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  • Illicit trade in cultural artefacts: Stronger together: How can the Nordics join forces to stop the illegal import and export of cultural objects?2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is a report from the Nordic expert conference “Illicit trade in cultural artefacts. Stronger together: How can the Nordics join forces to stop the illegal import and export of cultural objects?” which was held in Oslo, 2 to 3 December 2015, following an initiative of the Nordic Ministers of Culture. The objective of the conference was to explore the potential for a closer Nordic collaboration in order to better meet the states' obligations under international cultural conventions and the UN Security Council’s Resolution 2199 on measures to prevent financing of extremist groups and their activities. A number of knowledgeable speakers shared their insights into current global challenges as regards cultural heritage protection. A particular concern is the ongoing looting in war-torn areas in the Middle East. The conference resulted in 13 joint follow-up recommendations.

  • Söder, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI). Wallenius Marine AB.
    Controlling the Roll Responses of Volume Carriers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern volume carriers such as container vessels, cruise ships and Pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTC’s) have become more vulnerable to critical roll responses as built in margins have been traded against increased transport efficiency. The research presented in this doctoral thesis aims at enhancing the predictability and control of these critical roll responses. The thesis presents a holistic framework for predicting and assessing the roll damping, which is a crucial parameter for predicting roll motions, based on a unique combination of full scale trials, model tests, semi-empirical methods and computational fluid dynamics. The framework is intended to be used from the early design stage and gradually improved until delivery of the ship and finally to provide input for decision support in the operation. The thesis also includes a demonstration of a new application for rudder control to be used for mitigation of parametric roll. This is performed by simulating real incidents that have occurred with PCTC’s in service. Simulations with rudder roll control show promising results and reveal that the approach could be very efficient for mitigation of parametric roll. Finally, an approach for monitoring of roll induced stresses, so-called racking stresses in PCTC’s, is presented. The approach involves measurement of the ship motions and scaling of pre-calculated structural responses from global finite element analysis. Based on full scale motion and stress measurements from a PCTC in-service the approach is evaluated and demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to conventional methods.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Aljabery, Firas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.

    Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.

    Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.

    Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Michel, Mirco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    From Sequence to Structure: Using predicted residue contacts to facilitate template-free protein structure prediction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fundamental role of experimental protein structure determination, computational methods are of essential importance to bridge the ever growing gap between available protein sequence and structure data. Common structure prediction methods rely on experimental data, which is not available for about half of the known protein families.

    Recent advancements in amino acid contact prediction have revolutionized the field of protein structure prediction. Contacts can be used to guide template-free structure predictions that do not rely on experimentally solved structures of homologous proteins. Such methods are now able to produce accurate models for a wide range of protein families.

    We developed PconsC2, an approach that improved existing contact prediction methods by recognizing intra-molecular contact patterns and noise reduction. An inherent problem of contact prediction based on maximum entropy models is that large alignments with over 1000 effective sequences are needed to infer contacts accurately. These are however not available for more than 80% of all protein families that do not have a representative structure in PDB. With PconsC3, we could extend the applicability of contact prediction to families as small as 100 effective sequences by combining global inference methods with machine learning based on local pairwise measures.

    By introducing PconsFold, a pipeline for contact-based structure prediction, we could show that improvements in contact prediction accuracy translate to more accurate models. Finally, we applied a similar technique to Pfam, a comprehensive database of known protein families. In addition to using a faster folding protocol we employed model quality assessment methods, crucial for estimating the confidence in the accuracy of predicted models. We propose models tobe accurate for 558 families that do not have a representative known structure. Out of those, over 75% have not been reported before.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 sal 108, Gösta Ekmans laboratorium, Stockholm
    Matson, Inga-Lill
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Grus i maskineriet?: Några kommunala tjänstemäns, politikers, föräldrars och lärares syn på en skola för alla2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate experiences, perceptions and experiences of "a school for all" in one municipality by means of a case study. The municipality is medium-sized and, for many years, has had a clearly expressed intention of providing "a school for all". This means that all pupils are included in regular comprehensive school classes, where no separate schools or groups are available for pupils with intellectual disabilities.

    The empirical material consists of three studies. The pilot study is a licentiate thesis published in 2007, with a societal bias and is based on web-based documentation and interviews with politicians and civil servants (n=5). This study describes regional administrators’ initiatives to promote the implementation of ”a school for all” within the entire municipality. A major finding was the importance of committed and engaged leadership.  Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) model for ecological systems constitutes the theoretical starting point. The respondents in sub-studies I and II, which are the focus in this section of the thesis, are parents (n=14) and teachers (n=8). The common denominator is children/pupils who have an intellectual disability, and study according to the curriculum for special schooling but are taught in regular comprehensive school classes. Previous research into inclusion and national policy documents are of central concern to this thesis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is employed as an interpretative tool for the interviews.

    Parents discuss the benefits of "a school for all"; good role models, social relationships and opportunities for the child to develop both socially and intellectually. They also describe how they must always be prepared to fight for their child, "keeping a watchful eye" on the school, and they imply that it is never possible to "become complacent". Teachers' attitudes and knowledge are described as crucial. A few parents wanted to have the opportunity to choose a special school for children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Their arguments are presented. In the teacher interviews, a conviction emerges about the importance of "a school for all" for the pupils' self-image, social and academic development. Organizational support, in-service training and skills’ development are seen as the prerequisites for successful inclusion, as well as educational strategies such as family groups and model learning. Respondents indicate that inclusion works most satisfactorily between years 1 and 6 in the comprehensive school and is viewed more detrimentally between years 7 and 9, in order to be better viewed again in the upper secondary school (senior high school) and the reasons for this are discussed. The case study contributes to a broader understanding of  the processes of implementation and change regarding inclusion of pupils with special school status and the importance of understanding the connections and relationships between the levels within Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory which directly or indirectly affect the child’s/pupil’s development and well-being.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Sal P216, NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Strandmark, Alma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Baltic shore-lands facing climate change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides new insight concerning drivers behind differences in arthropod diversity and abundance in Baltic shore ecosystems and how the arthropod communities might be affected when the conditions in the Baltic Sea are altered due to climate change.  The focus has been on climate related changes that are unique for coastal ecosystems, especially sea level rise and changes in the inflow of marine nutrients.

    As sea levels rise, features in coastal landscapes will be altered, islands and habitats will be flooded and diminished, and structural connectivity within the island landscape will therefore change. This thesis shows that arthropod diversity within the two arthropod groups, spiders and beetles, increases with island size but also that diversity is positively influenced by a high number of islands in the surroundings.

    A changed distribution and occurrence of marine species, due to climate change or eutrophication, can also affect terrestrial organisms on the shore.  In the Baltic Sea the new conditions following climate change will decrease the prevalence of bladder-wrack and benefit filamentous algae. Algal deposits on shores reflect the marine species composition and a decreased prevalence of bladder-wrack in the Baltic Sea will also be visible on the shores.  This thesis shows that a lower proportion of bladder-wrack in the algal deposits will decrease the diversity and abundance of arthropods in these deposits.

    Changes in the marine environment may also affect the inflow of insects with aquatic life stages and terrestrial adult stages.  On Baltic shores, prey species with aquatic life stages, especially chironomids, constitute a large proportion of the diet of the terrestrial predatory group, wolf spiders. In freshwater system, the inflow of chironomids is known to decrease with elevated water temperatures if this is true in the Baltic Sea prey availability of wolf spiders would decrease.  This thesis supports the importance of chironomids as a prey for coastal wolf spiders, but also shows that the diet varies over season with dominance of terrestrial prey in early summer shifting to a dominance of marine prey in late summer and autumn. This seasonal variation is primarily due to a gradual increase in the consumption of chironomids over season.

    Climate change has the potential to alter the biogeographical conditions in coastal landscapes as well as the density and quality of marine nutrient inflow. Sea level rise will diminish and flood islands and this thesis shows that a moderate sea level rise of 0.5 meters would make the total number of islands in the outer part of Stockholm archipelago decrease with about 25 %. Sea level rise could thus have consequences for arthropod diversity in Baltic shore meadows in the near future. The combined effects of sea level rise and changed prevalence of marine species in the Baltic Sea will affect the abundance and diversity of arthropods substantially. The abundance and diversity of spiders and beetles will decrease on shores that today have a high occurrence of bladder-wrack and prey availability for coastal predators might decrease due to a decreased inflow of chironomids. Changes in the arthropod communities could have consequences also further up in the food chain, such as for shore birds feeding on these arthropods.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Behm, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholms universitet.
    Regulation of RNA Editing: The impact of inosine on the neuronal transcriptome2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcriptome of the mammalian brain is extensively modified by adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) nucleotide conversion by two adenosine deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). As adenosine and inosine have different base pairing properties, A-to-I RNA editing shapes the functional output of both coding and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the brain. The aim of this thesis was to identify editing events in small regulatory ncRNAs (miRNAs) and to determine their temporal and spatial editing status in the developing and adult mouse brain. To do this, we initially analyzed the editing status of miRNAs from different developmental time points of the mouse brain. We detected novel miRNA substrates subjected to A-to-I editing and found a general increase in miRNA editing during brain development, implicating a more stringent control of miRNAs as the brain matures. Most of the edited miRNAs were found to be transcribed as a single long consecutive transcript from a large gene cluster. However, maturation from this primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcript into functional forms of miRNAs is regulated individually, and might be influenced by the ADAR proteins in an editing independent matter. We also found that edited miRNAs were highly expressed at the synapse, implicating a role as local regulators of synaptic translation. We further show that the increase in editing during development is explained by a gradual accumulation of the ADAR enzymes in the nucleus. Specifically for ADAR2, we found a developmentally increasing interaction with two factors, importin-α4 and Pin1, that facilitate nuclear localization of the editing enzyme. We have also found that selectively edited stem loops often are flanked by other long stem loop structures that induce editing in cis. This may explain why multiple pri-miRNAs are edited within the same cluster. In conclusion, this thesis has significantly increased the understanding of the dynamics of both editing substrates and enzymes in the developing and mature brain.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Malmberg, Hannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Human Capital in Development Accounting and Other Essays in Economics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human Capital and Development Accounting Revisited. I quantify the effects on development accounting of allowing for imperfectly substitutable labor services.  To estimate the degree of substitutability between skilled and unskilled labor services in a cross-country setting, it is sufficient to estimate the relative price of skilled labor services, and I develop a novel method for estimating this relative price using international trade data. My method exploits the negative relationship between relative prices of skilled labor services and relative export values in skill-intensive industries. I find an approximately constant elasticity of substitution with a value of about 1.3. When integrating my results into a development accounting exercise, I find that efficiency differences in skilled labor are more important than uniform efficiency differences in explaining world income differences. Under the traditional development accounting assumption of neutral technology differences, the skilled labor efficiency differences reflect human capital quality differences, and human capital differences can explain a majority of world income differences. Relaxing the assumption of neutral technology differences, an alternative explanation is that there are large skill-biased technology differences between rich and poor countries.

    Price Level Determination When Tax Payments Are Required in Money. We formalize the idea that the price level can be determined by a requirement that taxes be paid in money. We show that if households have to pay a money tax of a fixed real value and the money supply is constant, there is a unique stationary price level, and a continuum of non-stationary deflationary equilibria. The non-stationary equilibria can be excluded if we introduce an arbitrarily lax borrowing constraint. Thus, in the basic model, tax requirements can uniquely determine the price level. When money has liquidity value, tax requirements can exclude self-fulfilling hyperinflations.

    Swedish Unemployment Dynamics. We decompose the sources of unemployment variations into contributions from variations in different labor market flows. We develop a decomposition method that allows for a distinction between permanent and temporary employment and slow convergence to the steady state, and we apply the method to the Swedish labor market for the period 1987-2012. Variations in unemployment are driven to an approximately equal degree by variations in (i) flows from unemployment to employment, (ii) flows from employment to unemployment, and (iii) flows in and out of the labor force. Flows involving temporary contracts account for 44% of unemployment variation, even though temporary workers only constitute 13% of the working-age population. Neglecting out-of-steady-state dynamics leads to an overestimation of the importance of flows involving permanent contracts.

    Supply Chain Risk and the Pattern of Trade. This paper analyzes the interaction of supply chain risk and trade patterns. We construct a model where an industry's risk sensitivity is determined by the number of customized components that it uses, and countries with a low supply chain risk specialize in risk-sensitive goods. Based on our theory, we construct an empirical measure of risk sensitivity from input-output tables and customization measures. Using industry-level trade data and a variety of risk proxies, we show that countries with a low supply chain risk disproportionately export risk-sensitive goods.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Srimanee, Artita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Cell-penetrating peptides targeting glioblastomas for nucleic acid delivery in the blood-brain barrier model2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive form of malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. The efficacy of brain cancer treatment by chemotherapeutics is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which allows less than 2% of the small molecules and blocks almost all the macromolecules to transport into the brain. Delivery of the large molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids across the BBB is a great challenge for brain-targeted drug delivery. To overcome this obstacle, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) were used as vectors for delivery of nucleic acids across the BBB targeting glioblastomas. The CPPs have shown such promising carriers to deliver various cargoes ranging from small molecules to large molecules into the cells. This thesis is focused on the development of glioblastoma-targeting vectors based on modifications of the CPPs and the targeting peptides. The peptide-based vectors were developed to improve the transport of the nucleic acids across the BBB and specifically target glioblastomas.

    In this thesis, a series of peptide-based vectors targeting glioblastomas were synthesized and modified with targeting peptides by either covalent conjugation or non-covalent complex formation. The delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) in the complex with the peptide-based vectors was studied in the in vitro model of the BBB. The role of receptors expressed on the BBB was investigated. Scavenger receptors class A and B were found to be expressed on the BBB, and they were involved in the delivery of the pDNA across the BBB model. Moreover, various targeting peptides were modified with hexaglutamate to form non-covalent complexes with the CPPs for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to glioblastoma cells. The non-covalent complex of the CPP and the targeting peptide showed greater gene-silencing efficiency than the consecutively covalent conjugation of the CPP and the targeting peptide for siRNA delivery to glioblastoma cells. Lastly, a number of novel, amphipathic peptides were developed based on the model amphipathic peptide. The prediction of the biological effect of the designed peptides using quantitative structure-activity relationship model showed a correlation with the experimental data.

    Finally, the CPP-based nucleic acid delivery vectors with homing peptide strategy have a potential for the BBB shuttle and the future use as a glioblastoma-targeted drug carrier in the in vivo studies and the clinical applications.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 hörsal 3, hus B, Stockholm
    Pettersson, Theresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Stockholms stads tänkeböcker: Funktionell texthistoria 1476-16262017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on language variation and language change in judicial protocols from the municipal court in Stockholm during the period 1476−1626. These documents provide a unique insight into late medieval and early modern use of written vernacular. The main material consists of 700 courtroom notes from seven different periods of time, a hundred documents from each year: 1476, 1499, 1525, 1550, 1575, 1600, and 1626. The study draws theoretically on functional linguistics; more specifically, it utilizes Halliday’s systemic-functional grammar, Ulf Teleman’s (1985) theoretical model of language change, as well as dialogism.

    The results are presented in four analytical chapters. In the first of these, the aim is to systemize the somewhat heterogeneous material, and the corpus is divided in two different ways: one due to judicial content (‘categories of matter’), and one due to textual structure (‘discourse levels’). These systemizations also serve as a methodological foundation for the lexicogrammatical analysis in the following chapters. A main result is that multi-party cases over time develop a functional need for new communication strategies, while unilateral cases already from the beginning seem to bear a more deep-rooted textual stability. In addition, there is a significant increase of discourse level 3, representing communicative events outside the courtroom, in multi-party cases found in texts from 1600 and 1626. In the two following chapters, lexicogrammatical resources of ‘personal reference’ and ‘time and tense’ are analysed. The texts realize different patterns of anaphora, where individuation explains much of the variation: texts with high degree of individuation (criminal cases) materialize a high degree of pronouns, whereas texts regarding property issues materialize low individuation with few pronouns and many full NPs. Regarding the use of tense, the past tense is the most common tense. Still, the study shows an diachronic increase in the use of present tense. The last analytical chapter examines the use of three lexical features: judicial pronouns; word pairs; and nominalizations. The results show that judicial pronouns and word pairs typically occur in registrations matters; nominalizations occur throughout the genre. In the last chapter, the results and implications of the thesis are summated and discussed.

    The results point towards a pragmatic use of the written language. Although the lexicogrammatical resources are the same during the period, the usages vary. Hence, linguistic variation and change are highly motivated by an intercommunion of contextual factors such as a more solid administrative literacy, a changing litigation, and an increase of legal demands for linguistic precision and documentation. It is argued that the language variety in the genre can be understood as instantiations of different registers.  

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Johansson, Jana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm University.
    Sources, transport and fate of perfluoroalkyl acids in the atmosphere2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are man-made chemicals which have been observed in the global environment, even in locations far away from where they are emitted. These persistent substances are taken up in humans and biota and may have toxic effects. Knowledge about how PFAAs are dispersed in the environment is needed to discern strategies to manage their sources and to evaluate the efficacy of adopted legislation. This thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the sources of PFAAs to the atmosphere and how PFAAs are transported in air. The results of Paper I demonstrated that gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to typical glass fibre filters (GFFs) used in high-volume air sampling of PFAAs. As a consequence, the fraction of gaseous PFOA present in sampled air is underestimated, while the fraction of PFOA associated with aerosols is overestimated. Replacing GFFs with filters deactivated through silanisation and siliconisation did not eliminate this sampling artefact and is therefore not recommended as a means to determine the gas-particle partitioning of PFAAs. In Paper II, monitoring of the mass of PFOA transferred from water solutions of pH 0.2-5.5 demonstrated that the acid dissociation constant of linear PFOA and the four most ubiquitous branched PFOA isomers is around or below 1. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the presence of counter ions and organic matter in water retarded, rather than enhanced, the volatilisation of PFOA. Therefore, volatilisation of all isomers of PFOA from environmental waters is expected to be negligible. To further study the transfer of PFAAs from environmental waters to air, Paper III simulated the process of sea spray generation in the laboratory. Strong enrichment of PFAAs was observed from bulk water to the surface microlayer and to aerosols. The enrichment increased with PFAA chain length, indicating that this process is of greater importance for more surface active substances. The highest enrichment was observed in aerosols < 1.6 µm, which can travel over long distances if not rained out. Based on the measured aerosol enrichment factors we estimated that approximately 70 metric tonnes of PFAAs are aerosolised from the global oceans yearly and that 3% of this mass is deposited in terrestrial environments. Paper IV reported the occurrence of branched PFOA isomers in deposition sampled in five geographical locations. The presence of these isomers demonstrated that atmospheric transformation of fluorotelomer alcohols is not the only ongoing source of PFAAs to air. We hypothesised that, additionally, both sea spray aerosols and direct emissions from manufacturing sources contributed to the contamination of the precipitation on different spatial scales. Although further research is required to determine the relative importance of different sources to the atmosphere locally and globally, this thesis has substantially advanced the state-of-the-science by i) demonstrating the significance of an air sampling artefact discussed as an uncertainty in the scientific literature over the past decade, ii) definitively ruling out volatilisation from environmental waters as a source of PFOA to air, iii) demonstrating transfer of PFAAs from seawater to air via sea spray aerosols and thus quantifying the environmental importance of this process, and iv) ultimately demonstrating that several types of sources of PFAAs impact the global atmosphere and thus PFAA contamination patterns in precipitation.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-10 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Thoughts in Motion: The Role of Long-Term L1 and Short-Term L2 Experience when Talking and Thinking of Caused Motion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about whether language affects thinking. It deals with the linguistic relativity hypothesis, which proposes that the language we speak influences the way we think. This hypothesis is investigated in the domain of caused motion (e.g., ‘The man rolled the tyre into the garage’), by looking at Spanish and Swedish, two languages that show striking differences in how motion events are encoded. The thesis consists of four studies. The first two focus on native speakers of Spanish and Swedish. Study I compares how Spanish and Swedish speakers describe the same set of caused motion events, directing the spotlight at how variable the descriptions are in each language. The results confirm earlier findings from semantic typology regarding the dominant ways of expressing the events in each language: Spanish behaves like a verb-framed language and Swedish like a satellite-framed language (Talmy, 2000). Going beyond previous findings, the study demonstrates—using the tools of entropy and Monte Carlo simulations—that there is markedly more variability in Spanish than in Swedish descriptions. Study II tests whether differences in how Spanish and Swedish speakers describe caused motion events are reflected in how they think about such events. Using a novel similarity arrangement task, it is found that Spanish and Swedish speakers partly differ in how they represent caused motion events if they can access language during the task. However, the differences disappear when the possibility to use language is momentarily blocked by an interference task. The last two studies focus on Swedish learners of Spanish as a second language (L2). Study III explores how Swedish learners (compared to native Spanish speakers) adapt their Spanish motion descriptions to recently encountered input. Using insights from the literature on structural priming, we find that Swedish learners initially expect to encounter in their L2, Spanish, those verb types that are typical in Swedish (manner verbs like ‘roll’) but that, with increasing proficiency, their expectations become increasingly attuned to the typical Spanish pattern of using path verbs (like ‘enter’).  These expectations are reflected in the way L2 learners adapt their own production to the Spanish input. Study IV asks whether recent linguistic experience in an L2 can affect how L2 learners think about motion events. It is found that encountering motion descriptions in the L2 that emphasize different types of information (path or manner) leads L2 speakers to perceive similarity along different dimensions in a subsequent similarity arrangement task. Taken together, the thesis argues that the study of the relation between language and thought affords more valuable insights when not posed as an either-or question (i.e., does language affect thought or not?). In this spirit, the thesis contributes to the wider aim of investigating the conditions under which language does or does not affect thought and explores what the different outcomes tell us about language, thought, and the intricate mechanisms that relate them.

  • Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vägval 2030: Färdplan för snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter - kortversionen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns beroende av fossila bränslen är en av de största utmaningarna ien omställning till ett klimatneutralt och hållbart samhälle.

    Denna färdplansrapport syftar till att undersöka hur elfordonssystem kan bidra tillen snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge, samttill att presentera en metodik för vägledning av liknande snabbomställningsarbetei andra regioner och samhällssektorer.

    Detta arbete har övergripande vägletts av en vetenskapligt framtagen och beprövadmetodik för strategisk hållbar utveckling (eng. Framework for Strategic SustainableDevelopment – FSSD). Specifikt ges svar på fyra forskningsfrågor som struktureras irelation till de fyra delsystemen ’Politik och styrmedel’, ’Användare och marknad’,’Fordon och infrastruktur’ samt ’Energi och material’:

    1. Hur skulle en hållbar vision för persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge kunnase ut?

    2. Hur skulle ett etappmål för år 2030 kunna se ut?

    3. Hur ser nuläget ut i förhållande till 2030-målet och visionen?

    4. Hur skulle gapet mellan nuläget, 2030-målet och visionen kunna överbryggas?

    Rapportens resultat visar att dagens fokus på fossilfrihet och klimatåtgärder måstebreddas till hela hållbarhetsfrågan så att även andra hållbarhetsproblemadresseras och så att inte lösningar på vissa hållbarhetsproblem skapar nya.

    Rapporten tydliggör också att det är nödvändigt, praktiskt möjligt och ekonomisktfördelaktigt för Sydostregionen att göra en snabbare hållbarhetsomställning avpersontransporterna än vad som har föreslagits i tidigare studier och utredningar.Det görs även troligt att detsamma gäller för hela transportsystemet och för helaSverige och världen.

    Även geopolitiska fördelar är troliga. En global övergång till transport- ochenergisystem som baseras på energi från fritt tillgängliga flödesresurser som soloch vind istället för fossila bränslen skulle därför sannolikt minska konfliktriskernai världen. Begränsade tillgångar av litium och platina som batteri- ochbränslecellselbilar är beroende av, och andra metaller som behövs till solceller ochvindkraftverk, kan dock ge motsvarande konfliktproblematik. Denna rapportsrekommendationer om minskat transportbehov och bilberoende och dess fokus påresurseffektivitet motverkar detta genom att slå mot bakomliggande resursdrivandemekanismer. Skulle denna färdplan omsättas i praktisk politik så borde alltså denkommande omställningen som ändå är på gång bli betydligt mer ’framtidssäker’.

  • Porse, Andreas
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Biosustainabil, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Gumpert, Heidi
    Hvidovre Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, Hvidovre, Denmark..
    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Karami, Nahid
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Adlerberth, Ingegerd
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Andersson, Dan I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Sommer, Morten O. A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Biosustainabil, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Genome Dynamics of Escherichia coli during Antibiotic Treatment: Transfer, Loss, and Persistence of Genetic Elements In situ of the Infant Gut2017In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 7, 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elucidating the adaptive strategies and plasticity of bacterial genomes in situ is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of pathogens threatening human health. While much is known about the evolution of Escherichia coli in controlled laboratory environments, less effort has been made to elucidate the genome dynamics of E. coli in its native settings. Here, we follow the genome dynamics of co-existing E. coli lineages in situ of the infant gut during the first year of life. One E. coli lineage causes a urinary tract infection (UTI) and experiences several alterations of its genomic content during subsequent antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, all isolates of this uropathogenic E. coli strain carried a highly stable plasmid implicated in virulence of diverse pathogenic strains from all over the world. While virulence elements are certainly beneficial during infection scenarios, their role in gut colonization and pathogen persistence is poorly understood. We performed in vivo competitive fitness experiments to assess the role of this highly disseminated virulence plasmid in gut colonization, but found no evidence for a direct benefit of plasmid carriage. Through plasmid stability assays, we demonstrate that this plasmid is maintained in a parasitic manner, by strong first-line inheritance mechanisms, acting on the single-cell level, rather than providing a direct survival advantage in the gut. Investigating the ecology of endemic accessory genetic elements, in their pathogenic hosts and native environment, is of vital importance if we want to understand the evolution and persistence of highly virulent and drug resistant bacterial isolates.

  • Grujic, Mirjana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Paivandy, Aida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Gustafson, Ann-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Thomsen, Allan R.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Immunol & Microbiol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Öhrvik, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The combined action of mast cell chymase, tryptase and carboxypeptidase A3 protects against melanoma colonization of the lung2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 15, 25066-25079 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cell secretory granules are densely packed with various bioactive mediators including proteases of chymase, tryptase and CPA3 type. Previous studies have indicated that mast cells can affect the outcome of melanoma but the contribution of the mast cell granule proteases to such effects has not been clear. Here we addressed this issue by assessing mice lacking either the chymase Mcpt4, the tryptase Mcpt6 or carboxypeptidase A3 (Cpa3), as well as mice simultaneously lacking all three proteases, in a model of melanoma dissemination from blood to the lung. Although mice with individual deficiency in the respective proteases did not differ significantly from wildtype mice in the extent of melanoma colonization, mice with multiple protease deficiency (Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficient) exhibited a higher extent of melanoma colonization in lungs as compared to wildtype animals. This was supported by higher expression of melanoma-specific genes in lungs of Mcpt4/Mcpt6/CPA3-deficient vs. wildtype mice. Cytokine profiling showed that the levels of CXCL16, a chemokine with effects on T cell populations and NKT cells, were significantly lower in lungs of Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficient animals vs. controls, suggesting that multiple mast cell protease deficiency might affect T cell or NKT cell populations. In line with this, we found that the Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficiency was associated with a reduction in cells expressing CD1d, a MHC class 1-like molecule that is crucial for presenting antigen to invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. Together, these findings indicate a protective role of mast cell-specific proteases in melanoma dissemination, and suggest that this effect involves a CXCL16/CD1d/NKT cell axis.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 hörsal 7, hus D, Stockholm
    Neuser, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Source Language of Lexical Transfer in Multilingual Learners: A Mixed Methods Approach2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in this thesis investigates the source language of lexical transfer in multilingual learners using a mixed methods approach. Previous research has shown that the source language of crosslinguistic influence can be related to factors such as proficiency, recency/exposure, psychotypology, the L2 status, and item-specific transferability. The present study employed a mixed methods approach in order to best serve the particularities of each of the five factors under investigation. Multinomial logistic regression was emloyed to test the predictive power of the first four factors, thereby addressing the issue of confounding variables found in previous studies. A more exploratory qualitative analysis was used to investigate item-specific transferability due to the lack of prior empirical studies focusing on this aspect. Both oral and written data were collected, offering an analysis of modal differences in direct comparison. The results show a significant effect of proficiency and exposure, but inconsistent patterns for psychotypology. Most importantly, in this study of lexical transfer, a significant L1 status effect was found, rather than an L2 status effect. In addition, the statistical model predicted the source language of transfer better in the spoken than in the written mode. Finally, learners were found to assess, as well as actively improve, an item’s transferability in relation to target language norms and constraints. All of these findings contribute to our understanding of lexical organization, activation, and access in the multilingual mind. 

  • Hansen, Julia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Neurol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Åsberg, Signild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Zelano, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Neurol, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Cause of death in patients with poststroke epilepsy: Results from a nationwide cohort study2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, e0174659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of death is increased for persons with epilepsy. The literature on causes of death in epilepsy is based mainly on cohorts with epilepsy of mixed aetiologies. For clinical purposes and improved understanding of mortality in different epilepsies, more information is needed on mortality in epilepsies of specific causes. In poststroke epilepsy (PSE), seizures occur in a setting of vascular disease and high mortality rates. The extent to which epilepsy contributes to mortality in this patient group is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to describe causes of death (COD) in PSE on a national scale. A previously identified cohort of 7740 patients with epilepsy or seizures after a stroke in 2005-2010 was investigated. A total of 4167 deaths occurred before the end of 2014. The standardized mortality ratio for the study cohort was 3.56 (95% CI: 3.45-3.67). The main underlying causes of death were disorders of the circulatory system (60%) followed by neoplasms (12%). Diseases of the nervous system were the sixth leading underlying COD (3%), and epilepsy or status epilepticus was considered the underlying COD in approximately a similar proportion of cases as neurodegenerative disorders (0.9% and 1.1%, respectively). Epilepsy was considered a contributing COD in 14% of cases. Our findings highlight the importance of optimal management of vascular morbidity in patients with PSE. The large proportion of patients with epilepsy as a contributing COD indicate the need of high ambitions also regarding the management of seizures in patients with PSE.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Immigration, Social Cohesion, and the Welfare State: Studies on Ethnic Diversity in Germany and Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Can social cohesion and solidarity persist in the face of large-scale migration? One particularly contentious hypothesis states that native majorities will be unwilling to support the provision of government-funded welfare to those whom they do not consider to be part of their own sociocultural ingroup, especially when sociocultural or ethnic otherness and socioeconomic disadvantage overlap. Consequently, majorities’ willingness to accept disadvantaged immigrant groups as legitimate and trusted members of the welfare community is central to the social cohesion of societies diversifying through migration.

    The dissertation consists of a comprehensive summary, followed by four original studies addressing the interplay between migration-induced diversity and social cohesion through the lens of majority attitudes and the micro and macro contexts within which they are embedded. The studies focus on Sweden and Germany, two European societies that host strong welfare states and large immigrant populations. Together, they seek to answer two central questions:

    First, does social distance between native-born citizens and immigrants lead the former to withdraw support from all redistributive policies, or are some types of welfare more affected than others? Second, how does the migration-induced diversification of societies come to matter for majority attitudes toward the welfare state and, as they are closely related, for majority attitudes toward the trustworthiness of others?

    Looking at the case of Germany, Study 1 shows that the conflict between diversity and welfare solidarity is not expressed in a general majority opposition to welfare, but rather in an opposition to government assistance benefiting immigrants – a phenomenon sometimes referred to as welfare chauvinism.

    Study 2 turns to the case of Sweden and investigates three pathways into welfare chauvinism: via the first-hand experience of immigrant unemployment and putative welfare receipt in the neighborhood context; via exposure to immigrant competition at the workplace; and via negative prejudice against immigrants. We find that the direct observation of immigrant unemployment in the neighborhood increases natives’ preference for spending on other Swedes over spending on immigrants, while competition with immigrants at the workplace does not.

    Using the same Swedish data, Study 3 hypothesizes that ethnically diverse workplaces imply trust-fostering inter-group contact. Yet, like in Study 2, we find a negative relationship between majority Swedes’ exposure to certain immigrant groups in the neighborhood and their trust in neighbors, while diverse workplaces neither seem to increase trust nor to affect the negative neighborhood-level association.

    Both Studies 2 and 3 show that negative attitudes toward immigrants increase welfare chauvinism and lower trust, even disregarding majority Swedes’ actual experience of immigrant presence or unemployment. Study 4 thus turns to a social force outside the realm of first-hand experience and explores German online news media debates on the welfare deservingness of various sociodemographic groups – among them, immigrants (as refugees in particular). However, rather than observing the persistent and particular stigmatization of immigrants as undeserving recipients or untrustworthy abusers of welfare, we find much more nuanced descriptions in our vast corpus of news stories.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Koutsouris, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Building a coherent hydro-climatic modelling framework for the data limited Kilombero Valley of Tanzania2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores key aspects for synthesizing data across spatiotemporal scales relevant for water resources management in an Eastern Africa context. Specifically, the potential of large scale global precipitation datasets (GPDs) in data limited regions to overcome spatial and temporal data gaps is considered. The thesis also explores the potential to utilize limited and non-continuous streamflow and stream water chemistry observations to increase hydrological process understanding. The information gained is then used to build a coherent hydro-climatic framework for streamflow modelling. In this thesis, Kilombero Valley Drainage Basin (KVDB) in Tanzania is used as an example of a data limited region targeted for rapid development, intensification and expansion of agriculture. As such, it is representative for many regions across the Eastern Africa. With regards to the data synthesis, two satellite products, three reanalysis products and three interpolated products were evaluated based on their spatial and temporal precipitation patterns. Streamflow data from KVDB and eight subcatchments were then assessed for quality with regards to missing data. Furthermore, recession analysis was used to estimate catchment-scale characteristic drainage timescale. Results from these streamflow analyses, in conjunction with a hydrological tracer-based analysis, were then used for improved understanding of streamflow generation in the region. Finally, a coherent modelling framework using the HBV rainfall-runoff model was implemented and evaluated based on daily streamflow simulation. Despite the challenges of data limited regions and the often large uncertainty in results, this thesis demonstrates that improved process understanding could be obtained from limited streamflow records and a focused hydrochemical sampling when experimental design natural variability were leveraged to gain a large  signal to noise ratio. Combining results across all investigations rendered information useful for the conceptualization and implementation of the hydro-climatic modelling framework relevant in Kilombero Valley. For example, when synthesized into a coherent framework the GPDs could be downscaled and used for daily streamflow simulations at the catchment scale with moderate success. This is promising when considering the need for estimating impacts of potential future land use and climate change as well as agricultural intensification.

  • Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Ba etminan ranandegi kardan: amniyatdar terafik baraye koodakan ba natavani jesmi2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Thonig, Danny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Pereiro, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Magnetic moment of inertia within the torque-torque correlation model2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention. We present and elaborate here on a theoretical model for calculating the magnetic moment of inertia based on the torque-torque correlation model. Particularly, the method has been applied to bulk itinerant magnets and we show that numerical values are comparable with recent experimental measurements. The theoretical analysis shows that even though the moment of inertia and damping are produced by the spin-orbit coupling, and the expression for them have common features, they are caused by very different electronic structure mechanisms. We propose ways to utilise this in order to tune the inertia experimentally, and to find materials with significant inertia dynamics.

  • Eriksson, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Kings Coll London, Res Oncol, Canc Epidemiol Grp, Div Canc Studies, London, England..
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Influence of Preoperative Symptoms on the Death of Patients with Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors2017In: Annals of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 1068-9265, E-ISSN 1534-4681, Vol. 24, no 5, 1214-1220 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence of about 1 per 100,000. Usually, SI-NETs have a slow progression, and patients often present with generalized disease. Many patients do well, and the disease has a relatively favorable 5-year survival rate. Some SI-NETs, however, have a more negative prognosis. This study aimed to establish prognostic factors for death identifiable at primary surgery. A nested case-control study investigated 1150 patients from the cohort of all patients with a diagnosis of SI-NETs in Sweden between 1961 and 2001. The study cases consisted of all patients who died of SI-NETs during the study period. Each case was assigned a control subject matched by age at diagnosis and calendar period. Possible prognostic factors [gender, degree of symptoms, indication for surgery, World Health Organization (WHO) stage] were evaluated in uni- and multivariable analyses. The patients with symptomatic disease had an increased risk of dying. The indication for primary surgery influenced survival, showing a more negative prognosis for elective surgery. The WHO stage influenced survival, and stage 4 patients had an almost threefold risk of dying compared with stages 1 to 3b patients. This study showed that preoperative symptoms are important in prognostication for SI-NETs. Hormonal symptoms generally signify a patient with a more advanced disease stage and a worse prognosis. Including symptomatic disease together with the WHO stage and grade could possibly increase the accuracy of prognostication.

  • Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Sigurnost putovanja: o prometnoj sigurnosti za djecu s funkcijskim preprekama2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [hr]

    Prometna sigurnost djece i omladine s funkcijskim preprekama je kompleksno pitanje. Radi se o medicinskim, tehničkim, ergonomskim, pravnim, organizacijskim i psihološkim pogledima. Mnoga tijela vlasti i instance trebaju surađivati. Podjela odgovornosti između tih raznih instanca je komplicirana. Tijekom mnogo godina su roditelji tražili jednostavan i lako shvatljiv priručnik koji opisuje ta pitanja u perspektivi djece i obitelji. To je razlog zbog kojeg smo sastavili ovaj priručnik.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-20 14:11 F531
    Karlkvist, Tommy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Selectivity in Calcium mineral flotation - An analysis of novel an existing approaches2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjell, Fredric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center, IDC.
    Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

    Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Krondroppsnätets övervakning av luftföroreningar i Sverige – mätningar och modellering: Resultat t.o.m. september 20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Krondroppsnätets årliga rapport 2013 är en gemensam nationell rapport. Målsättningar har varit att ge en aktuell bild av situationen vad gäller försurning och övergödning i Sveriges skogsmark idag, tillsammans med en del prognoser för framtiden. Kartor visas med aktuella resultat vad gäller lufthalter, nedfall och markvattenkemi för det hydrologiska året 2011/2012 för alla ämnen som mäts inom Krondroppsnätet.

    Nedfallet till skogen i Sverige beror till stor del på långväga transporterade luftföroreningar. Utsläppen av svavel från länderna inom EU har under de senaste drygt 20 åren minskat med 80 %. Motsvarande minskning är 47 % för oxiderat kväve (NOx) och 28 % för reducerat kväve (NHy). Som ett resultat av detta har svavelnedfallet till Sveriges skogar minskat kraftigt, medan det har varit svårt att påvisa någon minskning av kvävenedfallet.

    Trots den stora minskningen av svavelnedfallet drar 19 av total 21 län slutsatsen att man inte kommer att nå det regionala miljömålet

    Bara naturlig försurning till år 2020. Dessa slutsatser baseras delvis på Krondroppsnätets länsvisa mätningar som används för att bedöma de olika preciseringarna inom miljömålet. En bidragande orsak till att de regionala målen för försurning inte uppnås är att flera andra faktorer än svavelnedfallet bidrar till försurningen av skogsmark och sjöar. Kväve bidrar till försurningen främst när kvävet börjar läcka till markvattnet under rotzonen. Skogsbrukets bidrar till försurning av skogsmarken genom trädens upptag av näringsämnen som kompenseras med att sura joner avges. Försurningen blir permanent när biomassa skördas och tas ut från skogsekosystemen.

    Mätningarna av markvattenkemin inom Krondroppsnätet visar att skogsmarken i många fall är på väg att återhämta sig från försurning, men att återhämtningen går långsamt och ibland inte alls. I Naturvårdsverkets fördjupade utvärdering 2012 användes koncentrationen 0,4 mg oorganiskt aluminium per liter markvatten som en kritisk gräns för försurning. En analys av Krondroppsytorna visade att 68 % av ytorna överskred denna gräns i sydvästra Sverige. Motsvarande andel i mellersta/sydöstra Sverige var 28 % och i norra Sverige 10 %. Även beräkningar av kritisk belastning för försurning av sjöar visar att det finns många sjöar med överskridande i stora delar av landet, men mest i sydvästra Sverige.

    Prognoser för framtiden säger att svavelnedfallet kommer att fortsätta minska till år 2050. Samtidigt ökar uttaget av biomassa från skogen i samband med ökad skörd av grenar och toppar (GROT). Kvävenedfallet kommer att förbli på en hög nivå, vilket innebär fortsatt kväveupplagring i skogsmarken, med ökad risk för läckage av nitrat och därmed ytterligare markförsurning som följd.

    Kvävenedfallet till skogen ingår inte som en precisering till miljömålet

    Ingen övergödning. Kvävenedfallet kan ändå användas för att bedöma övergödningen av skogsmarken. Nyligen utförda beräkningar inom forskningsprogrammet SCARP visar att nedfallet av kväve i hela Götaland och i de södra delarna av Svealand överskrider den kritiska belastning som Sverige har antagit som målvärde för att skydda biodiversiteten hos markvegetationen. Kvävebalansberäkningar visar att det sker en kontinuerlig upplagring av kväve i skogsmarken, och förhöjda halter av nitratkväve i markvatten på ett antal krondroppsytor i de skogar där kväveupplagringen är som störst, i sydvästra Sverige, visar att skogens

    förmåga att ta upp kväve överskrids. Hur mycket som lagras upp beror främst på hur stort kvävenedfallet är, men också på hur mycket kväve som tas ut från skogsekosystemen i samband med avverkning.

    Krondroppsnätet strävar kontinuerligt efter att utveckla och anpassa verksamheten utifrån nya behov som uppstår. Frågan om sambanden mellan vattenkemi i markvatten och bäckvatten har blivit aktuell. Många län har en omfattande övervakning av bäckvatten. Några första analyser från mätningar i olika delar av landet tyder på att tidsutvecklingen vad gäller förändringar i mark- och bäckvattenkemi uppvisar stora likheter, i synnerhet vad gäller försurningsrelaterade parametrar.

    Skogsstyrelsen har under 2012 aviserat att man utreder om det finns skäl att revidera de allmänna råden för skogsgödsling. Krondroppsnätets mätningar bidrog redan till den förra revideringen 2007. Hur mycket man kan kvävegödsla skogen hänger i stor utsträckning samman med storleken på det atmosfäriska nedfallet av kväve. Även denna gång har forskare inom Krondroppsnätet varit involverade och gett synpunkter på det kunskapsunderlag som tagits fram inom revideringsprocessen. Budskapet har varit att skogsgödsling med kväve ej bör vara tillåtet i områden i södra Sverige där mätningar visar på ett betydande atmosfäriskt nedfall av kväve till skogen samt ett frekvent läckage av nitrat till markvattnet.

    En krondroppsyta i Jämtlands län med lågproduktiv tallskog gödslades under 2012 med 150 kg N/ha. Med finansiering från C.F. Lundströms Forskningsstiftelse intensifierades mätningarna av markvattenkemi vid krondroppsytan och Länsstyrelsen i Jämtland bidrog med parallella ytvattenmätningar i en närliggande tjärn och dess utlopp. Mycket höga halter av nitrat i markvattnet på 50 cm djup uppmättes tre veckor efter gödsling och under resten av sommaren. Ytvattenmätningarna visade dock inte någon tydlig förhöjning av nitrathalterna i tjärnen. Dessa mätningar fortsätter även under 2013, nu också med stöd från Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten.

    Fartygsemissioner står för en betydande andel av de svavelutsläpp som ligger bakom det nuvarande svavelnedfallet till skogarna i Sverige. Fartygsbranschen (IMO) har beslutat att svavelhalterna i fartygsbränslen skall minskas succesivt. År 2006/2007 beslutades att svavelhalten i fartygsbränslen vid trafik på Nordsjön, Skagerack, Kattegatt och Östersjön får vara högst 1.0 % och år 2015 planeras en ny sänkning från 1.0 till 0.1 %. Utredning pågår om hur nedfallsmätningarna inom Krondroppsnätet skulle kunna användas för att påvisa minskade svavelnedfall till skogarna i Sverige och hur detta i så fall skulle finansieras.

    Resultaten som kommit fram inom Krondroppsnätet har under de senaste åren utnyttjats inom ett flertal vetenskapliga artiklar. De viktigaste resultaten från de tre senaste artiklarna sammanfattas i rapporten.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gardin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Test of CP invariance in vector-boson fusion production of the Higgs boson using the Optimal Observable method in the ditau decay channel with the ATLAS detector2016In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 76, no 12, 658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of t leptons and is based on 20.3 fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data at root s = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter (d) over tilde. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter (d) over tilde is constrained to the interval (-0.11, 0.05) at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of (d) over tilde = 0.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gardin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for single production of vector-like quarks decaying into Wb in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector2016In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 76, no 8, 442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for singly produced vector-like Q quarks, where Q can be either a T quark with charge +2/3 or a Y quark with charge -4/3, is performed in proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1) and was produced with a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8 TeV. This analysis targets Q -> Wb decays where the W boson decays leptonically. A veto on massive large-radius jets is used to reject the dominant t (t) over bar background. The reconstructed Q-candidate mass, ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 TeV, is used in the search to discriminate signal from background processes. No significant deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed, and limits are set on the Q -> Wb cross-section times branching ratio. The results are also interpreted as limits on the QWb coupling and the mixing with the Standard Model sector for a singlet T quark or a Y quark from a doublet. T quarks with masses below 0.95 TeV are excluded at 95 % confidence level, assuming a unit coupling and a BR(T -> Wb) = 0.5, whereas the expected limit is 1.10 TeV.

  • Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Schafer, Martina
    Nedre Dalalvens Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control Project, Gysinge, Sweden..
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalvens Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control Project, Gysinge, Sweden..
    First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, 632Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-14 10:00 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Aid, Graham
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

  • Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ersson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Medical Product Agency, Box 26, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 42, 751 03 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) perturbs alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathways in human neuroblastoma cells as determined by metabolic profiling2017In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 49, no 5, 905-919 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of BMAA (50, 250, 1000 µM) for 24 h on cells differentiated with retinoic acid were studied. Samples were analyzed using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy to detect altered intracellular polar metabolites. The analysis performed, followed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, revealed significant perturbations in protein biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism pathways and citrate cycle. Of specific interest were the BMAA-induced alterations in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and as well as alterations in various neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine. The results indicate that BMAA can interfere with metabolic pathways involved in neurotransmission in human neuroblastoma cells.

  • Raykova, Doroteya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Koos, Bjoern
    Max Planck Inst Mol Physiol, Dept Syst Cell Biol, Otto Hahn Str 11, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany..
    Asplund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Gelleri, Marton
    Max Planck Inst Mol Physiol, Dept Syst Cell Biol, Otto Hahn Str 11, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany.;Tech Univ Dortmund, Fac Chem & Chem Biol, Otto Hahn Str 6, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ivarsson, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Danielson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Let There Be Light!2016In: Proteomes, ISSN 2227-7382, Vol. 4, no 4, 36Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The invention of the microscope has been fundamental for the understanding of tissue architecture and subcellular structures. With the advancement of higher magnification microscopes came the development of various molecular biology tools such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) to monitor protein interactions. Microscopy has become a commonly used method for the investigation of molecular events within the cell, for the identification of key players in signaling networks, and the activation of these pathways. Multiple approaches are available for functional analyses in single cells. They provide information not only on the localization of proteins at a given time point, but also on their expression levels and activity states, allowing us to pinpoint hallmarks of different cellular identities within tissues in health and disease. Clever solutions to increase the sensitivity of molecular tools, the possibilities for multiplexing, as well as image resolution have recently been introduced; however, these methods have their pros and cons. Therefore, one needs to carefully consider the biological question of interest along with the nature of the sample before choosing the most suitable method or combination of methods. Herein, we review a few of the most exciting microscopy-based molecular techniques for proteomic analysis and cover the benefits as well as the disadvantages of their use.

  • Bisther, Mia
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Brandt & Gröndahl AB.
    Barmarksinventering av utter i Kronobergs län: 2013-20142017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    Uttern var tidigare ett vanligt inslag i den svenska faunan. Jaktstatistik från slutet av 1940-talet visar att det sköts ungefär 1500 uttrar per år, i Sverige men populationen började minska drastiskt under 1950-70-talen och jakten upphörde. Den huvudsakliga anledningen till minskningen har ansetts vara miljögifter, främst PCB, men även andra faktorer som t.ex. biotopförstöring och jakt bidrog till utterns tillbakagång. Till följd av minskning startades Projekt Utter 1975 vars syfte var att undersöka anledningen till artens minskning, inventera förekomst och starta en avelsstation för eventuell utsättning av utter.

    På grund av artens snabba tillbakagång inventerades stora delar av landet under perioden 1983-1992 för att undersöka omfattningen av denna minskning. Utifrån dessa resultat skattades den svenska utterpopulationen till mellan 500 och 1 000 djur, varav endast ett 50-tal uttrar antogs finnas i södra Sverige, till exempel på småländska höglandet. Att uttern är Smålands landskapsdjur är därför inte särskilt förvånande. Kring mitten av 1990-talet verkade det som om den negativa trenden var bruten och att förekomsten av utter började sakta öka igen. I dagsläget skattas den svenska utterpopulationen till mellan 2 000 och 3 000 djur och majoriteten av populationen återfinns i landets norra och sydöstra regioner.

    Uttrar tillhör statens vilt enligt § 25 jaktlagen, (1987:259) och § 33 jaktförordningen (1987:905). Det innebär att alla döda uttrar som påträffas tillfaller staten och därför ska lämnas in till polismyndigheten som vidarebefordrar kroppen till Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt (SVA) och sedan vidare till Naturhistoriska riksmuseet i Stockholm (NRM).

    Författare till denna rapport är Mia Bisther Brandt & Gröndahl AB 2016, e-post: mia.bisther@bog.se.

  • Nilsson, Line
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Clin Med, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology. Linkoping Univ, Dept Med Hlth Sci, Div Drug Res, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Nørregaard, Rikke
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Clin Med, Aarhus, Denmark..
    15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) Exerts Antioxidant Effects While Exacerbating Inflammation in Mice Subjected to Ureteral Obstruction2017In: Mediators of Inflammation, ISSN 0962-9351, E-ISSN 1466-1861, 3924912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urinary obstruction is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to renal dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Using a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model, we examined the effects of 15d-PGJ(2) on oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. Mice were subjected to UUO for 3 days and treated with 15d-PGJ(2). Protein and RNA expression were examined using immunoblotting and qPCR. 15d-PGJ(2) increased NF-E2-related nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2) protein expression in response to UUO, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a downstream target of Nrf2, was induced by 15d-PGJ(2). Additionally, 15d-PGJ(2) prevented protein carbonylation, a UUO-induced oxidative stress marker. Inflammation, measured by nuclear NF-kappa B, F4/80, and MCP-1, was increased in response to UUO and further increased by 15d-PGJ(2). Renal injury was aggravated by 15d-PGJ(2) treatment as measured by kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and cortical caspase 3 content. No effect of 15d-PGJ(2) was observed on renal function in mice subjected to UUO. This study illustrates differentiated functioning of 15d-PGJ(2) on inflammation and oxidative stress in response to obstructive nephropathy. High concentrations of 15d-PGJ(2) protects against oxidative stress during 3-day UUO in mice; however, it aggravates the associated inflammation.

  • Arbin, Linn
    et al.
    Vasteras Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Enlund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Dept Anaesthesiol, Cty Hosp, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Vasteras Cent Hosp, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Post-tonsillectomy pain after using bipolar diathermy scissors or the harmonic scalpel: a randomised blinded study2017In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 274, no 5, 2281-2285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare the postoperative pain following bipolar diathermy scissors tonsillectomy (higher temperature dissection) with harmonic scalpel tonsillectomy (lower temperature dissection). Sixty patients aged 7-40 years planned for tonsillectomy with no other concurrent surgery were randomised to either bipolar diathermy scissors or harmonic scalpel as surgical technique. Blinded to the surgical technique, the patients recorded their pain scores (VAS, 0-10) at awakening and the worst pain level of the day in the postoperative period. All intake of pain medication was also recorded. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups regarding postoperative pain levels or consumption of pain medication. Usage of the harmonic scalpel does not render less postoperative pain following tonsillectomy when compared with usage of the bipolar diathermy scissors.

  • Kuang, Guanglin
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhou, Yang
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zou, Rongfeng
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Halldin, Christer
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Alzheimer Res Translat Alzheimer Neurobiol, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Ågren, Hans
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Siberian Fed Univ, Inst Nanotechnol Spect & Quantum Chem, Svobodny Pr 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia..
    Tu, Yaoquan
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Characterization of the binding mode of the PET tracer [F-18] ASEM to a chimera structure of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 32, 19787-19793 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha 7-nAChR) is assumed to be implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The progress of these disorders can be studied through imaging alpha 7-nAChR with positron emission tomography (PET). [F-18]ASEM is a novel and potent alpha 7-nAChR PET radioligand showing great promise in recent tests. However, the mechanism of the molecular interaction between [F-18] ASEM and alpha 7-nAChR is still unclear. In this paper, the binding profile of [F-18] ASEM to a chimera structure of alpha 7-nAChR was investigated with molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and metadynamics simulation methods. We found that [F-18] ASEM binds at the same site as the crystallized agonist epibatidine but with a different binding mode. The dibenzo[b, d] thiophene ring has a different orientation compared to the pyridine ring of epibatidine and has van der Waals interactions with residues from loop C on one side and p-p stacking interaction with Trp53 on the other side. The conformation of Trp53 was found to have a great impact on the binding of [F-18] ASEM. Six binding modes in terms of the side chain dihedral angles chi(1) and chi(2) of Trp53 were discovered by metadynamics simulation. In the most stable binding mode, Trp53 adopts a different conformation from that in the crystalline structure and has a rather favorable pi-pi stacking interaction with [F-18] ASEM. We believe that these discoveries can be valuable for the development of novel PET radioligands.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-12 14:30 Hörsalen byggnad 260, Södertälje
    Olofsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hardening Distortions of Serial Produced Gears2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardening distortions are unwanted changes in shape and dimension that arise during hardening of steel components. Uncontrolled distortions induce random errors to the manufacturing process, and have a strong negative impact on manufacturing costs. The distortions are not only caused by the hardening process, several factors from previous manufacturing steps including the component geometry itself contribute to varying extent. The aim of the current work is to investigate the main influencing factors on hardening distortions for serial produced gears.

    The investigations were done on two different types of gears for heavy-duty transmissions, crown wheels for the rear axle central gear and main shaft gears for the gearbox. The steel was produced using either continuous casting or ingot casting. For rectangular continuously cast steel, the effect of disabling magnetic stirring of the steel melt during casting was investigated, finding a strong reduction of gear runout for crown wheels. Segregations in crown wheels produced from the top and bottom of ingots were shown to go in opposite directions, producing opposite back-face tilts.

    For crown wheels quenched one at a time, influences of stacking level on the hardening tray were found, indicating an impact from small variations in the carburizing process, despite identical quenching conditions. For main shaft gears, horizontal loading gave considerably less roundness and runout errors but increased flatness errors compared to vertical loading.

    This thesis shows the complexity of the distortion phenomenon and how several factors interact and contribute to the final result. It is shown that factors with significant impact on hardening distortions for one component may be less important for another component. With this in mind, each type of component to be hardened should be produced by a manufacturing chain where each process step is carefully chosen with respect to minimizing distortions.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-02 10:00 FB52, Stockholm
    Wang, Xu
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Computational Studies of Structures and Binding Properties of Protein-Ligand Complexes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are dynamic structural entities that are involved in many biophysical processes through molecular interactions with their ligands. Protein-ligand interactions are of fundamental importance for computer-aided drug discovery. Due to the fast development in computer technologies and theoretical methods, computational studies are by now able to provide atomistic-level description of structures, thermodynamic and dynamic properties of protein-ligand systems, and are becoming indispensable in understanding complicated biomolecular systems. In this dissertation, I have applied molecular dynamic (MD) simulations combined with several state of the art free-energy calculation methodologies, to understand structures and binding properties of several protein-ligand systems.

    The dissertation consists of six chapters. In the first chapter, I present a brief introduction to classical MD simulations, to recently developed methods for binding free energy calculations, and to enhanced sampling of configuration space of biological systems. The basic features, including the Hamiltonian equations, force fields, integrators, thermostats, and barostats, that contribute to a complete MD simulation are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, two classes of commonly used algorithms for estimating binding free energies are presented. I highlight enhanced sampling approaches in chapter 4, with a special focus on replica exchange MD simulations and metadynamics, as both of them have been utilized in my work presented in the chapter thereafter. In chapter 5, I outlined the work in the 5 papers included in the thesis. In paper I and II, I applied, respectively, the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and alchemical free energy calculation methods to identify the molecular determinant of the affibody protein ZAb3 bound to an amyloid b peptide, and to investigate the binding profile of the positive allosteric modulator NS-1738 with the α7 acetylcholine-binding protein (α7-AChBP protein); in paper III and VI, unbiased MD simulations were integrated with the well-tempered metadynamics approach, with the aim to reveal the mechanism behind the higher selectivity of an antagonist towards corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 (CRF1R) than towards CRF2R, and to understand how the allosteric modulation induced by a sodium ion is propagated to the intracellular side of the d-opioid receptor; in the last paper, I proved the structural heterogeneity of the intrinsically disordered AICD peptide, and then employed the bias-exchange metadynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo techniques to understand the coupled folding and binding of AICD to its receptor Fe65-PTB2. I finally proposed that the interactions between AICD and Fe65-PTB2 take place through an induced-fit mechanism. In chapter 6, I made a short conclusion of the work, with an outlook of computational simulations of biomolecular systems.

  • Melén Fäldt, Maria
    Kristianstad University, Learning Resource Centre.
    Högskolepedagogisk debatt: Tema: Läraktiviteter för att uppnå Värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt2017Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Söder, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Wallenius Marine AB.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems. KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ovegård, Erik
    Seaware AB.
    On Aerodynamical Roll Damping2015In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Stability ofShips and Ocean Vehicles, 14-19 June 2015, Glasgow, UK., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an approach for estimating aerodynamic roll damping is formulated. The approach utilizes wind tunnel tests and the concept of effective levers to relate roll induced apparent wind to a damping moment. Evaluation of the approach on a typical PCTC demonstrates that the aerodynamic damping in certain conditions can be of similar magnitude as the hydrodynamic damping when the weather is rough. The importance of considering this component in the formulation of operational guidance with respect to parametric roll is highlighted using analysis of a real incident and simplistic simulations.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 14:00 Sal. C, Stockholm
    Kakkar, Aditya
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Frequency Noise in Coherent Optical Systems: Impact and Mitigation Methods2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in capacity demand along with the advancement in digital signal processing (DSP) have recently revived the interest in coherent optical communications and led to its commercialization. However, design and development of robust DSP algorithms for example for carrier phase recovery (CPR) becomes complex as we opt for high order modulation formats such as 16QAM and beyond. Further, electrical-domain dispersion compensation (EDC), while providing many advantages, makes the system more susceptible to laser frequency noise (FN). For instance, in coherent optical links with post-reception EDC, while the transmitter frequency noise causes only phase impairment, the local oscillator (LO) FN in these systems results in a noise enhancement in both amplitude and phase. This noise is commonly known as equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). It results in asymmetric requirements for transmitter laser and LO laser. Further, the system design in the presence of lasers with non-white frequency noise becomes increasingly challenging for increased capacity-distance product.

    The main contributions of this thesis are, firstly, an experimentally validated theory of coherent optical links with lasers having general non-white frequency noise spectrum and corresponding system/laser design criteria and mitigation technique. Secondly, low complexity and high phase noise tolerant CPR for high order modulation formats.

    The general theory propounded in this thesis elucidates the origin of the laser frequency noise induced noise enhancement in coherent optical links with different DSP configurations. The thesis establishes the existence of multiple frequency noise regimes and shows that each regime results in different set of impairments. The influence of the impairments due to some regimes can ideally be reduced by optimizing the corresponding mitigation algorithms, while other regimes cause irretrievable impairments. Experimentally validated theoretical boundaries of these regimes and corresponding criteria applicable to system/laser design are provided. Further, an EEPN mitigation method and its two possible implementations are proposed and discussed.

    The thesis also demonstrates an intrinsic limitation of the conventional Blind Phase Search (BPS) algorithm due to angular quantization and provides methods to overcome it. Finally, this thesis proposes and demonstrates single stage and multi-stage carrier phase recovery algorithms for compensation of phase impairments due to the two lasers for higher order circular and square modulations. The proposed methods outperform the state of art algorithms both in performance and in complexity.

  • Ivana, Greti-Iulia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fake it till you make it: imagined social capital2017In: Sociological Review, ISSN 0038-0261, E-ISSN 1467-954X, Vol. 65, no 1, 52-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital is one of the most widely used (in both scholarly and non-scholarly contexts) and one of the least critically examined concepts in Bourdieu's framework. This article aims at questioning the objectivist standpoint from which the concept of social capital has been developed, by looking into the interpretative processes which shape it. In doing so, it proposes a new understanding of the notion of imagined social capital, which has gained prominence in the literature of the last several years. The contribution of the current paper lays in elaborating on the ways in which the existing notion of imagined social capital can be put in dialogue with Bourdieu's work and in introducing the overlooked, yet fundamental question of otherness into the debate on imagined social capital.

  • Söder, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Wallenius MArine AB.
    Rosén, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI). KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    A framework for holistic roll damping prediction2015In: Proceedings of the 15th International Ship Stability Workshop, 13-15 June 2016, Stockholm, Sweden, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a framework for holistic multi-tier roll damping prediction is presented. The approach provides a platform for best possible prediction given the different stages in the ship design process. Starting from the earliest design stage a semi-empirical model gives the foundation for a complete model that is applicable for all possible loading conditions and operational conditions. The components in the model are continuously updated with input from CFD calculations and model tests when available, and finally prior to delivery of the ship the model is assessed and tuned based on full scale trials. The approach is well suited to be used as roll damping input in operational guidance systems as well as to provide feedback to the design process in a systematic manner.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-09 10:00 Electrum, Sal C, Kista
    Rodrigo Navarro, Jaime
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. ACREO Swedish ICT.
    Phase Noise Tolerant Modulation Formats and DSP Algorithms for Coherent Optical Systems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherent detection together with multilevel modulation formats has the potential to significantly increase the capacity of existing optical communication systems at no extra cost in signal bandwidth. However, these modulation formats are more susceptible to the impact of different noise sources and distortions as the distance between its constellation points in the complex plane reduces with the modulation index. In this context, digital signal processing (DSP) plays a key role as it allows compensating for the impairments occurring during signal generation, transmission and/or detection relaxing the complexity of the overall system. The transition towards pluggable optical transceivers, offers flexibility for network design/upgrade but sets strict requirements on the power consumption of the DSP thus limiting its complexity. The DSP module complexity however, scales with the modulation order and, in this scenario, low complex yet high performance DSP algorithms are highly desired.

    In this thesis, we mainly focus on the impact of laser phase noise arising from the transmitter and local oscillator (LO) lasers in coherent optical communication systems employing high order modulation formats. In these systems, the phase noise of the transmitting and LO lasers translate into phase noise in the received constellation impeding the proper recovery of the transmitted data. In order to increase the system phase noise tolerance, we firstly explore the possibility of re-arranging the constellation points in a circularly shaped mQAM (C-mQAM) constellation shape to exploit its inherent phase noise tolerance. Different low-complex carrier phase recovery (CPR) schemes applicable to these constellations are proposed along with a discussion on its performance and implementation complexity. Secondly, the design guidelines of high performance and low complex CPR schemes for conventional square mQAM constellations are presented. We identify the inherent limitation of the state-of-the-art blind phase search (BPS) carrier phase recovery algorithm which hinders its achievable performance and implementation complexity and present a low complex solution to overcome it. The design guidelines of multi-stage CPR schemes for high order modulation formats, where the BPS algorithm is employed at any of the stages, are also provided and discussed. Finally, the interplay between the received dispersed signal and the LO phase noise is analytically investigated to characterize the origin of the equalization enhanced phase noise phenomena.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-16 13:00 K2, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Machat-From, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identity, Old(er) Age and Migrancy: A Social Constructionist Lens2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ldentity research in relation to ethnicity and migration has tended to focus an younger people whilst identity research in relation to ageing and old(er) age has not focused an migrants. This inadvertent mutual neglect has led to a lack of identity research that examines the identity categories of old(er) age and migrancy together, a lacuna that this dissertation aims to redress. This dissertation departs from a social constructionist understanding of identity as situationally accomplished in the interplay between how one defines oneself (internally) and how others define one (externally). The questions raised by this perspective and addressed in this dissertation are: When (in what situations) and in relation to whom do old(er) age and migrancy (respectively) seem to become meaningful for identification? How do the identity categories of old(er) age and migrancy seem to be negotiated? The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with 24 older migrants (13 men, 11 women) aged between 55 and 79 who have been living in Sweden for 18 to 61 years. Interviewees come from 12 different countries that vary in perceived cultural distance from Sweden. The findings suggest that identifications with old(er) age and migrancy seem to be dynamic and flexible rather than necessarily permanently meaningful, thus gaining meaning in specific situations and in relation to particular Others. External definitions furthermore do not always seem to match with internal ones. Regardless of how old(er) age and migrancy are constructed, they seem to be negotiable. This dissertation thus contributes to identity research by studying old(er) age and migrancy together and furthermore sheds light onto how the social constructionist lens allows us to see variability where stability otherwise would be presumed.

  • Domeij, Björn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    On the solidification of compacted and spheroidal graphite irons2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A good understanding of the solidification process of a cast material is essential to understand how the combination of alloy composition and the casting process variables combines into the solid cast component and its performance. The wrong combination may result in poor performance or casting defects. Spheroidal graphite has been well researched in ductile irons (SGI) where it is predominant. Spheroidal graphite is also present in smaller amounts in compacted graphite irons (CGI), but its nature and role in this material is less understood. Recent associations of spheroidal graphite in CGI with shrinkage porosity problems highlights the need for better understanding in this area. The importance of the dendritic austenite structure to the properties and solidification behaviour of cast irons has been highlighted in recent research. However, progress is to a degree limited by lack of practical means to characterize the structure.

    In the present work, the transition of a cast iron from SGI to CGI though remelting was studied. As the fraction of SG dropped, the tips of the compacted graphite tended to lose contact with the melt at a later stage. After this occurred, solidification appeared to be dominated by spheroidal graphite. Compacted and spheroidal graphite was found to solidify mostly segregated, and the increased recallescence induced by a higher fraction of compacted graphite displayed small influence on the size distribution of spheroidal graphite apart from the total number and fraction. The partitioning of Si, Mn and Cu in SGI and CGI was found to agree well with each other, as well as with theoretical predictions under the assumptions of zero diffusion of the elements in the solid. This shows that the proportions of spheroidal and compacted graphite has small or no influence on the evolution of these elements in the melt during solidification. A method for characterization of the dendritic austenite in quenched cast irons was introduced and evaluated. The method includes a technique for producing a visual contrast between the ledeburite matrix and the dendritic austenite, and a scheme for producing binary images from the resulting micrographs which are suitable for automatic image analysis. Measurements of the volume fraction and surface area per unit volume of the dendritic austenite structure using the introduced method was found to agree reasonably with traditional point counting and line intercept techniques. The difficulty in finding the exact boundary was proposed to be the major source of systematic disagreement.

  • Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Prognostic Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Risk Stratification Beyond Cardiac Troponins2017In: Current Cardiology Reports, ISSN 1523-3782, E-ISSN 1534-3170, Vol. 19, no 4, 29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of Review Cardiac troponin (cTn) plays an essential role for assessment of outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the prognostic value of cTn is not absolute. In this mini-review, we summarize the evidence on the utility of established biomarkers of left-ventricular dysfunction, hemodynamic stress, inflammation, and renal dysfunction for risk prediction beyond cTn in ACS. Recent Findings Only few biomarkers consistently demonstrate additive prognostic value to cTn levels. The B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) and growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) are most promising in this regard. However, there are uncertainties regarding the role of these biomarkers for guidance of treatment decisions, and their prognostic increment to cTn levels measured with high-sensitivity assays is largely unknown. Summary The NPs and GDF-15 provide the strongest prognostic increment to cTn levels in ACS. However, the role of these biomarkers for clinical decision-making in contemporary settings has still to be defined.

  • Refsgaard, Karen
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Bioenergy and rural development in Europe: Policy recommendations from the TRIBORN project: Policy recommendations from the TRIBORN research and stakeholder consultations, 2014-172017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Local renewable energy initiatives assume a prominent role in Europe’s developing distributed energy networks in the proposed EU Renewable Energy Directive for the 2020-30 period (RED2030).The IEA, OECD, the EU Commission and national governments are increasingly aware of this role and of the importance of reducing the barriers to their - of ten innovative - development. The OECD(2012) has stressed the need to ensure positive outcomes for local people in the expansion of renewable energy, and the importance of bioenergy in this regard.

  • Henein, Michael Y.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bengrid, Tarek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nicoll, Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Zhao, Ying
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Schmermund, Axel
    Coronary calcification compromises myocardial perfusion irrespective of luminal stenosis2017In: IJC HEART & VASCULATURE, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 14, 41-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcification (CAC) assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and myocardial perfusion assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a group of symptomatic patients. Method: Retrospective analysis of 120 patients (age 65.1 +/- 8.9 years, 88 males) who presented with atypical chest pain to Bethanien Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany, between 2007 and 2010 and who underwent CAC scoring using MDCT, CMR, and conventional coronary angiography. Patients were divided into those with high-grade (HG) stenosis (n = 67, age 65.1 +/- 9.4 years) and those with no-HG stenosis (n = 53, age 65.1 +/- 8.6 years). Results: There were more males with HG stenosis (82.1% vs. 62.3%, p = 0.015), in whom the percentage and number of abnormal perfusion segments were higher at rest (37.3% vs. 17%, p = 0.014) but not different with stress (p = 0.83) from those with no-HG stenosis. Thirty-four patients had myocardial perfusion abnormalities at rest and 26 patients developed perfusion defects with stress. Stress-induced myocardial perfusion defects were 22.4% sensitive and 79.2% specific for detecting HG stenosis. The CAC score was lower in patients with no-HG stenosis compared to those with HG stenosis (p < 0.0001). On the ROC curve, a CAC score of 293 had a sensitivity of 71.6% and specificity of 83% in predicting HG stenosis [(AUC 0.80 (p < 0.0001)]. A CAC score of 293 or the presence of at least 1 segment myocardial perfusion abnormality was 74.6% sensitive and 71.7% specific in detecting HG stenosis, the respective values for the 2 abnormalities combined being 19.4% and 90.6%. The severity of CAC correlated with the extent of myocardial perfusion in the patient group as a whole with stress (r = 0.22, p = 0.015), particularly in those with no-HG stenosis (r = 0.31, p = 0.022). A CAC score of 293 was 31.6% sensitive and 87.3% specific in detecting myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Conclusion: In a group of patients with exertional angina, coronary calcification is more accurate in detecting high-grade luminal stenosis than myocardial perfusion defects. In addition, in patients with no stenosis, the incremental relationship between coronary calcium score and the extent of myocardial perfusion suggests coronary wall hardening as an additional mechanism for stress-induced angina other than luminal narrowing. These preliminary findings might have a clinical impact on management strategies of these patients other than conventional therapy.

  • Gerullis, H.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Univ Hosp Urol, Klinikum Oldenburg, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Oldenburg, Germany..
    Barski, D.
    Lukas Hosp, Dept Urol, Neuss, Germany..
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Sun, X.
    Univ Chengdu, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Ecke, T. H.
    HELIOS Hosp, Dept Urol, Bad Saarow Pieskow, Germany..
    Evidence in Urologic- and Pelvic-Surgery Research: Finding the IDEAL Way of Reporting2017In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, 2716759Article in journal (Other academic)