienting one set of concepts, ways of working and objectives into a different design situation, tensions built up that exposed foundational issues with that frame of reference, while pointing to the different fundaments needed to enable design practice to engage such situations.

    The results of the practical experimentation led to the articulation of a series of structural mechanisms of mediating systems.  These mechanisms provide material handles for interaction designers on how experiences of being present with others take shape. They configure the relations of artifacts and people in different ways than current notions of aesthetics afford. This theoretical investigation is then synthesised in the form of a new logic of expression for interaction design practice: an aesthetic of being together.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 13:00 Sal B, 9 tr, byggnad 1D, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå
    Lampa, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions after whiplash trauma: a short- and long-term perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiplash trauma, a hyperextension-flexion trauma to the neck that is often related to a car accident, affects tens of thousands in Sweden every year. A significant proportion will develop long-term symptoms including neck pain and dysfunction – this is embraced as Whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals also develop pain and dysfunction in the orofacial region that is denoted as Temporomandibular disorder (TMD). TMD is common in the population with a prevalence of about 10% but the relation to whiplash trauma is still unclear. The limited number of prospective studies on TMD after whiplash trauma show diverging results, but it has been suggested that TMD develops over time and not in close proximity to the trauma. Prospective studies are needed to determine the course of jaw pain and disability after whiplash trauma.

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate the presence and course of pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions at the acute and chronic stages after whiplash trauma.

    This prospective cohort study included at baseline 176 cases with a recent whiplash trauma, and 116 age and gender matched controls without a history of neck trauma that were recruited from the general population. The cases had visited the emergency department at Umeå university hospital, Sweden, with neck pain within 72 hours following a car accident and had been diagnosed with neck distortion by a physician. The cases were examined within one month after the trauma (December 2010 to January 2016) and at a 2-year followup (December 2012 to January 2018). All participants completed questionnaires regarding pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions, physical symptoms (pain and non-pain items), and depression. At baseline, 80 of the cases and 80 of the controls also completed a 5-minute chewing capacity test. At the 2- year follow-up, 119 cases (68%) and 104 controls (90%) were re-examined with the same questionnaires.

    Compared to controls, within one month after a whiplash trauma cases reported significantly more pain in the jaw and neck regions with a positive correlation between the intensity of pain in these regions (Paper I). In the acute stage after trauma, cases, compared to controls, showed a reduced chewing capacity, and this was related to the severity of neck disability (Paper II). For cases, jaw and neck pain correlated positively to each other, to non-specific physical symptoms, and to depression at both the acute (Paper III) and chronic stages (Paper IV). About one third (34%) of the cases reported orofacial pain at baseline, and for a majority of these, the pain persisted at the 2-year follow-up (Paper IV).

    The presence of orofacial pain early after a whiplash trauma indicates involvement of central sensitization and spread of pain between the jaw and neck regions. The positive correlations between pain in the jaw and neck regions, and to psychosocial factors, underline the integration of these regions and the importance of a biopsychosocial perspective. The impaired jaw function shortly after a neck trauma further underlines the close sensorimotor relationship between the trigeminal and cervical regions. The finding that orofacial pain is common shortly after whiplash trauma, and often persists into the chronic stage, indicates that assessment in the acute stage should include both the neck and jaw regions. From this, it follows that multidisciplinary teams that entail both medical professions and dentists specialised in orofacial pain can be beneficial in the early assessment after whiplash trauma.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 09:00 E04, R-1, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, byggnad 6E, Umeå
    Ling, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Immune cell infiltration and prognosis in colorectal cancer2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is globally the second most common form of cancer among women, and third in men. It is also one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in high-income countries. Surgical resection is the basis for curative therapy but still almost half of the patients die from metastatic disease. It is therefore imperative to strive on in the search for more efficient strategies to improve patient survival. The success scores for accurate prediction of patient prognosis remain discouraging and novel markers to identify high-risk patients are called for.

    The tumour immune response has proven critical to prognosis in CRC. A high amount of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes have in studies been found to significantly improve patient outcome. The opposite has been seen in patients with sparsely infiltrated tumours. Findings in this area have driven forth the design of the Immunoscore® system, which may be implemented in clinic as a complement to the TNM staging system. Ongoing research is also focusing on which immune evading mechanisms CRC might deploy in order to progress and metastasize.

    Aim: To study immune cell infiltration in relation to prognosis in CRC. More specifically the aim has been to investigate the prognostic importance of different subsets of immune cells infiltrating the tumour, not only according to quantity but also to intratumoural subsite (tumour invasive front, tumour centre and within the tumour epithelium). The tumour immune response was also evaluated in different molecular subgroups of CRC. Another part of this thesis concerns possible molecular mechanisms involved in tumour immune escape in CRC.

    Methods: CRC cases in the Colorectal Cancer in Umeå Study (CRUMS) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, gene expression analyses as well as methylation analyses. Cytokine and chemokine expression was evaluated in CRC tumour tissues and one CRC cell line (Caco2) and derivatives using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Methylation was analysed using methylation-specific pyrosequencing.

    Results: We found high quantities of both cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) as well as of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to associate with a better patient outcome. The infiltration of CTLs within the tumour epithelium provided the strongest prognostic information, whilst Tregs withheld the strongest association to prognosis at the tumour invasive front and tumour centre. We could further show that a high Th1 lymphocyte infiltration was strongly associated with a better prognosis in patients with CRC, independently of intratumoural subsite. Another finding was that the extent of Th1 infiltration and patient outcome differed in different molecular subgroups of CRC. We also found down-regulation of TAP1, a protein involved in antigen presentation by MHC class I, to be significantly associated with low infiltration of various subtypes of immune cells. Down-regulation of TAP1 was also correlated to poor prognosis in patients with early stages of CRC. Furthermore, we found TAP1 expression to be inversely correlated with methylation at sites close to the TAP1 promoter region.

    Conclusion: Tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes have a significant positive impact on prognosis in CRC patients. Different subsets of T lymphocytes vary in their dependency on intratumoural subsite, in to what extent they exert their prognostic influence. We moreover found varying Th1 lymphocyte infiltration rates as well as prognostic impact thereof, in different molecular subgroups of CRC. Our results also show down-regulation of TAP1 to be a mechanism of tumour immune escape in CRC. Further findings suggest methylation of the TAP1 gene to be a putative mechanism for TAP1 down-regulation.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 10:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Lind Pantzare, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Dimensions of validity: studies of the Swedish national tests in mathematics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose for the Swedish national tests was from the beginning to provide exemplary assessments in a subject and support teachers when interpreting the syllabus. Today, their main purpose is to provide an important basis for teachers when grading their students. Although the results from tests do not entirely decides a student’s grade, they are to be taken into special account in the grading process. Given the increasing importance and raise of the stakes, quality issues in terms of validity and reliability is attracting greater attention. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine evidence demonstrating the validity for the Swedish national tests in upper secondary school mathematics and thereby identify potential threats to validity that may affect the interpretations of the test results and lead to invalid conclusions. The validation is made in relation to the purpose that the national tests should support fair and equal assessment and grading. More specifically, the focus was to investigate how differences connected to digital tools, different scorers and the standard setting process affect the results, and also investigate if subscores can be used when interpreting the results. A model visualized as a chain containing links associated with various aspects of validity, ranging from administration and scoring to interpretation and decision-making, is used as a framework for the validation.

    The thesis consists of four empirical studies presented in the form of papers and an introduction with summaries of the papers. Different parts of the validation chain are examined in the studies. The focus of the first study is the administration and impact of using advanced calculators when answering test items. These calculators are able to solve equations algebraically and therefore reduce the risk of a student making mistakes. Since the use of such calculators is allowed but not required and since they are quite expensive, there is an obvious threat to validity since the national tests are supposed to be fair and equal for all test takers. The results show that the advanced calculators were not used to a great extent and it was mainly those students who were high-achieving in mathematics that benefited the most. Therefore the conclusion was that the calculators did not affect the results.

    The second study was an inter-rater reliability study. In Sweden, teachers are responsible for scoring their own students’ national tests, without any training, monitoring or moderation. Therefore it was interesting to investigate the reliability of the scoring since there is a potential risk of bias against one’s own students. The analyses showed that the agreement between different raters, analyzed with percent-agreement and kappa, is rather high but some items have lower agreement. In general, items with several correct answers or items where different solution strategies are available are more difficult to score reliably.

    The cut scores set by a judgmental Angoff standard setting, the method used to define the cut scores for the national tests in mathematics, was in study three compared with a statistical linking procedure using an anchor test design in order to investigate if the cut scores for two test forms were equally demanding. The results indicate that there were no large differences between the test forms. However, one of the test taker groups was rather small which restricts the power of the analysis. The national tests do not include any anchor items and the study highlights the challenges of introducing equating, that is comparing the difficulty of different test forms, on a regular basis.

    In study four, the focus was on subscores and whether there was any value in reporting them in addition to the total score. The syllabus in mathematics has been competence-based since 2011 and the items in the national tests are categorized in relation to these competencies. The test grades are only connected to the total score via the cut scores but the result for each student is consolidated in a result profile based on those competencies. The subscore analysis shows that none of the subscores have added value and the tests would have to be up to four times longer in order to achieve any significant value.

    In conclusion, the studies indicate that several of the potential threats do not appear to be significant and the evidence suggests that the interpretations made and decisions taken have the potential to be valid. However, there is a need for further studies. In particular, there is a need to develop a procedure for equating that can be implemented on a regular basis.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Asimakopoulou, Eleni M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for flavor-changing neutral currents in top quark decays t -> Hc and t -> Hu in multilepton final states in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2018In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 98, no 3, article id 032002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavor-changing neutral currents are not present in the Standard Model at tree level and are suppressed in loop processes by the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix; the corresponding rates for top quark decay processes are experimentally unobservable. Extensions of the Standard Model can generate new flavor-changing neutral current processes, leading to signals which, if observed, would be unambiguous evidence of new interactions. A data set conesponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1) of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used to search for top quarks decaying to up or charm quarks with the emission of a Higgs boson, with subsequent Higgs boson decay to final states with at least one electron or muon. No signal is observed and limits on the branching fractions B(t -> Hc) < 0.16% and B(t -> Hu) < 0.19% at 95% confidence level are obtained (with expected limits of 0.15% in both cases).

  • Yoluk, Özge
    et al.
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Science for Life Laboratory; Theoretical and Computational Biophysics, Department of Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Conformational Gating Dynamics in the GluCl Anion-Selective Chloride Channel2015In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1459-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cys-loop receptors are central to propagation of signals in the nervous system. The gating of the membrane-spanning pore is triggered by structural rearrangements in the agonist-binding site, located some so A away from the pore. A sequential conformational change, propagating from the ligand-binding site to the pore, has been proposed to govern gating in all Cys-loop receptors. Here, we identify structural and dynamic components of the conformational gating in the eukaryotic glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with and without the L-glutamate agonist bound. A significant increase in pore opening and accompanying hydration is observed in the presence of glutamate. Potential of mean force calculations reveal that the barrier for ion passage drops from 15 kcal/mol to 5-10 kcal/mol with the agonist bound. This appears to be explained by agonist binding that leads to significant changes in the intersubunit hydrogen-bonding pattern, which induce a slight tilt of the extracellular domain relative to the transmembrane domain in the simulations. This rearrangement is subtle, but correspond to the direction of the quaternary twist observed as a key difference between open and closed X-ray structures. While the full reversible gating is still a much slower process, the observed structural dynamics sheds new light on the early stages of how the agonist influences the extracellular domain, how the extracellular domain interacts with the transmembrane domain, and how changes in the transmembrane domain alter the free energy of ion passage.

  • Kimanius, Dari
    et al.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    Schluckebier, Gerd
    Lindahl, Erik
    Andersson, Magnus
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Center, Science for Life Laboratory, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Solna, Sweden.
    SAXS-Guided Metadynamics2015In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 3491-3498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) methodology enables structural characterization of biological macromolecules in solution. However, because SAXS provides low-dimensional information, several potential structural configurations can reproduce the experimental scattering profile, which severely complicates the structural refinement process. Here, we present a bias-exchange metadynamics refinement protocol that incorporates SAXS data as collective variables and therefore tags all possible configurations with their corresponding free energies, which allows identification of a unique structural solution. The method has been implemented in PLUMED and combined with the GROMACS simulation package, and as a proof of principle, we explore the Trp-cage protein folding landscape.