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  • Fors, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    “We Started Building Green IT Back in the 1970s”: Making Sense of Sustainable ICT through Organizational History2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, research related to Sustainable Information and Communication Technology (Sustainable ICT) has focused on the technological aspects, but there is an emerging stream of research, which looks at Sustainable ICT from the viewpoint of the social sciences. In this paper, we build on and contribute to this research by emphasizing the role of history in the shaping of Sustainable ICT. Rather than seeing the importance of history as pure technological determinism or path dependency, we draw on the historical turn in organizational studies to highlight the idea that history is malleable. This implies that organizational actors can reshape their past from the present, thus creating new conditions for the future. To highlight the importance of this theoretical conceptualization of history, we present a case study of the Nordic ICT company Tieto, where the heat recovery system of the Älvsjö data center (finished in 1978) was reconceptualized as “green” following the Green Information Technology (Green IT) trend in 2007. This way of theorizing organizational history could be used more widely within research into Sustainable ICT in order to understand why Sustainable ICT has become what it is, which also implies that we can re-interpret this history to shape the future of Sustainable ICT.

  • Baliakas, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kättström, Magdalena
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Sect Hematol, Orebro, Sweden.
    Rossing, Maria
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Ctr Genom Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Amini, Rose-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Refractory chronic "ITP": When platelet size matters2018In: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1779-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Inherited conditions associated with thrombocytopenia should be included in the differential diagnosis of young patients with refractory immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), even in the absence of a positive family history. Early identification of such conditions is of vital importance in order to reach the right diagnosis and avoid unnecessary or even harmful medication.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-10 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Shen, Yang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Development of metal hydride surface structures for high power NiMH batteries: Also extended cycle-life and lead to more effective recycling methods2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining alkaline etching of hydrogen storage alloys or their hydrides with a controlled oxidation, it was possible to improve reaction kinetics and accelerate activation of MH-electrodes. Both AB5 and AB2 alloys were studied where A is mixtures of rare earth elements for AB5 alloys and titanium and/or vanadium, zirconium for AB2 alloys; nickel contributes the major part of B. With SEM and TEM studies the surface could be described as consisting of several phases where an interphase with active Ni-containing cluster protected the inner metallic hydrogen storage part of the powder particles. These catalytic Ni-clusters presumably lead to the fast activation and high discharge capacity of alloy.

    This interphase was observed to be stable enough to allow us to develop a method, where we could add pure oxygen to a NiMH battery pack in order to regenerate the amount of electrolyte that was lost during long time cycling of the battery. Meanwhile, the method will rebalance the electrodes mitigating excessive pressures during over charge. Therefore, the internal resistance of cells can be reduced and cycle life will increase.

    It was also shown that the stable interphase could survive a mild ball milling or sonication which enabled us to upcycle material from spent NiMH batteries into a better working MH-electrodes with improved kinetics and activation properties. Reuse of ball-milled or sonicated material could serve as a simple recycling alternative to energy-demanding metallurgical smelting methods and chemical consuming hydrometallurgical recycling processes, where the possibilities of up-scaling further favour the less complex mechanical treatments. The stable but catalytic interphase protecting the inner particles indicates that the MH-electrode material may perform better in its second life in a new NiMH battery.

  • Mitran, Bogdan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Güler, Rezan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roche, Francis P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Lindström, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Selvaraju, Ramkumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET-MRI Platform. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Fleetwood, Filippa
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rinne, Sara S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Radionuclide imaging of VEGFR2 in glioma vasculature using biparatopic affibody conjugate: proof-of-principle in a murine model2018In: Theranostics, ISSN 1838-7640, E-ISSN 1838-7640, Vol. 8, no 16, p. 4462-4476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and therefore a promising therapeutic target in malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Molecular imaging of VEGFR2 expression may enable patient stratification for antiangiogenic therapy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the capacity of the novel anti-VEGFR2 biparatopic affibody conjugate (Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2)) for in vivo visualization of VEGFR2 expression in GBM.

    Methods: Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) coupled to a NODAGA chelator was generated and radiolabeled with indium-111. The VEGFR2-expressing murine endothelial cell line MS1 was used to evaluate in vitro binding specificity and affinity, cellular processing and targeting specificity in mice. Further tumor targeting was studied in vivo in GL261 glioblastoma orthotopic tumors. Experimental imaging was performed.

    Results: [In-111]In-NODAGA-Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) bound specifically to VEGFR2 (K-D=33 +/- 18 pM). VEGFR2-mediated accumulation was observed in liver, spleen and lungs. The tumor-to-organ ratios 2 h post injection for mice bearing MS1 tumors were approximately 11 for blood, 15 for muscles and 78 for brain. Intracranial GL261 glioblastoma was visualized using SPECT/CT. The activity uptake in tumors was significantly higher than in normal brain tissue. The tumor-to-cerebellum ratios after injection of 4 mu g [In-111]In-NODAGA-Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) were significantly higher than the ratios observed for the 40 mu g injected dose and for the non-VEGFR2 binding size-matched conjugate, demonstrating target specificity. Microautoradiography of cryosectioned CNS tissue was in good agreement with the SPECT/CT images.

    Conclusion: The anti-VEGFR2 affibody conjugate [In-111]In-NODAGA-Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) specifically targeted VEGFR2 in vivo and visualized its expression in a murine GBM orthotopic model. Tumor-to-blood ratios for [In-111]In-NODAGA-Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) were higher compared to other VEGFR2 imaging probes. [In-111]In-NODAGA-Z(VEGFR2)-Bp(2) appears to be a promising probe for in vivo noninvasive visualization of tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma.

  • Zhang, Sizhuo
    et al.
    MIT CSAIL.
    Vijayaraghavan, Muralidaran
    MIT CSAIL.
    Wright, Andrew
    MIT CSAIL.
    Alipour, Mehdi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Mithal, Arvind
    MIT CSAIL.
    Constructing a Weak Memory Model2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak memory models are a consequence of the desire on part of architects to preserve all the uniprocessor optimizations while building a shared memory multiprocessor. The efforts to formalize weak memory models of ARM and POWER over the last decades are mostly empirical - they try to capture empirically observed behaviors - and end up providing no insight into the inherent nature of weak memory models. This paper takes a constructive approach to find a common base for weak memory models: we explore what a weak memory would look like if we constructed it with the explicit goal of preserving all the uniprocessor optimizations. We will disallow some optimizations which break a programmer's intuition in highly unexpected ways. The constructed model, which we call General Atomic Memory Model (GAM), allows all four load/store reorderings. We give the construction procedure of GAM, and provide insights which are used to define its operational and axiomatic semantics. Though no attempt is made to match GAM to any existing weak memory model, we show by simulation that GAM has comparable performance with other models. No deep knowledge of memory models is needed to read this paper.

  • Hjort, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Baron, Tomasz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet.
    Tornvall, Per
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Prognosis in relation to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels in patients with myocardial infarction and non-obstructive coronary arteries2018In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 200, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a recently recognized condition where biomarkers and prognosis are less well studied than in MI with obstructive coronary artery disease (MI-CAD). We therefore aimed to investigate the one-year prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels in MINOCA in comparison to MI-CAD.

    Methods: In this registry-based cohort study, we used data frompatientswith a discharge diagnosis ofMI, admitted between 2009 and 2013 to Swedish hospitals using the hs-cTnT assay. Only patients without previously known coronary artery disease were considered. Patients with and without coronary stenosis N50% were regarded to haveMI-CAD andMINOCA, respectively. Assessed outcomes included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV events (MACE), defined as the composite of CV death or admissions for nonfatal MI, heart failure (HF) or ischemic stroke.

    Results: The study cohort consisted of 1639 MINOCA and 17,304 MI-CAD patients. In adjusted analyses, hs-cTnT (ln) in MINOCA patients predicted all-cause mortality (HR 1.32 [95% CI 1.11-1.56]), CVmortality (HR 2.11 [95% CI 1.51-2.96]) and MACE (HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.20-1.72]). Hs-cTnT (ln) also predicted readmissions for HF (HR 1.51 [95% CI 1.51-2.96]) but not non-fatal MI or stroke. Interaction analyses suggested that hs-cTnT (ln) was at least as prognostic in patients with MINOCA compared to MI-CAD.

    Conclusions: Hs-cTnT levels inMINOCA patients are strong and independent predictors of adverse outcome. Consideration of hs-cTnT levels is important for risk assessment of MINOCA patients.

  • Cai, Xing Shi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Janson, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Non-fringe subtrees in conditioned Galton-Watson trees2018In: The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, ISSN 1097-1440, E-ISSN 1077-8926, Vol. 25, no 3, article id P3.40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study S(T-n), the number of subtrees in a conditioned Galton-Watson tree of size n. With two very different methods, we show that log(S(T-n)) has a Central Limit Law and that the moments of S(T-n) are of exponential scale.

  • Zacarias, Iulisloi
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Schwarzrock, Janaína
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Gaspary, Luciano Paschoal
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Kohl, Andersonn
    Brazilian Army, Brasília, Brasilien.
    Fernandes, Ricardo Q. A.
    Brazilian Army, Brasília, Brasilien.
    Stocchero, Jorgito M.
    Brazilian Army, Brasília, Brasilien.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Enhancing Mobile Military Surveillance Based on Video Streaming by Employing Software Defined Networks2018In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 2018, p. 1-12, article id 2354603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation awareness in surveillance systems benefits from high-quality video streaming service. This is even more important considering military systems, in which delays in image transmission may have a significant impact on the decision-making process. However, in order to deliver high-quality video streaming service, the required network infrastructure may be prohibitively complex, or even completely impossible to deploy, if mobile data providers are considered. Moreover, the demand for high network throughput poses extra requirements on the network. Considering this context, this paper addresses the problem of highly mobile networks composed of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as data providers of a military surveillance system. The proposed approach to tackle the problem is based on a Software Defined Networking (SDN) approach aiming at providing the best routes to deliver the data, enhancing the end-user quality of experience. An extensive experimental campaign was performed by means of simulations and the acquired results provide solid evidence of the usefulness of this proposal.© 2018 Iulisloi Zacarias et al.

  • Persson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Magner, Jörgen
    IVL, Sweden.
    Royen, Hugo
    IVL, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Staffan
    IVL, Sweden.
    A Photocatalytic Membrane For Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxic organics, pharmaceuticals and antibiotics are currently only partially or not at all removed from wastewater, as today’s wastewater treatment will only partly degrade those substances. Therefore, those substances will be found in the effluent from wastewater treatment plants and this can be a threat to both human health and aquatic species.

    Photocatalytic membranes show great promise as a method to combat the challenge of toxic organics in wastewater. The novel photocatalytic membrane developed in the project was shown to photocatalytically decompose organic compounds such as pharmaceutical residues and dyes in both tap water and treated effluent from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment process. Several parameters affecting the affinity of the pharmaceuticals to the membrane surface, such as the hydrophobicity and pKa of the pharmaceuticals and the pH of the water, were shown to affect the efficacy of the removal.

    Finally, when irradiated with UV light the photocatalytic membrane showed promise of keeping high flux and reducing downtime by lengthening the cleaning cycle.

  • Edström, Adam
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Målberg, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    The Strategic Research Agenda for the Swedish Additive Metal Manufacturing Industry2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:00 K1, Stockholm
    Malenova, Gabriela
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Uncertainty quantification for high frequency waves2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider high frequency waves satisfying the scalar wave equation with highly oscillatory initial data represented by a short wavelength ε. The speed of propagation of the medium as well as the phase and amplitude of the initial data is assumed to be uncertain, described by a finite number of independent random variables with known probability distributions. We introduce quantities of interest (QoIs) as spatial and/or temporal averages of the squared modulus of the wave solution, or its derivatives. The main focus of this work is on fast computation of the statistics of those QoIs in the form of moments like the average and variance. They are difficult to obtain numerically by standard methods, as the cost grows rapidly with ε−1 and the dimension of the stochastic space. We therefore propose a fast approximation method consisting of three techniques: the Gaussian beam method to approximate the wave solution, the numerical steepest descent method to compute the QoIs and the sparse stochastic collocation to evaluate the statistics.

    The Gaussian beam method is introduced to avoid the considerable cost of approximating the wave solution by direct methods. A Gaussian beam is an asymptotic solution to the wave equation localized around rays, bicharacteristics of the wave equation. This setup allows us to replace the PDE by a set of ODEs that can be solved independently of ε.

    The computation of QoIs includes evaluations of highly oscillatory integrals. The idea of the numerical steepest descent method is to change the integration path in the complex plane such that the integrand is non-oscillatory along it. Standard quadrature methods can be then utilized. We construct such paths for our case and show error estimates for the integral approximation by the Gauss-Laguerre and Gauss-Hermite quadrature.

    Finally, the evaluation of statistical moments of the QoI may suffer from the curse of dimensionality.  The sparse grid collocation method introduces a framework where certain large group of points can be neglected while only slightly reducing the convergence rate. The regularity of the QoIs in terms of the input random parameters and the wavelength is important for the method to be efficient.  In particular, the size of the derivatives should be bounded independently of ε. We show that the QoIs indeed have this property, despite the highly oscillatory character of the waves.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-05 13:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Frisk Dubsky, Brendan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Structure and representations of certain classes of infinite-dimensional algebras2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study several infinite-dimensional algebras and their representation theory. 

    In Paper I, we study the category O for the (centrally extended) Schrödinger Lie algebra, which is an analogue of the classical BGG category O. We decompose the category into a direct sum of "blocks", and describe Gabriel quivers of these blocks. For the case of non-zero central charge, we in addition find the relations of these quivers. Also for the finite-dimensional part of O do we find the Gabriel quiver with relations. These results are then used to determine the center of the universal enveloping algebra, the annihilators of Verma modules, and primitive ideals of the universal enveloping algebra which intersect the center of the Schrödinger algebra trivially. 

    In Paper II, we construct a family of path categories which may be viewed as locally quadratic dual to preprojective algebras. We prove that these path categories are Koszul. This is done by constructing resolutions of simple modules, that are projective and linear up to arbitrary position. This is done by using the mapping cone to piece together certain short exact sequences which are chosen so as to fall into three managable families. 

    In Paper III, we consider the category of injections between finite sets, and also the path category of the Young lattice subject to the relations that two boxes added to the same column in a Young diagram yields zero. We construct a new and direct proof of the Morita equivalence of the linearizations of these categories. We also construct linear resolutions of simple modules of the latter category, and show that it is quadratic dual to its opposite. 

    In Paper IV, we define a family of algebras using the induction and restriction functors on modules over the dihedral groups. For a wide subfamily, we decompose the algebras into indecomposable subalgebras, find a basis and relations for each algebra, as well as explicitly describe each center. 

  • Landegren, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Al-Amin, Rasel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Björkesten, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    A myopic perspective on the future of protein diagnostics2018In: New Biotechnology, ISSN 1871-6784, E-ISSN 1876-4347, Vol. 45, p. 14-18Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma proteome analyses of the future promise invaluable insights into states of health, not only by measuring proteins whose role it is to ensure blood homeostasis, but increasingly also as a window into the health of practically any tissue in the body via so-called leakage protein biomarkers. Realizing more of this vast potential will require progress along many lines. Here we discuss the main ones, such as optimal selection of target proteins, affinity reagents, immunoassay formats, samples, and applications, with a view from ongoing work in our laboratory.

  • Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    The Price We Pay: The Autonomy of Store Managers in Making Price Decisions: The Case of Grocery Retailing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, the store manager’s autonomy in making price decisions is explored to further our understanding of this actor. As a result, the store manager’s embeddedness in the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad provides a more holistic view of the price decisions made in grocery retailing. In both the scientific literature and the grey literature, discussions of whom it is who actually makes the price decisions within grocery retailing are diverse and point to all three actors in the triad, including the store manager.

    Through a theoretical departure in which price decisions and autonomy is discussed, it is possible to explore the store manager’s ability to make price decisions in relation to the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad. As an embedded actor in the triad, the store managers can, theoretically andspeculatively, face restrictions in relation to all actors.

    The context in which this dissertation is placed is that of the grocery retail branch in Sweden, where the three largest retail organisations have participated in the dissertation. This dissertation consists of the cover paper and five appended papers, where autonomy is discussed from a qualitative perspective within the frame of a mixed method approach. By looking at price decisions from the store manager’s perspective, and his/her freedom in making price decisions, the dissertation contributes to the area of micro-foundations of pricing.

    It is concluded that while store managers might not be formally autonomous in making price decisions, and that connected restrictions, due to the relationship and position of the actors in the original triad are in place, the store managers have enough freedom in relation to the store to implicitly and operationally influence price decisions. As a result, it is concluded that the possibility to resist decisions by acting as if they are autonomous, store managers become important actors to be taken into account when price decisions are made and evaluated.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 14:00 F3, Stockholm
    Ottenhall, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Antimicrobial materials from cellulose using environmentally friendly techniques2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a more biobased society introduces both new opportunities and new challenges as we replace nonrenewable materials with renewable alternatives. One important challenge will be to control microbial growth on materials, both to protect the materials from biological degradation and to prevent the spread of infections and toxins that can cause illness.

    In this thesis, both existing and new types of cellulose-based materials were treated with environmentally friendly alternatives to usual biocides to prevent microbial growth and remove bacteria from water. Two types of antimicrobial systems were studied, and the antimicrobial effects were evaluated for bacteria and fungi using both model organisms and wild-type cultures.

    The first antimicrobial approach employed was a nonleaching and contact-active layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes to provide the cellulose fibers with a cationic surface charge, which attracts and captures bacteria onto the fiber surface. The study showed that paper filters with pores much larger than bacteria could remove more than 99.9 % of E. coli from water when used in filtration mode. The polyelectrolyte-modified materials showed a good antibacterial effect but did not prevent fungal growth.

    The second approach was to utilize biobased compounds with antimicrobial properties, which were applied to cellulose fiber foam materials. Chitosan and extractives from birch bark were selected as biobased options for antimicrobial agents. Two types of cellulose fiber foam materials were developed and evaluated for their antimicrobial properties.

    This thesis shows the importance of understanding both the application and the targeted microorganism when selecting an environmentally friendly antimicrobial system for treating biobased materials. It highlights that a good understanding of both material science and microbiology is important when designing new antimicrobial materials.

  • Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics. Stockholm Univ, NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mogull, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Teng, Fei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Unraveling conformal gravity amplitudes2018In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 9, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformal supergravity amplitudes are obtained from the double-copy construction using gauge-theory amplitudes, and compared to direct calculations starting from conformal supergravity Lagrangians. We consider several different theories: minimal N = 4 conformal supergravity, non-minimal N = 4 Berkovits-Witten conformal supergravity, mass-deformed versions of these theories, as well as supersymmetry truncations thereof. Coupling the theories to a Yang-Mills sector is also considered. For all cases we give the gravity Lagrangians that the double copy implicitly generates. The two main results are: we determine a Lagrangian for the non-minimal Berkovits-Witten theory, and we uncover the double-copy prescription for the minimal N = 4 conformal supergravity.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:00 Sal A, Kista (Stockholm)
    Pevere, Federico
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Optical Properties of Single Silicon Quantum Dots2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For over 60 years silicon (Si) has dominated the semiconductor microelectronics industry mainly due to its abundance and good electrical and material properties. The advanced processing technology of Si has made it the workhorse for photovoltaics industry as well. However, this material has also a big drawback: it is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor in its bulk form, hence an inefficient light emitter. This has hindered the silicon photonics revolution envisioned in 1980s, where photons were thought to replace electrons inside computer chips.

    In parallel with the exponential scaling of Si transistor's size over the years, the discovery of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale raised new hopes for this semiconductor. In the 1990s bright luminescence from nanostructured porous Si was demonstrated claiming the quantum confinement effect as origin of the emission. Since then, an intense research activity has been focused on Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) due to their potential use as abundant and non-toxic light emitters. More precisely, they could be used as fluorescent biolabels in biomedicine, as light-emitting phosphors in e.g. TV screens or as down-converters in luminescent solar concentrators. Nevertheless, in order to realize such applications, it is necessary not only to improve the fabrication of Si-QDs but also to gain a better understanding of their photo-physics. Among different types of optical measurements, those performed at the single-dot level are free of sample inhomogeneities, hence more accurate for a correct physical description.

    This doctoral thesis presents a study of the optical properties of single Si-QDs of different type: encapsulated in an oxide matrix, capped with ligands or covered by a thin passivation layer. The homogeneous photoluminescence (PL) linewidth is found to strongly depend on the type of embedding matrix, being narrower for less rigid ones. A record resolution-limited linewidth of ~200 μeV is measured at low temperatures whereas room-temperature values can even compete with direct-bandgap QDs like CdSe. Such narrow PL lines exhibit intensity saturation at high excitation fluxes without any indication of emission from multiexciton states, suggesting the presence of fast non-radiative Auger recombination. Characteristic Auger-related lifetimes extracted from power-dependent decays show a variation from dot-to-dot and confirm the low biexciton quantum efficiency.

    For the first time, the absorption curve of single Si-QDs is probed by means of photoluminescence excitation in the range 2.0-3.5 eV. A step-like structure is found which depends on the nanocrystal shape considered and agrees well with simulations of the exciton level structure. Rod-like Si-QDs can exhibit ~50 times higher absorption than spherical-like ones due to local field effects and enhanced optical transitions. In contrast with previous studies, evidence of a direct-bandgap red-shift for small Si-QDs is missing at the single dot level, in agreement with atomistic calculations.

    Low-temperature PL decay measurements reveal no triplet-like emission lines, but two ~μs decay constants appearing at low temperatures. They suggest presence of a temperature-dependent fast blinking process based on trapping/detrapping of carriers in the oxide matrix, leading to delayed emission. The proposed model allows to extract characteristic trapping/de-trapping rates for Si-QDs featuring mono-exponential blinking statistics. From PL saturation curves, ligand-passivated Si-QDs do not exhibit such detrimental phenomenon, in agreement with the proposed model.

    Last, Si-QDs demonstrate to be very hard against ~10 keV X-ray radiation, in contrast with CdSe-QDs whose PL quenching is correlated with a change in the blinking parameters. This property could be exploited for example in space applications, where radiation-hard materials are required.

    To conclude, the results achieved in this thesis will help to understand and engineer the properties of Si-QDs whose application potential has increased after several years of research both at the ensemble and at the single-dot level.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-04 14:00 Falken, Kalmar
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Kalmar County Museum.
    Archaeological Challenges, Digital Possibilities: Digital Knowledge Development and Communication in Contract Archaeology2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns the digitalisation of archaeology, with a focus on Swedish contract archaeology. The aim is to understand how the archaeological discipline relates to the change that digitalisation brings and human involvement in these processes. The thesis is a study of its impact on processes connected to archaeological knowledge production and communication. The work problematises how digital data might be understood within these contexts but also illustrates where the potential of the digitalisation lies and how archaeology can make use of it. The theoretical approach re-actualises the concept of reflexivity in a digital context, combining it with various communication theories aiming to challenge the archaeological workflow and connect it more closely to present-day society. The digitalisation of archaeology can be seen across the whole discipline withan emphasis on academia. This digital development has greater opportunities in larger research projects which have sufficient funding than in contract archaeology. In those projects leading the digital development, the reflexive approach has been re-discovered and the digital enabled for new processes of knowledge production to take place. In case studies of Swedish contract archaeology several observations are made where it becomes clear that the digitalisation already shows positive effects at a government level, in organisations and projects within the sector. But there are also issues regarding digital infrastructure, knowledge production, archiving, accessibility and transparency. The biggest challenge is not technical but in attitudes towards digitalisation. The research concludes that digital communication based on archaeological source material can be something more than mediation of results. With digital interactive storytelling there are ways to create emotional virtual connections with the user, relating to the present and the surrounding society. By interlinking the processes of interpretation and communication an archaeological knowledge production might become an archaeological knowledge development.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-23 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Zhou, Nian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

    The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

    The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

  • Krzewinska, Maja
    et al.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellstrom, Anna
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Osteoarchaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
    Kilinc, Gulsah Merve
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Somel, Mehmet
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evans, Jane
    British Geol Survey, NERC Isotope Geosci Lab, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England.
    Knipper, Conine
    Curt Engelhorn Zentrum Archaometrie, D6,3, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Stora, Jan
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Osteoarchaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Genomic and Strontium Isotope Variation Reveal Immigration Patterns in a Viking Age Town2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 17, p. 2730-2738.e10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of human mobility on the northern European urban populations during the Viking and Early Middle Ages and its repercussions in Scandinavia itself are still largely unexplored. Our study of the demographics in the final phase of the Viking era is the first comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation that includes genetics, isotopes, archaeology, and osteology on a larger scale. This early Christian dataset is particularly important as the earlier common pagan burial tradition during the Iron Age was cremation, hindering large-scale DNA analyses. We present genome-wide sequence data from 23 individuals from the 10th to 12th century Swedish town of Sigtuna. The data revealed high genetic diversity among the early urban residents. The observed variation exceeds the genetic diversity in distinct modern-day and Iron Age groups of central and northern Europe. Strontium isotope data suggest mixed local and non-local origin of the townspeople. Our results uncover the social system underlying the urbanization process of the Viking World of which mobility was an intricate part and was comparable between males and females. The inhabitants of Sigtuna were heterogeneous in their genetic affinities, probably reflecting both close and distant connections through an established network, confirming that early urbanization processes in northern Europe were driven by migration.

  • MARRAMÀ, GIUSEPPE
    et al.
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    ENGELBRECHT, ANDREA
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    REGUERO, MARCELO A.
    Division Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 81900 FWA La Plata, Argentina.
    KRIWET, JÜRGEN
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    THE SOUTHERNMOST OCCURRENCE OF BRACHYCARCHARIAS (LAMNIFORMES, ODONTASPIDIDAE) FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA PROVIDES NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY AND PALEOBIOLOGY OF PALEOGENE SAND TIGER SHARKS2018In: Rivista italiana di paleontologia e stratigrafia, ISSN 0035-6883, E-ISSN 2039-4942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The first record of one of the most common and widespread Paleogene selachians, the sand tiger shark Brachycarcharias, in the Ypresian strata of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica, is provided herein. Selachians from the early Eocene horizons of this deposit represent the southernmost Paleogene occurrences in the fossil record, and are represented by isolated teeth belonging to orectolobiforms, lamniforms, carcharhiniforms, squatiniforms and pristiophoriforms. The combination of dental characters of the 49 isolated teeth collected from the horizons TELMs 2, 4 and 5 supports their assignment to the odontaspidid Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946), a lamniform species widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the early Paleogene. The unambiguous first report of this lamniform shark in the Southern Hemisphere in the Eocene of the La Meseta Formation improves our knowledge concerning the diversity and paleobiology of the cartilaginous fishes of this deposit, and provides new insights about the biotic turnovers that involved the high trophic levels of the marine settings after the end-Cretaceous extinction and before the establishment of the modern marine ecosystems.

  • Towijit, Umaporn
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Lab Cyanobacterial Biotechnol, Bangkok 10330, Thailand;Chulalongkorn Univ, Fac Sci, Program Biotechnol, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Songruk, Nutchaya
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Lab Cyanobacterial Biotechnol, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Incharoensakdi, Aran
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Lab Cyanobacterial Biotechnol, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Jantaro, Saowarath
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Lab Cyanobacterial Biotechnol, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
    Co-overexpression of native phospholipid-biosynthetic genes plsX and plsC enhances lipid production in Synechocystis sp PCC 68032018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 13510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overexpression of native plsX and plsC genes involving in fatty acid/phospholipid synthesis first timely-reported the significantly enhanced lipid contents in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Growth rate, intracellular pigment contents including chlorophyll a and carotenoids, and oxygen evolution rate of all overexpressing (OX) strains were normally similar as wild type. For fatty acid compositions, saturated fatty acid, in particular palmitic acid (16:0) was dominantly increased in OX strains whereas slight increases of unsaturated fatty acids were observed, specifically linoleic acid (18:2) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3). The plsC/plsX-overexpressing (OX + XC) strain produced high lipid content of about 24.3% w/dcw under normal condition and was further enhanced up to 39.1% w/dcw by acetate induction. This OX + XC engineered strain was capable of decreasing phaA transcript level which related to poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis under acetate treatment. Moreover, the expression level of gene transcripts revealed that the plsX-and plsC/plsX-overexpression strains had also increased accA transcript amounts which involved in the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Altogether, these overexpressing strains significantly augmented higher lipid contents when compared to wild type by partly overcoming the limitation of lipid production.

  • Hofvander, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Lab Med, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Brosjo, Otte
    Karolinska Hosp, Dept Orthoped, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Steyern, Fredrik Vult
    Lund Univ, Dept Orthoped, Clin Sci, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Rissler, Pehr
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Genet & Pathol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden;Reg Labs Reg Skane, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Mandahl, Nils
    Lund Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Lab Med, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Mertens, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Lab Med, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Clin Genet & Pathol, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden;Reg Labs Reg Skane, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Different patterns of clonal evolution among different sarcoma subtypes followed for up to 25 years2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 3662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare clonal evolution in tumors arising through different mechanisms, we selected three types of sarcoma-amplicon-driven well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS), gene fusion-driven myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), and sarcomas with complex genomes (CXS)-and assessed the dynamics of chromosome and nucleotide level mutations by cytogenetics, SNP array analysis and whole-exome sequencing. Here we show that the extensive single-cell variation in WDLS has minor impact on clonal key amplicons in chromosome 12. In addition, only a few of the single nucleotide variants in WDLS were present in more than one lesion, suggesting that such mutations are of little significance in tumor development. MLS displays few mutations other than the FUS-DDIT3 fusion, and the primary tumor is genetically sometimes much more complex than its relapses, whereas CXS in general shows a gradual increase of both nucleotide- and chromosome-level mutations, similar to what has been described in carcinomas.

  • Elmekaty, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Steel Mem Muroran Hosp, Spine & Spinal Cord Ctr, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan;Tanta Univ, Fac Med, Dept Orthoped Surg, Tanta, Egypt.
    Kotani, Yoshihisa
    Steel Mem Muroran Hosp, Spine & Spinal Cord Ctr, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan.
    El Mehy, Emad
    Tanta Univ, Fac Med, Dept Orthoped Surg, Tanta, Egypt.
    Robinson, Yohan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    El Tantawy, Ahmed
    Tanta Univ, Fac Med, Dept Orthoped Surg, Tanta, Egypt.
    Sekiguchi, Ivan
    Steel Mem Muroran Hosp, Spine & Spinal Cord Ctr, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan.
    Fujita, Ryo
    Steel Mem Muroran Hosp, Spine & Spinal Cord Ctr, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan.
    Clinical and Radiological Comparison between Three Different Minimally Invasive Surgical Fusion Techniques for Single-Level Lumbar Isthmic and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Minimally Invasive Surgical Posterolateral Fusion versus Minimally Invasive Surgical Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion versus Midline Lumbar Fusion2018In: Asian Spine Journal, ISSN 1976-1902, E-ISSN 1976-7846, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 870-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Purpose: Comparison between three different minimally invasive surgical (MIS) fusion techniques for single-level lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    Overview of Literature: There has been an increase in the development and utilization of MIS techniques for lumbar spine fusion. No study has compared the efficacy of MIS-posterolateral fusion (MIS-PLF), MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF), and midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) with modified cortical bone trajectory screws for lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    Methods: Fifty-nine patients with single-level lumbar spondylolisthesis and a minimum follow-up period of 1 year were included in this study. The MIS-PLF, MIS-TLIF, and MIDLF groups included 22, 15, and 22 patients, respectively. The average age of the groups was 70.6, 49.3, and 62.7 years, respectively. The evaluation parameters were operation time, intraoperative bleeding, serum C-reactive protein (CAP) value, creatine kinase (CK) value, and overall functional outcome as per the Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) score. The changes in the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), segmental disc angle (SDA), and disc height were measured. Fusion rate, screw loosening, and loss of correction were also assessed.

    Results: MIDLF showed a significantly shorter operation time (111 min), less bleeding amount (112.5 mL), and lower values of CRP and CK than the other two techniques. There was no significant difference in the JOABPEQ scores of the three groups. MIDLF resulted in a greater increase in the LLA and SDA postoperatively. MIDLF and MIS-TLIF resulted in a significant increase in the middle disc height compared with MIS-PLF. MIDLF showed a lower loss of correction after 6 months postoperatively (2.6%) than MIS-PLF (5.2%) and MIS-TLIF (4.2%). The fusion rate was 100% in the MIDLF and MIS-TLIF groups and 90% in the MIS-PLF group. Screw loosening occurred in 10% of the MIS-PLF cases, 7.14% of the MIS-TLIF cases, and 4.76% of the MIDLF cases.

    Conclusions: MIDLF was the least invasive, and there was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of fusion, screw loosening, and clinical outcomes.

  • Rosvall, Kathrin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Mohammadat, Tage
    Ungureanu, George
    Öberg, Johnny
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Exploring Power and Throughput for Dataflow Applications on Predictable NoC Multiprocessors2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System level optimization for multiple mixed-criticality applications on shared networked multiprocessor platforms is extremely challenging. Substantial complexity arises from the interdependence between the multiple subproblems of mapping, scheduling and platform configuration under the consideration of several, potentially orthogonal, performance metrics and constraints. Instead of using heuristic algorithms and problem decomposition, novel unified design space exploration (DSE) approaches based on Constraint Programming (CP) have in the recent years shown promising results. The work in this paper takes advantage of the modularity of CP models, in order to support heterogeneous multiprocessor Network-on-Chip (NoC) with Temporally Disjoint Networks (TDNs) aware message injection. The DSE supports a range of design criteria, in particular the optimization and satisfaction of power and throughput. In addition, the DSE now provides a valid configuration for the TDNs that guarantees the performance required to fulfil the design goals. The experiments show the capability of the approach to find low-power and high-throughput designs, and validate a resulting design on a physical TDN-based NoC implementation.

  • Concept for joint Nordic cultural initiatives outside the Nordic region2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the Danish presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2015, a Nordic working group developed a concept for joint Nordic cultural initiatives outside the Nordic region. The concept was approved by the Nordic ministers for culture in 2015, and was tested in conjunction with the Nordic Matters event in London in 2017. On the basis of the experiences of using the concept with Nordic Matters, the concept was revised by the Nordic ministers for culture on 31 October 2018.

  • Janson, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Clin Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Franklin, Karl
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Surg, Umea, Sweden.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Univ Bergen, Inst Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Schioler, Linus
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Schlunssen, Vivi
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Sect Environm Occupat & Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark;Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jogi, Rain
    Tartu Univ Clin, Lung Clin, Tartu, Estonia.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Imperial Coll, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Resp Epidemiol Occupat Med & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Change in the prevalence asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptom over a 20 year period: associations to year of birth, life style and sleep related symptoms2018In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 18, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to study change in adults over a 20 year period in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disorders and its association to year of birth, life style and sleep related variables.

    Method: Adults 20-44 years of age, 6085 women and 5184 men, were randomly selected from seven centres in Northern Europe and followed for 20 years. The number of participants in the first survey was 21,595 and 11,269 participated in all three surveys. The participants were divided into three birth cohorts: 1944-1955, 1956-1965 and 1966-1975.

    Results: During the 20 year period the prevalence of wheeze decreased (-2%) and the prevalence of asthma (+ 4%) and allergic rhinitis (+ 5%) increased, whereas the prevalence of nocturnal respiratory symptoms was relatively unchanged. The increase in allergic rhinitis was largest in those born 1966 to 1975 except in Estonia. There was large decrease in smoking (-20%), increase in obesity (+ 7%) and snoring (+ 6%) during the study period. Smoking, obesity, snoring and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) were related to a higher risk of all symptoms. Obesity, snoring and nGER were also independently related to asthma.

    Conclusion: We conclude that as our participants got older there was a decrease in wheeze, no change in nocturnal symptoms and an increase in reported asthma and allergic rhinitis. These changes in prevalence are probably related to a decrease in smoking being counteracted by an increase in allergy, obesity and sleep related disorders.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 09:15 A1:107A, Uppsala
    Roos, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Intestinal absorption of drugs: The impact of regional permeability, nanoparticles, and absorption-modifying excipients2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For successful delivery of orally given drug products, the drug compounds must have adequate solubility and permeability in the human gastrointestinal tract. The permeability of a compound is determined by its size and lipophilicity, and is usually evaluated in various pre-clinical models, including rat models.

    This thesis had three major aims: 1) investigate regional permeability in human and rat intestines and evaluate two different rat models, 2) investigate the mechanisms behind absorption in nanosuspensions, and 3) investigate the effect of food on the absorption of drug molecules in solutions and suspensions, and also food’s effect on absorption modifying excipients (AMEs).

    Effective human permeability values obtained using regional intra-intestinal dosing and a deconvolution method agreed with values established by perfusion from the jejunum, demonstrating the accuracy and validity of the intra-intestinal bolus-dosing approach. Single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in rats showed better correlation with human effective permeability than the Ussing chamber, and was therefore deemed the better model for predicting drug permeability in humans.

    Absorption of microsuspensions and nanosuspension was investigated using rat SPIP, which showed that microsuspensions are subject to pronounced food effects, probably by partitioning of drug into the colloidal structures formed by bile acids, lecithin, and fatty acids. Nanosuspensions were less affected by food, which was attributed to fewer available nanoparticles in the fed state due to partitioning into colloidal structures, and because nanoparticles are able to cross the aqueous boundary layer on their own, increasing the concentration of drug adjacent to the epithelial membrane.

    AMEs had less effect in the fed state than the fasted state when investigated using SPIP. This difference may be caused by AMEs partitioning into luminal colloidal structures, decreasing the AMEs’ effects on the intestinal membrane. It thus seems that AMEs as well as drug compounds are subject to food-drug interactions, which may either increase or decrease the effect or absorption, something that needs to be considered during development of new drug products. 

    In summary, this thesis has improved the knowledge of pre-clinical absorption models and the understanding of several biopharmaceutical mechanisms important for drug absorption.

  • Koncept för samnordiska kultursatsningar utanför Norden2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för det danska ordförandeskapet i Nordiska ministerrådet 2015 utarbetade en nordisk arbetsgrupp ett koncept för samnordiska kultursatsningar utanför Norden. Konceptet godkändes av de nordiska kulturministrarna 2015 och prövades i praktiken genom satsningen Nordic Matters i London 2017. Utifrån erfarenheterna med Nordic Matters reviderades konceptet av de nordiska kulturministrarna den 31 oktober 2018.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-05 13:00 Enghoff-salen, Uppsala
    Mörtsell, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology-Arrhythmia.
    Outcomes and safety of new techniques for pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation: A study based on randomised trials and registries2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common disease with a high prevalence in the adult population. Treatment of AF encompasses antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation to reduce symptoms. The aim of this thesis was to study how to best alleviate symptoms of AF in a safe and efficient way comparing pharmacological treatment and the two dominating catheter ablation techniques, cryoballoon (CRYO) ablation and point-by-point radiofrequency (RF) ablation.

    Quality of life improved more for those AF patients randomised to treatment with catheter ablation compared to those treated with antiarrhythmic medication after 12 months of follow up (n=155).

    We evaluated a proposed optimised CRYO ablation protocol and randomised 140 patients to a single cryoballoon application per vein guided by a mapping catheter (Single cryo) or two cryoballoon applications (Routine). Acute pulmonary vein isolation rate did not differ. Procedure time decreased by 19 minutes with a lower complication rate in the Single cryo-arm. Freedom from AF after one procedure at 12 months did not differ; 73.9.0% (Single cryo) versus 71.4% (Routine).

    CRYO ablation was also assessed in persistent AF and paroxysmal AF. Freedom from arrhythmia recurrence was lower after a single ablation in persistent AF (64.9%) compared with paroxysmal AF (82.2%) after 12 months. However, the reduction of AF symptoms and quality of life was excellent in both groups and did not differ after 12 months.

    Patients undergoing their first AF ablation with CRYO or RF were included in a registry study. After 12 months, freedom from AF was equal irrespective of AF type, but there was a lower re-ablation rate and need for continued antiarrhythmic drug treatment after CRYO ablation. Procedure duration was reduced by 40 minutes with CRYO and complication rates did not differ,

    In conclusion, catheter ablation reduces AF symptoms more than antiarrhythmic drugs and cryoballoon ablation can be further optimised with reduced procedure times and improved safety. Cryoballoon ablation is as efficacious as RF ablation as a first-line therapy in both paroxysmal and persistent AF and the lower re-ablation rates and  shorter procedure times may have important clinical implications when choosing AF ablation technique.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:00 V159, Kalmar
    Rahmqvist Linnarsson, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Forensic care for victims of violence and their family members in the emergency department2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore forensic care in EDs for victims of violence and their family members from the perspectives of ED department heads, ED nurses, and a family member of a victim of violence.

    Methods: Study I consisted of a questionnaire to all heads of EDs in Sweden, data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Study II consisted of a similar questionnaire which also included the instrument Families’ Importance in Nursing Care-Nurses’ Attitudes. It was sent to all nurses at 28 EDs and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple linear and ordinal regression analysis. Study III comprised of individual interviews with twelve nurses from seven EDs and data were analyzed with content analysis. Study IV was a single case study with two interviews with a family member of a victim of violence. Data were analyzed with a Gadamer-inspired hermeneutic approach.

    Results: ED preparedness for forensic care varied and was often limited to women and children. Nurses played a key role, but most of them had no training for this task and felt uncertain (I, II, III). Creating a caring encounter was the main challenge for providing forensic care and nurses perceived hindering factors to overcome this challenge (III). Family members were rarely included in forensic care and nurses perceived that family members were offered little help (I-III). Having ED documents that included family members, was associated with a more positive attitude to family members, which in turn was associated with involving them in care (II). For the family member, perfunctory encounters and caring alliances had a major impact and the experience reframed life (IV).

    Conclusion: Lack of preparedness in EDs to care for all types of victims of violence and differences between individual nurses may prohibit the provision of equal care. Hindering factors for a caring encounter can result in forensic care being unaddressed, which may limit possibilities for alleviated suffering and legal justice. Family members were rarely included in forensic care, but caring encounters can be crucial for the family member in the aftermath of violence.

  • Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Changing Footings on 'Jacob's Ladder': dealing with sensitive issues in dual-role mediation on a Swedish TV-show2018In: Perspectives: studies in translatology, ISSN 0907-676X, E-ISSN 1747-6623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study examines a Swedish TV interview with a Soviet pop singer in 1985 where the talk show host, who is both a trained interpreter and an experienced media journalist, acts as a dual-role mediator, interviewing and interpreting at the same time. The analysis is contextualized within the political and military relations between Sweden and the USSR in the 1980s. Theoretically, the study draws on ethics of interpreting, ethics of entertainment and the notions participation status or footing. A potential challenge for a dual-role mediator is that two different ethical stances are involved; here, ethics of entertainment (entertainment, comfort, culture value orientation) and ethics of interpreting (impartiality, neutrality, accuracy). These may clash, but the study claims that the different stances can also be used to the participants’ advantage. Here, the role of talk show host dominates over the role of interpreter, and interpreting ethics can be flouted and played with if it suits the purposes of the former. The study shows the complexity of dual-role mediation and emphasizes the need to take into account the perspectives of both of the involved roles in research on participants’ interaction and changes of footing.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 09:15 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Gañez Zapater, Antoni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Gene regulation by chromatin remodelling complexes: SWI/SNF complex in mRNA processing and B-WICH complex in ribosomal gene expression2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to investigate the roles of chromatin remodelling complexes in gene regulation. It is focused on two groups of chromatin complexes: the mammalian BRG1 and BRM SWI/SNF complexes and the ISWI-containing B-WICH complex.

    Study 1 investigates the role of SWI/SNF complexes in alternative splicing. We show that the presence of the ATPase core subunits Brg1 and Brm influence the alternative splicing outcome of a subset of genes. We show that Brg1 and Brm interact with several splicing related factors in the nascent RNA, and that the recruitment of some of these factors to their target sites is regulated by the presence of Brg1 and Brm. We propose that SWI/SNF ATPases can modulate the interactions of RNA binding factors to the nascent RNA and in that way alter alternative splicing outcome.

    Study 2 focuses on SWI/SNF complexes and their influence on cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA. We show that Brg1 and Brm interact with subunits of the cleavage and polyadenylation complexes in the nascent mRNA. SWI/SNF complexes facilitate the recruitment of the cleavage and polyadenylation complex to the polyadenylation site in a subset of genes, and this results in a more efficient cleavage and polyadenylation.

    Study 3 shows that B-WICH is required for ribosome gene transcriptional activation upon glucose stimulation. WSTF and SNF2h, two of the B-WICH subunits, are needed to establish an active chromatin state in the RNA pol I gene promoter when the glucose concentration is raised after a period of deprivation. We propose that it counteracts the silent, poised chromatin state imposed by the silencing chromatin remodelling complex NuRD to allow for the RNA pol I machinery to bind to the promoter.

    These studies show that the influence of chromatin remodelling complexes upon gene expression is important for remodelling nucleosomes at the promoter, for alternative splicing, cleavage and polyadenylation and transcriptional initiation. These complexes work together with other chromatin remodelling factors, interact with other complexes and regulate their activity by affecting their recruitment dynamics.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Grunditz, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Vilan i förskolan 1910-2013: Visuella material och visuell metodologi2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore preschool naptime during the period 1910–2013 through visual materials, films and photographs produced by different actors for various purposes at various historical times, and to develop a visual methodology that works with complex visual materials. Even though naptime is central to everyday life in preschool, it is an activity that is rarely a focus of Early Childhood Education research.  

    The empirical data derives from two separate but interrelated studies, the first a video ethnographic field study and the second an archival ethnographic study. Both studies include films and photographs that visualise the material environments and social interactions that take place during preschool naptime.

    A theoretical framework based on ethnomethodology, visual studies, childhood studies and the history of childhood studies is used. The concept the look of is a theoretical and analytical focus as the photographic image contains visual information about what things and actions look like. The look of children’s and adults’ participation in naptime, the material objects and the preschool environment are the focus when scrutinising the visual data of the study to gain knowledge about how embodied actions, along with the material and spatial design of the preschool environment, form practices at naptime. The thesis takes a post-positivist stance towards the photographic image.

    A transdisciplinary methodology, the visual remake, is developed for visual analysis and is used as a tool for comparisons, visualisation of results and reflection. A visual remake maintains the visual aspects of the data in order to keep them visible throughout the research process. It is a tool that visualises observable findings and conceptualises a reflection process through images, and not exclusively via the written word.

    The study provides knowledge about everyday life in preschool. The results show how the material and spatial organisation of the room and the participants’ embodied actions in this environment constitute naptime in both historical and contemporary preschools. There are recurrent patterns in the social interaction, as well as similarities in the design of the environment that are stable over time. These are the ways in which the participants use their bodies and interact through embodied interactions. The comparative visual analyses, focusing on continuity and change, suggest that some of these practices can be theorised as path-dependent. The present-day study shows that children constitute a peer culture within naptime, often through secondary adjustments to institutional and adult-structured order. Although the ideal naptime is visualised in the historical materials, it is possible to trace the same sort of naptime peer culture. There are features in the design of the beds used during preschool naptime that are typical of the preschool institution, and this design and the overall organisation of naptime have a path-dependence to ideals in the half-day preschools.

    Methodologically, the thesis expands our knowledge of how different visual materials can serve as sources in ECE research and how a research design focusing on the comparison of present-day and historical data opens up space for new research questions.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-08 10:00 hörsal 7, Stockholm
    Lidén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    The Taizhou Movement: Being Mindful in Sixteenth Century China2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to define and analyze the religious ideas, praxis and organizations of the Taizhou movement using the earliest sources from the Ming dynasty. The Taizhou movement originated with a salt merchant named Wang Gen (1483–1541), who became a disciple of the well-known Neo-Confucian philosopher Wang Yangming (1472–1529). Wang Gen’s thoughts were similar to his, but Wang Gen’s ideas about protecting and respecting the self were new. These ideas and the pursuit of making one’s mind calm inspired his followers who, like Wang Gen, tried to put them into practice. The thesis contextualizes Wang Gen and some of his followers who where active in the sixteenth century such as Yan Jun, Luo Rufang and He Xinyin. It contains texts which have not been translated into English before.

    Contrary to previous research, the thesis proposes that the Taizhou practitioners did not form a “school” in the strict sense of the word but became a “movement”. The reason was that their ideas corresponded to the anxieties and concerns of people from all levels of society and that they engaged in social and religious activities on the local level. Their ideas and praxis are heterogeneous, a result of the free discussions that were held in private academies. The religious praxis of the Taizhou movement included singing, reciting, individual and communal meditation, discussions and ethical commitments. Another claim of the thesis is that the Taizhou practitioners did not regard meditation in isolation as contradictory to social activism but as two complementary pursuits. Furthermore, the thesis argues that Huang Zongxi’s criticism of Wang Gen for adding Chan Buddhism to the philosophy of Wang Yangming was reasonable, contrary to what some researchers claim, but that the problem with his criticism is that it pertains to Wang Yangming himself as well.

    The demarcation lines between Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism as well as those between “schools” within each tradition were porous, which is exemplified by the Taizhou practitioners. Sometimes they manifest Buddhist and Daoist influences, but their framework is Confucian. In general, they were not concerned with which tradition they belonged to but with transforming the individual and society. The Taizhou practitioners did not worship any Buddhist or Daoist deities, but they were engaged in reaching a specific state of mind and rendering the secular world sacred. Awakened understanding should be experienced personally. The Taizhou practitioners can be regarded as ‘religious’ using definitions of religion which affirm such experiential aspects, but their movement cannot be defined as a religion if the definition requires an institution. Officials and literati scholars criticized the Taizhou practitioners and some of them were persecuted. Luo Rufang experienced administrative persecution; Yan Jun was imprisoned for a period; He Xinyin was killed in prison in 1579, the same year as the Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng prohibited free discussions in the private academies. The thesis claims that it was their ideas and actions perceived as dangerous to men of power which resulted in their persecution. The fact of belonging to a certain social segment had less importance.

  • Adetula, Victor
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Murithi, Tim
    Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Buchanan-Clarke, Stephen
    Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Peace negotiations and agreements in Africa: why they fail and how to improve them2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peace is not just the absence of conflict. The self-interest lying behind external ‘support’ can take many shapes. The pursuit of justice can sometimes thwart peace efforts. And, last but not least, simply adding more women to peace negotiations will not break male-centric norms.

  • Thunberg, Sara (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Uhnoo, Daniel (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Bruhn, Anders (Author of introduction, etc.)
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nationell forskningskonferens i socialt arbete: Abstractsammanställning2018Report (Other academic)
  • Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotteakademin.
    Violence in African elections2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of winning elections, and the disadvantages of losing them, must be reduced to avoid the violence that a winner-takes-all situation can trigger. Election observers should pay more attention to subtle forms of violence, intra-party tensions and incumbents playing the security card to justify increased use of force. This policy note considers how to curb the increase of violence in African elections.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Univ Mohamed Premier & LPTPM, Fac Sci, Oujda, Morocco.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Georg August Univ, Phys Inst II, Gottingen, Germany.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Search for supersymmetry in events with four or more leptons in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with ATLAS2018In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 98, no 3, article id 032009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a search for supersymmetry in events with four or more charged leptons (electrons, muons and taus) are presented. The analysis uses a data sample corresponding to 36.1 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider at root s = 13 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Four-lepton signal regions with up to two hadronically decaying taus are designed to target a range of supersymmetric scenarios that can be either enriched in or depleted of events involving the production and decay of a Z boson. Data yields are consistent with Standard Model expectations and results are used to set upper limits on the event yields from processes beyond the Standard Model. Exclusion limits are set at the 95% confidence level in simplified models of general gauge mediated supersymmetry, where Higgsino masses are excluded up to 295 GeV. In R-parity-violating simplified models with decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle to charged leptons, lower limits of 1.46, 1.06, and 2.25 TeV are placed on wino, slepton and gluino masses, respectively.

  • Santiago-Kern, Rocio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Gajewski, Konrad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Hermansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Li, Han
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Lofnes, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Ruber, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Cryogenic Synopsis from the Testing of the Fully Equipped ESS' High Beta Cavity ESS086-P01 (Part II)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Santiago-Kern, Rocio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Hermansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Jönsson, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Cryogenic Settings for Testing of the Fully Equipped ESS' High Beta Cavity ESS086-P01 (Part II)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Santiago-Kern, Rocio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Gajewski, Konrad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Hermansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Li, Han
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Lofnes, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Ruber, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Cryogenic Synopsis from the Testing of the Fully Equipped ESS' High Beta Cavity ESS086-P01 (Part I)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Santiago-Kern, Rocio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Hermansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Jönsson, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Cryogenic Settings for Testing of the Fully Equipped ESS' High Beta Cavity ESS086-P01 (Part I)2018Report (Other academic)
  • Kaden, Rene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology. National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Swedish Joint Laboratory for Food Safety and Biopreparedness, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ferrari, Sevinc
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Swedish Joint Laboratory for Food Safety and Biopreparedness, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jinnerot, Tomas
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Swedish Joint Laboratory for Food Safety and Biopreparedness, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Martina
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Swedish Joint Laboratory for Food Safety and Biopreparedness, Uppsala, Sweden; National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wahab, Tara
    Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Public Health Agency of Sweden Solna, Sweden..
    Lavander, Moa
    Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics, Umeå, Uppsala and Solna, Sweden; Swedish Joint Laboratory for Food Safety and Biopreparedness, Uppsala, Sweden; National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Brucella abortus: determination of survival times and evaluation of methods for detection in several matrices2018In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 18, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Brucella abortus is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent, tempting for the development of a rapid diagnostic method to enable adequate treatment and prevent further spread. Enrichment of the bacteria is often used as a first step in diagnostics to increase the bacterial number above the detection limit of the real-time PCR. The enrichment of Brucella spp. takes at least 3 days, which might be avoidable if sensitive PCR methods can be used. Since many matrices contain PCR inhibitors, the limit of detection (LOD) must be determined for each separate matrix. Another aim of this study was the determination of survival of Brucella abortus in the analyzed matrices. METHODS: The LOD for the detection of B. abortus in 14 matrices, relevant for human medicine, veterinary medicine and food and feed safety, was determined to evaluate the need of a pre-enrichment step prior to real-time PCR. The survival of B. abortus in the spiked matrices was tested by plate count in a 7-day interval for 132 days. RESULTS: The limit of detection for B. abortus in most matrices was in the range of 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g for cultivation and 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g for direct real-time PCR. The survival time of B. abortus was less than 21 days in apple puree and stomach content and 28 days in water while B. abortus remained viable at day 132 in milk, blood, spinach and minced meat. CONCLUSIONS: A direct PCR analysis without enrichment of bacteria saves at least 3 days. However, the limit of detection between direct PCR and plate count differs in a 10 fold range. We conclude that this lower sensitivity is acceptable in most cases especially if quick analysis are required.

  • Slazak, Blazej
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Polish Acad Sci, W Szafer Inst Bot, Krakow, Poland.
    Kapusta, Malgorzata
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, Gdansk, Poland.
    Strömstedt, Adam A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Slomka, Aneta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Bot, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, Gdansk, Poland.
    Krychowiak, Marta
    Univ Gdansk, Intercollegiate Fac Biotechnol, Lab Biol Act Cpds, Gdansk, Poland;Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bohdanowicz, Jerzy
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, Gdansk, Poland.
    Kuta, Elzbieta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Bot, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, Gdansk, Poland.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    How Does the Sweet Violet (Viola odorata L.) Fight Pathogens and Pests - Cyclotides as a Comprehensive Plant Host Defense System2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclotides are cyclic plant polypeptides of 27-37 amino acid residues. They have been extensively studied in bioengineering and drug development contexts. However, less is known about the relevance of cyclotides for the plants producing them. The anti-insect larvae effects of kB1 and antibacterial activity of cyO2 suggest that cyclotides are a part of plant host defense. The sweet violet (Viola odorata L.) produces a wide array of cyclotides, including kB1 (kalata B1) and cyO2 (cycloviolacin O2), with distinct presumed biological roles. Here, we evaluate V. odorata cyclotides' potency against plant pathogens and their mode of action using bioassays, liposome experiments and immunogold labeling for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We explore the link between the biological activity and distribution in plant generative, vegetative tissues and seeds, depicted by immunohistochemistry and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Cyclotides cyO2, cyO3, cyO13, and cyO19 are shown to have potent activity against model fungal plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, Mycosphaerella fragariae, Botrytis cinerea) and fungi isolated from violets (Colletotrichum utrechtense and Alternaria alternata), with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.8 to 25 mu M. Inhibition of phytopathogenic bacteria - Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Dickeya dadantii and Pectobacterium atrosepticum - is also observed with MIC = 25-100 mu M. A membrane-disrupting antifungal mode of action is shown. Finding cyO2 inside the fungal spore cells in TEM images may indicate that other, intracellular targets may be involved in the mechanism of toxicity. Fungi can not break down cyclotides in the course of days. varv A (kalata S) and kB1 show little potency against pathogenic fungi when compared with the tested cycloviolacins. cyO2, cyO3, cyO19 and kB1 are differentially distributed and found in tissues vulnerable to pathogen (epidermis, rizodermis, vascular bundles, protodermis, procambium, ovary walls, outer integuments) and pest ( ground tissues of leaf and petiole) attacks, respectively, indicating a link between the cyclotides' sites of accumulation and biological role. Cyclotides emerge as a comprehensive defense system in V. odorata, in which different types of peptides have specific targets that determine their distribution in plant tissues.

  • Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Publiceringshandbok2018Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:15 Rudbecksalen, C11, Uppsala
    Smith, Ross
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Biological consequences of endothelial cell signaling2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endothelial cells make up the inner lining of blood and lymphatic vessels, where they participate in functions vital to survival of the tissue; endothelial cells maintain vessel integrity, dynamically respond to the changing metabolic needs of tissues, and participate in many tissue-specific functions. Endothelial cells sense environmental cues which initiate signal transduction pathways that regulate behavior. Endothelial cell dysfunction is a feature of many diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and retinopathies and therefore knowledge of endothelial signal transduction pathways is important for designing therapies to treat these diseases.

    The receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 is a master regulator of endothelial cell biology, regulating survival, growth, migration, angiogenesis and vessel permeability. VEGF stimulation of VEGFR2 results in phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the receptor’s intracellular domain. The phosphorylation of Y949, Y1173, and Y1212 is known to initiate complex signaling pathways in endothelial cells, but it is still unclear how each individual phosphosite contributes to overall endothelial regulation.

     The scaffold protein palmdelphin has been found to be highly expressed in endothelial cells, though its role in endothelial biology is still unclear.

    In this thesis I present investigations of endothelial cell signaling pathways. In Paper I, we identify VEGFR2 pY1212 binding partners and use a mouse model to reveal the effect of abrogated Y1212 signaling in vivo. In Paper II, we investigate endothelial palmdelphin and establish that loss of palmdelphin in vitro and in vivo results in morphological changes for endothelial cells. Additionally, loss of palmdelphin leads to a misalignment of endothelial nuclei in response to flow, implicating palmdelpin in a mechanotransduction pathway. In Paper III, we use mouse models of proliferative retinopathy to demonstrate that loss of VEGFR2 Y949 signaling leads to a reduction or delay in neovascularization and a decrease in vessel leakage from pathological lesions.

    In summary, the investigation of endothelial cell signal transduction pathways can help us understand and unravel the complexities of vascular biology. Designing therapies which affect only a specific signaling axis has the potential to reduce side effects and optimize treatment.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-13 13:15 Ångström 2001, Uppsala
    Thomas, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Control of Wave Energy Converters in arrays2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to lower the levelized cost of energy for wave power plants and paving so the way for commercial success, is to increase the power absorption by use of advanced control algorithms. This thesis investigates the influence of the generator inertia, the generator damping and the layout on power absorption and presents a new model free strategy of controlling wave energy converters.

    The evaluation of all control strategies was done in a numerical simulation and in experimental 1:10 model scale wave tank tests conducted in the COAST laboratory at the University of Plymouth. The WECs used are inspired by the wave energy concept developed at Uppsala University.

    The influence of the generator inertia on the power absorption was tested with an uncontrolled WEC. Compared to a conventional WEC the power output could be significantly increased for small waves and high wave periods.   

    As a simple and easy to implement control strategy, a WEC with sea state optimized generator damping was used to create a power matrix. The optimal damping factor depends on both, wave period and wave height. The power absorption increases with the wave height and when the wave period converges towards the oscillation period of the WEC.

    A genetic algorithm was used to obtain the optimized layouts for wave energy farms, which suggest that the converter should be placed in rows parallel to the wave front, and the position in the array has nearly no influence on the optimal control parameter.

    Then a collaborative learning approach using machine learning is presented, with several identical wave energy converters in a row to parallelise the search of the optimal control parameter. It was implemented to control the generator damping factor and the latching time. With the latter the power could be increased significantly.

  • Kamwesiga, Julius T.
    et al.
    Uganda Allied Hlth Examinat Board, Kampala, Uganda;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat therapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat therapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Kerstin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat therapy, Stockholm, Sweden;Malmo Univ, Malmo, Sweden.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Comp & Syst Sci DSV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ndiwalana, Ali
    Knowledge Consulting Ltd, Kampala, Uganda.
    von Koch, Lena
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat therapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guidetti, Susanne
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat therapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A feasibility study of a mobile phone supported family-centred ADL intervention, F@ce (TM), after stroke in Uganda2018In: Globalization and Health, ISSN 1744-8603, E-ISSN 1744-8603, Vol. 14, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a lack of evidence-based health services to reduce the impact of stroke in low-income countries at a personal, family or community level. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of: i) a mobile phone supported family-centred intervention (F@ce (TM)), and ii) the study design for evaluating the effects of the intervention on the perceived impact of stroke; perceived participation in everyday life; and self-efficacy in everyday activities amongst persons with stroke and their families in Uganda. Methods: The study comprised a pre-post design with an intervention group (IG) receiving the F@ce (TM) and a control group (CG). The inclusion criteria's were: a) confirmed stroke diagnosis, b) access to and ability to use a mobile phone, c) ability to communicate in English and/or Luganda, d) > 18 years, e) residents in Kampala, and f) a Modified Rankin Scale level 2 to 4. The aimof the F@ce (TM) was to increase functioning in daily activities for persons living with the consequences of stroke, and participation in everyday life for persons with stroke and their families. The F@ce (TM) was an eight-week family-centred intervention, which entailed goal setting and problem-solving strategies, daily reminders and self-rated follow-ups of performance by short message service (SMS). Data were collected in the participants' home environment at baseline and after eight weeks. Data on acceptability of the F@ce (TM) and study procedures were collected by log-books and the responses of the SMS follow ups on the server. The primary outcomes were performance and satisfaction of valued daily activities in everyday life using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), self-efficacy in performance of activities in daily life. Results: The IG comprised n = 13 and the CG n = 15. There were differences between the IG and CG in changes between baseline and follow-up in the primary outcomes COPM (performance component) and self-efficacy in favour of F@ce (TM). Overall with minor modifications the intervention and the study design were feasible for all participants involved. Conclusion: The results support the need for further research to rigorously evaluate the effects of F@ceT (TM) since the intervention appears to be feasible for persons with stroke and their family members.

  • Guichard, Etienne
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Peona, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio Malagoli
    Azienda Osped Univ Parma, Dept Res & Innovat, I-43126 Parma, Italy.
    Abitante, Lucia
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Jagoda, Evelyn
    Harvard Univ, Human Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Musella, Margherita
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Ricci, Marco
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Rubio-Roldan, Alejandro
    Univ Granada, Junta Andalucia Ctr Genom & Oncol Res, PTS Granada, GENYO,Pfizer, Granada 18007, Spain.
    Sarno, Stefania
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Luiselli, Donata
    Univ Bologna, Dept Cultural Heritage, Ravenna Campus, I-48121 Ravenna, Italy.
    Pettener, Davide
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Taccioli, Cristian
    Univ Padua, Dept Anim Med Prod & Hlth, I-35020 Legnaro, Pd, Italy.
    Pagani, Luca
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Tartu, Inst Genom, Estonian Bioctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia.
    Luis Garcia-Perez, Jose
    Univ Granada, Junta Andalucia Ctr Genom & Oncol Res, PTS Granada, GENYO,Pfizer, Granada 18007, Spain;Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, IGMM, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Boattini, Alessio
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biol Geol & Environm Sci, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Impact of non-LTR retrotransposons in the differentiation and evolution of anatomically modern humans2018In: Mobile DNA, ISSN 1759-8753, E-ISSN 1759-8753, Vol. 9, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transposable elements are biologically important components of eukaryote genomes. In particular, non-LTR retrotransposons (N-LTRrs) played a key role in shaping the human genome throughout evolution. In this study, we compared retrotransposon insertions differentially present in the genomes of Anatomically Modern Humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans and Chimpanzees, in order to assess the possible impact of retrotransposition in the differentiation of the human lineage. Results: We first identified species-specific N-LTRrs and established their distribution in present day human populations. These analyses shortlisted a group of N-LTRr insertions that were found exclusively in Anatomically Modern Humans. These insertions are associated with an increase in the number of transcriptional/splicing variants of those genes they inserted in. The analysis of the functionality of genes containing human-specific N-LTRr insertions reflects changes that occurred during human evolution. In particular, the expression of genes containing the most recent N-LTRr insertions is enriched in the brain, especially in undifferentiated neurons, and these genes associate in networks related to neuron maturation and migration. Additionally, we identified candidate N-LTRr insertions that have likely produced new functional variants exclusive to modern humans, whose genomic loci show traces of positive selection. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that N-LTRr impacted our differentiation as a species, most likely inducing an increase in neural complexity, and have been a constant source of genomic variability all throughout the evolution of the human lineage.