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  • Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karimpour, Masoumeh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Unosson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mass spectrometry profiling of oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamines in human lung lavage fluids reveals responsiveness of prostaglandin E2 and associated lipid metabolites to biodiesel exhaust exposure2017In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 409, no 11, 2967-2980 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust exposure on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are well recognized. While biofuels such as rapeseed methyl ester (RME) biodiesel may have ecological advantages, the exhaust generated may cause adverse health effects. In the current study, we investigated the responses of bioactive lipid mediators in human airways after biodiesel exhaust exposure using lipidomic profiling methods. Lipid mediator levels in lung lavage were assessed following 1-h biodiesel exhaust (average particulate matter concentration, 159 mu g/m(3)) or filtered air exposure in 15 healthy individuals in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled, crossover study design. Bronchoscopy was performed 6 h post exposure and lung lavage fluids, i.e., bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were sequentially collected. Mass spectrometry methods were used to detect a wide array of oxylipins (including eicosanoids), endocannabinoids, Nacylethanolamines, and related lipid metabolites in the collected BWand BAL samples. Six lipids in the human lung lavage samples were altered following biodiesel exhaust exposure, three from BAL samples and three from BW samples. Of these, elevated levels of PGE2, 12,13-DiHOME, and 13-HODE, all of which were found in BAL samples, reached Bonferroni-corrected significance. This is the first study in humans reporting responses of bioactive lipids following biodiesel exhaust exposure and the most pronounced responses were seen in the more peripheral and alveolar lung compartments, reflected by BAL collection. Since the responsiveness and diagnostic value of a subset of the studied lipid metabolites were established in lavage fluids, we conclude that our mass spectrometry profiling method is useful to assess effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  • Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    University College London, London, UK, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuosma, Eeva
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ferrie, Jane E
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Batty, G David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Brunner, Eric J
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Department of Public Health and Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shipley, Martin J
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, Inserm U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Suominen, Sakari B
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Theorell, Töres
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Bell, Joshua A
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Tabak, Adam G
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, 1st Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: Pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe2017In: The Lancet. Public health, Vol. 2, no 6, e277-e285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although overweight and obesity have been studied in relation to individual cardiometabolic diseases, their association with risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is poorly understood. Here we aimed to establish the risk of incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke) in adults who are overweight and obese compared with those who are a healthy weight.

    METHODS: We pooled individual-participant data for BMI and incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity from 16 prospective cohort studies from the USA and Europe. Participants included in the analyses were 35 years or older and had data available for BMI at baseline and for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline and follow-up. We excluded participants with a diagnosis of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at or before study baseline. According to WHO recommendations, we classified BMI into categories of healthy (20·0-24·9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25·0-29·9 kg/m(2)), class I (mild) obesity (30·0-34·9 kg/m(2)), and class II and III (severe) obesity (≥35·0 kg/m(2)). We used an inclusive definition of underweight (<20 kg/m(2)) to achieve sufficient case numbers for analysis. The main outcome was cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, developing at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity was ascertained via resurvey or linkage to electronic medical records (including hospital admissions and death). We analysed data from each cohort separately using logistic regression and then pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis.

    FINDINGS: Participants were 120  813 adults (mean age 51·4 years, range 35-103; 71 445 women) who did not have diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at study baseline (1973-2012). During a mean follow-up of 10·7 years (1995-2014), we identified 1627 cases of multimorbidity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, compared with individuals with a healthy weight, the risk of developing cardiometabolic multimorbidity in overweight individuals was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% CI 1·7-2·4; p<0·0001), almost five times higher for individuals with class I obesity (4·5, 3·5-5·8; p<0·0001), and almost 15 times higher for individuals with classes II and III obesity combined (14·5, 10·1-21·0; p<0·0001). This association was noted in men and women, young and old, and white and non-white participants, and was not dependent on the method of exposure assessment or outcome ascertainment. In analyses of different combinations of cardiometabolic conditions, odds ratios associated with classes II and III obesity were 2·2 (95% CI 1·9-2·6) for vascular disease only (coronary heart disease or stroke), 12·0 (8·1-17·9) for vascular disease followed by diabetes, 18·6 (16·6-20·9) for diabetes only, and 29·8 (21·7-40·8) for diabetes followed by vascular disease.

    INTERPRETATION: The risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity increases as BMI increases; from double in overweight people to more than ten times in severely obese people compared with individuals with a healthy BMI. Our findings highlight the need for clinicians to actively screen for diabetes in overweight and obese patients with vascular disease, and pay increased attention to prevention of vascular disease in obese individuals with diabetes.

    FUNDING: NordForsk, Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Finnish Work Environment Fund, and Academy of Finland.

  • Yeung, Leo
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Executive, Universitet, Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet, forskningscentrum människa teknik miljö, MTM.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

  • Wadso, Lars
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Bldg Mat, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics. European Spallat Source ERIC, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Bentley, Phillip M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics. European Spallat Source ERIC, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Assessing hydration disturbances from concrete aggregates with radiation shielding properties by isothermal calorimetry2017In: PHYSICAL REVIEW ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, ISSN 2469-9888, Vol. 20, no 4, 043502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spallation sources create a large amount of neutrons with energies up to the GeV range. To shield for these neutrons, steel and concrete are important materials. By adding different aggregates to normal concrete, one can improve the shielding effect of the concrete. Some of these aggregates can influence the rate of hydration (reaction) of the cement or even completely inhibit the hydration. It is thus good practice to start the investigation of new shielding concretes by assessing the rate of cement hydration in the presence of new aggregates. This is preferably made with isothermal (heat conduction) calorimetry. In this paper we describe such tests made with a large number of different potential aggregates for a shielding concrete. We found a full range of influence on the hydration, from no influence to severely disturbed. In some cases smaller particles gave more disturbance.

  • Köhler, Stephan J.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Klavzar, Andreja
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wallman, Karin
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Huser, Brian
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av delprogrammet metaller inom miljöövervakning av sjöar: Styrfaktorer och mönster som hjälp för ett reviderat provtagningsprogram2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den årliga omfattande provtagningen av programmet omdrev som har pågått mellan 2007 till 2016 har varit mycket värdefull för utvärderingen för av faktorer som styr halter av ett antal metaller (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb och Zn). Det föreliggande dataset kan vara un-derlag till stöd för länsstyrelsen och kommuner att identifiera höga halter. Regionala skillnader i programmet omdrev har samma mönster som i programmet trendsjöar både med avseende på medianhalter, förekomst av låga värden och trender i påverkade jäm-fört med opåverkade områden. Ett större antal sjöar i omdrevprogrammet är tydligen påverkad av antropogena källor och kan möjligen uteslutas från metallanalyser i framti-den. Möjligen kan dessa sjöar vara referenser för påverkade områden. För följande me-taller fanns det starka (Co, Pb och Zn), svaga (Ni) och inga (Cd, Cu) samband mellan totalhalter och kemiska och landskapsrelaterade styrfaktorer som kan användas för att beräkna förväntade medianhalter i sjöar. Det föreslås att ett större antal sjöar i program-met trendsjöar analyseras 4 gånger per år för att få en bättre uppfattning av den tempo-rala variationen. I områden som är opåverkade av kända punktkällor så kan skattning av biotillgängligheten (Cu, Ni och Zn) eller beräkning av acceptabla gränsvärden (Pb) även fortsättningsvis utföras via metallernas totalhalter och totalhalten organiskt kol (TOC). För metallerna Pb och Zn kan totalhalterna korrigeras via antingen omräkningsfunktion-er eller med hjälp av modelleringsverktyget VisualMinteq som är tillgängligt. Beräk-ningarna antyder att halten TOC samvarierar med den beräknade biotillgängliga frakt-ionen. Osäkerheter som styrs av pH är minst lika stora som osäkerheter som härrör från TOC. Andra osäkerheter i beräkningarna så som halten Al och Fe som också kan bindas upp av TOC bör belysas närmare vid behov. I sjöar med höga pH värden bör biotill-gängligheten av Ni följas upp om totalhalten Ni är ovanligt höga (>25 ppb).

  • Wu, Nan
    et al.
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Feng
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Jin, Zhe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Zhang, Zhen
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Lian-Kun
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Chun
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Tao
    Ningxia Med Univ, Ningxia Key Lab Cerebrocranial Dis, Incubat Base Natl Key Lab, Ningxia, Peoples R China.;Ningxia Med Univ, Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Ningxia, Peoples R China..
    Effects of GABA(B) receptors in the insula on recognition memory observed with intellicage2017In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, ISSN 1744-9081, E-ISSN 1744-9081, Vol. 13, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insular function has gradually become a topic of intense study in cognitive research. Recognition memory is a commonly studied type of memory in memory research. GABA(B)R has been shown to be closely related to memory formation. In the present study, we used intellicage, which is a new intelligent behavioural test system, and a bilateral drug microinjection technique to inject into the bilateral insula, to examine the relationship between GABA(B)R and recognition memory. Methods: Male Sprague- Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Nacl, baclofen and CGP35348 groups. Different testing procedures were employed using intellicage to detect changes in rat recognition memory. The expression of GABA(B)R (GB1, GB2) in the insula of rats was determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting at the protein level. In addition, the expression of GABA(B)R (GB1, GB2) was detected by RT-PCR at the mRNA level. Results: The results of the intellicage test showed that recognition memory was impaired in terms of position learning, punitive learning and punitive reversal learning by using baclofen and CGP35348. In position reversal learning, no significant differences were found in terms of cognitive memory ability between the control groups and the CGP and baclofen groups. Immunofluorescence data showed GABA(B)R (GB1, GB2) expression in the insula, while data from RTPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that the relative expression of GB1 and GB2 was significantly increased in the baclofen group compared with the control groups. In the CGP35348 group, the expression of GB1 and GB2 was significantly decreased, but there was no significant difference in GB1 or GB2 expression in the control groups. Conclusions: GABA(B)R expression in the insula plays an important role in the formation of recognition memory in rats.

  • Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Elliptical Alignment Holes Enabling Accurate Direct Assembly of Microchipsto Standard Waveguide Flanges at sub-THz Frequencies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current waveguide flange standards do not allowfor the accurate fitting of microchips, due to the large mechanicaltolerances of the flange alignment pins and the brittle nature ofSilicon, requiring greatly oversized alignment holes on the chip tofit worst-case fabrication tolerances, resulting in unacceptablylarge misalignment error for sub-THz frequencies. This paperpresents, for the first time, a new method for directly aligningmicromachined Silicon chips to standard, i.e. unmodified, waveguideflanges with alignment accuracy significantly better thanthe waveguide-flange fabrication tolerances, through the combinationof a tightly-fitting circular and an elliptical alignment holeon the chip. A Monte Carlo analysis predicts the reduction of themechanical assembly margin by a factor of 5.5 compared to conventionalcircular holes, reducing the potential chip misalignmentfrom 46 μm to 8.5 μm for a probability of fitting of 99.5%.For experimental verification, micromachined waveguide chipsusing either conventional (oversized) circular or the proposedelliptical alignment holes were fabricated and measured. A reductionin the standard deviation of the reflection coefficient by afactor of up to 20 was experimentally observed from a total of200 measurements with random chip placement, exceeding theexpectations from the Monte Carlo analysis. To our knowledge,this paper presents the first solution for highly accurate assemblyof micromachined waveguide chips to standard waveguide flanges,requiring no custom flanges or other tailor-made split blocks.

  • Einarson, Daniel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Saplacan, Diana
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Silvén, Pekka
    Finland.
    Approaching work integrated learning through learning outcomes and evaluations2016In: The 12th international CDIO conference proceedings: full papers / [ed] Jerker Björkqvist, Kristina Edström, Ronald J. Hugo, Juha Kontio, Janne Roslöf, Rick Sellens & Seppo Virtanen, Turku: Turku University of Applied Sciences , 2016, 722-732 p., 144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The  core  of  CDIO  addresses  criticism  from  engineering  industry  according engineering education having too much focus on theoretical training. Here, practice, and especially integrating theory and practice, has had a peripheral role implying students not being well enough prepared for the complexity of industry’s real world problems and solutions. CDIO aims to meet that criticism through especially illuminating on project based educational forms, where sections of the, so called, CDIO Syllabus point out desired knowledge and skills that are needed to fulfil complex enough projects in engineering education. That approach not only prepares students in appropriate ways for the benefits of industry, but also increases their value of being employable. CDIO does not explicitly point out industry close work placement in education, neither in the CDIO syllabus, nor in the CDIO Standards. Still, many universities strive after work integrated learning, in purposes of, e.g., employability, and real world preparation. Experiences show problems in work integrated learning due to several reasons, such as, establishing sustainable academy–industry contacts, strategies for project ownership and IPR (Intellectual Property Rights), and guarantees according fulfillment of academic requirements on learning outcomes.

    The concept of Demola relates to a platform for collaborations between academy and industry with focus on multi-disciplinary student projects. Especially, focus is on innovation, where industry may experiment with new ideas at low cost. Demola has proved itself to be a successful approach, with developed templates for student-industry contracts, and process models. Still, to be an attractive choice for work integrated learning, the Demola approach also has to be clear with respect to academic contexts of courses’ learning outcomes, and course evaluations.

    The aim of this contribution is to point out a set of learning outcomes in a purpose of clarifying on such set being an inherent part of Demola. That set, which is based on CDIO Syllabus, shall map towards a tool for evaluations, where the two-dimensional multi-valued tool ZEFsurvey, is chosen. Overviews, case studies, and discussions will be provided, where one purpose is to point out the adaptability of Demola in an international context.

  • Ollila, Jorma
    et al.
    Skov-Spilling, Jens
    Nordic Energy Co-operation: Strong today – Stronger tomorrow2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    On 27 October 2015, the Nordic Council of Ministers for Business, Energy and Regional Policy (MR-NER) decided to carry out a strategic review of Nordic co-operation on energy and how it could be developed over the next 5–10 years. The strategic review is part of the Nordic Council of Ministers’ reform project initiated by its Secretary General, Dagfinn Høybråten. Strategic reviews have previously been conducted on foreign and security policy, health and labour-market co-operation. The remit was to present 10–15 concrete proposals that would further enhance co-operation in areas in which significant positive outcomes have been achieved over the past two decades.

    The Paris Climate Change Conference of December 2015 and the EU’s goal of working towards a European Energy Union make this review particularly timely. It is also based on the Nordic countries’ own reviews of their national climate and energy policies. The geopolitical landscape is currently in a state of flux – global trade and climate policies are under pressure, and nationalist tendencies are emerging in many countries. This presents many challenges to Nordic energy co-operation, which has achieved ground-breaking results based on cross-border co-operation. Various studies have also shown that the Nordic Region has made similarly dramatic gains in terms of welfare. The time has come to assess how the Nordic countries can build on this success, despite adverse international trends. This review seeks to identify these challenges, present proposals for how the Nordic countries can move forward, and inspire further discussion and debate.

  • Ollila, Jorma
    et al.
    Skov-Spilling, Jens
    Nordisk energisamarbeid: Sterkt i dag – sterkere i morgen2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    27. oktober 2015 vedtok Nordisk ministerråd for næring, energi og regionalpolitikk (MR-NER) å foreta en strategisk gjennomlysning av det nordiske samarbeidet om energi og hvordan det kan utvikles de neste 5–10 årene. Den strategiske gjennomlysningen er del av Nordisk ministerråds reformprosjekt, som ble initiert av generalsekretær Dagfinn Høybråten. Det er tidligere foretatt strategiske gjennomlysninger av samarbeid om utenriks- og sikkerhetspolitikk, helse og arbeidsmarked. Mandatet var å legge fram 10–15 konkrete forslag som ytterligere kunne styrke samarbeidet på områder der betydelige positive resultater er oppnådd i løpet av de siste to tiårene.

    Klimakonferansen i Paris i desember 2015 og EUs ambisjoner om å arbeide fram mot en europeisk energiunion gjør denne gjennomlysningen spesielt aktuell. Den er også basert på de enkelte nordiske landenes gjennomlysning av sin nasjonale klima- og energipolitikk. Det geopolitiske landskapet er for øyeblikket i endring – global handels- og klimapolitikk er under pres, og nasjonalistiske tendenser gjør seg gjeldende i mange land. Dette byr på en rekke utfordringer for det nordiske energisamarbeidet, som har oppnådd banebrytende resultater basert på samarbeid på tvers av grensene. En rekke studier har også vist at Norden har hentet tilsvarende dramatiske velferdsmessige gevinster. Nå er tiden inne for å vurdere hvordan de nordiske landene kan bygge videre på denne suksessen til tross for ugunstige internasjonale trender. Denne gjennomlysningen har som mål å identifisere disse utfordringene, legge fram forslag til hvordan de nordiske landene kan gå videre, og inspirere til ytterligere diskusjon og debatt.

  • Ollila, Jorma
    et al.
    Skov-Spilling, Jens
    Norrænt orkumálasamstarf: Öflugt í dag – enn öflugra á morgun2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Þann 27. október 2015 ákvað Norræna ráðherranefndin um atvinnu-, orku- og byggðastefnu (MR-NER) að vinna stefnumótandi úttekt á norrænu samstarfi á sviði orkumála og hvernig það gæti þróast næstu 5-10 árin. Þessi stefnumótandi úttekt er hluti af endurbótaáætlun Norrænu ráðherranefndarinnar sem framkvæmdastjóri hennar, Dagfinn Høybråten, hrinti úr vör. Stefnumótandi úttektir hafa áður verið gerðar á samstarfi á sviðum utanríkis-, öryggis-, heilbrigðis- og vinnumála. Verkefnið var í því fólgið að leggja fram 10-15 beinskeyttar tillögur um hvernig styrkja mætti orkumálasamstarfið enn frekar, á sviðum þar sem marktæk og jákvæð skref hafa verið stigin á síðustu tveimur áratugum.

    Loftslagsráðstefnan í París í desember 2015 og markmið ESB um að vinna að stofnun Orkusambands Evrópu hafa gert úttektina tímabærari. Hún grundvallast enn fremur á endurskoðun norrænu landanna á stefnu hvers og eins þeirra í loftslags- og orkumálum. Landfræðipólitískt landslag er um þessar mundir á mikilli hreyfingu – alþjóðaviðskipti og tefna í loftslagsmálum eru undir þrýstingi og þjóðernishyggju vex fiskur um hrygg í mörgum löndum. Þetta skapar margháttaðar áskoranir er varða norrænt orkumálasamstarf, en samstarf yfir landamæri hefur reynst afar árangursríkt. Ýmsar rannsóknir hafa enn fremur leitt í ljós að velferð á Norðurlöndum hefur aukist stórkostlega. Tímabært er orðið að meta hvernig löndin geta nýtt sér þennan árangur, þrátt fyrir óhagstæða þróun í alþjóðamálum. Þessari úttekt er ætlað að greina þessar áskoranir, leggja fram tillögur um það hvernig Norðurlönd geta sótt fram og jafnframt að hvetja til frekari umfjöllunar og umræðu.

  • Ollila, Jorma
    et al.
    Skov-Spilling, Jens
    Pohjoismainen energiayhteistyö: Vahva tänään – vahvempi huomenna2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Elinkeino-, energia- ja aluepolitiikan ministerineuvosto (MR-NER) päätti 27. lokakuuta 2015 toteuttaa strategiaselvityksen pohjoismaisesta energiayhteistyöstä ja sen kehittämismahdollisuuksista seuraavien 5–10 vuoden aikana. Selvitys on osa pääsihteeri Dagfinn Høybråtenin käynnistämää Pohjoismaiden ministerineuvoston uudistustyötä. Tätä ennen strategiaselvityksiä on tehty ulko- ja turvallisuuspolitiikan sekä terveys- ja työelämäalan yhteistyöstä. Toimeksiantona oli esitellä 10–15 konkreettista toimintaehdotusta energiayhteistyön lisäämiseksi aloilla, joilla on saavutettu merkittäviä myönteisiä tuloksia kahden viime vuosikymmenen aikana. Pariisissa joulukuussa 2015 pidetty ilmastokokous ja EU:n energiaunionitavoite tekevät selvityksestä erityisen ajankohtaisen. Selvitys nojautuu myös Pohjoismaiden omiin selvityksiin niiden kansallisista ilmasto- ja energiapolitiikoista. Geopoliittinen tilanne on parhaillaan murroksessa, kun kansainvälinen kauppa- ja ilmastopolitiikka on ahtaalla ja monissa maissa nationalistiset suuntaukset ovat nousussa. Tämä kohdistaa monia haasteita pohjoismaiseen energiayhteistyöhön, jossa on saavutettu uraauurtavia tuloksia rajat ylittävällä yhteistyöllä. Monet tutkimukset ovat myös osoittaneet, että Pohjoismaiden hyvinvointi on lisääntynyt yhtä merkittävästi. Nyt on aika arvioida, miten Pohjoismaat voivat jatkaa menestyksen tiellä epäsuotuisista kansainvälisistä suuntauksista huolimatta. Selvitys pyrkii tunnistamaan haasteet, esittelemään ehdotuksia Pohjoismaiden tulevasta suunnasta sekä tarjoamaan virikkeitä tulevaan keskusteluun.

  • Krenek, Alexander
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Schratzenstaller, Margit
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO).
    Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding: A European Net Wealth Tax2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of wealth inequality in many EU countries has spurred interest in wealth taxation. While taxes on wealth for a long time have played only a marginal role in the public finance and taxation literature, in the more recent literature a variety of arguments are brought forward in favour of (higher) wealth taxation. Most of these arguments directly or indirectly refer to the potential of wealth taxes to contribute to various dimensions of sustainability, in particular to economic, social, and/or institutional/cultural sustainability. Tax competition has led to an almost complete disappearance of recurrent taxes on personal or corporate net wealth in Europe. EU-wide implementation of a net wealth tax based on harmonised tax provisions may serve as a first step in a longer-term oriented move of the stepwise expansion of net wealth taxes on a global scale. By dealing with non- and under-reporting in the Household and Consumption Survey (HFCS) data set provided by the European Central Bank, we are able to estimate the wealth distribution within 20 EU Member States. Applying a progressive household-based tax schedule with a tax rate of 1% for net wealth above € 1 million and 1.5% for net wealth above € 5 million on these adjusted wealth distributions yields potential tax revenues of € 156 billion, taking into account the behavioural responses of individuals triggered by net wealth taxation. Given the positive sustainability properties of a net wealth tax with regard to economic efficiency and social inclusion, a European net wealth tax offers itself as an interesting candidate for sustainability-oriented tax-based own resources to finance the EU budget.

  • Martinez Romera, Beatriz
    et al.
    Smith, Tristan
    Milligan, Ben
    Andersson, Karin
    Grahn, Maria
    Workshop Report: Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-carbon Shipping2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement aims to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels (and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5°C), but does not refer specifically to greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport sector. This Report outlines the findings of a project commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers, focusing on opportunities for Nordic countries to achieve a transition to low-carbon shipping at national, regional and global scales. It is informed by discussions at the World Maritime University in Malmö in December 2016 between representatives of governments, businesses, NGOs and the research community. The Report presents a low-carbon roadmap for shipping with actions and outcomes concerning low-carbon technology, ship operations, finance, public policy, and public-private partnerships.

  • Molde, Bertil (Contributor)
    Språk- och folkminnesinstitutet, Svenska språknämnden.
    Språkform och språknorm: en bok till Bertil Molde på 60-årsdagen den 16 september 19791979Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Almqvist, Roland
    et al.
    Institutet för kommunal ekonomi (IKE), Stockholms universitet.
    Donatella, Pierre
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nilsson, Viveka
    Kommunforskning i Västsverige, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ramberg, Ulf
    Rådet för Kommunalekonomisk forskning och utbildning (KEFU), Lunds universitet.
    Wänström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resursanpassning och utveckling av kommunal verksamhet.: Sammanfattning och slutord fårn det andra Nationionella kommunforsningsprogrammet.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2010–2017 har de fyra universitetsanknutna kommunforsknings-instituten i landet drivit det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet. Forskningsprogrammets innehåll har vuxit fram i samtal mellan forskare och företrädare för de kommuner som deltagit i och finansierat forskningsprogrammet. Den första delen av forskningsprogrammet (Natkom 1) påbörjades 2010 och avslutades 2013 och handlade om hur kommuner anpassar sig till förändrade förutsättningar och handskas med besvärliga situationer.

    Föreliggande rapport utgör slutrapport för den andra delen av det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet (Natkom 2) som påbörjades 2014 och avslutades 2017. Mot bakgrund av krav som ställs på den kommunala organisationen att anpassa verksamheten till de resurser som finns var temat denna gång hur kommuner hanterar resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling. Natkom 2 fokuserade på att kartlägga och beskriva idéer för resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling och hur dessa överförs till praktiken. I rapporten sammanfattas och kommenteras de viktigaste resultaten från de 16 projekt som bedrivits inom ramen för forskningsprogrammets andra del.

    En iakttagelse från projekten är att centralisering av befogenheter till kommunledningen tycks vara vanligt i arbetet med resursanpassning och verksamhetsutveckling. Likaså kan konstateras att anpassningen och utvecklingen oftast är av mindre art och inkrementell. Trots att det finns tydliga tecken på "pyspunka" löper verksamheten på utan tydliga försök att göra större förändringar i syfte att anpassa verksamheten till framtida utmaningar.

    De sju år som det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammet i sin helhet har löpt har varit tämligen turbulenta kommunala år. Totalt har det skrivits 47 rapporter och anordnats sju konferenser. Det handlar följaktligen om ett mycket omfattande och innehållsrikt empiriskt material som sammanställts, analyserats och legat till grund för slutsatser som återförts till medverkande kommuner, men även till icke medverkande kommuner, studenter och i forsk-ningslitteraturen.

  • Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Snickars, Folke
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lärosätenas organisering av samverkan och modeller för resursfördelning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har syftat till att kartlägga modeller för hur lärosäten premierar strategisk samverkan i sin interna resursfördelning mellan lärosätesledningen och fakulteter/verksamhetsområden och i nästa led till institutioner eller andra aktiviteter. Som bakgrund till våra analyser har vi kartlagt hur lärosätena organiserar sitt arbete med extern samverkan såväl ledningsmässigt, akademiskt som administrativt. I projektet har även analyserats principer för resursfördelning och metoder för att samla in nödvändig information. En central frågeställning har varit i vad mån förutsättningar inom olika discipliner och utbildningsinriktningar kan jämföras. Ett av resultaten visar att lärosätenas modeller för resursfördelning samtidigt är både jämförbara och unika. Det förekommer sällan tydligt riktade satsningar på samverkan. Genomgången visar samtidigt att aktörer på olika nivåer inom universiteten visar stor skicklighet och uppfinnings ‐ rikedom när det gäller att indirekt påverka den interna fördelningen av fakultetsmedel för såväl utbildning som forskning och forskarutbildning. Ett betydande gemensamt lärande kan åstadkommas genom fortsatt samarbete mellan universitetsledningar och förvaltningar men även mellan fakulteter och institutioner vid respektive lärosäte.  

  • Recensioner2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 206-243 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Carleheden, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Debatt: Därför behövs Sociologisk Forskning2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 202-205 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Weber, Max
    Nationalstaten och den ekonomiska politiken: Installationsföreläsning2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 178-201 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Max Webers Freiburger Antrittsrede: Om migrationsprocesser, social urbäddning och social förändring2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 148-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Max Weber in Freiburg. On migration, disembedding and social change

    This article sets out to introduce the central topics in Max Weber’s inauguration lecture in Freiburg. It is argued that the central, but largely implicit, argument in Weber’s lecture concerns the transformation from a patriarchal to a capitalist mode of employment. Upon this interpretation, Max Weber’s objective is to explain specific migration processes in terms of a configuration of causes, where the social disembedding of rural labour is the key factor.

  • Eldén, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet.
    “Om hon lever vill människor se mer och mer”: Rykten, splittrad kvinnlighet och heder bland svenska kvinnor från Mellanöstern2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 115-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “If she is alive, people want to see more and more”: Gossip, divided femaleness and honour among Swedish women from the Middle East

    This article analyses how Swedish women from the Middle East talk about gossip. In interviews, the women talk about a “good reputation” as something “necessary” and “very important”, and about “bad reputation” as something one has to avoid at any cost. Using a contextual and relational understanding ofthe concepts of  “identity” and “culture”, the article analyses the women's talk about gossip as a construction of gender identity in the eyes of  “others”. This construction, it is argued, is related to a contrast between what others can see and what others cannot see. Further, it can be analysed in the light of cultural notions of divided femaleness, here understood as a construction of “the whore” - an irrevocably stained woman - and “the virgin” - a pure and untouched woman - as mutually exclusive categories. Through this analysis, a widened understanding of the concept of honour is reached, where different cultural notions, like gossip, hijab, honour and divided femaleness are held together.

  • Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Arbetslivsinstitutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Uteslutningens politiska ekonomi. Mot en transatlantisk konvergens?2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 71-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political economies of exclusion: Transatlantic convergence or transatlantic split?

    The paper takes its point of departure in a discussion of US American theories on poverty, race and ethnic divisions of labour which have influenced current European research on poverty and social exclusion among immigrants and new ethnic minorities with immigrant background. The focus is in particular on theories of the Black US urban ghetto and its workless and welfare dependent poor and on seemingly divergent theories on the dualisation of the so-called “global city”, new immigration and the new working poor. Their explanatory value is debated seen in relation to the development of the United States since the mid 1970s and the question of which demands to place on a more comprehensive and synthesising model with explanatory potential in the complex reality of the European Union. This is an emerging social formation which in a number of respects is markedly unlike that of the United States, even though the racialisation and ethnification of a new spectre of social exclusion also poses one of the most urgent social issues on this side of the Atlantic.

  • Hiller, Carolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Demokrati och nationella fantasier: Föreställningar om identitet och tillhörighet i studier av demokrati2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 40-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracy and national imagination: assumptions of  identity and belonging in studies on democracy

    Until recently, questions of migration and ethnic relations were hardly discussed within political research on democracy. Categories such as ‘nation’, ‘culture’ and ‘ethnicity’ have been taken for granted, looked upon as self-evident and independent factors. Research on democracy has generally been permeated by what might be called ‘national imagination’, a nation-state-centred and ethnocentric paradigm, where homogenous national belongings and national borders have been assumed, advocated and legitimated as fundamental elements of political life. Within this kind of paradigm, ethnic minorities have been represented as fundamentally ‘different’ from the ‘norm ality’, that is ethnic majority populations. In general, phenomenon such as mix of cultures, border-crossing and migration have been portrayed as in itself abnormal, disrupting and problematic features of political life. The conclusion in the article is that it is necessary to question and to challenge hegemonic conceptions of identity and belonging in research on democracy.

  • Franzén, Eva
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Socialbidrag bland invandrare: erfarenheter från Sverige2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 9-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants on social assistance: experiences from Sweden

    In this study differences in social assistance recipiency in Sweden between foreign born and Swedish born are analysed for the period of 1983-1995, using a large data set, consisting of two random samples from the total population; 1 percent of the native population and 10 percent of foreign born. Both the numbers of recipients of social assistance and immigration increased in Sweden in the 1990s. We find that the number of recipients of social assistance varies dramatically between groups of immigrants of different origins. The overrepresentation for immigrants can not be explained by observable socio-economic characteristics. However, using a logit multivariate model, we find that the utilisation of social assistance decreases with time spent in Sweden - irrespective of level of education and reasons for migrating. But the pace of economic assimilation is slow. For some immigrant groups it takes two decades until their social assistance recipiency is equivalent to that of a Swedish born person. Analysing the years 1983 and 1995 we find that the increase in social assistance recipiency almost exclusively can be ascribed to recently immigrated groups.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 4-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2001:3-42001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Bersani, Cinzia
    et al.
    Sivars, Lars
    Haeggblom, Linnea
    DiLorenzo, Sebastian
    Mints, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrlund-Richter, Andreas
    Tertipis, Nikolaos
    Munck-Wikland, Eva
    Nasman, Anders
    Ramqvist, Torbjorn
    Dalianis, Tina
    Targeted sequencing of tonsillar and base of tongue cancer and human papillomavirus positive unknown primary of the head and neck reveals prognostic effects of mutated FGFR32017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 21, 35339-35350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus positive (HPV+) tonsillar cancer (TSCC), base of tongue cancer (BOTSCC) and unknown primary cancer of the head and neck (HNCUP) have better outcome than corresponding HPV- cancers. To find predictive markers for response to treatment, and correlations and differences in mutated oncogenes and suppressor genes between HPV+TSCC/BOTSSCC and HPV+ HNCUP and HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC targeted next-generation sequencing was performed of frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA from 348 TSCC/BOTSCC and 20 HNCUP from patients diagnosed 2000-2011, was sequenced by the Ion Proton sequencing platform using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to identify frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes. Ion Torrent Variant Caller software was used to call variants.

    RESULTS: 279 HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC, 46 HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC and 19 HPV+ HNCUP samples qualified for further analysis. Mutations/tumor were fewer in HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP, compared to HPV- tumors (0.92 vs. 1.32 vs. 1.68). Differences in mutation frequency of TP53 and PIK3CA were found between HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP and HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. In HPV+TSCC/BOTSCC presence of FGFR3 mutations correlated to worse prognosis. Other correlations to survival within the groups were not disclosed.

    CONCLUSIONS: In HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC mutation of PIK3CA was most frequently observed, while TP53 mutations dominated in HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. In HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC and HNCUP, mutations/tumor were similar in frequency and fewer compared to that in HPV- TSCC/BOTSCC. Notably, FGFR3 mutations in HPV+ TSCC/BOTSCC indicated worse prognosis.

  • You, Yuan
    et al.
    Sawikowska, Aneta
    Neumann, Manuela
    Pose, David
    Capovilla, Giovanna
    Langenecker, Tobias
    Neher, Richard A.
    Krajewski, Pawel
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstrasse 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Temporal dynamics of gene expression and histone marks at the Arabidopsis shoot meristem during flowering2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM. Here we report the temporal dynamics of the chromatin modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and their correlation with transcriptional changes at the SAM in response to photoperiod-induced flowering. Emphasizing the importance of tissue-specific epigenomic analyses we detect enrichments of chromatin states in the SAM that were not apparent in whole seedlings. Furthermore, our results suggest that regulation of translation might be involved in adjusting meristem function during the induction of flowering.

  • Keller, Christina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Wass, Sofie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Zetterlind, Madelene
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Ghassemali, Ehsan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Teacher roles in a blended learning materials engineering master program: "It's not a new role, it's a new way!"2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering education are characterized by laboratories, mathematical foundations and design tools. These pillars of engineering education do not seem to be ideal for online education as the field lags behind other fields in adopting online education. Laboratories are for instance hard to implement online due to the need of direct operation of instruments. Likewise, course materials requiring use of mathematics have traditionally not been as easy to implement as topics that require only text-based instructions (Bourne et al., 2005). Real laboratory sessions have also shown to be more motivated for engineering students than virtual simulations (Stefanovic, 2013). In spite of this, there are increasing evidence of use of blended and online learning in engineering education. For example, online self-study environment to supplement the classroom instruction in engineering courses in graphical communication (Sun et al., 2014), virtual laboratories and simulation environments (Balamuraithara & Woods, 2007; Bourne et al., 2005) and online platforms for developing learning networks for global engineering (Meikleham et al. 2015). The School of Engineering at Jönköping University, the Swedish foundry association, the research institute Swerea/SWECAST and twelve foundry industries cooperate to develop a blended learning one-year master program in product development in materials and manufacturing. As previously performed courses have been given on campus, teachers needed to take on new roles as blended learning teachers. In this paper, we present the initial results from a study that aims to investigate the perceived roles of university teachers in a blended learning materials engineering master program.

  • Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena
    et al.
    Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet.
    Mazzocato, Pamela
    Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet.
    Glaser, Daniel
    Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet.
    Keller, Christina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Unbeck, Maria
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: A focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e013869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts.

    Design: Two focus group discussions were performed.

    Settings: Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden.

    Participants: Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings.

    Interventions: Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion.

    Results: Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in improvement work.

    Conclusions: Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work with healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported.

  • Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

  • Tsolakis, Apostolos V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    James, Paul D.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Dept Med, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Kaplan, Gilaad G.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada.;Univ Calgary, Cumming Sch Med, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Myers, Robert P.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada.;Univ Calgary, Cumming Sch Med, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Hubbard, James
    Univ Calgary, Cumming Sch Med, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Wilson, Todd
    Univ Calgary, Cumming Sch Med, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Zimmer, Scott
    Alberta Hlth Serv, Med Serv, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Mohamed, Rachid
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Cole, Martin
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Bass, Sydney
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Swain, Mark G.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Heitman, Steven J.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Med, Cumming Sch Med, Calgary, AB, Canada.;Univ Calgary, Cumming Sch Med, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Clinical prediction rule to determine the need for repeat ERCP after endoscopic treatment of postsurgical bile leaks2017In: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, ISSN 0016-5107, E-ISSN 1097-6779, Vol. 85, no 5, 1047-1056 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: In patients who have undergone ERCP with biliary stenting for postsurgical bile leaks, the optimal method (ERCP or gastroscopy) and timing of stent removal is controversial. We developed a clinical prediction rule to identify cases in which a repeat ERCP is unnecessary.

    Methods: Population-based study of all patients who underwent ERCP for management of surgically induced bile leaks between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate and binary recursive partitioning analyses were performed to generate a rule predicting the absence of biliary pathology on repeat endoscopic evaluation.

    Results: A total of 259 patients were included. On multivariate analysis, postsurgical normal alkaline phosphatase (ALP; OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.03-4.99), time from surgery to first ERCP < 8 days (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.15-5.31), and minor leak with no other pathology on initial ERCP (OR, 6.74; 95% CI, 1.75-25.89) were independently associated with the absence of persistent bile leak and other pathology on repeat ERCP. The derived rule included laparoscopic cholecystectomy, normal postsurgical ALP, minor leak with no other pathology on initial ERCP, and an interval from initial to repeat ERCP between 4 and 8 weeks. When all 4 criteria were met, the rule had a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI, 83%-99%) and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI, 81%-99%). Optimism-adjusted sensitivity and negative predictive value were 88% (95% CI, 76%-96%) and 86% (95% CI, 73%-96%), respectively.

    Conclusions: This clinical decision rule identifies patients who can have their biliary stents removed via gastroscopy, which may improve patient safety and healthcare utilization.

  • Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2015–20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm has made special efforts to reduce PM10 levels in the city. The efforts mainly include dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) and vacuum suction with a powerful dry vacuum suction machine. This report summarizes effects on particulate matter and road dust storage, as the actions taken by Stockholm City during the 2015–2016 season and discusses how measures can be further improved. The limit value for the environmental quality standard was not exceeded for the 2015–2016 season for the third consecutive year, but the number of days with PM10 levels over the environmental quality standard was higher than in the previous season, which had a record low number of exceedances. The evaluation of daytime dust binding was complicated by the fact that the CMA was also used on the reference street, which caused to much uncertainties to provide quantitative analysis of its effect this season. Block-wise dust binding and vacuuming could not be evaluated due to dust contamination from a construction site. The dust load on the streets varies from a few g/m2 to about 250 g/m2 depending on the street and season and is highest during the winter (Dec–Jan). A trend towards lower dust loads is broken this season on several streets, which may be due to the damper streets in spring. Analyses made on the connection between dust load, PM10 and impacting factors, as well as a condition-based calculation method suggests that dust binding in spring is important for keeping the levels down, while dust binding in autumn and winter is more often “unnecessary” (the levels would probably not have exceeded the limit value also without dust binding).

  • Zhukovsky, Peter
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Jupp, Bianca
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England.;Univ Melbourne, Florey Inst Neurosci & Mental Hlth, Parkville, Vic, Australia..
    Xia, Jing
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Guiliano, Chiara
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Jenner, Lucy
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Griffiths, Jessica
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Riley, Errin
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Ali, Sajeed
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Roberts, Angela C.
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Physiol Dev & Neurosci, Cambridge, England..
    Robbins, Trevor W.
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England..
    Dalley, Jeffrey W.
    Univ Cambridge, Behav & Clin Neurosci Inst, Cambridge, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge, England..
    Perseveration in a spatial-discrimination serial reversal learning task is differentially affected by MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition and associated with reduced anxiety and peripheral serotonin levels2017In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, no 9-10, 1557-1571 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impairments in behavioral flexibility lie at the core of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural substrates of natural variation in behavioral flexibility and whether inflexible behavior is linked to anxiety and peripheral markers of stress and monoamine function. The objective of the study was to investigate peripheral and central markers associated with perseverative behavior on a spatial-discrimination serial reversal learning task. Rats were trained on a reversal learning task prior to blood sampling, anxiety assessment, and the behavioral evaluation of selective monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and MAO-B inhibitors, which block the degradation of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA). Perseveration correlated positively with 5-HT levels in blood plasma and inversely with trait anxiety, as measured on the elevated plus maze. No significant relationships were found between perseveration and the stress hormone corticosterone or the 5-HT precursor tryptophan. Reversal learning was significantly improved by systemic administration of the MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide but not by the MAO-B inhibitor lazabemide. Moclobemide also increased latencies to initiate a new trial following an incorrect response suggesting a possible role in modulating behavioral inhibition to negative feedback. MAO-A but not MAO-B inhibition resulted in pronounced increases in 5-HT and NA content in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal raph, nuclei and increased 5-HT and DA content in the basolateral amygdala and dorsomedial striatum. These findings indicate that central and peripheral monoaminergic mechanisms underlie inter-individual variation in behavioral flexibility, which overlaps with trait anxiety and depends on functional MAO-A activity.

  • Elleström, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Transfer of Media Characteristics among Dissimilar Media: [ Transferencia de las características de los medios entre medios disimilares ]2017In: Palabra Clave, ISSN 0122-8285, Vol. 20, no 3, 663-685 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad variety of media traits are transmedial in the sense that they can, to a certain extent, be transferred among media that differ in fundamental ways. This article presents a new theoretical framework for studying media transformation, which should be understood as transfer of transmedial characteristics. The goal is to explain how meaningful data are changed or corrupted during transfer among various media. Initially, I launch a few fundamental theoretical distinctions concerning the creation of meaningful media data. The most fundamental distinction is that between mediation and representation. Whereas mediation is the material prerequisite for representation in media, representation should be understood as a semiotic operation, that is, the creation of meaning in the mind. On the basis of this division, I also distinguish between two kinds of media transformation: transmediation and media representation. The article then continues with a section about the transmedial basis. All media have basic and universal (material, sensorial, spatiotemporal and semiotic) properties that are shared to some extent. Furthermore, media form compound characteristics (such as narrativity) that are more or less transmedial, which means that they can be transferred among media to some extent. Finally, a model for analyzing media characteristic transfer is sketched.

  • Gudnason, Asgeir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Adalberth, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nilsson, Kjell-Gunnar
    Univ Umea, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Hailer, Nils P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Tibial component rotation around the transverse axis measured by radiostereometry predicts aseptic loosening better than maximal total point motion: A follow-up of 116 total knee arthroplasties after at least 15 years2017In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, no 3, 282-287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Maximal total point motion (MTPM) measured by radiostereometry (RSA) is widely used as a predictor of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) loosening. We compared the ability of different RSA measurements at different time points to predict loosening of tibial TKA components in the long term. Patients and methods - 116 TKAs in 116 patients were included in our analysis. 16 (14.8-17.4) years after surgery, 5 tibial components had been revised due to aseptic loosening. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated in order to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of different RSA parameters at different thresholds. Results - Rotation around the transverse (x-) axis measured 2 years postoperatively had the best predictive value of all parameters, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 80%. Using a threshold of 0.8 degrees, a specificity of 85% and a sensitivity of 50% were reached. The AUC for tibial component distal translation was 79% and it was 77% for proximal translation, whereas it was only 68% for MTPM. Interpretation - Rotation of the cemented tibial component around the transverse axis, proximal translation, and distal translation are slightly better at predicting aseptic loosening than MTPM, and tibial component migration measured after 2 years gives a good prediction of aseptic loosening up to 15 years.

  • Public defence: 2017-08-25 09:00 Campus US, Linköping
    Latorre, Malcolm
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Physical Axon: Modeling, Simulation and Electrode Evaluation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodes are used in medicine for detection of biological signals and for stimulating tissue, e.g. in deep brain stimulation (DBS). For both applications, an understanding of the functioning of the electrode, and its interface and interaction with the target tissue involved is necessary. To date, there is no standardized method for medical electrode evaluation that allows transferability of acquired data. In this thesis, a physical axon (Paxon) potential generator was developed as a device to facilitate standardized comparisons of different electrodes. The Paxon generates repeatable, tuneable and physiological-like action potentials from a peripheral nerve. It consists of a testbed comprising 40 software controlled 20 μm gold wires embedded in resin, each wire mimicking a node of Ranvier. ECG surface Ag-AgCl electrodes were systematically tested with the Paxon. The results showed small variations in orientation (rotation) and position (relative to axon position) which directly impact the acquired signal. Other electrode types including DBS electrodes can also be evaluated with the Paxon.

    A theoretical comparison of a single cable neuronal model with an alternative established double cable neuron model was completed. The output with regards to DBS was implemented to comparing the models. These models were configured to investigate electrode stimulation activity, and in turn to assess the activation distance by DBS for changes in axon diameter (1.5-10 μm), pulse shape (rectangular biphasic and rectangular, triangular and sinus monophasic) and drive strength (1-5 V or mA). As both models present similar activation distances, sensitivity to input shape and computational time, the neuron model selection for DBS could be based on model complexity and axon diameter flexibility. An application of the in-house neuron model for multiple DBS lead designs, in a patient-specific simulation study, was completed. Assessments based on the electric field along multiple sample planes of axons support previous findings that a fixed electric field isolevel is sufficient for assessments of tissue activation distances for a predefined axon diameter and pulse width in DBS.

  • Bengtsson, Tommy
    Mortality and Causes of Death in Västanfors Parish, Sweden, 1700-19251988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 461-493 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-09-01 10:00 F1031, Luleå
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laboratory Investigations of Frost Action Mechanisms in Soils2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase change of the water in the soil skeleton under cold climate conditions (also known as frost action in soils) affects soil properties and can be responsible for serious alterations in a soil body; causing damages (due to the volumetric expansion known as frost heave) to structures on or below the ground surface such as foundations, roads, railways, retaining walls and pipelines, etc. In order to improve the current design methods for roads against frost action, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) has initiated a research program. The main goals of the program are to revise the existing frost heave estimation methods and improve the frost susceptibility classification system for subgrade soils.

    Literature was reviewed to gather the details of different freezing test equipment around the world and to identify common trends and practices for laboratory freezing tests. Based on the literature review and the collaboration with the University of Oulu, Finland an experimental apparatus was assembled for studying frost action in the laboratory. A detailed description of the experimental apparatus is given. Top to down freezing of specimens (of 10cm height and diameter) can be monitored while keeping track of water intake, vertical displacements (heave) and the temperature profile within the sample. Loads can be applied at the top of the sample to study the effects of overburden. Moreover, the test setup was modified with a camera system to have the option of recording the experiments.

    Disturbed samples of two different soil types were tested. Experiments with fixed and varying temperature boundary conditions were conducted to assess the validity of the assumptions for the frost heave estimation methods currently in use in Sweden. To this end, a qualitative relationship between frost heave and heat extraction rates based on theoretical equations was established. It was shown that there is a significant difference between the preliminary findings of the experimental work and the current system being used in Sweden to quantify heave.

    Image analysis techniques were used on two experiments that were recorded by the camera system. Image recording and correlation analyses provided detailed information about frost front penetration and ice lens formation(s) under varying temperature boundary conditions. Thawing has also been regarded in further studies. Results of the image analyses were compared to readings from conventional displacement measurements during the same test. Significant agreement between the results of image analyses and displacement measurements has been found. Image analysis was shown to be a viable method in further understanding of frost heave mechanisms.

    Shortcomings and disadvantages of utilizing the theoretical equations as well as the image analysis techniques were discussed. Potential remedies for overcoming the drawbacks associated with each approach are suggested. The work is concluded by discussing the potential improvements, planned upgrades (addition of pore pressure transducers) and the future experiments to be conducted.

  • Nelson, Marie C.
    Patterns of Mortality in Sweden’s Northernmost County in the 1860’s1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 437-459 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Rogers, John
    Comments on the Session Change and Patterns in Rural Mortality1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 429-435 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Åkerman, Sune
    et al.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Danielsson, Mats
    Height, Health and Nutrition in Early Modern Sweden1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 413-428 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Datasets (primärdata) till Rapport Redovisning av myndighetersintäkter och kostnader 2016 förprövning och tillsyn enligtmiljöbalken2017Data set
  • Redovisning av myndighetersintäkter och kostnader 2016 för prövning och tillsyn enligtmiljöbalken: Redovisning till regeringen enligt 10 kap. 7 § förordningen om avgifter för prövning och tillsyn enligt miljöbalken den 15 april 20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket ska senast den 15 april varje år redovisa länsstyrelsernas, Domstolsverkets, Kammarkollegiets, Naturvårdsverkets samt Havs- och vattenmyndighetens intäkter och kostnader för prövning och tillsyn enligt miljöbalken. Naturvårdsverket ska också lämna förslag med anledning av uppföljningen.

    Detta är första gången denna uppföljning görs och Naturvårdsverket bedömer att det inrapporterade materialets varierande kvalitet försvårar att generella slutsatser dras om myndigheternas kostnader och intäkter. Naturvårdsverket drar dock följande övergripande slutsatser om myndigheternas kostnader och intäkter för prövning och tillsyn under 2016:

    • Länsstyrelsernas beräknade kostnader för att utföra den tillsyn som idag inte kan täckas av avgifter utgår från Miljösamverkan Sveriges modell för behovsutredning. Det bedömda behovet uppgår sammantaget till flera hundra miljoner kronor. Det är svårt att fastställa om länsstyrelsernas beräknade uppgifter är riktiga. Skillnaden kan till viss del förklaras av att riktade sakanslag för tillsyn gällande förorenade områden och vattentillsyn inte ingår i det som ska rapporteras. 
    • Havs- och vattenmyndigheten och Kammarkollegiet har redovisat låga intäkter i form av rättegångskostnader i förhållande till kostnaderna för prövning av vattenverksamheter.
    • Naturvårdsverket har inga intäkter som följd av rättegångskostnader för prövning av vattenverksamheter.
    • Domstolsverkets har redovisat de högsta intäkterna i förhållande till sina kostnader för prövning enligt miljöbalken.

    Naturvårdsverket lämnar inga förslag i och med denna redovisning. Däremot har flera områden för möjligheter till utveckling observerats. Nedan presenteras de mest angelägna iakttagelserna:

    • Genom att samtliga länsstyrelser använder Miljösamverkan Sveriges modell för att beräkna nödvändiga tillsynsåtgärder som inte kan täckas av avgifter kan man uppnå en ökad jämförbarhet mellan myndigheternas redovisningar. Detta skulle möjliggöra mer djupgående analyser av myndigheternas kostnader och intäkter för prövning och tillsyn.
    • För att utveckla uppföljningen bör myndigheterna se över sina tidsredovisningar och införa lämpliga specifikationer som möjliggör en rapportering som i mindre utsträckning än idag bygger på uppskattningar.
    • Den fortsatta utvecklingen av denna redovisning bör ske i linje med de mål som tagits fram inom Naturvårdsverkets regeringsuppdrag Digitalt först.
  • Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Opportunities of Work and Family in Young Disabled People’s Lives: A Comparative Study of Disabled and Non-disabled Young Adults in Nineteenth-century Northern Sweden Using Sequence Analysis2016In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II) / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard and Matthias Studer, Lausanne: Université de Lausanne , 2016, 93-102 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This study focuses on young adults with disabilities and their pathways towards work and family in past society. The aim is to explore their life trajectories and compare them to a non-disabled group of people who experienced the same time-space context, represented by the 19th-century Sundsvall region, Sweden. We employ sequence analyses on a series of demographic events that were to occur in the life of young adults: first occupation, marriage and parenthood. We also check for the events of death and out-migration. Disability studies show that disabled people were often subject to stigmatization caused by their impairment and prevailing perceptions about normalcy in in society. This would have limited their opportunities of work and family compared to non-disabled persons. Individual-level data consisting of parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden, allow sequence analysis that helps to answer the questions of whether and how disability influenced people’s life trajectories. We obtain a holistic picture of how their life developed that suggests that disability substantially limited people’s opportunities to find job, marry and form a family. This indicates that a stigma was associated with disability beyond the impairment itself and worked to add to disabled individuals’ difficulties in both the labor market and marriage market.

  • Ward, W. Peter
    Hospitalization, Birth Weight and Nutrition in Montreal and Vienna 1850-19301988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 385-394 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Bengtsson, Karin
    et al.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 480405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lie, Elisabeth
    Klingberg, Eva
    Dehlin, Mats
    Exarchou, Sofia
    Lindstrom, Ulf
    Askling, Johan
    Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.
    Are ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events?: A prospective nationwide population-based cohort study2017In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 19, 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the risk of first-time acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA), compared to each other and to the general population (GP).

    Methods: This is a prospective nationwide cohort study. Cohorts with AS (n = 6448), PsA (n = 16,063) and uSpA (n = 5190) patients and a GP (n = 266,435) cohort, were identified 2001–2009 in the Swedish National Patient and Population registers. The follow-up began 1 January 2006, or 6 months after the first registered spondyloarthritis (SpA) diagnosis thereafter, and ended at ACS/stroke/VTE event, death, emigration or 31 December 2012. Crude and age- and sex-standardized incidence rates (SIRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for incident ACS, stroke or VTE, respectively.

    Results: Standardized to the GP cohort, SIRs for ACS were 4.3, 5.4 and 4.7 events per 1000 person-years at risk in the AS, PsA and uSpA cohort, respectively, compared to 3.2 in the GP cohort. SIRs for stroke were 5.4, 5.9 and 5.7 events per 1000 person-years at risk in the AS, PsA and uSpA cohort compared to 4.7 in the GP cohort. Corresponding SIRs for VTE were 3.6, 3.2 and 3.5 events per 1000 person-years at risk compared to 2.2 in the GP cohort. Age-and sex-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for ACS events were significantly increased in AS (1.54 (1.31–1.82)), PsA (1.76 (1.59–1.95)) and uSpA (1.36 (1.05–1.76)) compared to GP. Age-adjusted HRs for ACS was significantly decreased in female AS patients (0.59 (0.37–0.97)) compared to female PsA patients. Age-and sex-adjusted HRs for stroke events were significantly increased in AS (1.25 (1.06–1.48)) and PsA (1.34 (1.22–1.48)), and nonsignificantly increased in uSpA (1.16 (0.91–1.47)) compared to GP. For VTE the age-and sex-adjusted HRs for AS, PsA and uSpA were equally and significantly increased with about 50% compared to GP.

    Conclusions: Patients with AS, PsA and uSpA are at increased risk for ACS and stroke events, which emphasizes the importance of identification of and intervention against cardiovascular risk factors in SpA patients. Increased alertness for VTE is warranted in patients with SpA.

  • Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Silent Sick. Life-Histories of 19th Century Swedish Hospital Patients1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 343-368 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)