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  • Jalali, Amin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Aspect-Oriented Business Process Management (Extended Abstract)2017In: Business Process Management, Robert Clarisó, Henrik Leopold , Jan Mendling , Wil van der Aalst , Akhil Kumar , Brian Pentland , Mathias Weske , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Separation of concerns has long been considered an effective and efficient strategy to deal with complexity in information systems. One sort of concern crosses over other concerns, which makes their management difficult. Aspect Orientation is a paradigm in information systems which aims to encapsulate cross-cutting concerns to overcome this problem. In the Business Process Management (BPM) area, Aspect Oriented Business Process Modeling aims to specify how this technique can support encapsulating cross-cutting concerns in process models. However, it is not clear how these models should be supported in the whole BPM lifecycle. Therefore, this thesis investigates how aspect orientation can be supported over the whole BPM lifecycle. This thesis has been carried out following the design science framework, and the result is presented as a set of artifacts (in the form of constructs, models, methods, and instantiations) and empirical findings. The artifacts support modeling, analysis, implementation/configuration, enactment, monitoring, adjustment, and mining cross-cutting concerns while supporting business processes using Business Process Management Systems. The use of these artifacts and their application shows that they can reduce the complexity of process models by separating different concerns.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:00 sal C (Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Electrum, kista
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Investigation of corrosion properties of metals for degradable implant applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradable metallic implants are a new class of biomaterials with potentialto replace permanent materials in temporary applications to reduce therisk of long term adverse effects.This thesis focuses on in vitro testing of zinc and magnesium based metals.As new degradable metals are developed screening of new materials within vitro test methods is an attractive option to avoid unnecessary, time consumingand expensive animal studies. The influence of factors such as ioniccomposition of the test solution, buffer system, strain and alloy compositionwas investigated. By employing electrochemical in situ techniques such asimpedance spectroscopy it is possible to study the metal-solution interfaceand determine the properties of the corroding surface. Ex situ surface characterizationtechniques such as scanning electron microscopy and infraredspectroscopy were then used to complement the results of the electrochemicalmeasurements.The importance of appropriate selection of the test solution is highlightedin this work. Zinc was found to corrode in Ringer’s solution by a mechanismcloser to in vivo corrosion than in a phosphate buffered saline solution(PBS).Ringer’s solution is therefore the more appropriate test environment for longterm evaluation of zinc based metals.When evaluating the corrosion of Zn-Mg and Zn-Ag alloys in Ringer’ssolution selective dissolution was found to occur for both types of alloys. Localprecipitation and formation of a porous, less protective, layer of corrosionproducts was found for Zn-Mg alloys. The selective dissolution of Zn-Agalloy caused an enrichment of AgZn3 on the surface which may affect thebiocompatibility of the alloy.The use of HEPES to maintain the pH of the test solution increasedthe corrosion rate of magnesium due to formation of a less protective layerof corrosion products. Magnesium corrosion should therefore preferably bestudied in solutions where the pH is maintained by the biological buffer systemCO2/H2CO3.In addition to saline solutions human whole blood and plasma were evaluatedas more clinically relevant in vitro environments. They were found toproduce reproducible results and to be suitable for short term experiments.Formation of a corrosion product layer comprised of both organic and inorganicmaterial was detected on zinc in both plasma and whole blood.During anodic polarization the adsorption of organic species on the zincsurface was found to increase the surface coverage of Zn ions in whole blood.The increased surface coverage then allowed for precipitation of a protectivelayer of Zn5(PO4)3 and a subsequent decrease in corrosion rate at higherpotentials.When subjecting zinc samples to strain the organic/inorganic corrosionproduct formed in whole blood was observed by impedance spectroscopy toprevent micro cracking and premature failure.The cracking of magnesium alloy samples under applied strain was alsocharacterized by impedance. Changes in surface properties due to crack initiation

  • Pittino, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Visintin, Francesca
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Lenger, Tamara
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Sternad, Dietmar
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Are high performance work practices really necessary in family SMEs?: An analysis of the impact on employee retention2016In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, no 2, 75-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the adoption of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in family versus non-family firms, and evaluates the effect of such practices on the retention of valuable employees in light of different family contingencies. The analysis is carried out on a sample of 232 companies with more than 10 and less than 250 employees, operating in Austria and Hungary. The results indicate that the relational mechanisms originating from the family social capital may act as substitutes of formal practices aimed at fostering employee involvement and commitment and that those mechanisms depend on the extent family involvement in the governance of the business.

  • Stackelberg, Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Soder Sjukhuset, Dept Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eliasson, Ken
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Surg, Sect Vasc Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Hellberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bersztel, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wanhainen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Lifestyle and Risk of Screening-Detected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 5, e004725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Modifiable lifestyle-related factors associated with risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rarely investigated with a prospective design. We aimed to study possible associations among such factors and comorbidities with mean abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) and with risk of AAA among men screened for the disease. Methods and Results-Self-reported lifestyle-related exposures were assessed at baseline (January 1, 1998) among 14 249 men from the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men, screened for AAA between 65 and 75 years of age (mean 13 years after baseline). Multivariable prediction of mean AAD was estimated with linear regression, and hazard ratios (HRs) of AAA (AAD >= 30 mm) with Cox proportional hazard regression. The AAA prevalence was 1.2% (n=168). Smoking, body mass index, and cardiovascular disease were associated with a larger mean AAD, whereas consumption of alcohol and diabetes mellitus were associated with a smaller mean AAD. The HR of AAA was increased among participants who were current smokers with >= 25 pack-years smoked compared with never smokers (HR 15.59, 95% CI 8.96-27.15), those with a body mass index >= 25 versus <25 ( HR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.22-2.93), and those with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.13-2.77), and hypercholesterolemia (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.34). Walking or bicycling for >40 minutes/day (versus almost never) was associated with lower AAA hazard (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.97) compared with almost never walking or bicycling. Conclusions-This prospective study confirms that modifiable lifestyle-related factors are associated with AAD and with AAA disease.

  • Mutie, Pascal M.
    et al.
    Giordano, Giuseppe N.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Univ Oxford, Radcliff Dept Med.
    Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, 171Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  • Mohammadi, Soheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmo Univ, Fac Hlth & Soc, Malmo, Sweden..
    Taheripanah, Robabeh
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Experiences of inequitable care among Afghan mothers surviving near-miss morbidity in Tehran, Iran: a qualitative interview study2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing equitable maternal care to migrants is a seriously challenging task for hosting countries. Iran, the second-most accessed country for refugees from Afghanistan, has achieved maternal health improvement. However, Afghan women with near-miss morbidity faced pre-hospital delays and disparity in maternal care at hospitals. This study explores experiences of maternal care among Afghan women surviving near-miss morbidity to increase insight into healthcare improvements for migrants.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted at university hospitals in Tehran, from April 2013 to May 2014. A total of 11 Afghan women and 4 husbands were interviewed when women recovered from near-miss morbidity that occurred around the childbirth period. Mothers were identified prospectively using the WHO maternal near-miss approach. Thematic analysis was used along with a data-driven approach to organize data guided by the 'three delays model' theoretical framework.

    Results: Mistreatment in the form of discrimination and insufficient medical attention were key experiences. Participants commonly perceived poor women-professional communication and delays in recognizing obstetric complications despite repeated care-seeking. Financial constraints, costly care, lack of health insurance, and low literacy were experienced barriers to accessing care to a lesser extent. Non-somatic consequences of near-miss morbidity affected mothers and families for extended periods.

    Conclusions: Near-miss survivors' experiences provided remarkable insights into maternal care of Afghans in Iran. The challenge for the health system and professionals is to provide equitable care with dignity and improve communication skills with caring attitudes toward ethnic minorities. Antenatal visits provide the best and most appropriate opportunities to tackle health illiteracy in Afghan women.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-01 10:00 T1 Emmy Rappesalen, Huddinge
    Schmidt, Lisa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Samarbete mellan kund och företagshälsovård: Mekanismer av betydelse för förebyggande arbetsmiljöarbete2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Work Environment Act, employers should, when there is lack of knowledge and competence regarding the occupational health and safety management (OHSM, employ an occupational health service (OHS) provider or comparable resource. Research on how this collaboration works is however limited. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether the OHS provider serves as support in the custom-er's preventive OHSM and to identify which mechanisms are important for the collaboration between the OHS provider and customer.The data collection in the four qualitative case studies was conducted using semi-structured and the-matic interviews, telephone interviews and group interviews in small and large companies as well as the public sector. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and the overall result has been analyzed using realistic evaluation.The results show that collaboration and support from OHS providers in preventative OHSM is lacking. Contextual conditions affected collaboration, such as New Public Management and HR transformation. In the realistic evaluation, mechanisms were identified that positively or negatively affect collaboration between OHS provider and client customer. Mechanisms that affect the collaboration positively are for example; a cooperative relationship between the employers and safety representatives in OHSM at the client customer, OHS providers also need access to the client customer's internal processes. Identified mechanisms that affect the collaboration negatively are; that cooperation in the workplace between employers and employees is lacking, the OHSM does not work. Other mechanisms that negatively affect are when top management not is involved in the collaboration with the OHS provider and when the OHS provider does not get information of the client customer's OHSM.  The conclusion from the thesis is that OHS providers do not largely support the client customer's pre-ventive OHSM.

  • Loeb, Stacy
    et al.
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Division of Experimental Oncology, Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Salonia, Andrea
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (PDE5Is) and Risk of Melanoma2017In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 109, no 8, djx086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the need to evaluate the association between PDE5is and melanoma. We performed a meta-analysis on the association between PDE5i and melanoma using random effects models and examined whether it met Hill's criteria for causality. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 to 2016 identified three case-control studies and two cohort studies, including a total of 866 049 men, of whom 41 874 were diagnosed with melanoma. We found a summary estimate indicating an increased risk of melanoma in PDE5i users (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.23). However, there was no difference in risk between men with low and high exposure to PDE5i, and risk was higher for in situ melanoma than localized and high-risk melanoma, suggesting a lack of dose response and biological gradient. PDE5i use was also associated with basal cell cancer, suggesting a lack of specificity and likely confounding by ultraviolet exposure. Thus, although this meta-analysis found a statistically significant association between PDE5i and melanoma, it did not satisfy Hill's criteria for causality.

  • Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Digitaliseringen och näringslivet2017Report (Other academic)
  • Högdin, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Samverkan kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck: En studie av projektet Kärleken är fri 2014-20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för den här studien har varit att ett projekt som bygger på samverkan mellan ett stort antal olika aktörer kring en så konfliktfylld fråga som hedersrelterat våld och förtryck, vilket projektet Kärleken är fri gör, oundvikligen påverkas av den polariserade debatten och oenigheten som råder på fältet. Projektet bygger på samverkan mellan ett stort antal aktörer med olika agendor och utgångspunkter i sitt arbete. Det övergripande syftet med studien har varit att öka kunskaperna om vilka utmaningar och möjligheter det finns för att samverka i arbetet med att metodutveckla socialverksamhet kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck. Studien tar avstamp i tidigare forskning , vilket även inkluderar den offentliga debatten (Larsson & Englund 2004; Grutzky och Åberg 2013; Ekström 2009) och olika perspektiv på HRV som har lyfts fram i tidigare kunskapsöversikter (NCK 2009). Därtill har målet varit att undersöka skolans möjligheter att förebygga HRV och de motsättningar som det kan innebära för skolans likabehandlingsarbete (Darvishpour, Lahdenperä & Lorentz 2010; Lövkrona & Rejmer 2016; Högdin 2007). Andra utgångspunkter för studien är civilsamhällets möjligheter att driva metodutveckling (Bauböck 1996) och teoretiska utgångspunkter som möjliggör samverkan mellan ett stort antal aktörer (Danermark 2004).

  • Skjelvik, John Magne
    et al.
    Erlandsen, Anne Maren
    Haavardsholm, Oscar
    Environmental impacts and potential of the sharing economy2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The various sharing initiatives seen in the Nordic countries over the last years within transportation, housing/accommodation, sharing/renting of smaller capital goods and personal services could yield considerable benefits for consumers due to better quality and/or lower prices of the services. They also have a potential for emissions reductions of CO2 and local pollutants. However, savings from lower prices could lead to increased emissions from increased demand of the services (particularly transport) and increased spending on other goods and services. Depending on how consumers spend their savings, these changes could partly, wholly or more than offset the initial emission reductions. The impacts on overall CO2 emissions depend on whether the emissions are taxed, part of the emissions trading system EU ETS or not regulated at all.

  • Vaiciukynas, Evaldas
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Detecting Parkinson's disease from sustained phonation and speech signals2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, e0185613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates signals from sustained phonation and text-dependent speech modalities for Parkinson’s disease screening. Phonation corresponds to the vowel /a/ voicing task and speech to the pronunciation of a short sentence in Lithuanian language. Signals were recorded through two channels simultaneously, namely, acoustic cardioid (AC) and smart phone (SP) microphones. Additional modalities were obtained by splitting speech recording into voiced and unvoiced parts. Information in each modality is summarized by 18 well-known audio feature sets. Random forest (RF) is used as a machine learning algorithm, both for individual feature sets and for decision-level fusion. Detection performance is measured by the out-of-bag equal error rate (EER) and the cost of log-likelihood-ratio. Essentia audio feature set was the best using the AC speech modality and YAAFE audio feature set was the best using the SP unvoiced modality, achieving EER of 20.30% and 25.57%, respectively. Fusion of all feature sets and modalities resulted in EER of 19.27% for the AC and 23.00% for the SP channel. Non-linear projection of a RF-based proximity matrix into the 2D space enriched medical decision support by visualization. © 2017 Vaiciukynas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 11952Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Ferrando, Carlos
    et al.
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Carolina
    Consorci Hosp Gen Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar De Plata, Argentina..
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain..
    Canet, Jaume
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Badalona, Spain..
    Dosda, Rosa
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Valls, Paola
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villena, Abigail
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Serralta, Ferran
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Jurado, Ana
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Carrizo, Juan
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Navarro, Jose
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Parrilla, Cristina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Jose E.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, ITACA Inst, Grp IBIME, Valencia, Spain..
    Pozo, Natividad
    INCLIVA Clin Res Inst, Valencia, Spain..
    Soro, Marina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villar, Jesus
    Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain.;Hosp Univ Dr Negrin, Res Unit, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Belda, Francisco Javier
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    The accuracy of postoperative, non-invasive Air-Test to diagnose atelectasis in healthy patients after surgery: a prospective, diagnostic pilot study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e015560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) while breathing room air for 5 min (the 'Air-Test') in detecting postoperative atelectasis. Design Prospective cohort study. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring the agreement between the index test and the reference standard CT scan images. Setting Postanaesthetic care unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Participants Three hundred and fifty patients from 12 January to 7 February 2015; 170 patients scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia who were admitted into the postsurgical unit were included. Intervention The Air-Test was performed in conscious extubated patients after a 30 min stabilisation period during which they received supplemental oxygen therapy via a venturi mask. The Air-Test was defined as positive when SpO(2) was >= 96% and negative when SpO(2) was >= 97%. Arterial blood gases were measured in all patients at the end of the Air-Test. In the subsequent 25 min, the presence of atelectasis was evaluated by performing a CT scan in 59 randomly selected patients. Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was assessment of the accuracy of the Air-Test for detecting postoperative atelectasis compared with the reference standard. The secondary outcome was the incidence of positive Air-Test results. Results The Air-Test diagnosed postoperative atelectasis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.98) with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 87.8%. The presence of atelectasis was confirmed by CT scans in all patients (30/30) with positive and in 5 patients (17%) with negative Air-Test results. Based on the Air-Test, postoperative atelectasis was present in 36% of the patients (62 out of 170). Conclusion The Air-Test may represent an accurate, simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method for diagnosing postoperative atelectasis.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografisk uppföljning 2015 av dagfjärilar inom habitatdirektivet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pettersson, L. B. & Sjöström C. 2017. Nationwide monitoring of butterflies of the EU habitats Directive 2014. Department of Biology. Lund University, Sweden. 22 pp.

    This report summarizes the monitoring of butterflies during 2015 within the Biogeographical Monitoring operated by Naturvårdsverket, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. This project includes the monitoring of nine butterfly species listed in the EU habitats Directive. Three of these species can be found in the northern parts of Sweden and a total of 24 areas could be included in this year’s survey. The Arctic Blue (Agriades aquilo) was found in 6 areas with a total of 12 individuals. The Dusky-winged Fritillary, Boloria improba, was found in 3 areas with a total of 4 individuals. No individuals of the Hesperia comma catena could be found this year. The Large Blue (Phengaris arion) was observed with 180 individuals in 26 areas and combined with the data from the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme the distribution area of this species can be considered well covered. The Scarce Heath (Coenonympha hero) was monitored in 33 areas in Dalarna, Värmland and Västra Götaland counties with a total of 392 individuals. Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) and Scarce Fritillary (Euphydryas maturna) are both surveyed by counting larval colonies during August- September. 2602 larvae colonies of the Marsh Fritillary were observed in 55 areas, and the Scarce Fritillary was monitored in 1 area in Uppsala, 11 areas in Örebro and 21 areas in Stockholm county with a total of 912 colonies. The Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) was surveyed in 36 areas in Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala and Västernorrland counties with a total of 366 individuals. The monitoring scheme was expanded to cover the Violet Copper (Lycaena helle) in 2015 and this species was found with 57 individuals in 11 areas in Jämtland county.

  • Lenhard, Fabian
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Serlachius, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomised controlled trial2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e015246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. Design Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnosis of OCD. Interventions Either a 12-week, therapist-guided ICBT intervention or a wait list condition of equal duration. Primary outcome measures Cost data were collected at baseline and after treatment, including healthcare use, supportive resources, prescription drugs, prescription-free drugs, school absence and productivity loss, as well as the cost of ICBT. Health outcomes were defined as treatment responder rate and quality-adjusted life years gain. Bootstrapped mixed model analyses were conducted comparing incremental costs and health outcomes between the groups from the societal and healthcare perspectives. Results Compared with waitlist control, ICBT generated substantial societal cost savings averaging US$-144.98 (95% CI -159.79 to -130.16) per patient. The cost reductions were mainly driven by reduced healthcare use in the ICBT group. From the societal perspective, the probability of ICBT being cost saving compared with waitlist control was approximately 60%. From the healthcare perspective, the cost per additional responder to ICBT compared with waitlist control was approximately US$78. Conclusions The results suggest that therapist-guided ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and results in societal cost savings, compared with patients who do not receive evidence-based treatment. Since, at present, most patients with OCD do not have access to evidence-based treatments, the results have important implications for the increasingly strained national and healthcare budgets. Future studies should compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with regular face-to-face CBT.

  • Persson, Emilia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Christian
    Nordström, Fredrik
    Sohlin, Maja
    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn
    Petruson, Karin
    Rintelä, Niina
    Hed, Kristoffer
    Blomqvist, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Siversson, Carl
    Jonsson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    MR-OPERA: a multicenter/multivendor validation of magnetic resonance imaging–only prostate treatment planning using synthetic computed tomography images2017In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 99, no 3, 692-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy and clinical robustness of a commercially available software for magnetic resonance (MR) to synthetic computed tomography (sCT) conversion, in an MR imaging–only workflow for 170 prostate cancer patients.

    Methods and Materials: The 4 participating centers had MriPlanner (Spectronic Medical), an atlas-based sCT generation software, installed as a cloud-based service. A T2-weighted MR sequence, covering the body contour, was added to the clinical protocol. The MR images were sent from the MR scanner workstation to the MriPlanner platform. The sCT was automatically returned to the treatment planning system. Four MR scanners and 2 magnetic field strengths were included in the study. For each patient, a CT-treatment plan was created and approved according to clinical practice. The sCT was rigidly registered to the CT, and the clinical treatment plan was recalculated on the sCT. The dose distributions from the CT plan and the sCT plan were compared according to a set of dose-volume histogram parameters and gamma evaluation. Treatment techniques included volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and conventional treatment using 2 treatment planning systems and different dose calculation algorithms.

    Results: The overall (multicenter/multivendor) mean dose differences between sCT and CT dose distributions were below 0.3% for all evaluated organs and targets. Gamma evaluation showed a mean pass rate of 99.12% (0.63%, 1 SD) in the complete body volume and 99.97% (0.13%, 1 SD) in the planning target volume using a 2%/2-mm global gamma criteria.

    Conclusions: Results of the study show that the sCT conversion method can be used clinically, with minimal differences between sCT and CT dose distributions for target and relevant organs at risk. The small differences seen are consistent between centers, indicating that an MR imaging–only workflow using MriPlanner is robust for a variety of field strengths, vendors, and treatment techniques.

  • Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    The shared-memory interferences of Erlang/OTP built-ins2017In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Erlang, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erlang is a concurrent functional language based on the actor modelof concurrency. In the purest form of this model, actors are realizedby processes that do not share memory and communicate witheach other exclusively via message passing. Erlang comes quiteclose to this model, as message passing is the primary form of interprocesscommunication and each process has its own memoryarea that is managed by the process itself. For this reason, Erlangis often referred to as implementing “shared nothing” concurrency.Although this is a convenient abstraction, in reality Erlang’s mainimplementation, the Erlang/OTP system, comes with a large numberof built-in operations that access memory which is shared byprocesses. In this paper, we categorize these built-ins, and characterizethe interferences between them that can result in observabledifferences of program behaviour when these built-ins are usedin a concurrent setting. The paper is complemented by a publiclyavailable suite of more than one hundred small Erlang programsthat demonstrate the racing behaviour of these built-ins.

  • Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Lystig Fritchie, Scott
    VMware, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Testing And Verifying Chain Repair Methods For CORFU Using Stateless Model Checking2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corfu is a distributed shared log that is designed to be scalable and reliable in the presence of failures and asynchrony. Internally, Corfu is fully replicated for fault tolerance, without sharding data or sacrificing strong consistency. In this case study, we present the modeling approaches we followed to test and verify, using Concuerror, the correctness of repair methods for the Chain Replication protocol suitable for Corfu. In the first two methods we tried, Concuerror located bugs quite fast. In contrast, the tool did not manage to find bugs in the third method, but the time this took also motivated an improvement in the tool that reduces the number of traces explored. Besides more details about all the above, we present experiences and lessons learned from applying stateless model checking for verifying complex protocols suitable for distributed programming.

  • Kindström, Merit
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundin, Assar
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Glimskär, Anders
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Inventering och utveckling för hällmarksnaturtyper, alvar och svämängar 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogeografisk uppföljning ska följa upp areal och utbredning av naturtyper inom art- och habitatdirektivet samt dess viktiga strukturer, funktioner och typiska arter. I rapporten beskrivs resultat från arbete med biogeografisk uppföljning av några naturtyper med sparsam eller aggregerad fördelning i landskapet. Rapporten presenterar resultat för naturtypen 8230 Hällmarkstorräng samt metodiktester och förslag till uppföljning för naturtyperna 6280 Alvar, 6110 Basiska berghällar, 8240 Karsthällmarker och 6450 Svämängar. En mindre förstudie om möjligheten att utveckla metodik för sandmarker (6120, 2320, 2330) och slåtterängar (6510, 6520, 6530) har också genomförts och redovisas i rapporten.

  • Rösblad, Birgit
    Visual and proprioceptive control of arm movements: studies of development and dysfunction1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation was to examine the role of sensory information for control of goal-directed arm movements in children. The role of visual and proprioceptive information on the target for end point accuracy was examined in normal 4- to 12-year- old children (Study I), and in children with motor impairments (Study II). Accuracy in pointing with the unseen hand was found to improve rapidly during the age period tested, with the most pronounced development taking place in the preschool years. Visual specification of the target was superior to proprioceptive specification for all age groups tested. The performance of children with motor impairments was more variable than that of the non-impaired children, and this effect was most pronounced when visual information about the target was unavailable. The importance of visual information for controlling the transport and handling part of reaching movements were examined in normal 6- to 8-year-old children (Study III), and in children with developmental coordination disorders (Study IV). Object handling required visual information on both target and hand. For the transport phase of the movement visual information on target was sufficient, and sight of hand did not improve performance. The young children were relatively more impaired than the older children when lacking adequate visual information. The children with developmental coordination disorders responded to the withdrawal of visual information in a similar way to that of the normally developed children. A discontinuity at 7 years of age in the development of perceptual control of pointing movements, observed in Study I, was further investigated and confirmed in study V. In this study the ability to control movements visually and prorioceptively was also investigated and found to develop in parallel rather than one being a prerequisite for the other.

  • Nilsson, Per A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. International Office.
    The Swedish Experience of International Student Mobility2017In: On the verge of a new era: value, viability and visibility of international education / [ed] Riikka Vanhanen, Jyrki Holappa, Jyväskylä: JAMK University of Applied Sciences Library , 2017, 25-31 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The internationalisation of education started in the late 1970s when the wording in the Swedish Higher Education Act was changed, emphasising that higher education institutions (HEI) should promote understanding of other countries and of international circumstances. This also opened the door for other changes in Swedish regulations, such as the study aid system, allowing more students to study abroad. However, the greatest boost to international student mobility was when Sweden entered the Erasmus Programme in 1992 (Lundgren & Nilsson, 2009).

    It is clear that there are political ambitions when it comes to international student mobility. Politicians set the roles for mobility through political decisions about studying in a foreign country, regulations for migration, student loans, recognition for foreign degrees, etc. There is also a global education market being developed outside Sweden. More countries have an interest in the business of international education and the commodification of education due to a decrease of public HEI funding (Knight, 2012). This means that market solutions have entered the global scene, which countries around the world have to adjust to, including Sweden. The aim with this article is to highlight some of the Swedish experiences in regard to international student mobility.

  • Niklasson, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Spectral analysis of the heart rate variability: a methodological study1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate and other cardiovascular variables are not steady but fluctuate over time. The evolution of computer technology the last 2 decades has made detailed analysis of the fluctuations possible and has focused the attention to the information content of the variability.

    Autonomic nervous influence on the heart can be assessed by measuring the heart rate variability from R-R intervals in the electrocardiogram. Applications have been developed in many fields where the pathophysiological features of the patients include autonomic dysfunction.

    This thesis is based on clinical studies and model studies compared with results from healthy volunteers. Two patient groups, with familial amyloidosis and with myotonic dystrophy, were evaluated using simple indexes of heart rate variability. Signs of autonomic dysfunction which is a dominant clinical feature in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy was confirmed by abnormal heart rate variability indexes. In myotonic dystrophy heart rate variability was normal but recumbent and standing plasma catecholamines were elevated. Reassessment of the heart rate variability with spectral analysis confirmed the results.

    The integral pulse frequency modulation (IPFM) model can be used as a simple analogy of the interface between autonomic activity and the cardiac pacemaker. Computer simulations using the IPFM model revealed marked differences in the estimated modulating variability depending on whether the intervals between simulated beats or the frequency of beats was analyzed. Comparison with data from healthy volunteers indicated that the IPFM model was valid and that heart rate should be preferred instead of R-R intervals for variability measurements.

    Beat-by-beat heart rate can be viewed as an irregular sample of the underlying autonomic activity. Spectral analysis of simulated heart rate variability data using the IPFM model showed attenuation of high frequency variability with decreasing mean heart rate and with increasing variability mean frequency. Application of these results on data from healthy volunteers suggest that the effects can be significant in actual variability measurements.

    Cholinergic blockade resulted in reduced heart rate variability at all spectral frequencies. Adrenergic beta-blockade reduced high-frequency variability in standing position indicating that high-frequency variability might partly be sympathetically mediated.

  • Wikman, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    To desire and to choose: aspects of women's and men's urge to have children1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to increase available knowledge about women's and men’s desire for pregnancy and for a child/children to serve as a basis for further studies of problems and inconsistencies in the reproductive sphere. The motivation to become a parent was hypothesized as being not only of an existential, social, interpersonal and intrapsychic character but also a biologically anchored personality trait.

    The first part of the study deals with the development of a method for collecting valid information concerning this intimate and personal sphere of life and to categorize this information into measurable dimensions. A questionnaire was constructed and factor analysis was used as a statistical tool. There are two versions of the final instrument, one for women and one for men. Interviews were used as a means of testing the validity of the instrument. Experiences from the methodological development process revealed that it was meaningful to deal with the issue though suitable wording was not easily found.

    In the main part of the study, two large populations, one reference group of 416 women and 329 men of fertile ages and one group of expecting parents, 369 women and 345 men, were investigated by means of the questionnaire. Attitudes were dominated by two opposing views of children: 'Children mean existential satisfaction' and 'Children mean restriction of freedom'. This confirmed the findings of earlier studies and clinical experience that ambivalence is a natural phenomenon, that may be associated with feelings of guilt. The view of one's own parents as models in parenthood was a third important dimension. The view of the child's sex was a fourth important and complex dimension.

    The similarities between women and men were striking. There were only subtle differences between reference women and pregnant women. Reference men and child-expecting men had different response patterns, child-expecting men emphasizing more the advantages of having children.

    In the last part of the study 48 women were followed during pregnancy and after childbirth using the questionnaire and determination of levels of the intestinal peptide gastrin. Gastrin may be a marker of energy-storing characteristics, thus influencing reproductive capacity. There were some attitudinal differences between 0-parous women and parous women, the latter agreeing less with the view of 'children as restriction of freedom'. The view of 'children as existential satisfaction' was agreed with more after childbirth than during pregnancy. The view of one’s own parents as models in parenthood correlated with the levels of gastrin during this period.

  • Lorentzon, Ann
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Williams, Helen
    Karlstad university.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad university.
    Förpackningssystem för minskat matsvinn: Slutrapportering del 2 : samverkansprojekt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Matsvinn är en stor global samhällsutmaning. Det är ett komplext problem som kräver samverkan och en mängd lösningar för att lösas. Samverkansprojektet har tittat på hur förpackningssystem kan bidra till att minska det globala samhällsproblemet med matsvinn. Resultatet från projektet manifesteras i de nya förpackningslösningar som tagits fram för projektets tre produkter salsa, salladsmix och risgröt. Lösningarna är utvecklade för att minska matsvinn genom hela kedjan, från fyllning till konsument. Inledande konsumenttester indikerar att lösningarna skulle tas väl emot på marknaden. En förenklad klimatanalys visar på att lösningarna medför minskad miljöpåverkan. Utöver förpackningslösningarna, som tagits fram i fysiska prototyper, har projektet lett till att deltagande parter – genom projektets frekventa samverkan i workshopar, uppföljningsmöten samt studiebesök – fått nya kunskaper och fördjupad förståelse kring utmaningar längs produkternas hela värdekedja.

  • Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Students' satisfaction with a web-based pharmacy program in a re-regulated pharmacy market2017In: Pharmacy, ISSN 2226-4787, E-ISSN 1913-4711, Vol. 5, no 3, E47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.

  • Kristensen, Bo Traberg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden.

    Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onset of the disease.

    Epidemiological data on ischaemic stroke in young adults aged 18 to 44 years were collected to calculateincidence and mortality based on the WHO Northern Sweden MONICA register of acute strokeevents. One hundred and seven consecutive patients aged 18-44 years with ischaemic stroke referred toUmeå university hospital were studied prospectively during a five-year period and were extensively evaluatedaccording to a standardized protocol. During follow-up at least three months after onset 102 and 80patients, respectively, were evaluated for disturbances in the fibrinolytic system and in the metabolism ofhomocysteine. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was performed in a subset of 20 patients withinfratentorial infarcts.

    Results and conclusions. All patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis demonstrated a marked increasein intracranial pressure due to raised pressure in the sagittal sinus. A striking feature was the persistentintracranial pressure increase with only a slow decline over time.

    The incidence rate for ischaemic stroke was higher than previously reported from most countries inWestern Europe. The higher incidence was not explained by a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic vasculopathy. In spite of extensive evaluation, including advanced cardiac imaging, the cause of ischaemic strokein young adults still remains uncertain or unknown in most cases.

    Patients had lowered tissue plasminogen activator activity and increased plasminogen activator inhibitortype 1 activity. Increased fibrinogen levels and tissue plasminogen activator mass concentration wereindependently associated with ischaemic stroke. Metabolic perturbations were closely interrelated with tissueplasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 activity. Elevated plasma fibrinogenlevels and abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system in conjunction with metabolic perturbations may be importantcontributors to an increased stroke risk among young adults.

    Stroke patients had an exaggerated increase in total homocysteine levels after methionine loading.Abnormal responsivity to methionine loading was associated with higher tissue plasminogen activatormass concentration, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels and lower tissue plasminogen activator activity. Abnormal homocysteine metabolism may provide an additional thrombogenetic risk, partly mediatedby interactions with the fibrinolytic system.

    Circumscribed infratentorial lesions (mainly cerebellar) impaired central aspects of attention andworking memory, and inflicted damage upon visuospatial skills. In contrast, these patients may not sufferfrom global intellectual impairment and difficulties with respect to memory for previous events. The prognosisis favorable in terms of neurological deficits and handicap, but cognitive disability may be the mostsignificant problem in adapting to their former occupations.Key w ords. Cerebral venous thrombosis, cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, ischaemic stroke, young adults, epidemiology,fibrinolysis, homocysteine, cerebellar infarct, neuropsychology.

  • Gärling, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parents' perceptions of children's accident risk1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis was, first, to study how parents and other adults percieve or judge children’s accident risk, and, secondly, to relate such judgements to the subjects’ preferences for and satisfaction with different residential conditions.

    A theoretical framework is proposed which assumes that judgements of children’s accident risk are based on beliefs about what causes accidents to children. Such beliefs are furthermore assumed to be acquired more often from indirect sources than from own direct experiences. Nevertheless, because of parents’ higher motivation to protect their children, they are assumed to differ from other adults who are not parents with respect to their causal models and, as a consequence, their risk perceptions.

    To test some implications of the theoretical framework, three empirical studies were carried out in which parents and nonparents were requested to judge the risk children run of having accidents under different circumstances and to judge the strengths of five causes of such accidents, the parent, the child, the environment, other people, and chance. In two of the studies the subjects were also requested to express their preferences for different residential neighborhoods varying in traffic conditions, or satisfaction with their own residential conditions either as it is or if changed in different ways.

    Support for the implications of the theoretical framework was obtained in that causal explanations of accidents were shown to play a decisive role for judgements of accident risk. However, very slight differences were found between parents’ and nonparents’ causal models and risk perceptions. The results furthermore indicated that accident risk was of importance for parents’ satisfaction with their residential conditions if changes with perceived accident consequences were implemented. In this respect parents differed from nonparents. For the latter other things than children’s accident risk tended to be more important.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografisk uppföljning 2016 av dag- och nattfjärilar inom habitatdirektivet2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pettersson, L. B. & Sjöström C. 2017. Nationwide monitoring of butterflies and moths of theEU Habitats Directive 2016. Department of Biology. Lund University, Sweden. 32 pp.

    This report summarizes the monitoring of butterflies and moths during 2016 within the Biogeographical Monitoring operated by Naturvårdsverket, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. This project includes the monitoring of eleven butterfly species and one moth species, all listed in the EU Habitats Directive. Three of the butterfly species can be found in the northernmost part of Sweden and during this year a total of 66 areas were monitored. The Arctic Blue (Agriades aquilo) was found in 20 areas with a total of 80 individuals. The Dusky-winged Fritillary, Boloria improba, was found in 19 areas with a total of 55 individuals. No individuals of Hesperia comma catena could be found this year. During 2016 the species Xestia borealis, the only Swedish noctuid moth listed in the habitat directive, was monitored in 8 areas from Lycksele lappmark to Torne lappmark. The species was found in 6 of these areas with a total of 19 individuals. Large Blue (Phengaris arion) was observed with 155 individuals in 30 areas and combined with the data from the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme the area of occupancy of this species can be considered to be well covered within its Swedish range. The Scarce Heath (Coenonympha hero) was monitored in 49 areas in Dalarna, Värmland and Västra Götaland counties with a total of 552 individuals noted. Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) and Scarce Fritillary (Euphydryas maturna) are both monitored by counting larval colonies during August-September. 4870 larvae colonies of the Marsh Fritillary were observed in 104 areas, and the Scarce Fritillary was monitored in 4 areas in Uppsala, 13 areas in Örebro and 23 areas in Stockholm counties with a total of 881 colonies in these counties. The Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) was monitored in 32 areas in Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala and Västernorrland counties with a total of 585 individuals. The Apollo (Parnassius apollo) was monitored as a pilot experiment in Kalmar and Södermanland counties with 8 butterflies in 18 areas. The Violet Copper (Lycaena helle) was surveyed in 24 areas in Jämtland, Västernorrland and Västerbotten counties where 26 individuals were observed. The monitoring scheme of 2016 also included a survey of the Woodland Brown (Lopinga achine), recording 922 individuals in 4 areas on Gotland and 485 individuals in 6 areas in Östergötland counties.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:15 B/B7:113a, Uppsala Biomedicinska Centrum BMC, Uppsala
    Khaliq, Zeeshan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Understanding Complex Diseases and Disease Causative Agents: The Machine Learning way2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diseases can be caused by foreign agents – pathogens – such as viruses, bacteria and other parasites, entering the body or by an internal malfunction of the body itself. The partial understanding of diseases like cancer and the ones caused by viruses, like the influenza A viruses (IAVs) and the human immunodeficiency virus, means we still do not have an efficient cure or defence against them. In this thesis we developed and applied combinations of machine learning strategies to study some of the deadliest human diseases and the agents causing them. The results obtained in this study further our understanding about them, paving the way for the development of more efficient and more reliable counter strategies against them.

    In Paper I we studied the genetic make up of the highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses and identified a viral genetic background that could potentially transform a low pathogenic (LP) strain into HP. In Paper II we identified combinatorial signatures in the IAVs genome that potentially could affect their adaptation to humans.

    Candidate HIV vaccine studies are usually carried out in nonhuman primate models. In Paper III we analysed the host responses of immunized Rhesus Macaques against the simian immunodeficiency virus infection. We found that protection in Rhesus Macaques is mediated by a gradually built up immune response, in contrast to a strong initial immune response, which we found to be detrimental to protection.

    In Paper IV we analysed 9 different cancer types and identified 38 novel long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have a disrupted expression in multiple cancer types – pan-cancer differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs. In addition, we also found 308 novel lncRNAs whose dysregulation was specific to a certain cancer type (cancer-specific DE lncRNAs).

  • Schmidt, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, John
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Understanding the challenges facing occupational health services in the Swedish Public Sector2017In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 3, 85-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Swedish Work Environmental Act, all organizations are required to implement Occupational Health and Safety Management (OHSM). In support of this and when competence within the employer’s own organization is insufficient, regulations state that the employer are required to employ external resources such as an Occupational Health Service (OHS) provider. The aim of this study was to explore how public sector organizations utilised services and support from their OHS provider in preventive OHSM. Eleven public sector organizations were studied, one hundred of respondents (politicians, managers, HR, safety representatives and OHS professionals) interviewed and the data collected qualitatively and thematically analysed. The results showed that the OHS providers do not support the public-sector organisations with preventive OHSM according to the intentions of the legislation. A significant conclusion is that the HR department has an important role in the collaboration and for the utilization of preventive services in OHSM.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 09:15 Siegbahnsalen, Uppsala
    Ulvgård, Liselotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Wave Energy Converters: An experimental approach to onshore testing, deployments and offshore monitoring2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wave energy converter (WEC) concept developed at Uppsala University consists of a point absorbing buoy, directly connected to a permanent magnet linear generator. Since 2006, over a dozen full scale WECs have been deployed at the Lysekil Research Site, on the west coast of Sweden. Beyond the development of the WEC concept itself, the full scale approach enables, and requires, experimental and multidisciplinary research within several peripheral areas, such as instrumentation, offshore operations, and wave power infrastructure.

    This thesis addresses technical challenges of testing, deploying and monitoring full scale WECs. It is divided accordingly into three topics: offshore measurement systems, onshore WEC testing and deployments. Each topic presents new or improved technical solutions to enable offshore wave power research.

    For the offshore measurement systems, a new portable data acquisition unit was developed, together with a new sensor system to be installed inside the WEC. The developed system offers a cheap and flexible option for short term offshore measurement ventures, when or where site infrastructure is not available. The system has been developed and tested during both onshore and offshore experiments, with promising results.

    On the topic of onshore WEC testing, the thesis presents an experimental approach for assessing the power take-off (PTO) damping of the WEC. In previous experimental studies, it has been measured via the generated electrical power, which neglects both mechanical losses and iron losses. Consequently, the full PTO force acting on the WEC has been underestimated. The thesis presents experimentally attained trends for the speed dependence of the PTO damping at different resistive loads, as measured from both generated electric power and from measurements of the buoy line force. A study was also performed on how the generator damping is affected by partial stator overlap, which varies with the translator position. In order to assess how the characterized damping behavior will affect the WEC operation at sea, two simulation case studies were performed.

    Finally, the thesis presents a new WEC deployment method, which has been developed through several deployment trials. By using only a tugboat, a WEC unit is transported and deployed, together with its buoy, in less than half a day. The procedure has proven to be faster, cheaper and safer than the previously used methods.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 09:15 Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Measurements of Neutron-induced Nuclear Reactions for More Precise Standard Cross Sections and Correlated Fission Properties2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to underestimate the importance of neutron cross section standards in the nuclear data field. Accurate and precise standards are prerequisites for measuring neutron cross sections. Two different projects are presented here with the aim of improving on neutron standards.

    A simulation study was performed for an experiment intended to measure the cross sections of H(n,n), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f) relative to each other. It gave the first estimates of the performance of the experimental setup. Its results have aided the development of the experimental setup by setting limits on the target and detector design.

    A second neutron-standard project resulted in three measurements of 6Li(n,α)t relative to 235U(n,f). Each subsequent measurement improved upon the previous one and changed the experimental setup accordingly. Although, preliminary cross sections were agreeing well with evaluated data files in some energy intervals, the main goal to measure the cross section up to 3 MeV was not reached.

    Mass yields and energy spectra are important outcomes of many fission experiments, but in low yield regions the uncertainties are still high even for recurrently studied nuclei. In order to understand the fission dynamics, one also needs correlated fission data. One particular important property is the distribution of excitation energy between the two nascent fission fragments. It is closely connected to the prompt emission of neutrons and γ’s and reveals information about how nucleons and energy are transferred within the fissioning nucleus.

    By measuring both the pre and post neutron-emission fragment masses, the cumbrance of detecting neutrons directly is overcome. This is done using the fission spectrometer VERDI and the 2E-2v method. In this work I describe how both the spectrometer, the analysis method, and the calibration procedures have been further developed. Preliminary experimental data show the great potential of VERDI, but also areas that call for more attention. A previously overlooked consequence of a central assumption was found and a correction method is proposed that can correct previously obtained data as well.

    The last part of this thesis concerns the efficiencies of the fission product extraction at the IGISOL facility. The methodology of the fission yield measurements at IGISOL are reliant on assumptions that have not been systematically investigated. The presented work is a first step of such an investigation that can also be used as a tool for optimising the setup for measurements of exotic nuclei. A simulation framework connecting three different simulation codes was developed to investigate the produced yield of fission products in a buffer gas. Several different variants of the setup were simulated and the findings were generally accordant with previous estimates. A reasonable agreement between experimental data and the simulation results is demonstrated.

  • Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    A Model-based Approach to Dynamic Self-Assessment for Automated Performance and Safety Awareness of Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: Model-Based Safety and Assessment - 5th International Symposium, Trento, Italy, September 11–13, 2017 / [ed] Marco Bozzano, Yiannis Papadopoulos, Springer, 2017, Vol. LNCS 10437, 227-240 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems) that are inherently time- and safety-critical. To justify the actions for quality-of-service adaptation and safety assurance, it is fundamental to perceive the uncertainties of system components in operation, which are caused by emergent properties, design or operation anomalies. From an industrial point of view, a further challenge is related to the usages of generic purpose COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) components, which are separately developed and evolved, often not sufficiently verified and validated for specific automotive contexts. While introducing additional uncertainties in regard to the overall system performance and safety, the adoption of COTS components constitutes a necessary means for effective product evolution and innovation. Accordingly, we propose in this paper a novel approach that aims to enable advanced operation monitoring and self-assessment in regard to operational uncertainties and thereby automated performance and safety awareness. The emphasis is on the integration of several modeling technologies, including the domain-specific modeling framework EAST-ADL, the A-G contract theory and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). In particular, we also present some initial concepts in regard to the usage performance and safety awareness for quality-of-service adaptation and dynamic risk mitigation.

  • Hadfield, James
    et al.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Simon R
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Seth-Smith, Helena M B
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Applied Microbiology Research, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Parmar, Surendra
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Andersson, Patiyan
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia.
    Giffard, Philip M.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT, Australia; School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Schachter, Julius
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Moncada, Jeanne
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.
    Ellison, Louise
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Microbiología Clínica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Radebe, Frans
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mendoza, Suyapa
    Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, Jefe Laboratorio de ITS, Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia, FM1100, Honduras, Honduras.
    Ouburg, Sander
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Morré, Servaas A
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Institute of Public Health Genomics, School for Oncology & Developmental Biology (GROW), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Sachse, Konrad
    Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Jena, Germany.
    Puolakkainen, Mirja
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korhonen, Suvi J
    Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sonnex, Chris
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Wiggins, Rebecca
    Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Jalal, Hamid
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Brunelli, Tamara
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Casprini, Patrizia
    Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Santo Stefano Hospital, ASL4 Prato, Italy.
    Pitt, Rachel
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Ison, Cathy
    Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Microbiological Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
    Savicheva, Alevtina
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Shipitsyna, Elena
    Laboratory of Microbiology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg, Russia; WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hadad, Ronza
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kari, Laszlo
    Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA.
    Burton, Matthew J
    Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Mabey, David
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Solomon, Anthony W
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Lewis, David
    Centre for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa;Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Marsh, Peter
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Clarke, Ian N
    Molecular Microbiology Group, University Medical School, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Parkhill, Julian
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Thomson, Nicholas R.
    Pathogen Genomics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Comprehensive global genome dynamics of Chlamydia trachomatis show ancient diversification followed by contemporary mixing and recent lineage expansion2017In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 27, no 7, 1220-1229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the world's most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and leading infectious cause of blindness, yet it is one of the least understood human pathogens, in part due to the difficulties of in vitro culturing and the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation. Genome sequencing has reinvigorated this field, shedding light on the contemporary history of this pathogen. Here, we analyze 563 full genomes, 455 of which are novel, to show that the history of the species comprises two phases, and conclude that the currently circulating lineages are the result of evolution in different genomic ecotypes. Temporal analysis indicates these lineages have recently expanded in the space of thousands of years, rather than the millions of years as previously thought, a finding that dramatically changes our understanding of this pathogen's history. Finally, at a time when almost every pathogen is becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, we show that there is no evidence of circulating genomic resistance in C. trachomatis.

  • Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms2017In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, Vol. 4, 346-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are:

    •  Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).

    •  Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)

    •  Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers

  • Hoffman, Victoria
    et al.
    Söderström, Lars
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Self-management of stress urinary incontinence via a mobile app: two-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial2017In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 96, no 10, 1180-1187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. We investigated the long-term effects of using a mobile app to treat stress urinary incontinence with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training. Material and methods. A previous randomized controlled trial of 123 women aged 27-72 years found that three months of self-managing stress urinary incontinence with support from the Tat((R)) app was effective. We followed up the women in the app group (n=62) two years after the initial trial with the same primary outcomes for symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Quality of Life) and compared the scores with those at baseline. Results. Of the 62 women, 61 and 46 (75.4%), respectively, participated in three-month and two-year follow-ups. Baseline data did not differ between responders and non-responders at follow-up. The mean decreases in International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Quality of Life scores after two years were 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0-4.2) and 4.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-5.9), respectively. Of the 46 women, four (8.7%) rated themselves as very much better, nine (19.6%) as much better, and 16 (34.8%) as a little better. The use of incontinence protection products decreased significantly (p=0.04), and the proportion of women who felt they could contract their pelvic muscles correctly increased from 14/46 (30.4%) at baseline to 31/46 (67.4%) at follow-up (p<0.001). Conclusions. Self-management of stress urinary incontinence with support from the Tat((R)) app had significant and clinically relevant long-term effects and may serve as first-line treatment.

  • Joffre, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Procter, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Trabecular deformations during screw pull-out: a micro-CT study of lapine bone2017In: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, ISSN 1617-7959, E-ISSN 1617-7940, Vol. 16, no 4, 1349-1359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical fixation of endosseous implants, such as screws, in trabecular bone is challenging because of the complex porous microstructure. Development of new screw designs to improve fracture fixation, especially in high-porosity osteoporotic bone, requires a profound understanding of how the structural system implant/trabeculae interacts when it is subjected to mechanical load. In this study, pull-out tests of screw implants were performed. Screws were first inserted into the trabecular bone of rabbit femurs and then pulled out from the bone inside a computational tomography scanner. The tests were interrupted at certain load steps to acquire 3D images. The images were then analysed with a digital volume correlation technique to estimate deformation and strain fields inside the bone during the tests. The results indicate that the highest shear strains are concentrated between the inner and outer thread diameter, whereas compressive strains are found at larger distances from the screw. Tensile strains were somewhat smaller. Strain concentrations and the location of trabecular failures provide experimental information that could be used in the development of new screw designs and/or to validate numerical simulations.

  • Olsson, Helén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Porskrog Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitet; Högskolan i Gävle.
    Violence Risk Assessment in Forensic Nurses’ Clinical Practice: Qualitative Interview Study2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 12, 56-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The legislation of Swedish forensic psychiatric care states that the risk of further violence must beassessed before a patient is granted release from a forensic psychiatric hospital. The aim of the study was todescribe the experiences of forensic nurses with in-patient risk assessment processes, and their implication fordaily clinical forensic praxis.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with staff who were involved in the patients risk assessment process. Theinterview texts were analyzed using qualitative latent content analysis.

    Discussion: The forensic nursing staff has to deal with many contradictory realities. The description was aboutbeing able to balance between supporting their work with an EBP approach of risk assessment while trying toestablish interpersonal relationships and to allow for positive meetings with the patient. The study indicated thatstaff used a multiple sources of knowledge in order to make credible and accurate risk assessments.

    Conclusions: If the risk assessment process are to be used in a legally secure manner, the staff must receive regularsupport from team leadership that can provide both guidance and training. Based on a holistic approach, the linkbetween the instinct of staff and their work with structured risk assessment must be founded on routines and solidplatforms.

  • Tjong Kim Sang, Erik
    et al.
    Bollmann, Marcel
    Boschker, Remko
    Casacuberta, Francisco
    Dietz, Feike
    Dipper, Stefanie
    Domingo, Miguel
    van der Goot, Robe
    van Koppen, Marjo
    Ljubešić, Nikola
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Petran, Florian
    Pettersson, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Scherrer, Yves
    University of Helsinki.
    Schraagen, Marijn
    Sevens, Leen
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    University of Helsinki.
    Vanallemeersch, Tom
    Zervanou, Kalliopi
    The CLIN27 Shared Task: Translating Historical Text to Contemporary Language for Improving Automatic Linguistic Annotation2017In: Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands Journal, ISSN 2211-4009, Vol. 7, 53-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CLIN27 shared task evaluates the effect of translating historical text to modern text with the goal of improving the quality of the output of contemporary natural language processing tools applied to the text. We focus on improving part-of-speech tagging analysis of seventeenth-century Dutch. Eight teams took part in the shared task. The best results were obtained by teams employing character-based machine translation. The best system obtained an error reduction of 51% in comparison with the baseline of tagging unmodified text. This is close to the error reduction obtained by human translation (57%).

  • Troiano, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Caponio, Vito Carlo Alberto
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo
    Sgaramella, Nicola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Expression of the long non-coding RNA HOTAIR as a prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 42, 73029-73036 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often dysregulated in cancer tissue and seem to play an important role in neoplastic processes. Recent studies have shown that the HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) may play a role as a marker of prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies focused on the prognostic role of HOTAIR in SCCHN.

    Results: At the end of the selection process, four studies were considered eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 271 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that high expression of HOTAIR was associated with poor overall survival (HR, 1.90; 95% CI: [1.42, 2.53]; p < 0,0001), advanced tumor stage (OR, 3.44; 95% CI: [1.84, 6.43]; p < 0,001) and lymph-node metastasis (OR, 3.31; 95% CI: [1.24, 8.79]; p = 0,02).

    Materials and Methods: The literature search was performed in the following databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS, EMBASE and Web of Science, in order to find studies that met the inclusion criteria.

    Conclusions: Findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that HOTAIR represents a potential biomarker of prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-14 13:00 FB42, Stockholm
    Etcheverry Cabrera, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Advanced all-fiber optofluidic devices2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant technological advances of the last years have been possible by developments in Optofluidics, which is a field that deals with the integration of optics and microfluidics into single devices.

    The work described in this thesis is based on five scientific publications related to the use of fiber optic technology to build integrated optofluidic devices. The first three publications are within the field of life-science and point towards in-vivo and point-of-care applications, whereas the last two publications cover the study and the use of plasmonic nanoparticles for electrical modulation of light.

    Aiming at developing useful tools for in-vivo biological applications, the first publication consists of designing and testing a functional optical fiber for real-time monitoring and selective collection of fluorescent microparticles. This probe relies on a microstructured optical fiber with a hole along its cladding, which is used to selectively aspirate individual particles of interest once their fluorescence signal is detected. On the same line of research, the second publication contemplates the fabrication of a fiber probe that traps single microparticles and allows for remote detection of their optical properties. This probe is also based on a microstructured fiber that enables particle trapping by fluidic forces. The third publication addresses the development of an all-fiber miniaturized flow cytometer for point-of-care applications. This system can analyze, with excellent accuracy and sensitivity, up to 2500 cells per second by measuring their fluorescence and scattering signal. A novel microfluidic technique, called Elasto-inertial microfluidics, is employed for aligning the cells into a single-stream to optimize detection and throughput.

    The fourth publication involves the experimental and theoretical study of the electrical-induced alignment of plasmonic gold nanorods in suspension and its applicability to control light transmission. This study is done by using an all-fiber optofluidic device, based on a liquid-core fiber, which facilitates the interaction of light, electric fields, and liquid suspensions. Results show that nanorods can be aligned in microseconds, providing a much better performance than liquid-crystal devices. Finally, the fifth publication consists of an upgrade of the previous device by integrating four electrodes in the cladding of the liquid-core fiber. This improvement enables nanosecond response time and the possibility of digitally switching nanorods between two orthogonal aligned states, overcoming the limitation of slow thermal relaxation.

    The work presented here shows that optofluidics based on optical fibers is a robust and convenient platform, as well as a promising direction for the developing of novel instruments in fields such as life-science, non-linear optics, plasmonic, and sensing.

  • Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Funct Zoomorphol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Texas Austin, Sect Integrat Biol, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando
    Univ Texas Austin, Sect Integrat Biol, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Univ Konstanz, Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Dept Collect Behav, Constance, Germany..
    Raby, Graham D.
    Australian Inst Marine Sci, Townsville, Qld, Australia.;Univ Windsor, Great Lakes Inst Environm Res, Windsor, ON, Canada..
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Clark, Timothy D.
    Australian Inst Marine Sci, Townsville, Qld, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia.;CSIRO Agr & Food, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
    Long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not alter activity levels of a coral reef fish in response to predator chemical cues2017In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 71, no 8, 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO 2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta). Commencing at similar to 3-20 days post-hatch, juvenile damselfish were exposed to presentday CO2 levels (similar to 420 mu atm) or to levels forecasted for the year 2100 (similar to 1000 mu atm) for 3 months of their development. Thereafter, we assessed routine activity before and after injections of seawater (sham injection, control) or seawater-containing predator chemical cues. There was no effect of CO2 treatment on routine activity levels before or after the injections. All fish decreased their swimming activity following the predator cue injection but not following the sham injection, regardless of CO2 treatment. Our results corroborate findings from a growing number of studies reporting limited or no behavioral responses of fishes to elevated CO2. Significance statement Alarmingly, it has been reported that levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) forecasted for the year 2100 cause coral reef fishes to be attracted to the chemical cues of predators. However, most studies have exposed the fish to CO2 for very short periods before behavioral testing. Using long-term acclimation to elevated CO2 and automated tracking software, we found that fish exposed to elevated CO2 showed the same behavioral patterns as control fish exposed to present-day CO2 levels. Specifically, activity levels were the same between groups, and fish acclimated to elevated CO2 decreased their swimming activity to the same degree as control fish when presented with cues from a predator. These findings indicate that behavioral impacts of elevated CO2 levels are not universal in coral reef fishes.

  • Tseli, Elena
    et al.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Boersma, Katja
    Enthoven, Paul
    Gerdle, Björn
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Predictors of multidisciplinary rehabilitation outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, no 1, 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major public health problem. Early prediction for optimal treatment results has received growing attention, but there is presently a lack of evidence regarding what information such proactive management should be based on. This study protocol, therefore, presents our planned systematic review and meta-analysis on important predictive factors for health and work-related outcomes following multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    METHODS: We aim to perform a synthesis of the available evidence together with a meta-analysis of published peer-reviewed original research that includes predictive factors preceding MDR. Included are prospective studies of adults with benign, chronic (> 3 months) musculoskeletal pain diagnoses who have taken part in MDR. In the studies, associations between personal and rehabilitation-based factors and the outcomes of interest are reported. Outcome domains are pain, physical functioning including health-related quality of life, and work ability with follow-ups of 6 months or more. We will use a broad, explorative approach to any presented predictive factors (demographic, symptoms-related, physical, psychosocial, work-related, and MDR-related) and these will be analyzed through (a) narrative synthesis for each outcome domain and (b) if sufficient studies are available, a quantitative synthesis in which variance-weighted pooled proportions will be computed using a random effects model for each outcome domain. The strength of the evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation.

    DISCUSSION: The strength of this systematic review is that it aims for a meta-analysis of prospective cohort or randomized controlled studies by performing an extensive search of multiple databases, using an explorative study approach to predictive factors, rather than building on single predictor impact on the outcome or on predefined hypotheses. In this way, an overview of factors central to MDR outcome can be made and will help strengthen the evidence base and inform a wide readership including health care practitioners and policymakers.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016025339.

  • Waiswa, P.
    et al.
    Makerere Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Coll Hlth Sci, Kampala, Uganda.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Manzi, F.
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Mbaruku, G.
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Rowe, A. K.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Malaria Branch, Div Parasit Dis & Malaria, Ctr Global Hlth, Atlanta, GA USA..
    Marx, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Evaplan GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tomson, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning, Informat, Management,Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marchant, T.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Willey, B. A.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Schellenberg, J.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Makerere Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Coll Hlth Sci, Kampala, Uganda.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hanson, C.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Effects of the EQUIP quasi-experimental study testing a collaborative quality improvement approach for maternal and newborn health care in Tanzania and Uganda2017In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 12, 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Quality improvement is a recommended strategy to improve implementation levels for evidence-based essential interventions, but experience of and evidence for its effects in low-resource settings are limited. We hypothesised that a systemic and collaborative quality improvement approach covering district, facility and community levels, supported by report cards generated through continuous household and health facility surveys, could improve the implementation levels and have a measurable population-level impact on coverage and quality of essential services.

    Methods: Collaborative quality improvement teams tested self-identified strategies (change ideas) to support the implementation of essential maternal and newborn interventions recommended by the World Health Organization. In Tanzania and Uganda, we used a plausibility design to compare the changes over time in one intervention district with those in a comparison district in each country. Evaluation included indicators of process, coverage and implementation practice analysed with a difference-of-differences and a time-series approach, using data from independent continuous household and health facility surveys from 2011 to 2014. Primary outcomes for both countries were birth in health facilities, breastfeeding within 1 h after birth, oxytocin administration after birth and knowledge of danger signs for mothers and babies. Interpretation of the results considered contextual factors.

    Results: The intervention was associated with improvements on one of four primary outcomes. We observed a 26percentage- point increase (95% CI 25-28%) in the proportion of live births where mothers received uterotonics within 1 min after birth in the intervention compared to the comparison district in Tanzania and an 8-percentage-point increase (95% CI 6-9%) in Uganda. The other primary indicators showed no evidence of improvement. In Tanzania, we saw positive changes for two other outcomes reflecting locally identified improvement topics. The intervention was associated with an increase in preparation of clean birth kits for home deliveries (31 percentage points, 95% CI 2-60%) and an increase in health facility supervision by district staff (14 percentage points, 95% CI 0-28%).

    Conclusions: The systemic quality improvement approach was associated with improvements of only one of four primary outcomes, as well as two Tanzania-specific secondary outcomes. Reasons for the lack of effects included limited implementation strength as well a relatively short follow-up period in combination with a 1-year recall period for population-based estimates and a limited power of the study to detect changes smaller than 10 percentage points.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 14:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Guala, Dimitri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm, Bioinformatics Center, Science for Life Laboratory.
    Functional association networks for disease gene prediction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping of the human genome has been instrumental in understanding diseasescaused by changes in single genes. However, disease mechanisms involvingmultiple genes have proven to be much more elusive. Their complexityemerges from interactions of intracellular molecules and makes them immuneto the traditional reductionist approach. Only by modelling this complexinteraction pattern using networks is it possible to understand the emergentproperties that give rise to diseases.The overarching term used to describe both physical and indirect interactionsinvolved in the same functions is functional association. FunCoup is oneof the most comprehensive networks of functional association. It uses a naïveBayesian approach to integrate high-throughput experimental evidence of intracellularinteractions in humans and multiple model organisms. In the firstupdate, both the coverage and the quality of the interactions, were increasedand a feature for comparing interactions across species was added. The latestupdate involved a complete overhaul of all data sources, including a refinementof the training data and addition of new class and sources of interactionsas well as six new species.Disease-specific changes in genes can be identified using high-throughputgenome-wide studies of patients and healthy individuals. To understand theunderlying mechanisms that produce these changes, they can be mapped tocollections of genes with known functions, such as pathways. BinoX wasdeveloped to map altered genes to pathways using the topology of FunCoup.This approach combined with a new random model for comparison enables BinoXto outperform traditional gene-overlap-based methods and other networkbasedtechniques.Results from high-throughput experiments are challenged by noise and biases,resulting in many false positives. Statistical attempts to correct for thesechallenges have led to a reduction in coverage. Both limitations can be remediedusing prioritisation tools such as MaxLink, which ranks genes using guiltby association in the context of a functional association network. MaxLink’salgorithm was generalised to work with any disease phenotype and its statisticalfoundation was strengthened. MaxLink’s predictions were validatedexperimentally using FRET.The availability of prioritisation tools without an appropriate way to comparethem makes it difficult to select the correct tool for a problem domain.A benchmark to assess performance of prioritisation tools in terms of theirability to generalise to new data was developed. FunCoup was used for prioritisationwhile testing was done using cross-validation of terms derived fromGene Ontology. This resulted in a robust and unbiased benchmark for evaluationof current and future prioritisation tools. Surprisingly, previously superiortools based on global network structure were shown to be inferior to a localnetwork-based tool when performance was analysed on the most relevant partof the output, i.e. the top ranked genes.This thesis demonstrates how a network that models the intricate biologyof the cell can contribute with valuable insights for researchers that study diseaseswith complex genetic origins. The developed tools will help the researchcommunity to understand the underlying causes of such diseases and discovernew treatment targets. The robust way to benchmark such tools will help researchersto select the proper tool for their problem domain.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:00 William-Olssonsalen, Stockholm
    Morlanes, José Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Some Extensions of Fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Model: Arbitrage and Other Applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis endeavors to extend probability and statistical models using stochastic differential equations. The described models capture essential features from data that are not explained by classical diffusion models driven by Brownian motion.

    New results obtained by the author are presented in five articles. These are divided into two parts. The first part involves three articles on statistical inference and simulation of a family of processes related to fractional Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the so-called fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process of the second kind (fOU2). In two of the articles, we show how to simulate fOU2 by means of circulant embedding method and memoryless transformations. In the other one, we construct a least squares consistent estimator of the drift parameter and prove the central limit theorem using techniques from Stochastic Calculus for Gaussian processes and Malliavin Calculus.

    The second phase of my research consists of two articles about jump market models and arbitrage portfolio strategies for an insider trader. One of the articles describes two arbitrage free markets according to their risk neutral valuation formula and an arbitrage strategy by switching the markets. The key aspect is the difference in volatility between the markets. Statistical evidence of this situation is shown from a sequential data set. In the other one, we analyze the arbitrage strategies of an strong insider in a pure jump Markov chain financial market by means of a likelihood process. This is constructed in an enlarged filtration using Itô calculus and general theory of stochastic processes.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Eikje Ramberg, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Mynt er hva mynt gjør: En analyse av norske mynter fra 1100-tallet: produksjon, sirkulasjon og bruk2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The kings of Norway issued coins on a regular basis starting in the mid-11th century, and probably conducted renovatio monetae whenever a new king came to power. As a privilege of bona regalia, the king could use coin production to serve his own interests. Economic factors are usually the main focus of discussions on coinage, but there were also political, religious and cultural dimensions that must have been important both for the production of coins and in the choice of motives, form and style. From the outset, manipulation of the coinage is visible in the debasement of silver content, followed by a reduction in weight to re-establish the silver level.  In the 12th century, the weights continued to drop and single-faced coins and bracteates became the standard; only a few biface coins are known.

    These small coins and bracteates from the 12th century carry little or no information concerning issuer, date or place of production. This lack of information has resulted in a gap in our knowledge about the role of these coins in medieval society in Norway. This role was dependent both on the intentions of the producer and on how the coins were perceived by the people, and their will to use them in certain ways. What were the reasons behind issuing the smallest coins ever produced in coin history, and what impact did this dramatic reduction in weight have on the understanding and use of the coin?

    To advance the discussion it has been vital to establish new knowledge about chronology, coin-issuing authority and mints. These areas have been addressed through two analyses using numismatic and archaeological methods. The results of the initial analyses are combined with an investigation of the size of the coin production and a study of archaeological contexts, in order to reveal how, where and when the bracteates were used. 

    The theoretical approach to understanding the role of coins is inspired by theories in anthropology and sociology about the many ways in which money can be incorporated in a society, emphasising the complex social component of coins in contrast to the traditional economic emphasis on their neutral qualities as a means of exchange. Central to this are the concepts behind formalism and substantivist and post-substantivist theory. The study concludes with a discussion that explores what can be said about economy and economic systems based on the 12th-century Norwegian coins.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Weidenstedt, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Sociology of Empowerment: The Relevance of Communicative Contexts for Workplace Change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empowerment has been a popular concept in management and leadership practice and research for more than forty years. The intentions behind empowerment at the workplace are positive: empowered employees should experience a greater degree of influence, decision-making latitude, and meaningfulness. This is achieved through transfers of power, such as increases in autonomy and responsibility. Although empowerment efforts have often been shown to successfully result in empowered and highly involved employees, there has also been research that shows the opposite: the so-called paradox of empowerment is a well-known problem that refers to failed empowerment efforts through which beneficiaries feel disempowered rather than empowered.

    This thesis comprises three papers intended to contribute to empowerment research and practice within a sociological framework that offers a better understanding of implicit assumptions between employer and employee and the unintended consequences these can have on the outcome of empowerment change efforts. The analyses utilize a communicative approach in line with sociological and social-psychological theories of communication and interaction.

    The first two papers are theoretical analyses, one examining the general concept of empowerment (Paper I), the other focusing more specifically on empowerment in workplace contexts (Paper II). Paper III is an empirical analysis that investigates some of the theoretical assumptions made in Papers I and II.

    The first paper analyzes empowerment from a sociological point of view and identifies possible mechanisms behind the paradox of empowerment. It is argued that such paradoxes may evolve from discrepancies between approaching empowerment from a purely economic and structural perspective versus a communicative and relational one. It concludes with the observation that, although their agency may be increased on a structural level, empowerees may experience a parallel decrease of agential options on a communicative level.

    The second paper deals with empowerment at the workplace as a management or leadership technique. Focusing on relational aspects, a “basic communicative structure” is identified. This is analyzed as comprising a contractual and a communicative context that should be taken into consideration by empowerers in order to avoid misunderstandings in the recipients’ sensemaking processes. Paper II concludes by arguing that the way recipients make sense of their roles and situations as defined by employment and/or psychological contracts might not necessarily be in line with the communicative meanings they ascribe to the change agents’ actions, and vice versa.

    The third paper analyzes employees’ orientations and attitudes toward empowerment and the relevance of their attitudes for the success of empowerment efforts. These issues are explored by means of survey data from 268 employees in the Swedish retail sector. Results indicate that age and work intensity (part-time vs. full-time), as well as cohabitation status may have significant impacts on how empowerment efforts are approached and received by employees.

    The thesis as a whole provides insights into sociological issues of empowerment, both generally and particularly in management and leadership contexts and concludes that the communicative context of empowerment interactions plays a significant role in employees’ empowerment orientations.

  • Makenzius, Marlene
    et al.
    Oguttu, Monica
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Odero, Theresa M A
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Post-abortion care with misoprostol - equally effective, safe and accepted when administered by midwives compared to physicians: a randomised controlled equivalence trial in a low-resource setting in Kenya2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 10, e016157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of midwives administering misoprostol to women with incomplete abortion seeking post-abortion care (PAC), compared with physicians.

    DESIGN: A multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. The study was not masked.

    SETTINGS: Gynaecological departments in two hospitals in a low-resource setting, Kenya.

    POPULATION: Women (n=1094) with incomplete abortion in the first trimester, seeking PAC between 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to receive treatment from midwives or physicians. 409 and 401 women in the midwife and physician groups, respectively, were included in the per-protocol analysis.

    INTERVENTIONS: 600 µg misoprostol orally, and contraceptive counselling by a physician or midwife.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complete abortion not needing surgical intervention within 7-10 days. The main outcome was analysed on the per-protocol population with a generalised estimating equation model. The predefined equivalence range was -4% to 4%. Secondary outcomes were analysed descriptively.

    RESULTS: The proportion of complete abortion was 94.8% (768/810): 390 (95.4%) in the midwife group and 378 (94.3%) in the physician group. The proportion of incomplete abortion was 5.2% (42/810), similarly distributed between midwives and physicians. The model-based risk difference for midwives versus physicians was 1.0% (-4.1 to 2.2). Most women felt safe (97%; 779/799), and 93% (748/801) perceived the treatment as expected/easier than expected. After contraceptive counselling the uptake of a contraceptive method after 7-10 days occurred in 76% (613/810). No serious adverse events were recorded.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol provided by midwives is equally effective, safe and accepted by women as when administered by physicians in a low-resource setting. Systematically provided contraceptive counselling in PAC is effective to mitigate unmet need for contraception.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01865136; Results.