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  • Deldén, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Det räcker inte att bara visa en film: Historisk spelfilm i undervisningen2016Inngår i: Medier i historieundervisningen: Historiedidaktisk forskning i praktiken / [ed] Anna Larsson, Umeå: Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Umeå universitet , 2016, 1, s. 179-195Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Deldén, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    ¿La ficción para qué?: Literacidad de películas históricas2017Inngår i: Caminos de la enseñanza de la historia / [ed] Paulina Lapatí Escalante, José Carlos Blázquez Espinosa, Siddharta Camargo Arteaga, Querétaro, México, 2017, s. 1242-1259Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [es]

    El texto se basa en mi tesis doctoral, Elcine como herramienta didáctica. Investigo el sentidohistórico creado a partir de las películas históricas. Laspelículas históricas forman parte de la cultura histórica,como una memoria cultural. Basándome en el filósofohistórico alemán Jörn Rüsen exploro cómo podemoscrear sentido a la historia mediada por el lenguajedel cine. Utilizo entrevistas con jóvenes, como ‘sociosde un diálogo crítico’, donde los jóvenes expresan susexperiencias de películas históricas. Pongo las vocesde los jóvenes a dialogar con teorías de las didácticasde la historia y teorías del cine. Llego a la teorizacióndel concepto de la literacidad de películas históricas(historical film literacy). Una conclusión sobre la literacidadcine-historia para crear sentido a la historia esque se trata de una fusión holística entre la emocióny la cognición, donde la dialéctica entre ambas es lovital. La experiencia del cine en el espectador la nombrovaloración emocional, con el significado de que sebasa en sentimientos básicos combinados con pensamientosde carácter más abstracto, de valor o juicio.La perspectiva crítica es importante dado que el sentidohistórico también tiene que ver con la dialécticapasado - presente - futuro, y la consciencia históricadel ser humano.

  • Deldén, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Las películas históricas, la narración y la recepción de los alumnos2015Inngår i: La historia enseñada a discusión: Retos epistemológicos y perspectivas didácticas / [ed] Barajas Trejo, Dení; Martínez Villa, Juana, Morelia, Michoacán, México: D.R. Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas , 2015, s. 905-922Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [es]

    En la enseñanza de la historia a veces se emplean películas históricas de cine como parte del uso de los medios en la enseñanza; como un material didáctico que visualiza el pasado. El uso de estos medios para el aprendizaje del pasado genera preguntas importantes. En esta ponencia primero se resalta la recepción entre los alumnos, de películas de temática histórica, cuando las películas fueron utilizadas como herramienta didáctica en la enseñanza de la historia. En un estudio empírico he investigado el proceso de crear sentido, que realizan los alumnos en la experiencia de películas históricas. El estudio señala una convergencia entre procesos cognitivos y emocionales donde la empatía es un factor importante que aporta al aprendizaje histórico y al entendimiento narrativo. La ponencia llega a reflexionar sobre la noción de empatía y como se relaciona la misma con la empatía histórica; así mismo problematizo el dilema didáctico frente al uso de películas históricas en la enseñanza.

    La segunda parte de la ponencia mira la película histórica y el uso, en la perspectiva de la memoria cultural y con la ayuda de la metáfora del palimpsesto. Llego a la conclución de que precisamente en la interacción entre realidad, ficción y la creación de sentido se encuentran las posibilidades didácticas interesantes y desafiantes. Podemos mirar la potencial de la película con la ayuda de la metáfora del palimpsesto – una potencial que posee justamente por las capas de realidad y ficción y de pasado y presente.

  • Deldén, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    The Teacher and Educational Spaces: The Photograph as a Tool for Teacher Reflection2014Inngår i: Engaging with Educational Space: Visualizing Spaces of Teaching and Learning / [ed] Catherine Burke, Ian Grosvenor & Björn Norlin, Umeå: Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier , 2014, s. 51-59Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 13:15 Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Thörnblad, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    Degrees in Random Graphs and Tournament Limits2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and six papers on the topics of degree distributions in random graphs and tournaments and their limits.

    The first two papers deal with a dynamic random graph, evolving in time through duplication and deletion of vertices and edges. In Paper I we study the degree densities of this model. We show that these densities converge almost surely and determine their limiting values exactly as well as asymptotically for large degrees. In Paper II we study the evolution of the maximum degree and provide a precise growth rate thereof.

    Paper III deals with a dynamic random tree model known as the vertex-splitting tree model. We show that the degree densities converge almost surely and find an infinite linear system of equations which they must satisfy. Unfortunately we are not able to show that this system has a unique solution except in special cases.

    Paper IV is about self-converse generalised tournaments. A self-converse generalised tournament can be seen as a matrix whose entries take values in [0,1] and whose diagonally opposite elements sum to 1. We characterise completely the marginals of such a matrix, and show that such marginals can always be realised by a self-converse generalised tournament.

    In Paper V, we define and develop the theory of tournament limits and tournament kernels. We characterise transitive and irreducible tournament limits and kernels, and prove that any tournament limit and kernel has an essentially unique decomposition into irreducible tournament limits or kernels interlaced by a transitive part.

    In Paper VI, we study the degree distributions of tournament limits, or equivalently, the marginals of tournament kernels. We describe precisely which distributions on [0,1] which may appear as degree distributions of tournament limits and which functions from [0,1] to [0,1] may appear as the marginals of tournament kernels. Moreover, we show that any distribution or marginal on this form may be realised by a tournament limit or tournament kernel. We also study those distributions and marginals which can be realised by a unique tournament limit or kernel, and find that only the transitive tournament limit/kernel gives rise to a degree distribution or marginal with this property.

  • Samstarvsætlan Norðurlendska ráðharraráðsins fyri yrkislívið 2018-20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [fo]

    Felags arbeiðsmarknaðurin er ein hornasteinur í norðurlendska samstarvinum. Ein stór og væl útbúgvin arbeiðsmegi er týdningarmesta tilfeingi okkara, sum leggur lunnar undir ein kappingarføran norðurlendskan arbeiðsmarknað og menningina av norðurlendsku vælferðarsamfeløgunum.

    Á norðurlendska arbeiðsmarknaðinum standa tó nógvar broytingar fyri durum sum avleiðing til dømis av broytingum í fólkasamansetingini, øktari altjóðagerð, tøkniligari menning og altjóða kapping.

    Samstarvsætlanin fyri yrkislívið 2018-2021 vísir á mangar av hesum týðandi avbjóðingunum á økinum og lýsir, hvønn leiklut norðurlendska samstarvið kann fáa, tá ið tikið verður við hesum avbjóðingum.

  • Nordisk ministerråds samarbeidsprogram for arbeidsliv 2018–20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [no]

    Et felles arbeidsmarked utgjør en hjørnestein i det nordiske samarbeidet. En stor og kompetent arbeidsstyrke er vår viktigste ressurs og danner grunnlag både for et konkurransedyktig nordisk arbeidsmarked og for utviklingenav de nordiske velferdssamfunnene.

    Samtidig står de nordiske arbeidsmarkedene overfor betydelige endringer som følge av bl.a. demografisk utvikling, økt globalisering, teknologisk utvikling og internasjonal konkurranse.

    Samarbeidsprogrammet for arbeidsliv 2018–2021 peker på en rekke vesentlige utfordringer på arbeidslivsområdet og hvordan det nordiske samarbeidet kan bidra til å møte disse.

  • Programme for the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Co-operation on Labour 2018-20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The common labour market comprises a cornerstone in the Nordic co-operation. A large, skilled workforce is our most important resource, and forms the foundation for a competitive Nordic labour market and for development ofthe Nordic welfare societies.

    At the same time, the Nordic labour markets are facing major changes because of, for example, demographic change, increased globalisation, technological development, and international competition.

    The co-operation programme on labour 2018-2021 identifies several important challenges relating to the labour sector, and shows how the Nordic co-operation can help to address these.

  • Nordisk Ministerråds samarbejdsprogram for arbejdsliv 2018-20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [da]

    Det fælles arbejdsmarked er en af hjørnestenene i det nordiske samarbejde. En stor og kompetent arbejdsstyrke er vores vigtigste ressource, og den danner grundlaget for et konkurrencedygtigt nordisk arbejdsmarked og for udviklingen af de nordiske velfærdssamfund.

    Samtidig står de nordiske arbejdsmarkeder over for betydelige forandringer som følge af blandt andet den demografiske udvikling, øget globalisering, teknologisk udvikling og international konkurrence.

    Samarbejdsprogrammet for arbejdsliv 2018-2021 peger på en række af disse væsentlige udfordringer på arbejdslivsområdet og beskriver, hvordan det nordiske samarbejde kan bidrage til at løse dem.

  • Samstarfsáætlun Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar í vinnumálum 2018–20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [is]

    Sameiginlegur vinnumarkaður er hornsteinn norræns samstarfs. Fjölmennt og hæft vinnuafl er mikilvægasta auðlind okkar og leggur grunninn að samkeppnishæfum norrænum vinnumarkaði og þróun norrænu velferðarþjóðfélaganna.

    Á sama tíma stendur norrænn vinnumarkaður frammi fyrir verulegum breytingum í kjölfar meðal annars lýðfræðilegrar þróunar, aukinnar hnattvæðingar, tækniþróunar og alþjóðlegrar samkeppni.

    Samstarfsáætlunin í vinnumálum árin 2018–2021 tilgreinir nokkrar verulegar áskoranir í atvinnumálum og hvernig norrænt samstarf getur stuðlað að úrlausn þeirra.

  • Westgård, Theresa
    et al.
    Ottenvall Hammar, Isabelle
    Holmgren, Eva
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Wisten, Aase
    Ekdahl, Anne W
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Wilhelmson, Katarina
    Comprehensive geriatric assessment pilot of a randomized control study in a Swedish acute hospital: a feasibility study2018Inngår i: Pilot and feasibility studies, ISSN 2055-5784, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) represent an important component of geriatric acute hospital care for frail older people, secured by a multidisciplinary team who addresses the multiple needs of physical health, functional ability, psychological state, cognition and social status. The primary objective of the pilot study was to determine feasibility for recruitment and retention rates. Secondary objectives were to establish proof of principle that CGA has the potential to increase patient safety.

    Methods: The CGA pilot took place at a University hospital in Western Sweden, from March to November 2016, with data analyses in March 2017. Participants were frail people aged 75 and older, who required an acute admission to hospital. Participants were recruited and randomized in the emergency room. The intervention group received CGA, a person-centered multidisciplinary team addressing health, participation, and safety. The control group received usual care. The main objective measured the recruitment procedure and retention rates. Secondary objectives were also collected regarding services received on the ward including discharge plan, care plan meeting and hospital risk assessments including risk for falls, nutrition, decubitus ulcers, and activities of daily living status.

    Result: Participants were recruited from the emergency department, over 32 weeks. Thirty participants were approached and 100% (30/30) were included and randomized, and 100% (30/30) met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen participants were included in the intervention and 14 participants were included in the control. At baseline, 100% (16/16) intervention and 100% (14/14) control completed the data collection. A positive propensity towards the secondary objectives for the intervention was also evidenced, as this group received more care assessments. There was an average difference between the intervention and control in occupational therapy assessment - 0.80 [95% CI 1.06, - 0.57], occupational therapy assistive devices - 0.73 [95% CI 1.00, - 0.47], discharge planning -0.21 [95% CI 0.43, 0.00] and care planning meeting 0.36 [95% CI-1.70, -0.02]. Controlling for documented risk assessments, the intervention had for falls - 0.94 [95% CI 1.08, - 0.08], nutrition - 0.87 [95% CI 1.06, - 0.67], decubitus ulcers - 0.94 [95% CI 1.08, - 0.80], and ADL status - 0.80 [95% CI 1.04, - 0.57].

    Conclusion: The CGA pilot was feasible and proof that the intervention increased safety justifies carrying forward to a large-scale study.

    Trial registration: Clinical Trials ID: NCT02773914. Registered 16 May 2016.

  • Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston työelämäalan yhteistyöohjelma 2018–20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [fi]

    Yhteiset työmarkkinat ovat pohjoismaisen yhteistyön kulmakivi. Laaja ja osaava työvoima on tärkein voimavaramme, joka luo pohjan kilpailukykyisille pohjoismaisille työmarkkinoille sekä pohjoismaisten hyvinvointiyhteiskuntien kehitykselle.

    Samalla pohjoismaisilla työmarkkinoilla on edessä huomattavia muutoksia muun muassa väestönkehityksen, lisääntyvän globalisaation, teknologian ja kansainvälisen kilpailun seurauksena.

    Työelämäalan yhteistyöohjelma 2018–2021 nostaa esiin olennaisia työelämään liittyviä haasteita ja tarjoaa keinoja niiden ratkaisemiseksi pohjoismaisen yhteistyön avulla.

  • Björkelund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Svenningsson, Irene
    Hange, Dominique
    Udo, Camilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Socialt arbete.
    Petersson, Eva-Lisa
    Ariai, Nashmil
    Nejati, Shabnam
    Wessman, Catrin
    Wallin, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Göteborgs universitet; Karolinska institutet.
    Westman, Jeanette
    Clinical effectiveness of care managers in collaborative care for patients with depression in Swedish primary health care: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.2018Inngår i: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikkel-id 28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability and affects 10-15% of the population. The majority of people with depressive symptoms seek care and are treated in primary care. Evidence internationally for high quality care supports collaborative care with a care manager. Our aim was to study clinical effectiveness of a care manager intervention in management of primary care patients with depression in Sweden.

    METHODS: In a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial 23 primary care centers (PCCs), urban and rural, included patients aged ≥ 18 years with a new (< 1 month) depression diagnosis. Intervention consisted of Care management including continuous contact between care manager and patient, a structured management plan, and behavioral activation, altogether around 6-7 contacts over 12 weeks. Control condition was care as usual (CAU).

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression symptoms (measured by Mongomery-Asberg depression score-self (MADRS-S) and BDI-II), quality of life (QoL) (EQ-5D), return to work and sick leave, service satisfaction, and antidepressant medication. Data were analyzed with the intention-to-treat principle.

    RESULTS: One hundred ninety two patients with depression at PCCs with care managers were allocated to the intervention group, and 184 patients at control PCCs were allocated to the control group. Mean depression score measured by MADRS-S was 2.17 lower in the intervention vs. the control group (95% CI [0.56; 3.79], p = 0.009) at 3 months and 2.27 lower (95% CI [0.59; 3.95], p = 0.008) at 6 months; corresponding BDI-II scores were 1.96 lower (95% CI [- 0.19; 4.11], p = 0.07) in the intervention vs. control group at 6 months. Remission was significantly higher in the intervention group at 6 months (61% vs. 47%, p = 0.006). QoL showed a steeper increase in the intervention group at 3 months (p = 0.01). During the first 3 months, return to work was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control group. Patients in the intervention group were more consistently on antidepressant medication than patients in the control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Care managers for depression treatment have positive effects on depression course, return to work, remission frequency, antidepressant frequency, and quality of life compared to usual care and is valued by the patients.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT02378272 . February 2, 2015. Retrospectively registered.

  • Nordiska ministerrådets samarbetsprogram för arbetsliv 2018–20212018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den gemensamma arbetsmarknaden utgör en hörnsten i det nordiska samarbetet. En stor och kompetent arbetsstyrka är vår viktigaste resurs och formar grunden för en konkurrensstark nordisk arbetsmarknad samt för utvecklingen av de nordiska välfärdssamhällena. Samtidigt står de nordiska arbetsmarknaderna inför betydande förändringar till följd av bl.a. demografisk utveckling, ökad globalisering, teknologi och internationell konkurrens. Samarbetsprogrammet för arbetslivssektorn 2018-2021 pekar ut en rad väsentliga utmaningar inom arbetslivsområdet och hur det nordiska samarbetet kan bidra till att tillmötesgå dessa.

  • Petrulevich, Alexandra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk, Seminariet för nordisk namnforskning.
    ”Utländskt”, ”inhemskt” och ortnamnsanpassning: Finns det universella anpassningsprinciper?2017Inngår i: Namn og Nemne: Tidsskrift for norsk namnegransking, ISSN 0800-4684, Vol. 34, s. 67-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to set adaptation of replicated place names (loaned names in traditional terminology) in a larger perspective by exploring a number of ways of conceptualising and studying the phenomenon within contact onomastics and contact linguistics. Many of the inquiries into this topic are deeply-rooted in settlement history, but I would like to open up for an option of a primarily linguistic investigation of place name adaptation as a process that in many ways resembles that of so called toponymic analogy. I see place name replication and place name adaptation as two different although related processes, a theoretical stance explored and built on in my doctoral thesis (2016), which forms a frame work for the present study. According to my definition of place name adaptation the difference between “native” and replicated place names can be said to disappear once the replication process is completed, because all place names irrespective of their etymology follow the development of the target language. There is however always a possibility of semantically adapting replicated place names in the long run which comprises one of the factors working against complete equivalence of “native” and replicated names. In the article I present some research opportunities revealed once the difference between “native” and replicated place names no longer is the sole matter of investigation.

  • Mathews, Elezebeth
    et al.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.;Cent Univ Kerala, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Kasaragod, Kerala, India..
    Thomas, Emma
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Absetz, Pilvikki
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland.;Collaborat Care Syst Finland, Helsinki, Finland..
    D'Esposito, Fabrizio
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Aziz, Zahra
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Balachandran, Sajitha
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India..
    Daivadanam, Meena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India..
    Oldenburg, Brian
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Cultural adaptation of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program for diabetes prevention in India: the Kerala diabetes prevention program (K-DPP)2018Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low-and middle-income countries have been very limited to date. This research-to-action gap is now widely recognised as a major challenge to the prevention and control of diabetes. Reducing the gap is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality and reduced health care costs. The aim of this article is to describe the adaptation, development and refinement of diabetes prevention programs from the USA, Finland and Australia to the State of Kerala, India.

    Methods: The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program (K-DPP) was adapted to Kerala, India from evidence-based lifestyle interventions implemented in high income countries, namely, Finland, United States and Australia. The adaptation process was undertaken in five phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) formulation of program objectives; 3) program adaptation and development; 4) piloting of the program and its delivery; and 5) program refinement and active implementation.

    Results: The resulting program, K-DPP, includes four key components: 1) a group-based peer support program for participants; 2) a peer-leader training and support program for lay people to lead the groups; 3) resource materials; and 4) strategies to stimulate broader community engagement. The systematic approach to adaptation was underpinned by evidence-based behavior change techniques.

    Conclusion: K-DPP is the first well evaluated community-based, peer-led diabetes prevention program in India. Future refinement and utilization of this approach will promote translation of K-DPP to other contexts and population groups within India as well as other low-and middle-income countries. This same approach could also be applied more broadly to enable the translation of effective non-communicable disease prevention programs developed in high-income settings to create context-specific evidence in rapidly developing low-and middle-income countries.

  • Feltmann, Kristin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Giuliano, Chiara
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England..
    Everitt, Barry J.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England..
    Steensland, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, England.; Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England..
    The Effects of the Monoamine Stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 on Binge-Like Eating and Cue-Controlled Food-Seeking Behavior in Rats2018Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 617-626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive consumption of palatable food and an increased sensitivity to food cues. Patients with BED display an addiction-like symptomatology and the dopamine system might be a potential treatment target. The clinically safe monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) restores dopaminergic dysfunction in long-term alcohol-drinking rats and shows promise as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder. Here, the effects of OSU6162 on consummatory (binge-like eating) and appetitive (cue-controlled seeking) behavior motivated by chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets were evaluated in non-food-restricted male Lister Hooded rats. OSU6162 significantly reduced binge-like intake of chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets without affecting prior chow intake. Furthermore, OSU6162 significantly reduced the cue-controlled seeking of chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets under a second-order schedule of reinforcement before, but not after, the delivery and ingestion of reward, indicating a selective effect on incentive motivational processes. In contrast, the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride reduced the seeking of chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets both pre-and post reward ingestion and also reduced responding under simpler schedules of seeking behavior. The D1/5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 had no effect on instrumental behavior under any reinforcement schedule tested. Finally, local administration of OSU6162 into the nucleus accumbens core, but not dorsolateral striatum, selectively reduced cue-controlled sucrose seeking. In conclusion, the present results show that OSU6162 reduces binge-like eating behavior and attenuates the impact of cues on seeking of palatable food. This indicates that OSU6162 might serve as a novel BED medication.

  • Talla, Venkat
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Suh, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Kalsoom, Faheema
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Dinca, Vlad
    Inst Biol Evolut CSIC UPF, Anim Biodivers & Evolut Program, Barcelona, Spain..
    Vila, Roger
    Inst Biol Evolut CSIC UPF, Anim Biodivers & Evolut Program, Barcelona, Spain..
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm Univ, Div Ecol, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Rapid Increase in Genome Size as a Consequence of Transposable Element Hyperactivity in Wood-White (Leptidea) Butterflies2017Inngår i: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 2491-2505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing and quantifying genome size variation among organisms and understanding if genome size evolves as a consequence of adaptive or stochastic processes have been long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. Here, we investigate genome size variation and association with transposable elements (TEs) across lepidopteran lineages using a novel genome assembly of the common wood-white (Leptidea sinapis) and population re-sequencing data from both L. sinapis and the closely related L. reali and L. juvernica together with 12 previously available lepidopteran genome assemblies. A phylogenetic analysis confirms established relationships among species, but identifies previously unknown intraspecific structure within Leptidea lineages. The genome assembly of L. sinapis is one of the largest of any lepidopteran taxon so far (643Mb) and genome size is correlated with abundance of TEs, both in Lepidoptera in general and within Leptidea where L. juvernica from Kazakhstan has considerably larger genome size than any other Leptidea population. Specific TE subclasses have been active in different Lepidoptera lineages with a pronounced expansion of predominantly LINEs, DNA elements, and unclassified TEs in the Leptidea lineage after the split from other Pieridae. The rate of genome expansion in Leptidea in general has been in the range of four Mb/Million year (My), with an increase in a particular L. juvernica population to 72Mb/My. The considerable differences in accumulation rates of specific TE classes in different lineages indicate that TE activity plays a major role in genome size evolution in butterflies and moths.

  • Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Ahtola, Timo
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Kuusela, Janne
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mineralogical and Petrographic Characteristics of Indium and REE-Bearing Accessory Phases in the Kymi Granite Stock, Southern Finland2018Inngår i: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 23-41, artikkel-id 82556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wiborg rapakivi batholith (1.64 Ga) in southeastern Finland with docu-mented occurrences of REE, indium and Zn-Cu-Pb sulphide mineralization was studied. Hydrothermal greisen and quartz vein type Fe-Sn and Zn-Cu-Pb are found in the Kymi granite stock as intrusions. They are enriched with in-dium and rare earth elements, with roquesite (CuInS2) being a major indium- carrier, whereas monazite (Ce), allanite (Ce), bastnäesite (Ce), xenotime-(Y) and thorite are the main REE carriers. Combination of optical and field emis-sion scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electron probe microanaly-sis (EPMA) were used to study the indium and REE-bearing mineral assem-blages. EPMA of roquesite found in galena had a composition of 26.16% S, 0.02% Fe, 25.06% Cu, 0.03% Zn, 1.06% As, 0.31% Sb and 47.14% In. Substitu-tion reaction Pb2+S2− ↔ Cu+In3+S2− is the cause of the incorporation of indium in the galena structure. The majority of the LREE are carried by monazite, bastnäesite and allanite, and the HREE by xenotime and zircon. There is a partial solid solution between monazite and xenotime with minor or trace amounts of LREE in xenotime grains (6.0 wt%). LREE (>95 mol% LREE) and less than 5 mol% HREE + Y reflects the enrichment of chondrite-normalized REE of the monazite grains of the Kymi granite stock. The xenotime grains (small and irregular) main composition contains 71 - 76 mol% YPO4, 16 - 27 mol% HREE, and 6 - 8 mol% LREE. It is believed that indium and REE-mineralization presence is due to the combination of magmatic and postmagmatic processes, particularly at later stages by fluid fractionation.

  • Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm Ctr Healthcare Eth CHE, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bertilsson, Göran
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Domeij, Helena
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fahlström, Gunilla
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heintz, Emelie
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Med Management Ctr, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hjern, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ctr Hlth Equ Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nehlin, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Nordin, Viviann
    Karolinska Inst KIND, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rangmar, Jenny
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hultcrantz, Monica
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families2018Inngår i: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD.

    Methods: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists.

    Results: Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the socia ! services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. Conclusions: The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based, on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  • Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Samhällsomdaning – kris,kollaps eller möjlighet?2017Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 315-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hendrickx, Koen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Solar Forcing of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Atmosphere2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The forcing of the Sun on Earth's atmosphere manifests itself via solar radiation and energetic particle precipitation (EPP), which variations are most noticeable in the upper regions of the atmosphere. A key species in the lower thermosphere, which is influenced by solar forcing, is nitric oxide (NO). An NO reservoir is present in the lower thermosphere, from which NO-rich air can be transported downward into the mesosphere and stratosphere, where it takes part in catalytic ozone destruction cycles. For climate models to correctly simulate the solar forcing on our climate, the processes of NO production and destruction, as well as the descent into the lower atmosphere, must be understood and accurately represented.

    In this thesis, observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) instrument onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to investigate temporal characteristics of NO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. We have developed a diagnostic method to determine the relative importance of the NO physical drivers throughout the lower thermosphere. The method shows that, at high latitudes, precipitating auroral electrons dominantly drive NO variations. Comparisons with NO measurements by the Student Nitric Oxide Experiment (SNOE), made almost a decade earlier, reveal that the impact of this forcing on NO appears to be invariant throughout the 11 year solar cycle.

    On shorter timescales, we have shown a clear signature of the reoccurring 27 day geomagnetic impact on NO concentrations during summer and winter, with subsequent descent into the lower mesosphere during winter. The occurrence of medium energy electrons, which precipitate to mesospheric altitudes, results in a further increase of the descending NO flux. This complicates the determination of the relative contribution of the EPP direct and indirect effect on NO, i.e. separating direct NO production from downwards transported NO, respectively, in NO enhancements at a certain altitude. Using a full-range energy spectrum from the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), we have been able to disentangle the direct and indirect EPP effect on Southern hemispheric NO during a geomagnetic storm in 2010.

    Simulations of NO by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with Specified Dynamics (SD-WACCM) model reveal that the model predicts a too high climatological mean, while the short term variability is too low, as compared to SOFIE. However, even though the dynamical transport in both model and observations agrees very well, the descending NO fluxes are too low in the model.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis provide a better understanding of NO variability from an observational standpoint and will enable better model representations in the future.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 13:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Svensson Källberg, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Immigrant students' opportunities to learn mathematics: In(ex)clusion in mathematics education2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics. The research is concerned with issues of social justice and adopts a socio-political approach. Immigrant students are often described as students who do poorly in school because they lack “Swedishness” and have insufficient Swedish language skills. This deficit discourse is used when explaining immigrant students’ failure in mathematics, which this thesis aims to critique. Also, by adopting two theoretical frameworks, one that draws on the work of Skovsmose (1994, 2014) and one on the work of Foucault (2000, 2002), it aims at exploring possible understandings of immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics.

    The research questions are addressed in a preamble and four articles. They address immigrant students’ perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics and how these perceptions come into existence, and the different contributions of using the theoretical frameworks.

    Data emanates from interviews, with immigrant students aged 15 to 16 years old and policy texts regarding schooling for newly arrived. Skovsmose’s notion of foreground is used when analysing immigrant students’ perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics. A Foucauldian perspective is used for exploring immigrant students’ identity formations as mathematical learners in a context of a forced school transition. The notions of fabrication and abjection (Popkewitz, 2012, 2013) are used as analytical tools when exploring how the newly arrived student as a mathematical learner is fabricated in policy texts.

    The findings show how conditions concerning future plans, otherness, Swedishness, perceiving their parents as deficit in relation to Swedish parents, segregation, feelings of exclusion and rowdy mathematics classrooms constitute their foregrounds, and affect their perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics. It was also shown how students’ identity formations as learners of mathematics are dynamic and enabled by discourse. For example, discourses operating in two different school contexts enabled the transitioning students to form identities as un-engaged and respectively engaged mathematics students. It was shown how students’ perceptions were influenced by public discourses, and thus how categorisations of them as immigrant students with deficiencies had looped into their lives. By exploring fabrication of the newly arrived student as a mathematical learner and the process of abjection information on how students may be ordered in relation to what degree they have come to master for example the Swedish language were provided. This may generate feelings of in(ex)clusion, which refers to the inseparability of inclusion and exclusion: any move to include brings with it potential exclusions.

    A conclusion is that to be able to understand immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics and explain achievement in mathematics, deficiency explanations are not sufficient. Instead, it is of importance to try to understand the students’ perspectives and explore the role of discourse and power since it allows for explanations that ground students’ opportunities to learn mathematics in the socio-political conditions in which they emerge. This enables for learning more about what constitutes immigrant students’ perceptions and how they come into existence and thus allows for addressing processes of in(ex)clusion and critique deficiency explanations.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Stockholm
    Pålsson, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    The Prerequisites and Practices of Auditing Residential Care: On the Licensing and Inspection of Residential Homes for Children in Sweden2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyse the prerequisites and practices of auditing Swedish residential care for children. Residential care is a complex intervention provided to children in vulnerable life situations. The care is extensively delivered by private providers and shows difficulties in demonstrating clearly positive treatment effects. Licensing and inspections are policy instruments to address alleged quality problems in decentralised and marketised welfare services. However, in research there are mixed opinions on the ability of audits to generate improved service quality.

    The dissertation consists of four papers exploring central facets of the audit system. The empirical material is based on interviews (n=50) with inspectors and residential staff, documentation (n=286) in terms of guidelines and license/inspection decisions and observations (n=12) at inspection-related events. Each paper includes a unique set of data.

    Paper I analyses the controls that private residential homes undergo prior to their entry into the market. The results show that a majority of applicants are granted a license and that the controls do not reduce the need for ex post control. There is limited guidance on care content and research evidence is weakly incorporated in the controls. Overall, the state exerts limited influence over the composition and professional development of the care market.

    Paper II explores the operationalisation process of care quality in inspections. The results show that the standards display a marked variation and there is no differentiation between different residential homes. In general, the standards focus on reducing malpractice and not maximising care quality. In practice, the inspections are often discussion-based and standards relating to work with children are often indistinct.

    Paper III analyses how inspections are perceived by representatives from residential homes. The results show that inspections induce reflection and to some extent shape the administrative parts of care, but also that it is difficult to discern the actual impact of the inspections on the work. The inspections appear to bring a degree of stability and legitimacy to the work, but there are sometimes tensions between standards and professional judgment.

    Paper IV studies the influence the inspection process grants children in care. The results suggest that different inspectorial rationales (regulative, supportive and protective) may influence the agency children exert and that it is difficult to allow children’s views to have a substantial impact on the process. Overall, there tends to be a gap between what the children find important and what the audits can address in concrete terms.

    The theoretical ideas used to analyse the results are derived from institutional organisational theory and the thesis on the audit society. The overall analysis shows that 1) making certain core care aspects auditable and ensuring their impact is difficult (e.g., children-staff relationships, children’s views and use of research knowledge), 2) the system has a restrained character and is in many senses associated with inconclusive formative effects, 3) the use of uniform goals does not necessarily equal a more suitable care provision and 4) the audits signify strong symbolic values. Despite the limitations, the audits may help to discipline care providers, secure a minimum level relative to the audited care aspects and induce reflection among auditees.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 13:00 JMK-salen, Garnisonen, Stockholm
    Dahlin, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Ontological Ordering: Achieving Audience in Internet Practice2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the backdrop of changing technological conditions of the contemporary media landscape, new questions arise regarding how audience can be can problematized and theorized. This dissertation seeks to shift the focus from conventional assumptions of what audience is to an empirical exploration of the specificities of the process through which audience is achieved in practice. This involves revisiting and questioning ontological assumptions about the nature of audience.

      The aim of the study is to develop an alternative approach for theorizing audience. A three year and seven months’ exploration of one example of an audience practice, the empirical focus is on the Gallifrey Base, an internet discussion forum for viewers of the TV series Doctor Who. To explore the specifics of audience as reality-in-practice, a methodological approach is developed that adjusts ethnographic research methods to align with a concern with ontology in audience practice – an audienceography. This dissertation thereby makes questions of ontology an empirical concern, drawing attention to how practices make up realities – that is, to how ontology is achieved. By turning to theoretical and methodological insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS), this study sets out to particularize how audience is achieved on the Gallifrey Base.

       Three chapters detail and analyze how practices on the Gallifrey Base achieve audience. Each build on the findings from the previous chapter, attending to ontological ordering in different ways, delving deeper into the details of the unfolding audience practice. The findings show how multiple ontologies can co-exist. In contrast to classic communication models, it is argued that the significance of communication by other means is about more than sending and receiving messages. An implication for the theorization of audience is that communication can have other purposes, as messages may be sent and received in order to maintain a particular communication practice.

      In relation to audience studies, the dissertation makes a theoretical contribution by connecting insights from recent debates on ontology and multiplicity in STS to empirical explorations of audience, thus widening the scope of the theoretical explanatory basis. The empirical contribution is to demonstrate that rather than a natural and stable structure, much work is invested in trying to maintain multiplicity even in the single audience practice of the Gallifrey Base forum. This suggests that ontologically fixed and given theoretical notions of audience are not compatible with contemporary audience practice. Audience practice, it is found, may include a range of multiple modes, which calls for attentiveness to the situated work carried out by various actors in the achievement of audience. In light of these findings, it is argued that approaching audience as ontology-in-practice provides a foundation for further theorizations of contemporary audience.

      Connecting the findings from Ontological Ordering to wider concerns in the humanities and social sciences – a concern with audience becomes a concern with the processes and implications of how we interact with media material and media devices, which in contemporary media environment is intensely technological. 

  • Kunst, Jonas R.
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Ctr Res Extremism, Oslo, Norway.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Boos, Beverly
    Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway..
    Kimel, Sasha Y.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Obaidi, Milan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Shani, Maor
    Jacobs Univ Bremen, Bremen, Germany..
    Thomsen, Lotte
    Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Engaging in extreme activism in support of others' political struggles: The role of politically motivated fusion with out-groups2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id e0190639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are a coalitional, parochial species. Yet, extreme actions of solidarity are sometimes taken for distant or unrelated groups. What motivates people to become solidary with groups to which they do not belong originally? Here, we demonstrate that such distant solidarity can occur when the perceived treatment of an out-group clashes with one's political beliefs (e.g., for Leftists, oppressive occupation of the out-group) and that it is driven by fusion (or a feeling of oneness) with distant others with whom one does not share any common social category such as nationality, ethnicity or religion. In Study 1, being politically Leftist predicted European-Americans' willingness to engage in extreme protest on behalf of Palestinians, which was mediated by fusion with the out-group. Next, in Study 2, we examined whether this pattern was moderated by out-group type. Here, Norwegian Leftists fused more with Palestinians (i.e., a group that, in the Norwegian context, is perceived to be occupied in an asymmetrical conflict) rather than Kurds (i.e., a group for which this perception is less salient). In Study 3, we experimentally tested the underlying mechanism by framing the Kurdish conflict in terms of an asymmetrical occupation (vs. symmetrical war or control conditions) and found that this increased Leftist European-Americans' fusion with Kurds. Finally, in Study 4, we used a unique sample of non-Kurdish aspiring foreign fighters who were in the process of joining the Kurdish militia YPG. Here, fusion with the out-group predicted a greater likelihood to join and support the Kurdish forces in their fight against ISIS, insofar as respondents experienced that their political orientation morally compelled them to do so (Study 4). Together, our findings suggest that politically motivated fusion with out-groups underpins the extreme solidary action people may take on behalf of distant out-groups. Implications for future theory and research are discussed.

  • Hughes, Ryan E.
    et al.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Bonnier, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Finné, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Quantifying Land Use in Past Societies from Cultural Practice and Archaeological Data2018Inngår i: Land, ISSN ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative reconstructions of past land use facilitate comparisons between livelihoods in space and time. However, comparison between different types of land use strategies is challenging as land use has a multitude of expressions and intensities. The quantitative method presented here facilitates the exploration and synthetization of uneven archaeological and textual evidence from past societies. The approach quantifies the area required for habitation, agriculture, arboriculture, pasturage, and fuel supply, based on a combination of archaeological, historical, ethnographic and modern evidence from the relevant geographical region. It is designed to stimulate discussion and can be used to test a wide range of hypotheses regarding local and regional economies, ancient trade and redistribution, and the resilience and/or vulnerability of past societies to environmental change. The method also helps identify where our gaps in knowledge are in understanding past human–environment interaction, the ecological footprint of past cultures and their influence on the landscape in a transparent and quantitative manner. The present article focuses especially on the impact of dietary estimates and crop yield estimates, two main elements in calculating land use in past societies due to their uncertainty as well as their significant impact on calculations. By employing archaeological data, including botanical, zoological and isotopic evidence, alongside available textual sources, this method seeks to improve land use and land cover change models by increasing their representativeness and accuracy.

  • Polanska, Dominika V.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Going against institutionalization: New forms of urban activism in Poland2018Inngår i: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first decade after the fall of state socialism in Poland was characterized by moderate aspirations to reform or oppose the dominant (neoliberal) rhetoric by social movements in the country. In the last decade, a turn toward more informal grassroots activity has been observed by scholars, above all in the field of urban activism. This article looks into this recent development in urban activism and focuses especially on the hitherto neglected grassroots, noninstitutionalized, and nonformalized forms of activism that take place in Polish cities aimed at urban change. It will be argued that this form of urban activism developed as a reaction to professionalization and NGO-ization of social movements, defying the (until now) established forms of organizing collectively. The analysis is built on qualitative data gathered in 2014–2015, including 36 in-depth interviews with urban activists in informal initiatives and groups in different Polish cities.

  • Bergman, Patrick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för idrottsvetenskap (ID).
    The number of repeated observations needed to estimate the habitual physical activity of an individual to a given level of precision.2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikkel-id e0192117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity behavior varies naturally from day to day, from week to week and even across seasons. In order to assess the habitual level of physical activity of a person, the person must be monitored for long enough so that the level can be identified, taking into account this natural within-person variation. An important question, and one whose answer has implications for study- and survey design, epidemiological research and population surveillance, is, for how long does an individual need to be monitored before such a habitual level or pattern can be identified to a desired level of precision? The aim of this study was to estimate the number of repeated observations needed to identify the habitual physical activity behaviour of an individual to a given degree of precision. A convenience sample of 50 Swedish adults wore accelerometers during four consecutive weeks. The number of days needed to come within 5-50% of an individual's usual physical activity 95% of the time was calculated. To get an idea of the uncertainty of the estimates all statistical estimates were bootstrapped 2000 times. The mean number of days of measurement needed for the observation to, with 95% confidence, be within 20% of the habitual physical activity of an individual is highest for vigorous physical activity, for which 182 days are needed. For sedentary behaviour the equivalent number of days is 2.4. To capture 80% of the sample to within ±20% of their habitual level of physical activity, 3.4 days is needed if sedentary behavior is the outcome of interest, and 34.8 days for MVPA. The present study shows that for analyses requiring accurate data at the individual level a longer measurement collection period than the traditional 7-day protocol should be used. In addition, the amount of MVPA was negatively associated with the number of days required to identify the habitual physical activity level indicating that the least active are also those whose habitual physical activity level is the most difficult to identify. These results could have important implications for researchers whose aim is to analyse data on an individual level. Before recommendations regarding an appropriate monitoring protocol are updated, the present study should be replicated in different populations.

  • Kohlbacher, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Acres, Kevin
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Chung, Hoam
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    A Low Cost Omnidirectional Relative Localization Sensor for Swarm Applications2018Inngår i: IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By enabling coordinated task execution and movement, robotic swarms can achieve efficient exploration of unknown environments. In this paper, we propose a relative localization sensor system using Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology for ranging. This system is light-weight and relatively indifferent to the types of surrounding environments. Infrastructure dependency such as the requirement of beacons at known locations is eliminated by making an array of sensors on a swarm agent. In this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented on hardware with limited resources and compared to a more traditional trilateration approach. Both utilize Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to be more robust against noise and to achieve similar accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to ten times faster than the existing trilateration approach. The sensor array which forms the localization system weighs only 56g, and achieves around 0.5m RMSE with a 10Hz update rate. Experiments show that the accuracy can be further improved if the rotational bias observed in the UWB devices are compensated for.

  • Svensson, Carita
    et al.
    Edfors, Ellinor
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan.
    Edberg, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av faktorer som bidrar till närvaro i mötet med äldre personer2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever sjuksköterskan mötet med den äldre personen inom kommunal vård ochomsorg? Ett sätt för sjuksköterskan att känna närvaro i mötet är genom att helhjärtatlyssna på den äldre när hen inbjuder till samtal om sina tankar eller om livshistorian.Sjuksköterskan kan genom mötet uppleva en högre mening med sitt arbete och få enmöjlighet att etablera en relation med den äldre. Att vårda äldre personer ställer högakrav på omvårdnaden där en helhetssyn med fokus på personcentrerad omvårdnadstår i centrum och kunskaper i äldre personers psykologiska och sociala åldrande kanhjälpa sjuksköterskan vara närvarande i mötet. Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskorsupplevelser av faktorer som bidrar till möjligheten att vara närvarande i mötet medäldre personer inom kommunal vård och omsorg. Nio intervjuer genomfördes medsjuksköterskor inom kommunal vård och omsorg. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälpav kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskorna hade som sin främstaintention att prioritera mötet med vårdtagaren. Faktorer som bidrog till sjuksköterskornasmöjlighet till närvaro i mötet med äldre var relaterade till; (I) mötet i form avatt kunna bygga på en tidigare relation, att ha gemensamma beröringspunkter, att haen ömsesidig öppenhet och vilja att dela varandras glädje- och sorgeämnen (II) vårdtagareni form av att vårdtagaren har förtroende för sjuksköterskan, att vårdtagareninbjuder till samtal och vårdtagarens tillstånd (III) sjuksköterskan i form av kunskaperom vårdtagaren och betydelsen av att vara närvarande i mötet, personlig mognad ochsjälvkännedom, att vara genuint intresserad av vårdtagaren och visa respekt och attkunna hantera sina känslor, samt (IV) organisationen i form av att ha tid, att ha möjlighetatt prioritera mellan olika arbetsuppgifter, hur vårdarbetet fördelas och organiserasoch den kontext som sjuksköterskan befinner sig i. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskornahade som intention att vara närvarande i mötet. Det var dock inte alltid så lättatt få tid till mötet på grund av tids- och/eller personalbrist, men även sjuksköterskanspersonliga mognad och erfarenhet hade betydelse för att kunna/våga vara närvarandei mötet. En positiv och stödjande arbetsledning samt ett nära samarbete med kollegersågs som viktiga resurser i det dagliga omvårdnadsarbetet.

  • Sayadi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Tellgren-Roth, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The Evolution of Dark Matter in the Mitogenome of Seed Beetles2017Inngår i: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 2697-2706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal mitogenomes are generally thought of as being economic and optimized for rapid replication and transcription. We use long-read sequencing technology to assemble the remarkable mitogenomes of four species of seed beetles. These are the largest circular mitogenomes ever assembled in insects, ranging from 24,496 to 26,613 bp in total length, and are exceptional in that some 40% consists of non-coding DNA. The size expansion is due to two very long intergenic spacers (LIGSs), rich in tandem repeats. The two LIGSs are present in all species but vary greatly in length (114-10,408 bp), show very low sequence similarity, divergent tandem repeat motifs, a very high AT content and concerted length evolution. The LIGSs have been retained for at least some 45 my but must have undergone repeated reductions and expansions, despite strong purifying selection on protein coding mtDNA genes. The LIGSs are located in two intergenic sites where a few recent studies of insects have also reported shorter LIGSs (>200 bp). These sites may represent spaces that tolerate neutral repeat array expansions or, alternatively, the LIGSs may function to allow a more economic translational machinery. Mitochondrial respiration in adult seed beetles is based almost exclusively on fatty acids, which reduces the need for building complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (NADH dehydrogenase). One possibility is thus that the LIGSs may allow depressed transcription of NAD genes. RNA sequencing showed that LIGSs are partly transcribed and transcriptional profiling suggested that all seven mtDNA NAD genes indeed show low levels of transcription and co-regulation of transcription across sexes and tissues.

  • Wettervik, Teodor Svedung
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Lenell, Samuel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Nyholm, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Lewén, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury: usage and clinical outcome in a single centre2018Inngår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 160, nr 2, s. 229-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown poor outcome, but there are considerations of how these protocols relate to real practice. The aims of this study were to evaluate usage and outcome of DC and thiopental in a single centre.

    Method: The study included all TBI patients treated at the neurointensive care unit, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden, between 2008 and 2014. Of 609 patients aged 16 years or older, 35 treated with DC and 23 treated with thiopental only were studied in particular. Background variables, intracranial pressure (ICP) measures and global outcome were analysed.

    Results: Of 35 DC patients, 9 were treated stepwise with thiopental before DC, 9 were treated stepwise with no thiopental before DC and 17 were treated primarily with DC. Six patients received thiopental after DC. For 23 patients, no DC was needed after thiopental. Eighty-eight percent of our DC patients would have qualified for the DECRA study and 38% for the Rescue-ICP trial. Favourable outcome was 44% in patients treated with thiopental before DC, 56% in patients treated with DC without prior thiopental, 29% in patients treated primarily with DC and 52% in patients treated with thiopental with no DC.

    Conclusions: The place for DC in TBI management must be evaluated better, and we believe it is important that future RCTs should have clearer and less permissive ICP criteria regarding when thiopental should be followed by DC and DC followed by thiopental.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-08 13:00 Rosen, Uppsala
    Santos, Arnoldo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet.
    Hemodynamic Effects of Lung Function Optimization in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary inflammation affecting thousands of patients every year in Sweden and has a mortality of 30-50%. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is usually necessary, but could per se augment the inflammation and contribute to mortality. MV strategies protective for the lung parenchyma have been developed but without considering the pulmonary circulation or the right heart ventricle (RV) that also are affected in ARDS. MV should ideally be optimized to protect both the lung parenchyma and the RV/pulmonary vasculature. My hypothesis was that MV that prevents alveolar collapse and overdistension, i.e., the “open lung approach (OLA)” would be optimal. The aims of this project were 1) to carefully describe the pulmonary vascular mechanics (PVM) in ARDS compared with healthy lungs, 2) to assess how different ventilatory methods influence PVM, and 3) to propose a ventilatory method that protects both lung parenchyma and circulation.

    In a porcine model, high fidelity pressure and flow sensors were applied directly on the main pulmonary artery to evaluate steady and oscillatory components of PVM.  In this way a complete PVM description was obtained for normal and injured lungs at different MV. In particular, the effects of OLA were compared with standard MV and, in addition, with MV methods where overdistension or collapse were present.

    Results: 1) Compared with collapse or overdistension, OLA provided better PVM. 2) The effects on PVM of OLA and the standard protective MV were similar. 3) Early ARDS augmented the effects of pulse wave reflection on PVM leading to a situation in which the RV had to increase its work to maintain adequate blood flow. Thus, a part of this work was wasted by the effect of wave reflections, making the RV/pulmonary vasculature inefficient. 4) Tidal breathing affected PVM cyclically and this effect was enhanced in ARDS compared with healthy lungs.

    In conclusion, ARDS and different ventilatory methods, as well as tidal ventilation per se, affected PVM. OLA improved PVM compared with other MV settings where significant collapse and overdistension were allowed. However, OLA was not superior to standard protective MV.

  • Morata, Berta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The Northbothnian Technological Megasystem: Urbanization, territorial metabolism and political ecologies2018Inngår i: Urbanism & Urbanization: On Reproduction: Re-Imagining the Political Ecology of Urbanism / [ed] Michiel Dehaene, David Peleman, Ghent University, 2018, s. 87-102, artikkel-id -Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary Urbanization (Brenner, Shmid, 2011) opens up a radical shift in analysis from urban form to urbanization process, as suggested through the radical hypothesis of the complete urbanization of society, put forward by Henri Lefebvre four decades ago. This situation means, that even spaces that lie well beyond the traditional city cores and suburban peripheries, have become integral parts of the worldwide urban fabric. Political-economic spaces can no longer be treated as if they were composed of discrete, distinct, and universal “types” of settlement.

    Under such scope, in every region of the globe, erstwhile “wilderness” spaces are being transformed and degraded through the cumulative socio-ecological consequences of unfettered worldwide urbanization. In this way, the world’s oceans, alpine regions, the equatorial rainforests, major deserts, the arctic and polar zones, and even the earth’s atmosphere itself, are increasingly interconnected with the rhythms of planetary urbanization at every geographical scale, from the local to the global. These spaces become critical for urban development (and moreover, for urban political ecology debate). For that, Sweden is a paradigmatic case study where the urbanization of the southern part of the country is sustained upon an extremely intensive appropriation of natural resources from the North (Sörling 1988), (Tidholm 2014).

    Norrboten, the northernmost land of Sweden, is a paradigm for territorial metabolism where a complex combination system of mining industry urbanization shaped the area. Thus becoming the connecting concept of Norrbotten Technological Megasystem NTM (Hansson,  1990) [fig.1], it’s key actors: natural resources, mining, transport, H2O, energy, military infrastructure, mining communities, the indigenous Sami. Today the nature of industry remains the same, the social, political and economic leverage NTM exerts over the region is absolute; the economic profit, financial stability and wealth of the Swedish state take precedence over the environment. However, much of the industrial paradigm that underpinned its implementation is now under a severe change; as the global economy is facing an era of human development where resources, metals, minerals and energy will be more critical than ever, a renewed urban and territorial framework is urgently needed. The set of relations between environment and communities is currently under an unprecedented revision based on socio-environmental reflections.

    This short paper will pose for discussion how heavy territorial infrastructure respond to the changing metabolism that is following after the short-term appropriation of resources so characteristic of industrial development in northern Europe. By critical graphic comparative analysis and trans-scalar research by design (Barcelloni & Cavalieri, 2015), the thesis will empirically investigate these processes to be able to cope with the debate on infrastructural adaptation through political ecology perspective.

  • Sundström, David
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Comparison of Power Output Estimates in Treadmill Roller-Skiing2018Inngår i: Proceedings / [ed] Hugo G. Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd and David V. Thiel, Basel: MDPI AG , 2018, Vol. 2, artikkel-id 312Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare various power output estimates and estimate anaerobic energy supply during treadmill roller-skiing. Roller-skiing sprint time-trial performance on a treadmill was compared to numerical simulations of three different power output estimates; non-inertial power estimate (NIP), inertial power estimate (IP), and optimization power estimate (OP). The OP was in best agreement with the measured speed of the skier. However, the IP was in better agreement with the measured finishing time of the real time trial, which may suggest that the IP better approximated the mean power than the other two estimates. Moreover, the NIP and IP are more simplistic than the OP and thereby more practical from a scientific standpoint. Based on this we recommend the use of the IP estimate.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-15 10:00 Room 643 (Albert Danielsson), Stockholm
    Jazairy, Amer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Exploring shippers, logistics service providers and their relationships in facilitating green logistics2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The logistics industry causes various harms to the environment. The literature assigns the main responsibility for alleviating such harms to two supply chain actors: shippers (logistics buyers) and logistics service providers (LSPs), which motivated studying them in this thesis. Specifically, this thesis explores and identifies how green logistics practices can be facilitated through aligning both actors throughout the different phases of their relationships. Two studies are compiled. The first study is based on five distinct cases -- three shippers and five LSPs, providing the basis for two papers: (i) one that analyses the institutional pressures (regulatory, market, competitive) on shippers to purchase green logistics services, and on LSPs to provide these services, and (ii) one that investigates the two actors’ stances on environmental concerns in the four key logistics purchasing phases (request for proposal, negotiations, contracting, execution), while proposing ways to align their efforts along such phases. The second study covers a single case of a dyadic relationship between a shipper and its LSP, handling enhancing logistics performance (cost efficiency, on-time delivery) in the early stages of their relationship. The findings indicate a general lack of regulatory pressure in driving shippers and LSPs to engage in green logistics, contrasted by a long-term influence of competitive pressure and a prevalent influence of market pressure. It was also found that both actors must put substantial efforts in the beginning of their relationships to reach a mutual business understanding, allowing performance and green enhancements. In the execution, it was found that both partners should regularly communicate performance metrics while modifying working standards, which would also support their green practices. For practitioners, insights are offered to align shippers’ and LSPs’ efforts within their relationships to attain positive performance and green outcomes.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-09 10:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Hänninen, Tuomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Silicon Nitride Based Coatings Grown by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nitride and silicon nitride-based ceramics have several favorable material properties, such as high hardness and good wear resistance, which makes them important materials for the coating industry. This thesis focuses the synthesis of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon carbonitride thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized based on their chemical composition, chemical bonding structure, and mechanical properties to link the growth conditions to the film properties. Silicon nitride films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a Si target in Ar/N2 atmospheres, whereas silicon oxynitride films were grown by using nitrous oxide as the reactive gas. Silicon carbonitride was synthesized by two different methods. The first method was using acetylene (C2H2) in addition to N2 in a Si HiPIMS process and the other was co-sputtering of Si and C, using HiPIMS for Si and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) for graphite targets in an Ar/N2 atmosphere. Langmuir probe measurements were carried out for the silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride processes and positive ion mass spectrometry for the silicon nitride processes to gain further understanding on the plasma conditions during film growth. The target current and voltage waveforms of the reactive HiPIMS processes were evaluated.

    The main deposition parameter affecting the nitrogen concentration of silicon nitride films was found to be the nitrogen content in the plasma. Films with nitrogen contents of 50 at.% were deposited at N2/Ar flow ratios of 0.3 and above. These films showed Si-N as the dominating component in Si 2p X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level spectra and Si–Si bonds were absent. The substrate temperature and target power were found to affect the nitrogen content to a lower extent. The residual stress and hardness of the films were found to increase with the film nitrogen content. Another factors influencing the coating stress were the process pressure, negative substrate bias, substrate temperature, and HiPIMS pulse energy. Silicon nitride coatings with good adhesion and low levels of compressive residual stress were grown by using a pressure of 600 mPa, a substrate temperature below 200 °C, pulse energies below 2.5 Ws, and negative bias voltages up to 100 V.

    The elemental composition of silicon oxynitride films was shown to depend on the target power settings as well as on the nitrous oxide flow rate. Silicon oxide-like films were synthesized under poisoned target surface conditions, whereas films deposited in the transition regime between poisoned and metallic conditions showed higher nitrogen concentrations. The nitrogen content of the films deposited in the transition region was controlled by the applied gas flow rate. The applied target power did not affect the nitrogen concentration in the transition regime, while the oxygen content increased at decreasing target powers. The chemical composition of the films was shown to range from silicon-rich to effectively stoichiometric silicon oxynitrides, where no Si–Si contributions were found in the XPS Si 2p core level spectra. The film optical properties, namely the refractive index and extinction coefficient, were shown to depend on the film chemical bonding, with the stoichiometric films displaying optical properties falling between those of silicon oxide and silicon nitride.

    The properties of silicon carbonitride films were greatly influenced by the synthesis method. The films deposited by HiPIMS using acetylene as the carbon source showed silicon nitride-like mechanical properties, such as a hardness of ~ 20 GPa and compressive residual stresses of 1.7 – 1.9 GPa, up to film carbon contents of 30 at.%. At larger film carbon contents the films had increasingly amorphous carbon-like properties, such as densities below 2 g/cm3 and hardnesses below 10 GPa. The films with more than 30 at.% carbon also showed columnar morphologies in cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, whereas films with lower carbon content showed dense morphologies. Due to the use of acetylene the carbonitride films contained hydrogen, up to ~ 15 at.%. The co-sputtered silicon carbonitride films showed a layered SiNx/CNx structure. The hardness of these films increased with the film carbon content, reaching a maximum of 18 GPa at a film carbon content of 12 at.%. Comparatively hard and low stressed films were grown by co-sputtering using a C target power of 1200 W for a C content around 12 at.%, a negative substrate bias less than 100 V, and a substrate temperature up to 340 °C.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-07 13:15 Lilla Jadwigasalen 12:108, Gävle
    Haga, Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Psychological consequences of moral labelling in the built environment2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is strongly linked to human behavior and technologies, and many of the barriers to sustainable behavior are rather psychological than technological. More sustainable technologies and food products have been introduced to combat climate change, most often labeled with morally loaded labels such as “organic” or “environmentally friendly”. The purpose of this thesis was, first, to gain knowledge into the psychological consequences of the introduction of eco-friendly technologies in the built environment, specifically how labeling these products “eco-friendly” influences perception and performance; secondly, to identify underlying psychological mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. Study 1 showed that participants generally prefer the taste of consumables labeled eco-friendly compared to conventional labeled alternatives, but the study also found that the label-effect is limited to certain products and certain judgmental dimensions. Results in this study also showed that people believe that eco-labeled products have positive effects on mental abilities. In Study 2 and 3, the focus was to study the effects of eco-labeling in the built environment on performance in cognitively demanding tasks, such as color discrimination and proofreading. At this point, the eco-label effect had been shown across a wide range of products like food, water, and office technologies, and been generalized to a wide range of judgmental dimensions and behaviors (i.e. taste, nutrition health benefits, comfortableness, and mental performance). In Study 4, results showed that eco-labeling can have effects also on behavior that arguably have very little to do with the labeling itself, by showing that social perception of photographed persons can also depend on the labeling of desktop lamps. A consistent finding across the studies was also that individual differences in environmental concern modulated the magnitude of the effect. The magnitude was larger in people with higher concern for the environment.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 10:15 ACAS, Hus A, Linköping
    Norman, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fatigue of Heavy-Vehicle Engine Materials: Damage Mechanisms, Laboratory Experiments and Life Estimation2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing demands on sustainability exerted by end-costumers and policy makers, heavyvehicle manufacturers are urged to increase the engine efficiency in order to reduce the exhaust gas emission. However, increasing the efficiency is also associated with an elevated fatigue rate of the materials constituting the engine parts, which consequently reduces the engine service life. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to confront the expected increase by studying the fatigue behaviour and damage mechanisms of the materials typically employed in heavy-vehicle diesel engines. With this knowledge, this work seeks to guide the development of new heavy-vehicle engine materials, as well as to develop improved life estimation methods designated to assist the mechanical design of durable heavy-vehicle engines.

    In essence, a large set of thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and combined thermomechanical and high-cycle fatigue (TMF-HCF) tests is conducted at engine load conditions on laboratory specimens of lamellar, compacted and spheroidal graphite iron. In this way, the fatigue performance and associated damage mechanisms are investigated. In particular, a new fatigue property is identified, the TMF-HCF threshold, which quantifies how resistant a material is to superimposed high-cycle fatigue.

    The damage mechanism at low temperatures (≲500°C) is confirmed to consist of the initiation, propagation and coalescence of numerous microcracks. Based on this, a successful fatigue life estimation model is formulated, allowing accurate estimations of TMF and TMF-HCF tests on smooth specimens, and TMF tests on notched specimens. In the latter case, the microcrack growth behaviour in non-uniform cyclic stress fields and its implications for life estimation are clarified. At elevated temperatures (≳500°C), surface oxidation is shown to govern the fatigue performance of cast iron grades intended for exhaust manifolds. It is observed that oxide intrusions are induced, from which surface fatigue cracks are initiated. Consequently, an optimal material at these conditions should have a low oxide growth rate and few casting defects at the surface, as these factors are found to stimulate the growth of intrusion.  

  • Lindkvist, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Precontractile optical response during excitation-contraction in human muscle revealed by non-invasive high-speed spatiotemporal NIR measurement2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During muscle contraction the excitation-contraction process mediates the neural input and mechanical output. Proper muscle function and body locomotion depends on the status of the elements in the same process. However, non-invasive and in-vivo methods to study this are not available. Here we show the existence of an optical response occurring during the excitation-contraction process in human biceps brachii muscle. We developed a non-invasive instrument from a photodiode array and light emitting diodes to detect spatially propagating (similar to 5 m/s) and precontractile (similar to 6 ms onset) optical signals closely related to the action potential during electrostimulation. Although this phenomenon was observed 60 years ago on isolated frog muscle cells in the lab, it has not been shown in-vivo before now. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for a new category in-vivo studies, characterising alterations in the excitation-contraction process in patients with neuromuscular disease and to monitor effects of therapy.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-14 10:15 Seminarierummet, KTH Hållfasthetslära, 100 44 Stockholm
    Everitt, Carl-Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.), Hållfasthetslära (Avd.).
    Initiation of rolling contact fatigue from asperities in elastohydrodynamic lubricated contacts2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contacts are utilized in many technical applications, both in bearings and in the contact between gear teeth. These components are often highly loaded, which makes them susceptible to suffer from rolling contact fatigue. This work focuses on the rolling contact fatigue mechanism of pitting. In order to attain a better understanding of why pitting initiates and grows, detailed simulations of rolling contacts have been performed. In particular the contact between two gears in a truck retarder was here used as a case study. The investigated contact experienced elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions since the load was high enough to causes the surfaces in contact to deform and the viscosity of the lubricant to increase significantly.

    In Paper A it was investigated if surface irregularities in the size of the surface roughness are large enough to cause surface initiated fatigue. The investigation focused on the pitch line since small surface initiated pits were found here even though there was no slip present. Since there were pits present at the pitch line, it is important that the theories of pitting can explain the development of pits also in the absence of slip. The conclusion of the work was that surface irregularities of the size of normal surface roughness are enough to cause surface initiated fatigue at the pitch line.

    In Paper B it was investigated why pits are more likely to initiate in the dedendum of pinion gears than in the addendum. In both areas slip is present but in different directions. In the dedendum the friction from slip is against the rolling direction which enhances the risk for pitting. The investigation was performed by studying the effect of the temperature rise in the contact caused by the slip. The conclusion drawn was that the temperature rise in the contact explained why pitting was more common in the dedendum than in the addendum.

  • Ejlertsson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Heijbel, Bodil
    Lund University.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsplattformen för Hälsa i samverkan. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: a questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees2018Inngår i: Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 155-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees.

    METHOD: Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (1 = 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (1 = 0.25) and work experiences (1 = 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work.

    CONCLUSION: Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recoverystrategies in the workplace.

  • Golub, Koraljka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV).
    [ Review of ] Tatjana Aparac-Jelušić : Digital Libraries for Cultural Heritage : Development, Outcomes, and Challenges from European Perspectives2018Inngår i: Vjesnik Bibliotekara Hrvatske, ISSN 0507-1925, E-ISSN 1334-6938Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-14 13:27 M311, Stockholm
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    An evaluation of biodiesel policies: The case of palm oil agro-industry in Indonesia2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil palm has flourished as an economically vital crop in Indonesia given its use in both food and non-food products (including biodiesel) for domestic and export markets. However, the expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia is controversial. While the crop generates fiscal earnings for the country, and regular income streams for farmers and companies, oil palm plantation expansion is claimed to cause deforestation, environmental degradation and biodiversity losses. At the same time, there is a national target to reduce GHG emissions from land use change and the production of palm oil. Climate change mitigation goals also include ambitious targets to blend biodiesel with fossil diesel in various economic sectors.

    This thesis looks at the palm oil agro-industry, from oil palm plantation to crude palm oil (CPO) production, and CPO based biodiesel production. It proposes a policy evaluation to verify policy implications in relation to the issue of land use allocation, and the poor profitability in palm oil biodiesel production. The overarching objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of prevailing policies used to promote the palm oil agro-industry for biodiesel production in Indonesia.

    The thesis is framed by policy research and ex-post policy evaluation. The focus is on the process of policy formulation and implementation, rather than outcome evaluation. Two specific analytical frameworks are used to answer the research questions while addressing the criteria of effectiveness in policy evaluation: (i) policy coherence analysis and (ii) life cycle cost analysis. Qualitative indicators are used to measure the coherence of biofuel policy with other sectoral policies (agriculture, climate and forestry) in relation to land allocation. Quantitative economic indicators are used to compare the costs and benefits of conventional palm oil biodiesel production with a biorefinery conceptual plant.

    There are valuable lessons to be learnt from this policy evaluation. The results indicate areas in which policy effectiveness can be improved. For land allocation, adjustments and improvements in policy formulation and implementation are crucial. Uncertainties when it comes to the allocation of land to meet multi sectoral policy goals are to be addressed by clarifying land use definitions and categories, which should be backed up by consistent land use definitions in various policy documents. The dual land classification presently applied should move towards a single land classification, linking actual landscape coverage and the legal status of the land. Policy information and guidance across sectoral policies should be compiled in a single database. Such a publicly available database would help enhance the efficiency of land allocation for multiple policy purposes. More importantly, the formulation of biodiesel policy has to engage various sectoral policies that compete for the same resources.

    The biorefinery conceptual plant allows the reduction of government subsidies, while also providing a pathway to enhance the use of renewable energy and reduce GHG emissions. Policies have been designed to enhance plant profits through the improved utilisation of biomass residues in the palm oil mill for energy generation and composting. However, the low implementation rate of policies indicates the need to improve the effectiveness of policy implementation, and therefore the need for better monitoring processes, and possibly more stringent consequences for non-compliance.

  • Moinian, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholm University.
    Dorls, Patrick
    Umeå University.
    Mother tongue language teaching with digital tablets in early childhood education: a question of social inclusion and equity2016Inngår i: He Kupu, ISSN 1179-6812, E-ISSN 1179-6812, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literacy in the twenty-first century is changing to become more multicultural, multilingual and multimodal as people are using more digital technologies in their everyday lives. This article reports on what these changing conceptions of literacy mean for mother tongue teaching by exploring why, how and when mother tongue teachers in preschools use digital technologies. Regarding literacy as a social practice, the article focuses on emerging patterns in the use of digital tablets in a large Swedish municipality, providing empirical data (questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews) from mother tongue teachers working together with hundreds of children aged 1-6 at preschools. The study found significant differences in the levels of digital technologies used among mother tongue teachers. What seems to matter is whether or not the teachers themselves are frequent and engaged users of digital technologies in their own everyday lives. Most of the teachers reported that they are integrating digital technologies in their teaching even though they have officially a restricted access to digital devices. Teachers expressed a desire to use the digital tablet as a tool to access and create knowledge by creating an opportunity for innovation, specifically for language groups that are not represented in the majority context of teaching materials or not suitable for a secularized society due to, for example, religious or political differences. The article concludes by stating that digital tablets are convenient mother tongue teaching tools but that teachers are asking for policies that can point the way as to how to implement digital resources, since tablets offer social inclusion and equity but also involve ethical dilemmas.

  • Pöppel, Ludmila
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Dobrovol'skij, Dmitrij
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Constructions in Parallel Corpora:A Quantitative Approach2017Inngår i: Computational and Corpus-Based Phraseology: Second International Conference, Europhras 2017London, UK, November 13–14, 2017 Proceedings / [ed] Ruslan Mitkov, Springer Publishing Company, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the present study is to find an adequate methodfor the quantitative analysis of empirical data obtained from parallel corpora.Such a task is particularly important in the case of fixed constructions possessingsome degree of idiomaticity and language specificity. Our data consist of theRussian construction дeлo в тoм, чтo and its parallels in English, German andSwedish. This construction, which appears to present no difficulty for translationinto other languages, is in fact, language-specific when compared with otherlanguages. It displays a large number of different parallels (translation equivalents)in other languages, and possesses a complex semantic structure. Theconfiguration of semantic elements comprising the content plane of this constructionis unique. The empirical data have been collected from the corpusquery system Sketch Engine, subcorpus OPUS2 Russian, and the RussianNational Corpus (RNC). We propose to use the Herfindahl index as a tool forquantitative analysis in order to measure the degree of uniformity in the frequencydistribution of the various translations of the construction under investigation.This tool is not universal and does not enable us to answer all thequestions that arise in connection with determining the specificity of languageunits. However, it clearly helps to obtain more objective results and to refine thequantitative analysis of idiomatic constructions on the basis of corpus data.

  • Pöppel, Ludmila
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Конструкция возьми и + Vimp: корпусное исследование2017Inngår i: Slovo, ISSN 2001–7395, nr 58, s. 50-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of the study is the construction [возьми и + Vimp] and its variants in the functionof a narrative imperative. Purely semantically, this construction can be considered a partialrealization of [взять и + V], which permits various grammatical forms. It is not describedseparately in dictionaries, but appears only in the zone of illustrative examples as a realizationof the construction [взять и + V]. Formally, [возьми и + Vimp] in the meaning of a narrativeimperative is homonymous with the genuine imperative and occupies an intermediate positionbetween the construction [взять и + V] and an ordinary imperative, which cannot help but bereflected in its semantics. Studies and lexicographical sources have not treated questionsconcerning the filler of the Vimp slot, but note only that it requires a perfective verb. Usingmaterials from the main RNC corpus and the subcorpus ruTenTen of Sketch Engine, the goalof the present investigation is to identify and empirically substantiate some usage preferencesfor filling this slot. The findings of the corpus analysis allow us to identify a number ofpreferences for filling the Vimp slot. The most frequent filler of the Vimp slot is verbs ofspeaking. In this group, the verb скажи is the clear leader. Another frequent filler of the Vimpslot is verbs meaning ‘death’.

  • Hallgren, Christoffer
    Assessment of green power production in Antarctica2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, fossil fuels have been the energy source to power research stations in Antarctica. With increasing awareness of climate change and local environmental effects associated with use of fossil fuels, the demand for replacement green energy power supply have increased rapidly.

    In this article, the potential for wind and solar power in Antarctica is assessed. The study is based on 34 years of reanalysis data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) focusing on the location for the experiment ARIANNA (Antarctic Ross Ice-Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array). Results are compared with the stations Mawson and Princess Elisabeth, where wind and solar power already is operational, and with the Amundsen-Scott station.

    The average wind speed for the ARIANNA site is around 7.5 m/s during winter and 6.0 m/s during summer. Comparing with Princess Elisabeth, the average wind speed is approximately 5 m/s lower.

    The generally low wind speeds at the ARIANNA site suggest that wind turbines with a low cut-in speed should be used. The strong influence from katabatic winds make wind direction persistent, which is preferable.

    The potential for solar power production at ARIANNA is expected to be 10% lower comparing with Princess Elisabeth.

  • Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise.

    Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT.

    Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%.

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of the O2 deficit may be possible using data from only one submaximal stage in combination with the GE/EC method.