1234567 101 - 150 of 1069
rss atomLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Moldeus, Karolina
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Visby Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Visby, Sweden..
    Cheng, Yvonne W.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Surg, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Calif Pacific Med Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, San Francisco, CA USA..
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk forskning. Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stephansson, Olof
    Karolinska Univ Hosp & Inst, Dept Med Solna, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Induction of labor versus expectant management of large-for-gestational-age infants in nulliparous women2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, e0180748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. Methods and findings To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (> 90 th centile) births, 1992-2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included obstetric anal sphincter injury, 5-minute Apgar< 7 and birth injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding. We found that among the 722 women induced at week 38, there was a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.44 95% CI: 1.20-1.72), compared to those with expectant management (n = 44 081). There was no significant difference between the groups in regards to risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.85-1.30), obstetric anal sphincter injury (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.55-1.19), nor 5minute Apgar<7 (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.58-1.94) or birth injury (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.49- 1.38). Similar comparisons for induction of labor at 39, 40 or 41 weeks compared to expectant management with delivery at a later gestational age, showed increased rates of cesarean delivery for induced women. Conclusions In women with LGA infants, induction of labor at 38 weeks gestation is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to expectant management, with no difference in neonatal morbidity.

  • Grünloh, Christiane
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rexhepi, Hanife
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    School of Informatics. The Informatics Research Centre, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Myreteg, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Huvila, Isto
    Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Åland.
    Patient Empowerment Meets Concerns for Patients: a Study of Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records in Sweden2016Inngår i: Exploring Complexity in Health: An Interdisciplinary Systems Approach / [ed] Alexander Hoerbst, Werner O. Hackl, Nicolette de Keizer, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, Simon de Lusignan, IOS Press , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As part of a EU project, the Swedish county Uppsala launched a patient portal, Journalen in 2012 [1]. Patients can now access their Electronic Health Records (EHR) online, which is aimed to increase patient empowerment. The medical professionals reacted strongly on patients accessing the medical records. Main concerns were related to quality of care, the effect on their work environment, providing bad news through the eHealth service, and also the wellbeing of patients. While the opportunities of implementing these e-health services seem promising, the concerns of the medical professionals have to be understood and addressed, as well as the actual use of the system by patients. This presentation integrates results from two interview studies with physicians and patients related to patients accessing their medical records online [2,3].

    Method

    The presented results are synthesis of the interviews studies with 12 physicians [2] and 30 patients [3], which took place about 6–12 months after the launch of the portal. The synthesis presented in this paper focus on Technological Frames [4] of physicians and patients including the attitudes and experiences in relation to possible (1) anxiety creation, (2) increased of workload, and (3) the general value of patients reading medical records.

    Results Anxiety creation due to receiving bad news. Many physicians believe that breaking bad news to patients during a patient encounter is vital as this would give them the possibility to also explain treat- ments and answer questions. Somewhat unexpectedly, some patients preferred receiving bad news through Journalen instead of waiting for the physicians. The patients argue that waiting times causes more anxiety. The choice of not accessing is also important, as there are patients who do not want to receive bad news before a patient encounter. Workload increases. Many physicians are worried about the work- load of doctors, as reading the medical record online may result in increased number of phone calls because of anxious patients. However, many patients did not tend to take any additional contacts to ask questions. Some of the patients even believe that access to their medical records reduces the number of contacts with healthcare. Usefulness of accessing online. Many physicians are concerned that online access will have a negative impact on the patient such as increased anxiety and misconceptions as they lack understanding of medical terms. Unlike the doctors’ perspective, many patients argue that they do not have major difficulties in understanding the contents. They also argue that Journalen was central to their coping with their decease.

    Conclusion

    From this study it is clear that the Technological Frames of physicians differ from those of patients, and that they have different attitudes and experiences towards the system. The intention from the politicians was that the system would contribute to Patient Empowerment, but that framing of the technology differs from the physicians’ view, as they are concerned of the consequences. More research is needed on the framing of the technology and how that has been changed after the launch of the system.

    [1] Erlingsdottir, G., Lindholm, C. When patient empowerment encounters professional autonomy: The conflict and negotiation process of inscribing an eHealth service. Scandinavian journal of public administration 2015;19(29):27- 48.

    [2] Grünloh, C., Cajander, Å., Myreteg, G., “The Record is our Work Tool!” - Physicians’ Framing of a Patient Portal in Sweden. J Med Internet Res (submitted).

    [3] Rexhepi, H., Åhlfeldt, R.-M., Cajander, Å, & Huvila, I. (2015). Cancer Patients’ Attitudes and Experiences of Online Medical Records, 1–8. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research ISHIMR 2015.

    [4] Orlikowski, W.J., Gash, D.C. Technological Frames: Making sense of information technology in organizations. Transactions on Information Systems 1994;12(2):174–207. doi: 10.1145/196734.196745

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå
    Marsja, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Attention capture by sudden and unexpected changes: a multisensory perspective2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus for this thesis was cross-modal attention capture by sudden and unexpected sounds and vibrations, known as deviants, presented in a stream the same to-be-ignored stimulus. More specifically, the thesis takes a multisensory perspective and examines the possible similarities and differences in how deviant vibrations and sounds affect visual task performance (Study I), and whether the deviant and standard stimuli have to be presented within the same modality to capture attention away from visual tasks (Study II). Furthermore, by presenting spatial deviants (changing the source of the stimuli from one side of the body to the other) in audiotactile (bimodal), tactile, and auditory to-be-ignored, it explores whether bimodal stimuli are more salient compared to unimodal (Study III). In addition, Study III tested the claims that short-term memory is domain-specific.

    In line with previous research, Study I found that both auditory and tactile deviants captured attention away from the visual task. However, the temporal dynamics between the two modalities seem to differ. That is, it seems like practice causes the effect of vibratory deviants to reduce, whereas this is not the case for auditory deviants. This suggests that there are central mechanisms (detection of the change) and sensory-specific mechanisms.

    Study II found that the deviant and standard stimuli must be presented within the same modality. If attention capture by deviants is produced by a mismatch within a neural model predicting upcoming stimuli, the neural model is likely built on stimuli within each modality separately.

    The results of Study III revealed that spatial and verbal short-term memory are negatively affected by a spatial change in to-be-ignored sequences, but only when the change is within a bimodal sequence. These results can be taken as evidence for a unitary account of short-term memory (verbal and spatial information stored in the same storage) and that bimodal stimuli may be integrated into a unitary percept that make any change in the stream more salient. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 13:15 Geijersalen (6-1023), Uppsala
    Berglund, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen, Avdelningen för litteratursociologi.
    Mordens marknad: Litteratursociologiska studier i det tidiga 2000-talets svenska kriminallitteratur2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with Swedish crime fiction and its successes on the Swedish book market in the early 2000s. The genre’s expansion, marketing and literary content is mapped and analysed in three studies that together paint a thorough picture of this literary phenomena in Swedish book trade.

    In study no 1 the development of the genre in Sweden in the last 40 years is discussed from a quantitative perspective. With the base in bibliographies of Swedish crime fiction publication trends are analysed in several ways and concerning topics such as genre growth, gender balance, publishing houses, successful authorships, bestsellers and library lending. The results include: a significant genre expansion in the 2000s; a great dominance for the genre on the bestseller charts in the 2000s; and a shift in the author group, from male dominance to even gender balance.

    In study no 2 the marketing of the genre is examined through an analysis of book covers, titles and other elements in the concrete packaging of just over 150 Swedish crime fiction paperbacks. With book history as an important theoretical influence book covers and other peritextual elements are understood as a significant part of the marketing of the genre, but also – and wider – as of crucial importance for how genres themselves are established, withheld and re-negotiated in the interplay between different actors in the society of literature – publishers, authors, booksellers, readers.

    In study no 3 a quantitative content analysis of 116 Swedish crime novels published 1998–2015 is used to chart and discuss recurring themes and tropes within the genre. Focus is primarily directed towards what is understood as the most central parts of crime fiction: murderers and their motives; methods used in committing murder; victims of murder; and detectives and other protagonists. The results include: a distinct dominance of female protagonists; a partial realism, where depictions of everyday life in general is realistic while the murder plots are spectacular and sensational; and a dominance of normality, where main characters and innocent victims confirms normality, while killers and unsympathetic victims are depicted as deviants in stark contrast with normality.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Baskaran, Sathishkumar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Neuroonkologi. Department of IGP, Uppsala University.
    New Molecular Approaches to Glioblastoma Therapy2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common high-grade brain tumor diagnosed in patients who are more than 50 years of age. The standard of care treatment is surgery, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The median life expectancy of patients is only between 12 to 15 months after receiving current treatment regimes. Hence, identification of new therapeutic compounds and gene targets are highly warranted. This thesis describes four interlinked studies to attain this goal. In study 1, we explored drug combination effects in a material of 41 patient-derived GBM cell (GC) cultures. Synergies between three compounds, pterostilbene, gefitinib, and sertraline, resulted in effective killing of GC and can be predicted by biomarkers. In study 2, we performed a large-scale screening of FDA approved compounds (n=1544) in a larger panel of GCs (n=106). By combining the large-scale drug response data with GCs genomics data, we built a novel computational model to predict the sensitivity of each compound for a given GC. A notable finding was that GCs respond very differently to proteasome inhibitors in both in-vitro and in-vivo. In study 3, we explored new gene targets by RNAi (n=1112) in a panel of GC cells. We found that loss of transcription factor ZBTB16/PLZF inhibits GC cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion. These effects were due to downregulation of c-MYC and Cyclin B1 after the treatment. In study 4, we tested the genomic stability of three GCs upon multiple passaging. Using molecular and mathematical analyses, we showed that the GCs undergo both systematic adaptations and sequential clonal takeovers. Such changes tend to affect a broad spectrum of pathways. Therefore, a systematic analysis of cell culture stability will be essential to make use of primary cells for translational oncology.

    Taken together, these studies deepen our knowledge of the weak points of GBM and provide several targets and biomarkers for further investigation. The work in this thesis can potentially facilitate the development of targeted therapies and result in more accurate tools for patient diagnostics and stratification. 

  • Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Conventional and new ways of governing forest threats: a study of stakeholder coherence in Sweden2017Inngår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n = 2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed. Results revealed an overall coherence between different stakeholders in this context. However, the groups differed in, for example, the acceptability of the hypothetical regulative measure aiming to reduce damages threatening the forest long-term (e.g., climate change). Furthermore, an extensive use of advice for a fee may challenge particularly the internal, but also the external, legitimacy of forest risk governance. The forest owner stakeholder group showed lower threat appraisals when evaluating threat to one’s own forest rather than to the Swedish forest, except regarding browsing by animals. Regulations were not disapproved of in any of the stakeholder groups, although the forest owner group generally displayed higher acceptability of encouraging measures compared to the general public. Trust in the SFA was furthermore confirmed as an important driver of policy acceptability, and higher threat appraisals of novel threats, such as climate change and fire, resulted in a higher acceptability of measures less central or new in this context. The value of analyzing stakeholder coherence for natural resource management and governance is discussed.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-12 10:00 Magnélisalen Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Muheim, Claudio
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Antibiotic uptake in Gram-negative bacteria2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a serious threat to public health. Of particular concern are Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these strains are resistant to a large number of antibiotics and thus our treatment options are rapidly declining. In addition to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a major problem is that many of the antibiotics at our disposal are ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria. This is partly due to the properties of the outer membrane (OM) which prevents efficient uptake. The overarching goal of this thesis was to investigate how the OM of the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli could be weakened to improve the activity of antibiotics.

    In the first two papers of my thesis (paper I + II), I investigated the periplasmic chaperone network which consists of the two parallel pathways SurA and Skp/DegP. This network is essential for the integrity of the OM and strains lacking either SurA or Skp are defective in the assembly of the OM, which results in an increased sensitivity towards vancomycin and other antimicrobials. We identified a novel component of the periplasmic chaperone network, namely YfgM, and showed that it operates in the same network as Skp and SurA/DegP. In particular, we demonstrated that deletion of YfgM in strains with either a ΔsurA or Δskp background further compromised the integrity of the OM, as evidenced by an increased sensitivity towards vancomycin.

    In the remaining two papers of my thesis (paper III + IV), the goal was to characterize small molecules that permeabilize the OM and thus could be used to improve the activity of antibiotics. Towards this goal, we performed a high-throughput screen and identified an inhibitor of the periplasmic chaperone LolA, namely MAC-13243, and showed that it can be used to permeabilize the OM of E. coli (paper III). We further demonstrated that MAC-13243 can be used to potentiate the activity of antibiotics which are normally ineffective against E. coli. In the last paper of my thesis (paper IV), we undertook a more specific approach and wanted to identify an inhibitor against the glycosyltransferase WaaG. This enzyme is involved in the synthesis of LPS and genetic inactivation of WaaG results in a defect in the OM, which leads to an increased sensitivity to various antibiotics. In this paper, we identified a small molecular fragment (compound L1) and showed that it can be used to inhibit the activity of WaaG in vitro.

    To summarize, this thesis provides novel insights into how the OM of the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli can be weakened by using small molecules. We believe that the two identified small molecules represent important first steps towards the design of more potent inhibitors that could be used in clinics to enhance the activity of antibiotics.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-12 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Fetisova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Towards a flexible statistical modelling by latent factors for evaluation of simulated responses to climate forcings2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, using the principles of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the cause-effect concept associated with structural equation modelling (SEM), a new flexible statistical framework for evaluation of climate model simulations against observational data is suggested. The design of the framework also makes it possible to investigate the magnitude of the influence of different forcings on the temperature as well as to investigate a general causal latent structure of temperature data. In terms of the questions of interest, the framework suggested here can be viewed as a natural extension of the statistical approach of 'optimal fingerprinting', employed in many Detection and Attribution (D&A) studies. Its flexibility means that it can be applied under different circumstances concerning such aspects as the availability of simulated data, the number of forcings in question, the climate-relevant properties of these forcings, and the properties of the climate model under study, in particular, those concerning the reconstructions of forcings and their implementation. It should also be added that although the framework involves the near-surface temperature as a climate variable of interest and focuses on the time period covering approximately the last millennium prior to the industrialisation period, the statistical models, included in the framework, can in principle be generalised to any period in the geological past as soon as simulations and proxy data on any continuous climate variable are available.  Within the confines of this thesis, performance of some CFA- and SEM-models is evaluated in pseudo-proxy experiments, in which the true unobservable temperature series is replaced by temperature data from a selected climate model simulation. The results indicated that depending on the climate model and the region under consideration, the underlying latent structure of temperature data can be of varying complexity, thereby rendering our statistical framework, serving as a basis for a wide range of CFA- and SEM-models, a powerful and flexible tool. Thanks to these properties, its application ultimately may contribute to an increased confidence in the conclusions about the ability of the climate model in question to simulate observed climate changes.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 MB 416, Huddinge
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. natasja.borjeson@sh.se.
    Toxic Textiles: Towards Responsibility in Complex Supply Chains2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The governance of the environmental and health problems that follow in the wake of globalised trade is one of the great contemporary challenges. One of these challenges is the management of chemical pollution and associated risks, and one sector facing this challenge is the textile industry, which has complex supply chains spread across continents. At the same time the role of actors on the playing field are changing and market actors are being called on to responsibly manage the issue of chemical risks and associated challenges. However, governance and control are often obstructed due to complexity and considerable knowledge uncertainty. This situation complicates responsibility-taking and makes it difficult to ascribe liabilities to specific actors, as it is not obvious who is responsible for what. This thesis is concerned with the process of how a group of market actors – private and public textile buyers – assume responsibility of chemical risks in their supply chains in a situation that is characterized by uncertainty and complexity. This thesis aims to contribute to an understanding of what happens when market actors are called on to manage the negative side effects of globalisation. The focus is on Swedish textile-buying private and public organisations. The thesis constructs an analytical model based on the key concepts responsible governance, responsibilisation, and responsible supply chain management (RSCM). The thesis explores the barriers, challenges and opportunities that exist for buyers seeking to assume RSCM and whether a process of responsibilisation can be observed in the textile sector. The thesis uses an exploratory approach and interviews, participatory observations and literature studies, as well as case studies to understand the process and to investigate barriers, challenges, opportunities. In summary, the thesis shows that a process of responsibilisation is ongoing on the organisational and sector levels. Further, it is shown that due to the complex structures of the chains, there are more barriers and challenges than opportunities for buyers striving for RSCM. However, it is argued that cooperation, stronger public and private policy, and a reflexive approach could be ways forward towards RSCM and increased responsibilisation in the textile sector.

  • Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa A.M.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Khalaf, Rasul M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Comparison of 2D and 3D Models2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 8, 769-779 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow over broad-crested weirs was simulated by computational fluid dynamic model. The water surface profile over broad crested weir was measured in a laboratory model and validated using two and three dimensional Fluent programs. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the turbulent standard (k-ε) model and volume of fluid method were applied to estimate the water surface profile. The results of numerical model were compared with experimental results to evaluate the ability of model in describing the behaviour of water surface profile over the weir. The results indicated that the 3D required more time in comparison with 2D results and the flow over weir changed from subcritical flow at the upstream (U/S) face of weir to critical flow over the crest and to supercritical flow at downstream (D/S). A reasonable agreement was noticed between numerical results and experimental observations with mean error less than 2 %.

  • Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lakew, Ewnetu Bayuh
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A Black-box Approach for Detecting Systems Anomalies in Virtualized Environments2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC 2017), IEEE, 2017, 22-33 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtualization technologies allow cloud providers to optimize server utilization and cost by co-locating services in as few servers as possible. Studies have shown how applications in multi-tenant environments are susceptible to systems anomalies such as abnormal resource usage due to performance interference. Effective detection of such anomalies requires techniques that can adapt autonomously with dynamic service workloads, require limited instrumentation to cope with diverse applications services, and infer relationship between anomalies non-intrusively to avoid "alarm fatigue" due to scale. We propose a black-box framework that includes an unsupervised prediction-based mechanism for automated anomaly detection in multi-dimensional resource behaviour of datacenter nodes and a graph-theoretic technique for ranking anomalous nodes across the datacenter. The proposed framework is evaluated using resource traces of over 100 virtual machines obtained from a production cluster as well as traces obtained from an experimental testbed under realistic service composition. The technique achieve average normalized root mean squared forecast error and R^2 of (0.92, 0.07) across hosts servers and (0.70, 0.39) across virtual machines. Also, the average detection rate is 88% while explaining 62% of SLA violations with an average lead-time of 6 time-points when the testbed is actively perturbed under three contention scenarios. 

  • Ibidunmoye, Olumuyiwa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ali-Reza, Rezaie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Adaptive Anomaly Detection in Performance Metric Streams2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 14, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous detection of performance anomalies such as service degradations has become critical in cloud and Internet services due to impact on quality of service and end-user experience. However, the volume and fast changing behaviour of metric streams have rendered it a challenging task. Many diagnosis frameworks often rely on thresholding with stationarity or normality assumption, or on complex models requiring extensive offline training. Such techniques are known to be prone to spurious false-alarms in online settings as metric streams undergo rapid contextual changes from known baselines. Hence, we propose two unsupervised incremental techniques following a two-step strategy. First, we estimate an underlying temporal property of the stream via adaptive learning and, then we apply statistically robust control charts to recognize deviations. We evaluated our techniques by replaying over 40 time-series streams from the Yahoo! Webscope S5 datasets as well as 4 other traces of real web service QoS and ISP traffic measurements. Our methods achieve high detection accuracy and few false-alarms, and better performance in general compared to an open-source package for time-series anomaly detection.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 KB.E3.01, Umeå
    Borén, Eleonora
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Off-gassing from thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Off-gassing of hazardous compounds is, together with self-heating and dust explosions, the main safety hazards within large-scale biomass storage and handling. Formation of CO, CO2, and VOCs with concurrent O2 depletion can occur to hazardous levels in enclosed stored forest products. Several incidents of CO poisoning and suffocation of oxygen depletion have resulted in fatalities and injuries during cargo vessel discharge of forest products and in conjunction with wood pellet storage rooms and silos. Technologies for torrefaction and steam explosion for thermal treatment of biomass are under development and approaching commercialization, but their off-gassing behavior is essentially unknown.

    The overall objective of this thesis was to provide answers to one main question: “What is the off-gassing behaviour of thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass during storage?”. This was achieved by experimental studies and detailed analysis of off-gassing compounds sampled under realistic conditions, with special emphasis on the VOCs.

    Presented results show that off-gassing behavior is influenced by numerous factors, in the following ways. CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing levels from torrefied and stream-exploded biomass and pellets, and accompanying O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding from untreated biomass. The treatments also cause major compositional shifts in VOCs; emissions of terpenes and native aldehydes decline, but levels of volatile cell wall degradation products (notably furans and aromatics) increase. The severity of the thermal treatment is also important; increases in torrefaction severity increase CO off-gassing from torrefied pine to levels comparable to emissions from conventional pellets, and increase O2 depletion for both torrefied chips and pellets. Both treatment temperature and duration also influence degradation rates and VOC composition. The product cooling technique is influential too; water spraying in addition to heat exchange increased CO2 and VOCs off-gassing from torrefied pine chips, as well as O2 depletion. Moreover, the composition of emitted gases co-varied with pellets’ moisture content; pellets of more severely treated material retained less moisture, regardless of their pre-conditioning moisture content. However, no co-variance was found between off-gassing and pelletization settings, the resulting pellet quality, or storage time of torrefied chips before pelletization. Pelletization of steam-exploded bark increased subsequent VOC off-gassing, and induced compositional shifts relative to emissions from unpelletized steam-exploded material. In addition, CO, CO2 and CH4 off-gassing, and O2 depletion, were positively correlated with the storage temperature of torrefied softwood. Similarly, CO and CH4 emissions from steam-exploded softwood increased with increases in storage temperature, and VOC off-gassing from both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood was more affected by storage temperature than by treatment severity. Levels of CO, CO2 and CH4 increased, while levels of O2 and most VOCs decreased, during storage of both torrefied and steam-exploded softwood.CO, CO2 and O2 levels were more affected by storage time than by treatment severity. Levels of VOCs were not significantly decreased or altered by nitrogen purging of storage spaces of steam-exploded or torrefied softwood, or controlled headspace gas exchange (intermittent ventilation) during storage of steam-exploded bark.

    In conclusion, rates of off-gassing of CO and CO2 from thermally treated biomass, and associated O2 depletion, are comparable to or lower than corresponding rates for untreated biomass. Thermal treatment induces shifts in both concentrations and profiles of VOCs. It is believed that the knowledge and insights gained provide refined foundations for future research and safe implementation of thermally treated fuels as energy carriers in renewable energy process chains.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 Aulan, Kiruna
    Ramstad, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Ion escape from Mars: measurements in the present to understand the past2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Present-day Mars is a cold and dry planet with a thin CO2-dominated atmosphere comprising only a few ­­­mbar pressure at low altitudes. However, the Martian surface is marked with valley networks, hydrated mineral clays, carbonates and the remains of deltas and meandering rivers, i.e. traces of an active hydrological cycle present early in the planet's geological history. A strong greenhouse effect, and thus a thicker atmosphere, would have been required to sustain a sufficiently warm environment, particularly under the weaker luminosity of the early Sun. The fate of this early atmosphere is currently unknown.

    While several mechanisms can remove atmospheric mass over time, a prominent hypothesis suggests that the lack of an intrinsic Earth-like global magnetic dipole has allowed the solar wind to erode the early Martian atmosphere by imparting energy to the planet's ionosphere which subsequently flows out as ion escape, over time depleting the greenhouse gasses and collapsing the ancient hydrological cycle. Previous studies have found insignificant ion escape rates under present-day conditions, however, the young Sun emitted significantly stronger solar wind and photoionizing radiation flux compared to the present. The geological record establishes the time of collapse of the hydrological cycle, estimated to have occurred in the mid-late Hesperian period (~3.3 billion years ago) at latest. To constrain the amount of atmosphere lost through ion escape since, we use the extensive database of ion flux measurements from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) particles package on the Mars Express orbiter (2004-present) to quantify the ion escape rate dependence on upstream solar wind and solar radiation conditions.

    The Martian ion escape rate is shown to be insensitive to solar wind parameters with a weak inverse dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure, and linearly dependent on solar ionizing photon flux, indicating efficient screening of the bulk ionosphere by the induced magnetic fields. The impact of an extreme coronal mass ejection is studied and found to have no significant effect on the ion escape rate. Instead, intense solar wind is shown to only increase the escaping energy flux, i.e. total power of escaping ions, without increasing the rate by accelerating already escaping ions. The orientation of the strongest magnetized crustal fields are shown to modulate the ion escape rate, though to have no significant time-averaged effect. We also study the influence of solar wind and solar radiation on the major Martian plasma boundaries and discuss factors that might limit the ion escape rate, including solar wind-ion escape coupling, which is found to be ≲1% and decreasing with increased solar wind dynamic pressure. The significant escape rate dependencies found are extrapolated back in time, considering the evolution of solar wind and ionizing radiation, and shown to account for only 4.8 ± 1.1 mbar equivalent surface pressure loss since the time of collapse of the Martian hydrosphere in the Hesperian, with ~6 mbar as an upper estimate. Extended to the late Noachian period (3.9 billion years ago), the found dependencies can only account for ≲10 mbar removed through ion escape, an insignificant amount compared to the ≳1 bar surface pressure required to sustain a warm climate on early Mars.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Lindblom, Ina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Känslans patriark: sensibilitet och känslopraktiker i Carl Christoffer Gjörwells familj och vänskapskrets, ca 1790-18102017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of how the culture of sensibility was expressed in the everyday practices and social relations of the Gjörwell family. Headed by publicist, publisher and royal librarian Carl Christoffer Gjörwell (1731-1811), the Gjörwell family served as the centre of a wide circle of friends in late 18th-century Stockholm. Gjörwell has been regarded as one of the first Swedish representatives of 18th-century sensibility as well as an archetype of the Swedish cult of friendship. Due to his effusive emotional expressiveness and passionate friendships with other men, Gjörwell has largely been derided as effeminate by researchers from the 19th century onwards.

    Using theoretical perspectives from the field of the history of emotions (more concretely the perspectives of William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein and Monique Scheer) this study centres on the emotional practices of the Gjörwell family, especially taking aspects of gender, class, sexuality and power into account. Gjörwell’s vast collection of family and friendship correspondence forms the empirical basis of this study.

    This study shows that the Gjörwell family and circle of friends in many ways could be regarded as an emotional community in which primarily emotions of happiness and joy are expressed. Furthermore, this study shows how the exercise of power could form part in the creation of an emotional community, as Gjörwell makes constant attempts to influence the way family members and friends manage their emotions, strongly dissuading them from the expression of melancholy.

    Although he has been viewed as effeminate by posterity, Gjörwell in fact regards himself as manly. This is due to his ability to remain joyful through adversities which testifies to his strong, and therefore manly, nervous organisation. This study thus further illustrates how a marked shift in masculine gender norms took place between the 18th and 19th centuries.

    This study also shows how expression of tender emotion could be a way of reinforcing personal status. This was due to the close association made between sensibility and virtue, in itself a central concept during this era. As Gjörwell is denied recognition in his professional life, the expression of tender emotion – and thus of virtue – becomes an important aspect of his personal life. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:00 N320, Umeå Universitet, Umeå
    Renström, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    The involvement of the TNF-alpha system in skeletal muscle in response to marked overuse2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Painful conditions having the origin within the musculoskeletal system is a common cause for people to seek medical care. Between 20-40% of all visits to the primal care in Sweden are coupled to pain from the musculoskeletal system. Muscle pain and impaired muscle function can be caused by muscles being repetitively overused and/or via heavy load. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue which can undergo changes in order to fulfill what is best for optimal function. However, if the load is too heavy, morphological changes including necrosis, as well as pain can occur. The extension of the skeletal muscle is the tendon. Tendinopathy refers to illness and pain of the tendon. The peritendinous tissue is of importance in the features related to tendon pain. Common tendons/origins being afflicted by tendinopathy/pain are the Achilles tendon and the extensor origin at the elbow region.    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that is involved in several biological processes. It is well-known for its involvement in the immune system and is an important target for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is not known to what extent the TNF-alpha system is involved in the process of muscle inflammation and damage due to overuse.

       Studies were conducted on rabbit and human tissue, tissues that either had undergone an excessive loading activity or tissue that was removed with surgery due to painful conditions. The tissues were evaluated via staining for morphology, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.

       Unilateral experimental overuse of rabbit muscle (soleus muscle) led to morphological changes in the soleus muscle tissue bilaterally. The longer the experiment extended, the more was the tissue affected. This included infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue (myositis) and abnormal muscle fiber appearances. TNF-alpha mRNA was seen in white blood cells, in muscle fibers interpreted to be in a reparative stage and in white blood cells that had infiltrated into necrotic muscle fibers.  There was an upregulation in expressions of TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor type 2 (TNFR2) in muscles that were markedly overused, with expressions in white blood cells, fibroblasts, blood vessel walls and muscle fibers. Immunoreactions for the receptors were seen in nerve fascicles of markedly overused muscles but only occasionally in normal muscles. The upregulations were seen for both experimental and contralateral sides. Overall the two receptors showed somewhat different expression patterns. Tendinopathy is associated with an increase in blood flow and infiltration of white blood cells in the tissue adjacent to the tendon. It is called the peritendinous tissue and is also richly innervated. The white blood cells and the blood vessels walls in this tissue were showing immunoreaction for TNFR1 and TNFR2. Two types of nerve fascicles were found in this tissue, one normally appearing when staining for nerve markers and one type with signs of axonal loss. The latter had clearly strong immunoreactions for TNFR1 and TNFR2.

       The findings suggest that the TNF-alpha system is involved in both myopathies occurring due to overuse and in features in the peritendinous tissue in the tendinopathy situation. TNF-alpha and its receptors seem to be involved in degeneration but also in regeneration and healing of the tissue. The findings also suggest that TNF-alpha has effects on nerves showing axonal loss. The changes in the TNF-alpha system were seen both on the experimental side and contralaterally.

  • Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Dániel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk-based planning of assessment actions for fatigue life prediction2017Inngår i: procedia structural integrity, Vol. 5, 1221-1228 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to extend the service life of existing bridges as far as possible as a means for improved sustainability leading to reduced economic cost and resource consumption. This requirement is especially valid for bridges which are critical components of highly vulnerable infrastructure systems. Achieving this aim requires enhanced methods involving various actions and methods influencing different aspects of the assessment process. A framework is presented in this paper based on three common factors used to describe the assessment actions of existing bridges; (i) model sophistication, (ii) uncertainty consideration, and (iii) knowledge content. The framework elucidates the influence of different decisions on the assessment process and facilitates the planning of appropriate assessment actions. Furthermore, it provides a basic scheme for a risk-based decision analysis for determining suitable assessment actions or activities. A fatigue assessment of an existing bridge detail is used to demonstrate the application of the framework in practical cases.

  • Lundberg, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Analyzing tax reforms using the SwedishLabour Income Microsimulation Model2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour income taxation is a central policy topic because labour income makes up the majority of national income and most taxes are in the end taxes on labour. In order to quantify how behavioural responses of labour income earners affect tax revenue, the Swedish Labour Income Microsimulation Model (SLIMM) is constructed and used to evaluate tax reforms. The model simulates taxable income responses, participation responses and income effects. Elasticities are calibrated to match midpoints of estimates found in the quasiexperimental literature. SLIMM is solidly microfounded and uses administrative register data. The model is used to analyze changes to the earned income tax credit (EITC), municipal income taxes and the central government income tax paid by high-income earners. The simulations indicate that the EITC has increased employment by 128,000 and has a degree of self-financing of 21 percent. Almost half of the revenue increase from higher municipal tax rates would disappear due to behavioural responses. Tax cuts for the richest fifth of working Swedes are completely self-financing.

  • Honfi, Dániel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017Inngår i: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

  • Sepahvand, Mohammad H.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University,.
    Individual’s Risk Attitudes in sub-Saharan Africa:Determinants and Reliability of Self-reported Risk in Burkina Faso2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Krüger, Niclas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does infrastructure really cause growth?: the time scale dependent causality nexus between infrastructure investments and GDP2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between infrastructure investments and economic activity in Sweden for the period 1800-2000. In order to overcome the problem of endogeneity, independent time scales are used to analyze the relationship. The paper also examines the dynamics between the variables by testing for causality in the Granger sense and constructing a vector autoregressive model separately for each time scale. The finding is that the causality nexus between growth and transport infrastructure investment is timescale-dependent since it reverses in a comparison of the short-run dynamics (2-4 years) and the longer-run dynamics (8-16 years). This causality reversal is unique for infrastructure investments compared to investments in other sectorsof the economy.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI, Oslo, Norway.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    The impact of stochastic properties of traffic demand on real option value in road projects2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the stochastic properties that long term aggregate traffic demand exhibits. Based on the results of the time series analysis, we examine how fractionally integrated processes affect real option valuation in road projects. We conclude that the long memory property we find in long term aggregate traffic demand using Swedish data, implying that a shock in demand has persistent positive effects on future demand, leads to higher option values in road projects compared to the values from a standard model using geometric Brownian motion.

  • Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fakhraei Roudsari, Farzad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Freight Train Delays: Evidence from Sweden2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how freight train delays are distributed with respect to size, location and time of their occurrence. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data covering all freight train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. Moreover, the link between capacity usage and expected delay is analyzed using the fact that demand fluctuates on different time scales, especially due to the economic chock in 2009. Since the distribution of delays on different scales describe reliability and vulnerability in the rail transport system, the results have potentially important policy implications for rail investment appraisal

  • Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S, Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.

  • Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    IgG3-antigen complexes are deposited on follicular dendritic cells in the presence of C1q and C32017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IgG3, passively administered together with small proteins, induces enhanced primary humoral responses against these proteins. We previously found that, within 2 h of immunization, marginal zone (MZ) B cells capture IgG3-antigen complexes and transport them into splenic follicles and that this requires the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2. We have here investigated the localization of IgG3 anti-2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)/biotin-ovalbumin-TNP immune complexes in the follicles and the involvement of classical versus total complement activation in this process. The majority (50-90%) of antigen inside the follicles of mice immunized with IgG3-antigen complexes co-localized with the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network. Capture of antigen by MZ B cells as well as antigen deposition on FDC was severely impaired in mice lacking C1q or C3, and lack of either C1q or C3 also impaired the ability of IgG3 to enhance antibody responses. Finally, IgG3 efficiently primed for a memory response against small proteins as well as against the large protein keyhole limpet hemocyanine.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-14 10:15 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Posadzy, Kinga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social and Economic Factors in Decision Making under Uncertainty: Five Essays in Behavioral Economics2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of human behavior that goes beyond monetary rewards. In particular, it investigates social influences in individual’s decision making in situations that involve coordination, competition, and deciding for others. Further, it compares how monetary and social outcomes are perceived. The common theme of all studies is uncertainty. The first four essays study individual decisions that have uncertain consequences, be it due to the actions of others or chance. The last essay, in turn, uses the advances in research on decision making under uncertainty to predict behavior in riskless choices.

    The first essay, Fairness Versus Efficiency: How Procedural Fairness Concerns Affect Coordination, investigates whether preferences for fair rules undermine the efficiency of coordination mechanisms that put some individuals at a disadvantage. The results from a laboratory experiment show that the existence of coordination mechanisms, such as action recommendations, increases efficiency, even if one party is strongly disadvantaged by the mechanism. Further, it is demonstrated that while individuals’ behavior does not depend on the fairness of the coordination mechanism, their beliefs about people’s behavior do.

    The second essay, Dishonesty and Competition. Evidence from a stiff competition environment, explores whether and how the possibility to behave dishonestly affects the willingness to compete and who the winner is in a competition between similarly skilled individuals. We do not find differences in competition entry between competitions in which dishonesty is possible and in which it is not. However, we find that due to the heterogeneity in propensity to behave dishonestly, around 20% of winners are not the best-performing individuals. This implies that the efficient allocation of resources cannot be ensured in a stiff competition in which behavior is unmonitored.

    The third essay, Tracing Risky Decision Making for Oneself and Others: The Role of Intuition and Deliberation, explores how individuals make choices under risk for themselves and on behalf of other people. The findings demonstrate that while there are no differences in preferences for taking risks when deciding for oneself  and for others, individuals have greater decision error when choosing for other individuals. The differences in the decision error can be partly attributed to the differences in information processing; individuals employ more deliberative cognitive processing when deciding for themselves than when deciding for others. Conducting more information processing when deciding for others is related to the reduction in decision error.

    The fourth essay, The Effect of Decision Fatigue on Surgeons’ Clinical Decision Making, investigates how mental depletion, caused by a long session of decision making, affects surgeon’s decision to operate. Exploiting a natural experiment, we find that surgeons are less likely to schedule an operation for patients who have appointment late during the work shift than for patients who have appointment at the beginning of the work shift. Understanding how the quality of medical decisions depends on when the patient is seen is important for achieving both efficiency and fairness in health care, where long shifts are popular.

    The fifth essay, Preferences for Outcome Editing in Monetary and Social Contexts, compares whether individuals use the same rules for mental representation of monetary outcomes (e.g., purchases, expenses) as for social outcomes (e.g., having nice time with friends). Outcome editing is an operation in mental accounting that determines whether individuals prefer to first combine multiple outcomes before their evaluation (integration) or evaluate each outcome separately (segregation). I find that the majority of individuals express different preferences for outcome editing in the monetary context than in the social context. Further, while the results on the editing of monetary outcomes are consistent with theoretical predictions, no existing model can explain the editing of social outcomes.

  • Khoshnood, Behzad
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Grabbe, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    A proteomics approach to identify targets of the ubiquitin-like molecule Urm1 in Drosophila melanogaster2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 9, e0185611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By covalently conjugating to target proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) act as important regulators of target protein localization and activity, thereby playing a critical role in the orchestration of cellular biology. The most ancient and one of the least studied UBLs is Urm1, a dual-function protein that in parallel to performing similar functions as its prokaryotic ancestors in tRNA modification, also has adopted the capacity to conjugate to cellular proteins analogous to ubiquitin and other UBL modifiers. In order to increase the understanding of Urm1 and its role in multicellular organisms, we have used affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify putative targets of Urm1 conjugation (urmylation) at three developmental stages of the Drosophila melanogaster lifecycle. Altogether we have recovered 79 Urm1-interacting proteins in Drosophila, which include the already established Urm1 binding partners Prx5 and Uba4, together with 77 candidate urmylation targets that are completely novel in the fly. Among these, the majority was exclusively identified during either embryogenesis, larval stages or in adult flies. We further present biochemical evidence that four of these proteins are covalently conjugated by Urm1, whereas the fifth verified Urm1-binding protein appears to interact with Urm1 via non-covalent means. Besides recapitulating the previously established roles of Urm1 in tRNA modification and during oxidative stress, functional clustering of the newly identified Urm1-associated proteins further positions Urm1 in protein networks that control other types of cellular stress, such as immunological threats and DNA damage. In addition, the functional characteristics of several of the candidate targets strongly match the phenotypes displayed by Urm1(n123) null animals, including embryonic lethality, reduced fertility and shortened lifespan. In conclusion, this identification of candidate targets of urmylation significantly increases the knowledge of Urm1 and presents an excellent starting point for unravelling the role of Urm1 in the context of a complex living organism.

  • Zhang, Yi
    et al.
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Gan-Lin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Xu
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Cao, Ke-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Shang, Ya-Wen
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Mu-Xin
    Capital Med Univ, Sch Tradit Chinese Med, Beijing 100069, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Cong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Nan, Nan
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Ming-Wei
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Guo-Wang
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiao-Min
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Hosp Tradit Chinese Med, Dept Oncol, Beijing 100010, Peoples R China..
    Gubenyiliu II Inhibits Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis Associated with Decreased Heparanase Expression and Phosphorylation of ERK and AKT Pathways2017Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 22, nr 5, 787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gubenyiliu II (GYII), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula used in our hospital, has shown beneficial effects in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of GYII on murine breast cancer models. GYII showed significant inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis in the murine breast cancer model. Additionally, GYII suppressed the proliferation of 4T1 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A better inhibitory effect on 4T1 cell proliferation and migration was found in the decomposed recipes (DR) of GYII. Moreover, heparanase expression and the degree of angiogenesis were reduced in tumor tissues. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of heparanase and growth factors in the cells treated with GYII and its decomposed recipes (DR2 and DR3), and thereby a reduction in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and serine-threonine kinase (AKT). These results suggest that GYII exerts anti-tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects in the murine breast cancer model. The anti-tumor activity of GYII and its decomposed recipes is, at least partly, associated with decreased heparanase and growth factor expression, which subsequently suppressed the activation of the ERK and AKT pathways.

  • Wilms, Torben
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    Coates, Philip J
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap. Masaryk Mem Canc Inst, RECAMO, Zluty Kopec 7, Brno, Czech Republic; Univ Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMRS1162, 27 Rue Juliette Dodu, Paris, France .
    Hassani, Asma
    Philip, Pretty S
    Norberg Spaak, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Califano, Luigi
    Colella, Giuseppe
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Loizou, Christos
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Franco, Renato
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    No evidence for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 9, e0184201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. EBV infects most adults worldwide through oral transmission and establishes a latent infection, with sporadic productive viral replication and release of virus in the oral cavity throughout life. In view of the prevalence of EBV in the oral cavity and recent data indicating that it infects tongue epithelial cells and establishes latency, we examined 98 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and 15 cases of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs), EBV DNA and an EBV-encoded protein, EBNA-1. A commercially available in situ hybridisation kit targeting EBER transcripts (EBER-ISH) showed a positive signal in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of tumour cells in 43% of TSCCs. However, application of control probes and RNase A digestion using in-house developed EBER-ISH showed identical EBER staining patterns, indicating non-specific signals. PCR analysis of the BamH1 W repeat sequences did not identify EBV genomes in tumour samples. Immunohistochemistry for EBNA-1 was also negative. These data exclude EBV as a potential player in TSCC in both old and young patients and highlight the importance of appropriate controls for EBER-ISH in investigating EBV in human diseases.

  • Cao, Sha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Huseby, Douglas L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Brandis, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Alternative Evolutionary Pathways for Drug-Resistant Small Colony Variant Mutants in Staphylococcus aureus2017Inngår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00358-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants. Compensation occurs by two distinct bypass mechanisms: (i) translational suppression of the initial SCV mutation by mutant tRNAs, ribosomal protein S5, or release factor 2 and (ii) mutations that cause the constitutive activation of the SrrAB global transcriptional regulation system. Although compensation by translational suppression increases growth rate, it also reduces antibiotic susceptibility, thus restoring a pseudo-wild-type phenotype. In contrast, an evolutionary pathway that compensates for the SCV phenotype by activation of SrrAB increases growth rate without loss of antibiotic resistance. RNA sequence analysis revealed that mutations activating the SrrAB pathway cause upregulation of genes involved in peptide transport and in the fermentation pathways of pyruvate to generate ATP and NAD(+), thus explaining the increased growth. By increasing the growth rate of SCVs without the loss of aminoglycoside resistance, compensatory evolution via the SrrAB activation pathway represents a threat to effective antibiotic therapy of staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are a significant clinical problem, causing persistent and antibiotic-resistant infections. However, SCVs are unstable and can rapidly evolve growth-compensated mutants. Previous data suggested that growth compensation only occurred with the loss of antibiotic resistance. We have used selection with serial passaging to uncover four distinct pathways of growth compensation accessible to SCVs. Three of these paths (reversion, intragenic suppression, and translational suppression) increase growth at the expense of losing antibiotic resistance. The fourth path activates an alternative transcriptional program and allows the bacteria to produce the extra ATP required to support faster growth, without losing antibiotic resistance. The importance of this work is that it shows that drug-resistant SCVs can evolve faster growth without losing antibiotic resistance.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Brandén, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umea Univ, Heart Ctr, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Misclassification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: validation of diagnostic codes2017Inngår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 9, 403-410 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate diagnostic codes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), analyze misclassfications, and estimate the prevalence of HCM in an unselected Swedish regional cohort. Patients and methods: Using the hospitals' electronic medical records (used for the Swedish National Patient Register), we identified 136 patients from 2006 to 2016 with the HCM-related codes 142.1 and 142.2 (International Classification of Diseases). Results: Of a total of 129 residents in the catchment area, 88 patients were correctly classified as HCM (positive predictive value 68.2%) and 41 patients (31.8%) were misclassified as HCM. Among the 88 HCM patients (52.2% males), 74 were alive and 14 were dead (15.9%). This yields an HCM prevalence of 74/ 183,337, that is, 4.0 diagnosed cases per 10,000 in the adult population aged =18 years. The underlying diagnoses of misclassified cases were mainly hypertension (31.7%) and aortic stenosis (22.0%). Other types of cardiomyopathies accounted for several cases of misclassification: dilated (nonischemic or ischemic), left ventricular noncompaction, and Takotsubo. Miscellaneous diagnoses were amyloidosis, pulmonary stenosis combined with ventricular septal defect, aortic insufficiency, athelete's heart, and atrioventricular conduction abnormality. The mean age was not significantly different between HCM and misclassified patients (65.8 +/- 15.8 vs 70.1 +/- 13.4 years; P=0.177). There were 47.8% females among HCM and 60.8% females among misclassified (P=0.118). Conclusion: One-third of patients diagnosed as HCM are misclassified, so registry data should be interpreted with caution. A correct diagnosis is important for decision-making and implementation of optimal HCM care; efforts should be made to increase awareness of HCM and diagnostic competence throughout the health care system.

  • Aung, Su Htike
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, POB 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Oo, Than Zaw
    Univ Mandalay, Dept Phys, Mat Sci Res Lab, Mahaaungmyay Township 100103, Mandalay, Myanmar..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    2-(4-Butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide: An Efficient Preadsorber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2017Inngår i: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 2, nr 5, 1820-1825 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical modification of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes by 2-(4-butoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide (BPHA) before dye adsorption is investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Two organic dyes, LEG4 and Dyenamo blue, were used in combination with the cobalt (II/III) tris(bipyridine) redox couple. The photovoltaic performance of the DSCs is clearly enhanced by BPHA. Preadsorption of mesoporous TiO2 electrodes with BPHA lowered the amount of adsorbed dye but improved the shortcircuit current densities and the power conversion efficiencies by 10-20%, while keeping the open-circuit potential essentially unaffected. Notably, BPHA improved the LEG4 performance, whereas it has been reported for this dye that chenodeoxycholic acid as a coadsorbent lowers solar cell efficiency. Faster dye regeneration was found to be one reason for improved performance, but improved electron injection efficiency may also contribute to the favorable effect of BPHA.

  • Coutinho, Jose
    et al.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Phys, Campus Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Torres, Viktor J.B.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Phys, Campus Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Demmouche, Kamel
    Ctr Univ Belhadj Bouchaib Ain Temouchent, Inst Sci, Route Sidi Bel Abbes,BP 284, Ain Temouchent 46000, Algeria.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Theory of the carbon vacancy in 4H-SiC:: Crystal field and pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects2017Inngår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, nr 17, 174105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon vacancy in 4H-SiC is a powerful minority carrier recombination center in as-grown material and a major cause of degradation of SiC-based devices. Despite the extensiveness and maturity of the literature regarding the characterization and modeling of the defect, many fundamental questions persist. Among them, we have the shaky connection of the EPR data to the electrical measurements lacking sublattice site resolution, the physical origin of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect, the reasoning for the observed sublattice dependence of the paramagnetic states, and the severe temperature dependence of some hyperfine signals, which cannot be accounted for by a thermally activated dynamic averaging between equivalent Jahn-Teller distorted structures. In this work, we address these problems by means of semilocal and hybrid density functional calculations. We start by inventorying a total of four different vacancy structures from the analysis of relative energies. Diamagnetic states have well defined low-energy structures, whereas paramagnetic states display metastability. The reasoning for the rich structural variety is traced back to the filling of electronic states which are shaped by a crystal-field-dependent (and therefore site-dependent) pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect. From calculated minimum energy paths for defect rotation and transformation mechanisms, combined with the calculated formation energies and electrical levels, we arrived at a configuration-coordinate diagram of the defect. The diagram provides us with a detailed first-principles picture of the defect when subject to thermal excitations. The calculated acceptor and donor transitions agree well with the binding energies of electrons emitted from the Z(1/2) and EH6/7 traps, respectively. From the comparison of calculated and measured U-values, and correlating the site-dependent formation energies with the relative intensity of the DLTS peaks in as-grown material, we assign Z(1) (EH6) and Z(2) (EH7) signals to acceptor (donor) transitions of carbon vacancies located on the h and k sublattice sites, respectively.

  • Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Ett särskilt perspektiv på högre studier?: Folkhögskoledeltagares sociala representationer om högskola och universitet2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen syftar till att undersöka folkhögskoledeltagares sociala representationer om högskola och universitet. Enligt teorin om sociala representationer är folkhögskoledeltagarnas sociala representationer om högskola och universitet något som skapas socialt och förändras beroende på deltagarnas erfarenheter av högskola och universitet. Avhandlingen syftar också till att undersöka dessa sociala representationers ursprung och framväxt, liksom om de har påverkats av andra sociala representationer exempelvis dem om folkhögskolans särart. För att identifiera folkhögskole­deltagarnas sociala identitet och sociala representationer har jag använt mig av empiriska data insamlat genom fria associationer och intervjuer med folkhögskoledeltagare och före detta folkhögskoledeltagare. För att undersöka representationernas ursprung har jag genomfört en dokument­studie på folkhögskolelärarnas tidskrift. Resultaten visar att folkhögskolans företrädare genom hela folkhögskolans historia har förhållit sig till två huvudidéer, den om folkhögskolans särart och den om att folkhögskolan är en institution som anpassar sig efter det omkringliggande samhället och dess krav. Dessa båda idéer förklarar varför olika sociala identiteter och olika sociala representa­tioner existerar bland folkhögskoledeltagarna. Grundidén att folkhögskolan har en särart leder till representationer om folkhögskolan som ett alternativ till annan utbildning och högskola och universitet som något som inte är likt folkhögskola. Den andra grundläggande idén om folkhögskolan som en institution som ständigt anpassar sig leder till representationer om folkhögskolan som en andra chans och högskolan som mål.

  • Mohapatra, Sonisilpa
    et al.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Choi, Heejun
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, Janelia Res Campus, Ashburn, VA USA..
    Ge, Xueliang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Weisshaar, James C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Spatial Distribution and Ribosome-Binding Dynamics of EF-P in Live Escherichia coli2017Inngår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 8, nr 3, e00300-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P. Fast imaging at 2 ms/frame helps to distinguish ribosome-bound (slowly diffusing) EF-P from free (rapidly diffusing) EF-P. Wild-type EF-P exhibits a three-peaked axial spatial distribution similar to that of ribosomes, indicating substantial binding. The mutant EF-P-K34A exhibits a homogeneous distribution, indicating little or no binding. Some 30% of EF-P copies are bound to ribosomes at a given time. Two-state modeling and copy number estimates indicate that EF-P binds to 70S ribosomes during 25 to 100% of translation cycles. The timescale of the typical diffusive search by free EF-P for a ribosome-binding site is tau(free) approximate to 16 ms. The typical residence time of an EF-P on the ribosome is very short, tau(bound) approximate to 7 ms. Evidently, EF-P binds to ribosomes during many or most elongation cycles, much more often than the frequency of Pro-Pro motifs. Emptying of the E site during part of the cycle is consistent with recent in vitro experiments indicating dissociation of the deacylated tRNA upon translocation. IMPORTANCE Ribosomes translate the codon sequence within mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain, which in turn ultimately folds into functional protein. At each codon, bacterial ribosomes are assisted by two well-known elongation factors: EF-Tu, which aids binding of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome, and EF-G, which promotes tRNA translocation after formation of the new peptide bond. A third factor, EF-P, has been shown to alleviate ribosomal pausing at rare Pro-Pro motifs, which are translated very slowly without EF-P. Here, we use superresolution fluorescence imaging to study the spatial distribution and ribosome-binding dynamics of EF-P in live E. coli cells. We were surprised to learn that EF-P binds to and unbinds from translating ribosomes during at least 25% of all elongation events; it may bind during every elongation cycle.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Biopharmaceutical investigations of doxorubicin formulations used in liver cancer treatment: Studies in healthy pigs and liver cancer patients, combined with pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical modelling2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently two types of drug formulation in clinical use in the locoregional treatment of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the emulsion LIPDOX, the cytostatic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is dissolved in the aqueous phase, which is emulsified with the oily contrast agent Lipiodol® (LIP). In the microparticular system DEBDOX, DOX is loaded into the drug-eluting entity DC Bead™.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to improve pharmaceutical understanding of the LIPDOX and DEBDOX formulations, in order to facilitate the future development of novel drug delivery systems. In vivo release of DOX from the formulations and the disposition of DOX and its active metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) were assessed in an advanced multisampling-site acute healthy pig model and in patients with HCC. The release of DOX and disposition of DOX and DOXol where further analysed using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and biopharmaceutical (PBBP) modelling. The combination of in vivo investigations and in silico modelling could provide unique insight into the mechanisms behind drug release and disposition.

    The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX is not extended and controlled, as it is from DEBDOX. With both formulations, DOX is released as a burst during the early phase of administration. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX was faster than from DEBDOX in both pigs and patients. The release from DEBDOX was slow and possibly incomplete. The in vivo release of DOX from LIPDOX and DEBDOX could be described by using the PBBP model in combination with in vitro release profiles.

    The disposition of DOX and DOXol was modelled using a semi-PBPK model containing intracellular binding sites. The contrast agent Lipiodol® did not affect the hepatobiliary disposition of DOX in the pig model. The control substance used in this study, cyclosporine A, inhibited the biliary excretion of DOX and DOXol but did not alter metabolism in healthy pigs. The disposition of DOX is similar in healthy pigs and humans, which was shown by the ease of translation of the semi-PBPK pig model to the human PBBP model.

  • Svensson, Robin J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Gillespie, Stephen H.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Med, St Andrews KY16 9TF, Fife, Scotland..
    Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Improved power for TB Phase IIa trials using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach compared with commonly used analysis methods2017Inngår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 72, nr 8, 2311-2319 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process.

    Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials.

    Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model. cfu data were simulated over 14 days for patients taking once-dailymonotherapy at four different doses per drug and a reference (10mg/kg rifampicin). The simulated data were analysed using t-test, ANOVA, mono-and bi-exponential models and a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach (MTP model) to establish their respective power to find a drug effect at the 5% significance level.

    Results: For the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model approach, t-test, ANOVA, mono-exponential model and bi-exponential model, the sample sizes needed to achieve 90% power were: 10, 30, 75, 20 and 30 (drug A); 30, 75, 245, 75 and 105 (drug B); 70, > 1250, 315, > 1250 and >1250 (drug C); and 30, 110, 710, 170 and 185 (drug D), respectively.

    Conclusions: A model-based design and analysis using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach can reduce the number of patients required to determine a drug effect at least 2-fold compared with current methodologies. This could significantly accelerate early-phase TB drug development.

  • Aho, Anna Carin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: affected young adults’ and parents’ perspectives, studied througha salutogenic framework2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis, using a salutogenic framework, was to develop knowledge about experiences and perceptions of living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and its influences on health, from the affected young adults’ and their parents’ perspectives.

    Methods: A qualitative explorative and descriptive study design was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 young adults diagnosed with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, aged 20–0 years, and 19 parents. Data analyses were conducted using content analysis (I, II, III) and phenomenography (IV). In order to mirror the interview data, the participants also answered the 13-item sense of coherence questionnaire.

    Findings: Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy has a major impact on the affected young adults’ and their parents’ lives as the disease progresses. Health described in terms of well-being was thus perceived to be influenced, not only by physical, emotional and social consequences due to the disease and worry about disease progression but also by external factors, such as accessibility to support provided by society and other people’s attitudes. There was, however, a determination among the participants to try to make the best of the situation. The importance of being able to mobilize internal resources, having social support, meaningful daily activities, adapted environment, the young adult being seen as a person and having support from concerned professionals, including personal assistance when needed, was thereby described. Self-rated sense of coherence scores varied. Those who scored above or the same as median among the young adults (≥56) and the parents (≥68) expressed greater extent satisfaction regarding social relations, daily activities and external support than those who scored less than median.

    Conclusion: This thesis highlights the importance of early identification of personal perceptions and needs to enable timely health-promoting interventions. Through dialogue, not only support needed for the person to comprehend, manage and find meaning in everyday life can be identified, but also internal and external resources available to enhance health and well-being, taking into account the person’s social context as well as medical aspects.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-08 10:00 v159, Kalmar
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Families' life situation when living with cancer: aspects of health and family sense of coherence2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate families’ perceived life situation when living with cancer, with a focus on health and family sense of coherence.

    Methods: Study I is a population-based register study that explored how cancer influenced the health of cohabitating partners of persons with cancer in Sweden by examining the onset of new diagnoses, health care use, and health care costs among the partners. Study II focused on familial interaction patterns for families living with cancer in a palliative phase, based on family interviews, and analysed using Gadamerian hermeneutics. In study III, Family Sense of Coherence scale (S-FSOC-S) was culturally adapted and evaluated for reliability and validity, using psychometric analyses. Study IV explored associations between family sense of coherence and hope, anxiety, and symptoms of depression using descriptive statistics and nested linear regression.

    Results: Study I showed that the partners of persons with cancer had significantly increased health care use and health care costs both one and two years after the cancer diagnosis, and that use patterns and costs varied according to the type of cancer that had been diagnosed. Study II revealed that the familial interaction patterns were adjusted in response to changes in family life - changes which encompassed three different, but interrelated, patterns: power dynamics in the family, the “secret game” in the family, and multifaceted closeness and distance in the family. Study III suggested that S-FSOC-S is useful for assessing familial coherence and shows satisfactory reliability and validity. Study IV showed that stronger family sense of coherence was associated with higher hope and lower anxiety and symptoms of depression levels in both persons with cancer and their family members.

    Conclusions: Families’ life situation was affected by the cancer diagnosis, which had an impact on both individual family members and the family as a unit. The type of cancer may help to determine partners’ risk of ill health. The changed familial interaction patterns increased the families’ ability to deal with family life without hurting each other. The S-FSOC-S is a useful instrument for assessing family sense of coherence and can help identify families with weak family sense of coherence, who may need professional support.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-07 13:00 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Makris, Georgios
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Suicide Seasonality: Theoretical and Clinical Implications2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although suicide seasonality has been well-documented, surprisingly little is known about its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: In this thesis, data from three Swedish registers (Cause of Death Register, National Patient Register, Prescribed Drugs Register) and data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute were used.

    In Study I, the amplitude of suicide seasonality was estimated in completed suicides in 1992-2003 in individuals with different antidepressant medications or without antidepressants.

    In Study II, monthly suicide and sunshine data from 1992-2003 were used to examine the association between suicide and sunshine in groups with and without antidepressants.

    In Study III, the relationship between season of initiation of antidepressant treatment and the risk of suicidal behavior was explored in patients with a new treatment episode with antidepressant medication.

    In Study IV, the complex association between sunshine, temperature and suicidal behavior was investigated in patients with a new treatment episode with an antidepressant in two exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the event.

    Findings: Study I: Higher suicide seasonality was found in individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) compared with those given a different antidepressant treatment or those without any antidepressant treatment.

    Study II: In individuals treated with SSRIs, there was a positive association between sunshine and suicide, with the association stronger in men treated with SSRIs compared with men treated with other antidepressants. An effect modification by age was observed.

    Study III: The elderly (65+) had a higher risk of suicide when initiating antidepressant treatment in summer and a higher risk of suicide attempt when starting antidepressant therapy in spring and summer. Younger patients (0-24) demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempt when treatment was initiated in autumn.

    Study IV: In the elderly (65+), a harmful association was observed between the risk of suicide attempt and the average daily temperature during the four weeks before the suicide attempt, as well as with average daily sunshine during both exposure windows (1-4 and 5-8 weeks) before the suicide attempt.

    Significance: Our results provide epidemiological support for the role of the serotonergic system in seasonality of suicide in which both medication and climate may be involved.

  • Gronholm-Nyman, Petra
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Soveri, Anna
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Ek, Emilia
    Student Hlth Care, Porvoo, Finland..
    Nyholm, Alexandra
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland..
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Social & Psychol Studies, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Laine, Matti
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.;Univ Turku, Turku Brain & Mind Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, 69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17) performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session), while the active control group (n = 16) played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre-and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  • Hadzialic, Aida
    et al.
    Skarheim, Petter
    Wilhelmsson, Thomas
    Framtida nordiskt utbildningssamarbete: Svar på dagens och morgondagens utmaningar2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ministrarna för utbildning och forskning (MR-U) har i sitt samarbetsprogram satt som mål att Norden även i framtiden ska vara en ledande region för kunskap och välfärd. I detta sammanhang genomfördes ett strategiskt arbete inom utbildningsområdet som syftar till ett förnyat och förstärkt nordiskt utbildningssamarbete, vilket ska bidra till att ge konkreta lösningar på de utmaningar vi har idag och framtiden.

    Gruppen bakom rapporten är tidigare gymnasie- och kunskapslyftsminister Aida Hadzialic, departementsråd Petter Skarheim och kansler Thomas Wilhelmsson.

  • Jannisa, Gudmund
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap.
    The not so noble art of boundary-negotiating2017Inngår i: Merdeka Östtimorinformation, nr 73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Wangel, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Produkt- och tjänstedesign. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Kanulf, Gabriel
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Ljunggren, Andrejs
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Vitiden: en energifiktion2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi måste acceptera den föreliggande verkligheten – endast därigenom har vi utsikt att förstå den, att relatera till den för att påverka den och skapa kultur som är ett smidigt redskap för omställningen.

    Så inleds Vitiden – en energifiktion där övergången till ett mer hållbart samhälle utforskas i ett samspel mellan text och bild. I det framåtsyftande manifestet skissas Vitiden upp som ett svar på dagens ekologiska och sociala utmaningar. Manifestets höga tonläge och ambitioner kommenteras av en bildburen framtidsarkeologi, uppbyggd kring fiktiva fragment från framtiden. Infällda bilder ur acceptera-manifestet1, vilket även parafraseras i Vitidens inledande stycke, sätter energifiktionen i relation till det modernistiska samhällsbygget och kritiken därav. En generös notapparat bidrar med ytterligare perspektiv.

    Vitiden utforskar hur ett energi- och klimatmässigt hållbart Sverige skulle kunna te sig, med fokus på vardagslivets praktiker. Bokens titel Vitiden pekar på ett framtida samhälle där det gemensamma är centralt, och energi är en högt värderad resurs. Vitiden är baserad på ett av Energimyndighetens scenarion (Legato) ur framtidsstudien "Fyra framtider: energisystemet efter 2020".

    Vitidens syfte är att bjuda in till samtal, reflektion och diskussion om hur vårt samhälle kan organiseras för att klimatmålen ska nås. Genom en kombination av text och bild skapas en komplex bild av omställningen som ger utrymme för såväl moraliska ställningstaganden, utopiska drömmar och vardagstristess.Vitiden är uppbyggd av fyra huvudsakliga delar:

    1. Ett manifest, där vi ger scenariot Legato röst att tala om behovet av omställning i relation till fyra vardagspraktiker "Vi bor", "Vi äter", "Vi reser" och "Vi arbetar och har fritid".
    2. En framtidsarkeologi, som representerar hur samhället och vardagslivet skulle kunna te sig om Legato infrias.
    3. Inklippta bilder ur acceptera-manifestet som publicerades 1931, och som manade på funktionalismens och modernismens genombrott i Sverige. Denna omställning är av samma magnitud som den vi nu står inför, varför en samläsning av Legato och acceptera är intressant.
    4. En notapparat där vi forskare kommenterar manifestet genom att hänvisa till forskning samt en liten dos poesi.

    Vitiden är utvecklad av forskare vid Green Leap, KTH tillsammans med grafiska formgivare och illustratörer. Projektet är finansierat av Energimyndigheten.

    1 Asplund, G., Gahn, W., Markelius, S., Paulsson, G., Sundahl, E., Åhrén, U. 1980[1931] acceptera. Tiden förlag. Faksimil.

  • Mishra, Madhav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Model-Based Prognostic Approach for Battery Variable Loading Conditions: Some Accuracy Improved2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Conference of  the Prognostics and Health Management Society 2017, 2017, 147-149 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) using a proper condition-based maintenance (CBM) deployment is a worldwide-accepted strategy and has grown very popular in many industries and academia over the past decades. PHM can provide a state assessment of the future health of systems or components, e.g. when a degraded state has been found. Using this technology, one can estimate how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, in future operating conditions and future environmental conditions.

    This paper deals with the improvement of prognostic accuracy for battery discharge prediction and compares with previous results done by the other researchers. In this paper, physical models and measurement data were used in the prognostic development in such a way that the degradation behaviour of the battery could be modelled and simulated in order to predict the end-of-discharge (EoD). A particle filter turned out to be the method of choice in performing the state assessment and predicting the future degradation. 

  • Disputas: 2017-12-13 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Blystad, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Clinical Applications of Synthetic MRI of the Brain2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Castegren, Elias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Wrigstad, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Reference Capabilities for Concurrency & Scalability: an Experience Report2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Deconstructing resistance to organizational change: A social representation theory approach2014Inngår i: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 22, nr 3, 342-355 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Social representation theory (SRT) is a growing theory in social psychology research. SRT is about how individuals co-construct representations of various objects in different social settings. These social representations govern the attitudes and actions of individuals and groups. In spite of the growing interest in SRT in various fields, no studies have used SRT to understand resistance to organizational change. Thus, the purpose of this work is to illustrate how SRT can be used to understand the concept of resistance to change.

    Design/methodology/approach - Review of the relevant literature on resistance to change and SRT in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding resistance from the standpoint of SRT.

    Findings - We develop a model that illustrates how three interrelated objects, i.e. the organizational process and the pre- and post-change situation, are co-constructed in social contexts. Also, we discuss how representations of these objects can co-exist (cognitive polyphasia). Our study illustrates the complexity of resistance to change by deconstructing the concept.

    Originality/value - Application of SRT in order to analyze resistance to organizational change is a novel approach that provides several new insights. For example, whereas most publications regard advocates of change as sense-givers in the change recipient’s sense-making process, we argue for a more constructionist approach. Thus, all actors involved in the change process will affect each other and together co-construct the social representations. These social representations govern attitudes to change.

  • Wrigstad, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Castegren, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Mastery Learning-Like Teaching with Achievements2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)