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  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NHC,P- and N,P-Iridium Catalysts for Hydrogenations and Hydrogen Transfer Reactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on hydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions using iridium catalysts. The first part concerns the use of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes in alkylation reactions (Chapters 2 and 3) and the hydrogenation of ketones (Chapter 4). A number of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes have been prepared and evaluated as catalysts for C-N bond formation of amides using alcohols as the electrophile. This catalytic system can be used with a wide range of substrates at low catalyst loading (only 0.5 mol%) to furnish the desired products in up to 98% isolated yield. The achiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were also found to catalyze the methylation of ketones with methanol under mild conditions to afford the mono-methylated products in up to 98% isolated yield with low catalyst loading (1.0 mol%). Additionally, several chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were synthesized and evaluated in asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones. The reactions were carried out at room temperature under base-free conditions to obtain the chiral alcohols in up to 96% ee in 30 minutes.

    The second part of this thesis (Chapter 5) details the preparation of new N,P-iridium complexes which were found to be highly efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of challenging tetrasubstituted olefins. This catalytic system results in optically active compounds of high enantiomeric excess (up to 98% ee) as the single diasteroisomer.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 Hörsal 7, Hus D, Stockholm
    Nilsson Mohammadi, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Forskarskolan i kulturhistoriska studier (FoKult).
    Den stora gruvstrejken i Malmfälten: En muntlig historia2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores how the miners’ strike in the Norrbotten ore fields 1969–70 has been made meaningful. For a long time, this strike has been a centre of debates and reflections on society, culture, and history in Sweden. The popular support for the miners’ strike was high, and a solidarity movement comprising loosely organised individual and collective initiatives was formed. Journalists, documentary film-makers, playwrights, scholars, and others within this movement documented the strike. Following the strike, actors within the solidarity movement expressed concerns that the experiences from the strike would be scattered and forgotten. Therefore, the strike has been depicted many times and in many genres. The authors of these depictions have commonly used the participants’ voices to narrate the strike.

    Through the miners’ strike, consecutive depictions of it, and memories from its participants, this dissertation studies the relationships between memories from individual actors, shared memory processes on a societal level, and history-writing. The central concept is meaning-making, which in this dissertation stands for people’s ever ongoing work to make themselves, others, and shared situations comprehensible. Meaning-making is studied through the more empirically oriented concepts memory and narrative. A combination of what historian Alistair Thomson has called ‘a popular memory approach to oral history’ and Gérard Genette’s narratology is put to use in the studies. The focus is thus how the participants in the strike and actors in the solidarity movement have made stories out of their memories, and how they then relate to existing accounts. This leads to a discussion on how voices from actors can be used in order to produce knowledge and/or change.

    On an empirical level, the dissertation contributes with knowledge on how the strike has been made meaningful through time, but also about the strike as an event in the past. The most important material is a new collection of oral history interviews with participants in the strike and people who took part in the solidarity movement, but the dissertation also studies books, articles and dramas that depicts the strike. In the first empirical chapter, constructions and discussions of the miners’ voices in texts by actors within the solidarity movement during the period 1968–2009 is discussed. The second empirical chapter explores how two persons that reported from the strike describes and discusses their journeys to the strike as well as their texts about the strike. The third empirical chapter analyses the different stories about the strike that the collection of oral history interviews contains, and shows how the strike has been made into an event. The fourth empirical chapter shows how participants relate to existing stories about the strike when the mediate their memories of it in the oral history interviews.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Lokatt, Cristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Auditors’ Constitution of Performance: a study on the duality of performance in the auditing profession2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, the auditing profession has been under scrutiny, due in part to its close association with a business rationale. This has led to some to call for de-professionalization, where accountability, control, and commerce would threaten auditing’s autonomy. Yet auditing is regarded as a principle of social organization and control, wherein it produces trust and legitimacy to society. By focusing on the individual auditor and the micro-level dynamics in the auditor’s organizational context, this dissertation challenges traditional notions of professionalism and commercialism as dichotomies. Based on documents, observations, and in-depth interviews with auditors holding different levels of experience, performance was targeted as a central concept for auditors’ understanding of auditing as a social and organizational phenomenon. Accordingly, by critically appraising the significance of performance in the professional-organizational context of Big Four firms, this dissertation engages with auditors’ reasoning and everyday work activities. Here, performance is suggested to hold a central role in how auditors manage and reconcile conflicting institutional logics — as well as accountability demands — in their everyday work. By theorizing on the mediating role of performance, this dissertation explores how performance is enacted in both structure (control, rituals and norms) and agency (reflexive monitoring and rationalization). Drawing on structuration theory, performance is shown to constitute modalities in actors’ use of structure, a process in which conflicting institutional logics are replicated, revised, and rejected. The findings further pinpoint the active role of auditors in mobilizing and defining legitimate performances within particular local settings. In this, a previously neglected interplay between bureaucratic and social performance practices that is performed by auditors is recognized as essential in exploring auditing as defined in the local professional-organizational settings. This interplay suggests a need to further attend how auditing is performed by practitioners in micro-level, everyday work. To conclude, this dissertation indicates that auditors’ reasoning on and mobilization of performance define the evolving auditing profession, one where rules and accountability regimes dominate. As a consequence, the influence of individual agency, professional communities, and social interaction are emphasized as key components for our understanding of the continuously developing professional field of auditing and the maintenance of a strong professional ethos.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:30 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Winkens, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Estimating children’s exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly stable, surface active chemicals, which are water- and oil/stain-repellent. Because of their unique properties, PFASs are widely used in consumer products. Their application ranges from personal-care products, food packaging and textiles to interior materials, thus leading to a continuous human exposure to PFASs in every-day life. Possible exposure pathways are the ingestion of food, drinking water and dust; the inhalation of fine dust and air; as well as dermal absorption after contact with the products and dust.

    Despite the increasing number of monitoring studies, including measurement of concentrations in human exposure media and blood, childhood exposure is poorly understood.

    The state of current knowledge on childhood exposure was investigated in paper I, by reviewing existing PFAS literature on exposure media, on daily intakes via different exposure pathways and on levels in blood and serum. Subsequently, recommendations for future research needs were made and implications presented on the regulation and assessment of PFASs. For paper II, III and IV, a cohort of background-exposed Finnish children was followed throughout childhood. Indoor air and floor dust samples of their bedrooms were taken at the age of 10.5 years in 2014/2015 and analysed for a wide range of PFASs (paper II and III). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) via these two media were calculated in paper III. The EDIs revealed that dust ingestion and air inhalation are of similar importance for the intake of single perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), if the metabolism of PFAA precursors to PFAAs was included. The metabolism of precursors contributed considerably to the total intake of PFAAs via the inhalation of air (e.g. 38 % for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 90 % for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) and to the total intake of PFOS via the ingestion of dust (69 %; median values at the intermediate exposure scenario). In paper IV, the internal exposure during childhood was monitored by measuring serum concentrations, which were decreasing with age; and by calculating body burdens at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age, which were constant or increasing, depending on the respective PFAS. These results demonstrated that it is crucial to account for growth dilution when studying exposure trends and PFAS intakes during childhood.

    This thesis contributes to a better understanding of children’s exposure to PFASs, especially the internal exposure during childhood and the relative importance of both, indoor exposure pathways, as well as individual PFASs.

  • Frode Blomberg, Agneta (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    Årsredovisning 2017: Linköpings universitet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings universitet (LiU) har hög kvalitet i utbildningarna och i den senaste utvärderingen som Universitetskanslersämbetet genomförde var Linköpings universitet näst bäst av flerfakultetsuniversiteten. Att nå och behålla hög kvalitet i utbildningarna är den viktigaste förutsättningen för att rekrytera de studenter som är bäst lämpade.

    Utbildningsutbudet har förändrats genom att nya utbildningar startat vid LiU under hösten 2017. Som exempel kan nämnas ett nytt kandidatprogram i samhällsplanering och en masterutbildning i design. Projektet Digitala resurser för lärande spelar en viktig roll i ljuset av förberedelserna för den snabba och omfattande digitaliseringen av det svenska samhället.

    Med anledning av de senaste årens ökade antal nyanlända har universitetet tillsammans med andra aktörer arbetat aktivt med att skapa möjligheter för de nyanlända att snabbare komma ut på arbetsmarknaden eller kunna påbörja en utbildning. LiU har exempelvis genomfört kompletterande utbildning för personer med avslutad biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning, en introduktionsutbildning för läkare med utländsk legitimation, en arbetsmarknadsutbildning för arabisktalande nyanlända lärare och förskollärare samt kompletterande utbildning för lärare med utländsk examen.

    Linköpings universitet bedriver flera olika insatser som syftar till en breddad studentrekrytering. Arbetet följs årligen upp i LiU:s handlingsplan för Lika villkor och kunskap om Lika villkor sprids också bland studenter som deltar i studentrekryteringsaktiviteter.

    Under 2017 har LiU visat mycket god förmåga att attrahera externa medel och därigenom kunnat fortsätta bygga starka och fokuserade forskningsmiljöer. Antalet vetenskapliga publikationer författade av forskare från LiU ökar ständigt och trots en allt hårdare internationell konkurrens klarar sig universitetet också väl i olika rankningar.

    Det framgångsrika arbetet med att etablera viktiga forskningssamarbeten med såväl universitet som industri och omgivande samhälle fortsätter, både nationellt och internationellt. Ett exempel på detta är arbetet inom Wallenberg Autonomous Systems and Software Program, WASP, som är landets enskilt största forskningsprogram och som mötts av ett stort intresse från industrin med många ansökningar till platserna som industridoktorander.

    Under det gångna året har en rad utvecklingsprojekt ytterligare stärkt LiU:s samverkansförmåga och tydliggjort det breda nyttiggörande som lärosätets forskning och utbildning bidrar till. En stor del av verksamheten har även fokuserat på framtida utmaningar där LiU tillsammans med ett antal andra svenska lärosäten formulerat grunden för de Vinnovafinansierade strategiska utvecklingsprojekt som startat under senare delen av året.

    Genom en utvecklad dialog och spetsforskning i nära samverkan med samhälle och näringsliv, regionalt, nationellt och internationellt, bidrar LiU till en samhällsutveckling baserad på kunskap. Under det gångna året har en rad exempel på forskningens nyttiggörande och samhälleliga genomslag tagits fram i form av såväl skrivna som filmatiserade fallstudier, så kallade ”impact case studies”.

    LiU har etablerat förinkubatorn LiU Impact Factory som är inriktad på studenters sociala och hållbara innovationer. Studenterna erbjuds rådgivning, verifieringsarbete och tillgång till lokaler på Campus Valla och Campus Norrköping. Alla projekt under 2017 handlade om de globala hållbarhetsmålen. Webbportalen studentuppdrag.se har lanserats i en ny version. Där kan kursansvariga vid LiU synliggöra projektkurser där man söker externa uppdrag som studenterna kan jobba med under sin utbildning.

    Under året har Linköpings universitet fortsatt sitt arbete med att stärka och utveckla de utomeuropeiska kontakterna, framför allt inom ramen för de strategiskt utvalda länderna/regionerna Brasilien, sydöstra Kina samt sydöstra Afrika. Under året har fokus legat på intern kommunikation, nätverksbyggande samt kartläggning av befintliga samarbeten och utbyten mellan LiU och länder i Afrika inom både utbildning och forskning. Utöver satsningarna på de strategiskt utvalda länderna/regionerna, har året präglats av nationella internationaliseringssamarbeten.

    De huvudsakliga rekryteringsaktiviteterna till masterprogram på engelska för avgiftsskyldiga studenter sker via digitala kanaler, som exempelvis portaler och webbinarier. LiU har, i samarbete med andra svenska lärosäten och Svenska Institutet, deltagit i rekryteringsaktiviteter på plats i Brasilien, Kina, Sydkorea och Indonesien.

    Under året har LiU erhållit flera stora anslag som har en stark miljökoppling. Det gäller till exempel forskning om nästa generations organiska solceller respektive bränsleceller i papper och kring en ny typ av material som lämpar sig för bland annat solceller och lysdioder. Ytterligare forskning som får stöd handlar om att bidra med kunskap och stöd till implementeringen av FN:s globala mål.

    När det gäller arbetet med jämställdhet har insatser för att motverka förekomst av kränkande behandling varit prioriterade. En handlingsplan för jämställdhetsintegreringen vid LiU, Equitas, har tagits fram och beslutats.

    Linköpings universitet har ett fortsatt stort behov av att rekrytera kärnkompetens och därför har det under året varit fortsatt fokus på LiU:s förmåga att attrahera och rekrytera lärare och forskare så att det blir möjligt att nå målen kring excellent utbildning och forskning. Ett annat angeläget arbete syftar till att behålla och utveckla kompetensen hos universitetets anställda samt att arbeta för att kunna erbjuda ett gott arbetsklimat och möjligheter till utveckling i det egna arbetet.

    Det ekonomiska resultatet för 2017 uppvisar ett överskott om 38 mnkr, se tabell 1.1. Utbildningen visar ett överskott på 47 mnkr medan forskningen visar ett underskott på 9 mnkr.

  • Rodriguez-Cancio, Marcelino
    et al.
    University of Rennes 1.
    Baudry, Benoit
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    White, Jules
    Vanderbildt University.
    Images of Code: Lossy Compression for Native Instructions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers can use lossy compression on images and many other artifacts to reduce size and improve network transfer times. Native program instructions, however, are typically not considered candidates for lossy compression since arbitrary losses in instructions may dramatically affect program output. In this paper we show that lossy compression of compiled native instructions is possible in certain circumstances. We demonstrate that the instructions sequence of a program can be lossily translated into a separate but equivalent program with instruction-wise differences, which still produces the same output. We contribute the novel insight that it is possible to exploit such instruction differences to design lossy compression schemes for native code. We support this idea with sound and unsound program transformations that improve performance of compression techniques such as Run-Length (RLE), Huffman and LZ77. We also show that large areas of code can endure tampered instructions with no impact on the output, a result consistent with previous works from various communities.

  • Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain..
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stora, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gillingwater, Thomas H.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    MacCallum, Malcolm
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Luis Arsuaga, Juan
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Geol, Dept Paleontol, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England.;Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Archaeol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Archaeol & Hist, Bundoora, Vic 3086, Australia..
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Nat Sci & Psychol, Res Ctr Evolutionary Anthropol & Palaeoecol, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 3AF, Merseyside, England..
    Genomic Analyses of Pre-European Conquest Human Remains from the Canary Islands Reveal Close Affinity to Modern North Africans2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 21, p. 3396-3402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5th century BCE [1-3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6-8]. These results are in agreement with some linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological data indicating an origin from a North African Berber-like population [1, 4, 9]. However, to date there are no published Guanche autosomal genomes to help elucidate and directly test this hypothesis. To resolve this, we generated the first genome-wide sequence data and mitochondrial genomes from eleven archaeological Guanche individuals originating from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Five of the individuals (directly radiocarbon dated to a time transect spanning the 7th-11th centuries CE) yielded sufficient autosomal genome coverage (0.21x to 3.93x) for population genomic analysis. Our results show that the Guanches were genetically similar over time and that they display the greatest genetic affinity to extant Northwest Africans, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a Berber-like origin. We also estimate that the Guanches have contributed 16%-31% autosomal ancestry to modern Canary Islanders, here represented by two individuals from Gran Canaria.

  • Skogman, Barbro Hedin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lager, M.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Lab Med, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Henningsson, A. J.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Clin Microbiol, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Tjernberg, I.
    Kalmar Cty Council, Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Kalmar, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    The recomBead Borrelia antibody index, CXCL13 and total IgM index for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children2017In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 2221-2229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For laboratory diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the recomBead Borrelia antibody index (AI) assay has shown promising results in a mixed age population, but has not previously been evaluated with specific focus on paediatric patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the recomBead Borrelia AI assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the laboratory diagnosis of LNB in children. We also wanted to explore whether early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and/or total IgM index could be useful as complementary diagnostic tools. Children being evaluated for LNB in a Swedish Lyme endemic area were included in the study (n = 146). Serum and CSF were collected on admission. Patients with other specific diagnoses were controls (n = 15). The recomBead Borrelia AI assay and the recomBead CXCL13 assay (Mikrogen) were applied together with total IgM index. The overall sensitivity for recomBead Borrelia AI (IgM and IgG together) was 74% and the specificity was 97%. However, the highest sensitivity (91%) at an acceptable level of specificity (90%) was obtained by recomBead Borrelia AI together with CXCL13 and total IgM index, showing a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 95%. Thus, the recomBead Borrelia AI assay performs with moderate sensitivity and high specificity in paediatric LNB patients. The major advantage seems to be increased sensitivity in the possible LNB group compared to the IDEIA assay. The diagnostic sensitivity may be further increased by using a combination of early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and total IgM index.

  • Bergbom, Ingegerd
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ringdal, Mona
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Developing and evaluating an instrument to measure Recovery After INtensive care: the RAIN instrument2018In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 17, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and evaluating patients' recovery, following intensive care, is essential for assessing their recovery process. By using a questionnaire, which includes spiritual and existential aspects, possibilities for identifying appropriate nursing care activities may be facilitated. The study describes the development and evaluation of a recovery questionnaire and its validity and reliability.

  • Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Housing Type and Neighbourhood Safety Behaviour Predicts Self-rated Health, Psychological Well-being and Frequency of Recent Unhealthy Days: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of the General Population in Sweden2017In: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 444-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at analysing associations among housing type, neighbourhood safety behaviour, self-rated health (SRH), psychological well-being and unhealthy days in the general population. From 2004 to 2013, 90,845 Swedes completed a questionnaire about their health, number of days with poor health, psychological well-being, housing type, and whether they refrained from going out based on perception of neighbourhood safety. People not living in private housing and those who did not go out for safety reasons reported lower SRH and psychological well-being and higher frequency of recent unhealthy days and days without work capacity due to poor health.

  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Simulation and Optimization.
    Larson, Mats G.
    Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    A simple approach for finite element simulation of reinforced plates2018In: Finite elements in analysis and design (Print), ISSN 0168-874X, E-ISSN 1872-6925, Vol. 142, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach for adding Bernoulli beam reinforcements to Kirchhoff plates. The plate is discretised using a continuous/discontinuous finite element method based on standard continuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces. The beams are discretised by the CutFEM technique of letting the basis functions of the plate represent also the beams which are allowed to pass through the plate elements. This allows for a fast and easy way of assessing where the plate should be supported, for instance, in an optimization loop.

  • Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Troiano, Giuseppe
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Evidence that circulating proteins are more promising than miRNAs for identification of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 61, p. 103437-103448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue remains a devastating disease with a five-year survival of around 60%. Late detection and recurrence are the main causes for poor survival. The identification of circulating factors for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer is a rapidly evolving field of interest, with the hope of finding stable and reliable markers of clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating miRNAs and proteins as potential factors for distinguishing patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from healthy controls. Array-based profiling of 372 miRNAs in plasma samples showed broad variations between different patients and did not show any evidence for their use in diagnosis of tongue cancer. Although one miRNA, miR-150, was significantly down-regulated in plasma from patients compared to controls. Surprisingly, the corresponding tumor tissue showed an up-regulation of miR-150. Among circulating proteins, 23 were identified as potential markers of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. These findings imply that circulating proteins are a more promising source of biomarkers for tongue squamous cell carcinomas than circulating miRNAs. The data also highlight that circulating markers are not always directly associated with tumor cell properties.

  • Persson, Christer
    SMHI.
    Normalårskorrigering av Sveriges utsläpp av fossil CO2 från uppvärmning 1990-2002 2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is developed to estimate the variations, caused by changes in meteorological conditions compared to normal, of the Swedish fossil CO2-emissions associated with domestic and other building heating. The result from this study has been included in Sweden´s third national communication on Climate Change, 2001, and in the Swedish yearly reports to UNFCCC concerning data for the years 1999-2002. Calculations have been performed for each year during the period 1990-2002 and also for a 30-year normal period 1965-1995. The weather influence of heating demand for buildings have been calculated monthly for a number of places in Sweden based on the model ENLOSS, which has been developed at SMHI, see e.g. Taesler (1986) and CADET Energy Efficiency (1999). This model can be used to calculate in detail the energy demand for heating of different types of buildings with regard to surrounding air temperature, wind speed and direction, cloudiness, sun elevation and turbidity (affecting incoming radiation). Using ENLOSS an i.e. equivalent temperature can be calculated which takes all effects from the different weather parameters into consideration combined with information about site and characteristics and use of the building. Based on this equivalent temperature an Energy-Index is subsequently calculated, being a measure of the amount of energy needed to heat a specific building to normal room temperature (+21°C) compared to what is needed during a corresponding time period with normal weather conditions.

    All calculations of corrections of energy demand to normal weather conditions have in this study been performed using a "standard building" with the following characteristics:

    • Representing a mixed type of buildings

    • Mechanical ventilation

    • Energy for hot water production not included

    • Energy from lighting, people within the building, electric equipment etc. has been subtracted in a conventional way from the energy demand

    • A time constant of 24h is used to describe the heat storage within the building.

    Based on ENLOSS-model calculations of the energy demand using meteorological data for a large number of places over Sweden, a geographical distribution of the energy demand over the whole of Sweden has been determined by means of optimum interpolation technique. This has been done on a monthly basis and thereafter been added to yearly values weighted towards the distribution of population within each county in Sweden. This information is then used to calculate a county-specific Energy-Index for each year, which combined with energy statistics from SCB regarding each county, has been the basis for calculations of normal weather corrections of fossil CO2-emissions for each year during the period 1990-2002.

    5

    In this study calculations have been performed for two different assumption of marginal fuel (the fuel which should have been used/not used in case the weather had been normal): "oil" and "actual mix of fuel within each county". The differences between these two alternatives were small during the first years of the 1990-ies, but have increased for later years. The normal weather-corrected data reported to UNFCCC has - so far - been based on the assumption on oil as marginal fuel.

    For all years during the 1990-2002 period, except for 1996, the normal weather-corrected fossil CO2-emissions for Sweden have been larger than the real emissions. For 1990, which is a reference year in the international negotiations, the normal weather-corrected emission was 15% larger than the real emission.

  • Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Pro-invasive properties of Snail1 are regulated by sumoylation in response to TGFβ stimulation in cancer2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 58, p. 97703-97726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a key regulator of epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT) during embryogenesis and in tumors. The effect of TGF beta, on EMT, is conveyed by induction of the pro-invasive transcription factor Snail1. In this study, we report that TGF beta stimulates Snail1 sumoylation in aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancer cells. Sumoylation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 confers its transcriptional activity, inducing the expression of classical EMT genes, as well as TGF beta receptor I (T beta RI) and the transcriptional repressor Hes1. Mutation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 to arginine (K234R) abolished sumoylation of Snail1, as well as its migratory and invasive properties in human prostate cancer cells. An increased immunohistochemical expression of Snail1, Sumo1, T beta RI, Hes1, and c-Jun was observed in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their functional roles in tumorigenesis.

  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, Gothenburg.
    Gränsöverskridande koordination: syntaktisk förändring i äldre svenska2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Innovative exhaled breath analysis with old breathing manoeuvres-is there a problem or an advantage?2017In: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7155, E-ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 031001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the field of exhaled breath research is expanding, the question that arises is can the old usual method of spirometry be used in all cases? The answer is yes for some analysation methods and definitely not for others: it all depends on the result you are looking for. Exhaled breath condensate collection can be accomplished with silent tidal breathing, but not in the analysation of the amount of exhaled particles, as they become very low during tidal breathing. There are gases that are exhalation flow dependent, e.g. nitric oxide, acetone and ethanol, that require a special breathing manoeuvre with flow control. Physiological changes of the lung, i.e. inhalation to total lung capacity or forced exhalation such as during spirometry, will affect the result of exhaled biomarkers. The standardisation of exhaled breath requires further development, and there are many aspects to consider.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Emission factors and emissions from residential biomass combustion in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale biomass combustion can be a major source of air pollutants like emissions of greenhouse gases, acidifying pollutants, NMVOC, particulate matter, heavy metals, PAH and dioxins. On a yearly basis Sweden is obliged to report air emissions of these pollutants to different international bodies. Until submission 2005, covering data for 1990-2003, only one emission factor for each pollutant was used for the reporting of emissions from residential biomass combustion. The results from a closer examination by Statistics Sweden of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a disaggregation of the fuel consumption of biomass by fuel type (wood logs, pellets, wood chips), as well as by technology (boiler, stoves, and open firing places). This study aimed at improving the reporting of emissions from small- scale combustion of biomass by revising the emission factors for N2O, NOX, CO, NMVOC, SOX, NH3, total suspended particles (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, metals dioxins and PAH. Furthermore, the time series 1990-2004 for these emissions were updated. In this work the revised emissions factors were to a large extent based on results from the Swedish Energy Agency research program “Biofuel, Health and Environment”. In addition a literature review was carried out to collect data from other Swedish studies as well as relevant international studies. Results from several recent measurement studies, together with dissaggregation of emissions factors by technology and fuel type, lead to quite large differences between previously used emission factors and the revised emission factors presented In particular the new emission factors for NMVOC and particles are much lower, whereas the new emission factors for CO and dioxin are higher.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-23 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Ingång 64, plan 9, Linköping
    Nestorson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arthroplasty in Elbow Fracture Treatment2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for distal humeral fractures. Stable fixation is required to allow early mobilisation and to reduce the risk of poor functional results. In an elderly patient with osteoporotic bone and with a comminuted intra-articular fracture stable internal fixation can be difficult to achieve. In these cases elbow arthroplasty is an option.

    An irreparable radial head fracture can be treated by excision or replacement. The indications for the respective procedure are unclear since reports include an array of different associated soft-tissue and bony injuries.

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use, complication rates and functional outcome of elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for complex distal humeral fractures and assess the usefulness of radial head replacement in Mason IV fracture dislocations.

    50 patients, aged 56-89 years were treated for a distal humeral fracture with primary hemi-arthroplasty using the Kudo© humeral component or the Latitude® prosthesis. The functional outcome was assessed retrospectively. The majority of the 50 patients treated with a primary hemi-arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture had a good or excellent functional result and regained a functional arc of movement of at least 100 degrees at medium term follow-up. There were six patients suffering secondary surgery and two with persistent ulnar nerve symptoms. Wear of the olecranon fossa was seen, mainly in the eight patients treated with a non-anatomical implant (Kudo®). Functional results were comparable to total elbow arthroplasty and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for distal humeral fractures. The use of implants that are more anatomical seemed to reduce the degree of olecranon wear but long-term results are lacking.

    The nationwide use of primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture between 1999 and 2014 was examined using three different registers. The survival rates in relation to prosthetic desing, age and sex were investigated using Cox regression analysis and number of adverse events recorded.

    In total 405 patients were treated with primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture. The mean age at surgery was 75 years and the mean observation time was 67 months. Eighteen patients had undergone revision surgery and another 26 patients suffered an adverse event, 24 of which required secondary surgery.

    Increasing age reduced the risk for revision and there was no significant difference in survival between total- and hemi arthroplasty. The cumulative survival rate at 5 years was 99% (CI 98-100) and at 10 years 90% (CI 85-96). Elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for distal humeral fractures produced reliable results with regards to revision surgery and adverse events.

    18 patients, age 19-79 years, treated with radial head replacement, and 14 patients, age 29-70 years, treated with radial head resection, for a Mason IV fracture dislocation were retrospectively reviewed.

    There were no significant differences in functional outcome in patients treated with replacement or excision for a Mason IV fracture dislocation. The rate of secondary surgery was higher in patients treated with replacement and ulno-humeral osteoarthritis was more pronounced in patients treated with radial head excision but follow-up was longer in these patients. Functional results were not improved by using radial head arthroplasty for Mason IV fracture dislocation. Secondary osteoarthritis is a concern in patients treated with excision but did not affect functional outcome after a mean follow-up time of 108 months.

  • Sundberg, Irene
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Medins Havs-och Vattenkonsulter AB.
    Meissner, Ylva
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Medins Havs- och Vattenkonsulter AB.
    Kiselalger i Kalmar län 2016: en undersökning av åtta lokaler2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen är ett led i länets arbete med regional miljöövervakning och kalkeffektuppföljning. Syftet med rapporten är att få en bättre karakterisering av vattendrag enligt EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten och syftar till att dels öka kunskapen om miljötillståndet i länet och dels fungera som underlag för framtida undersöknings- och åtgärdsprogram. Resultatet av inventeringen också användas för avstämning mot miljömålen ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”, ”Ingen övergödning”, ”Bara naturlig försurning” och ”Biologisk mångfald”.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cooper, David
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Methane emissions from residential biomass2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale biomass combustion can be a major source of air pollutants like hydrocarbons and particulate matters. Methane is one of the hydrocarbons emitted when burning biomass fuels and recent studies show that methane emissions from different kinds of residential biomass systems can vary significantly depending on type of combustion system and type of fuel. On a yearly basis Sweden is obligated to report air emissions of several pollutants to different international bodies. In previous reporting only one emission factor for methane is accounted for, including all technologies and all fuel types. This study aims to improve the reporting of methane emissions from small scale combustion of biomass by revising both activity data and emission factors. Further, the times series 1990-2003 for methane emission will be updated. New methane emission factors from small scale combustion of wood log, pellets and wood chips/sawdust was determined and an improved method was then used to calculate the emissions. In order to match the activity data categories, the emission factors were grouped by heating system category and fuel type. The result showed that methane emissions from wood log combustion are significantly higher compared to pellets combustion. However, significant variations in emission factors occur for specific combustion appliances and operation conditions. The recalculated time series for 1990- 2003 showed higher values of methane emissions due to desegregation of emission factors by combustion technology

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridell, Erik
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stripple, Håkan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uppdatering av klimatrelaterade emissionsfaktorer2010Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-03-26 13:00 Belladonna, Linköping
    Hammerman, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tendon Healing: Mechanical Loading, Microdamage and Gene Expression2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical loading and the inflammatory response during tendon healing might be important for the healing process. Mechanical loading can improve the healing tendon but the mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this thesis was to further clarify the effect of mechanical loading on tendon healing and how mechanical loading affects the inflammatory response during the healing process.

    We used a rat Achilles tendon model to study healing. The rats were exposed to different degrees of loading by unloading methods such as paralysis of the calf muscles with Botox, tail suspension, and an orthosis (a boot). Full loading was achieved by free cage activity or treadmill walking. Microdamage in tendons, unloaded with Botox, was also investigated by needling. The healing tendons were evaluated in a materials testing machine (to analyze the mechanical properties), by gene expression analysis (microarray and PCR), or histology.

    Our results show that moderate loading (unloading with Botox) improves the mechanical properties of healing tendons compared to minimal loading (unloading with Botox in combination with tail suspension or a boot), especially the material properties. In accordance to these findings, expression of extracellular matrix genes were also increased by moderate compared to minimal loading.

    Full loading improved all mechanical properties and the expression of extracellular matrix genes was further increased compared to moderate loading. However, structural properties, such as the strength and the size of the healing tendon, were more affected by full loading. Full loading also affected the expression of inflammation-related genes during the early healing phase, 3 and 5 days after tendon injury, and increased the number of immune cells in the healing tendon tissue. Also microdamage of the healing tendon (detected by blood leakage) was increased by full loading compared to moderate loading during the early healing phase.

    Induced microdamage by repeated needling in the healing tendon tissue increased the structural properties of the healing tendon. The gene expression after needling was similar to the gene expression after full loading.

    The improvement of mechanical properties by loading in healing tendons was decreased by an anti-inflammatory drug called parecoxib, which decreases the production of prostaglandins by inhibiting COX-2 activity. The effect of parecoxib was reduced when loading was reduced but we could not confirm that the effect of parecoxib was related to the degree of loading. However, parecoxib abolished the stimulatory effect of microdamage.

    In conclusion, these studies show that moderate loading improves the quality of the healing tendon whereas full loading also increases the quantity of the healing tendon tissue. Full loading creates microdamage and increases inflammation during the early healing phase. The strong effect of full loading on the structural properties might be due to microdamage. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib seems to impair mechanical stimulation of healing tendons by reducing the response to microdamage.

  • Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of sterilization on composition and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon2017Data set
  • Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow2017In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

  • Karlsson, Chatarina
    et al.
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Larsson, Peder
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Kiselalgsundersökning i Blekinge län 20172017Report (Other academic)
  • Karlsson, Chatarina
    et al.
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Larsson, Peder
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Kiselalgsundersökning i Blekinge län 20162016Report (Other academic)
  • Vlachogiannis, Pavlos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Gudjonsson, Olafur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Montelius, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Grusell, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Hypofractionated high-energy proton-beam irradiation is an alternative treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 12, p. 2391-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155). Eighty-four patients were treated post subtotal resection, 42 at tumour relapse and 44 with upfront radiotherapy after diagnosis based on the typical radiological image. Irradiation was given in a hypofractionated fashion (3-8 fractions, usually 5 or 6 Gy) with a mean dose of 21.9 Gy (range, 14-46 Gy). All patients were planned for follow-up with clinical controls and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after treatment. The median follow-up time was 84 months. Age, gender, tumour location, Simpson resection grade and target volume were assessed as possible prognostic factors for post-irradiation tumour progression and radiation related complications. The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 93% and 85% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 13.5%, while disease-specific mortality was 1.7% (3/170 patients). Older patients and patients with tumours located in the middle cranial fossa had a lower risk for tumour progression. Radiation-related complications were seen in 16 patients (9.4%), with pituitary insufficiency being the most common. Tumour location in the anterior cranial fossa was the only factor that significantly increased the risk of complications. Hypofractionated proton-beam radiation therapy may be used particularly in the treatment of larger World Health Organisation grade I meningiomas not amenable to total surgical resection. Treatment is associated with high rates of long-term tumour growth control and acceptable risk for complications.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Liu, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Modelling Evolution: From non-life, to life, to a variety of life2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life is able to replicate itself, e.g., a microorganism is able to divide into two identical ones, and a single plant is able to forest a whole island. But life is the only example of self-replication (note that a computer virus seems able to replicate itself, but it needs the assistance of a processor such as a CPU, and thus not a truly self-replicating entity). So before the appearance of life, nothing can self-replicate. How does life, a truly self-replicating entity, evolve from substances which is not able to self-replicate? Why can it ever happen? Is there a general underlying mechanism that governs how self-replicating entities can develop de novo on Earth, or even other plants?

    As long as the first life appears, it has the potential to cover the whole plant. But one single life form cannot do the job. Life has branched into a huge number of biological classes and species. Different species interact with each other, and with their environment, which, as a whole, is defined as an ecosystem. Distinct ecosystems are found at different scales and different places, e.g., microbes cross-feed and compete for resources within natural communities; and different types of cells interact by exchanging metabolite within an organism body. But, why sometimes we consider an ecosystem as an individual (such as the human body which is, in fact, an ecosystem inhabited by a huge number of microorganisms without which we cannot survive) while sometimes not? What really distinguishes an individual-level life from a system-level life? Are there general properties only a system-level life has, emerged from the interactions among its compositional individual-level life?

    This thesis is to investigate these two questions by mathematical models. For the evolution from non-life to life, namely the origin of life, we build an artificial chemistry model to investigate why an independent self-replicating entity can develop spontaneously from some chemical reaction system in which no reaction is self-replicating. For the evolution from life to a variety of life, we build an artificial ecosystem model to investigate general properties of ecosystems.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-23 09:15 Eken, hus 421, ingång 65, plan 9, Linköping
    Sjölund, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Elekta Instrument AB.
    Algorithms for magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiotherapy plays an increasingly important role in cancer treatment, and medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is poised to be a major component in the development towards more effective radiotherapy treatments with fewer side effects. This thesis attempts to contribute in realizing this potential.

    Radiotherapy planning requires simulation of radiation transport. The necessary physical properties are typically derived from CT images, but in some cases only MR images are available. In such a case, a crude but common approach is to approximate all tissue properties as equivalent to those of water. In this thesis we propose two methods to improve upon this approximation. The first uses a machine learning approach to automatically identify bone tissue in MR. The second, which we refer to as atlas-based regression, can be used to generate a realistic, patient-specific, pseudo-CT directly from anatomical MR images. Atlas-based regression uses deformable registration to estimate a pseudo-CT of a new patient based on a database of aligned MR and CT pairs.

    Cancerous tissue has a different structure from normal tissue. This affects molecular diffusion, which can be measured using MRI. The prototypical diffusion encoding sequence has recently been challenged with the introduction of more general gradient waveforms. One such example is diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE), which allows non-invasive mapping of parameters that reflect variable cell eccentricity and density in brain tumors. To take full advantage of such more general gradient waveforms it is, however, imperative to respect the constraints imposed by the hardware while at the same time maximizing the diffusion encoding strength. In this thesis we formulate this as a constrained optimization problem that is easily adaptable to various hardware constraints. We demonstrate that, by using the optimized gradient waveforms, it is technically feasible to perform whole-brain diffusional variance decomposition at clinical MRI systems with varying performance.

    The last part of the thesis is devoted to estimation of diffusion MRI models from measurements. We show that, by using a machine learning framework called Gaussian processes, it is possible to perform diffusion spectrum imaging using far fewer measurements than ordinarily required. This has the potential of making diffusion spectrum imaging feasible even though the acquisition time is limited. A key property of Gaussian processes, which is a probabilistic model, is that it comes with a rigorous way of reasoning about uncertainty. This is pursued further in the last paper, in which we propose a Bayesian reinterpretation of several of the most popular models for diffusion MRI. Thanks to the Bayesian interpretation it possible to quantify the uncertainty in any property derived from these models. We expect this will be broadly useful, in particular in group analyses and in cases when the uncertainty is large.

  • Ortiz, Carina
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lundblad, Mattias
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Liski, Jari
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Karltun, Erik
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lehtonen, Aleksi
    Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Helsinki, Finland.
    Gärdenäs, Annemieke
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Measurements and models – a comparison of quantification methods for SOC changes in forest soils2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish UNFCCC1-reporting of the LULUCF2-sector is based on methods in compliance with the “Good practice” as described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Biomass and soil inventory data from the Swedish Inventory of Forests is the major source of information used to quantify changes in the various carbon pools on forest land. Even if the reported uncertainties in soil carbon changes are small from a statistical perspective, they are large in relation to the total Swedish emissions of green house gases. This is due to the fact that the soil carbon pool is so large, that even small and statistically non-significant changes may have an impact on the Swedish CO2 balance. Sampling based methods may also result in considerable inter annual variations that may look conspicuous in the reporting. Because of the uncertainty and inter annual variations there has been a discussion on the methods used and if there are possibilities to lower the uncertainty and to get more stable estimates of soil carbon changes by combining measurements and models. In this study results from the two soil carbon models, Yasso07 and Q, were compared with repeated measurements of the soil inventory during the years 1994 to 2000. Soil carbon fluxes were simulated with the two models from 1926 to 2000 with Monte Carlo methodology to estimate uncertainty ranges. The results from the models agreed well with measured data. The simulations of Yasso07 and Q resulted in a soil organic carbon stock in year 2000 of 1600 Mton C and 1580 Mton C, respectively while the measured carbon pool was ¨1670 Mton C. The annual change in soil organic carbon varies substantially between the three methods mainly due to different assumptions regarding annual climate variation. However, the five year averaged mean of annual soil organic carbon change for the two periods 1994-1998 and 1996-2000 indicate the size and direction of the estimated annual changes agree reasonable well. The mean annual change for the two periods was for the Q-model 5.5 Mton C yr-1 and 5.6 Mton C yr-1 with a confidence interval of 2.1-10.7 Mton C yr-1, and for the Yasso07-model 3.7 Mton C yr-1 and 0.9 Mton C yr-1 respectively with a confidence interval ranging between -5 to 12.6 and -7 to 9.8 Mton C yr-1 respectively. The mean annual change for the two periods estimated using NFI-data was 1.6 M ton C yr-1 and 2.5 M ton C yr-1 with a standard error of 2 The general conclusion drawn from this study is that both sampling and the models Yasso07 and Q are possible tools to predict the soil organic carbon accumulation and annual changes for Swedish forest soils. The estimates based on measurements as well as the modelled results indicate an increase in carbon stocks in Swedish forest soils. This study does not support a change of method from inventory to model predictions. However, the agreement between the methods shows that the models are suitable as a complement to other soil carbon estimation methods. They are particularly useful for projections and we recommend a further development of the modelling tools.

    1 UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2 LULUCF, Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 Hc113, Jönköping
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding engagement among children with and without need of special support due to behavior difficulties. The influence of social interaction as well as the provision of special support in Swedish preschool were investigated. Specifically, the aim was to explore children’s engagement at the nodal point between environmental factors, children’s behavior and characteristics, peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness, both in a cross-sectional perspective and over time. In addition, predictive factors for special support were explored.

    A prospective longitudinal survey design with three data points was used, with both quantitative and qualitative data. The sample consisted of 829 children, 425 boys and 394 girls (10 missing) from 92 preschool units in six municipalities in Sweden. The children participated in at least one wave of data collection. The preschool staff rated the children’s engagement, behavior difficulties, and the provision of special support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. For the cross-sectional analyses 663 children participated, and for the longitudinal analyses, 203 children participated. For the cross-sectional analyses logistics regression and content analyses as well as mediation analyses were used, meanwhile, structural equation models were used for longitudinal analyses, that is, growth curve model with multivariate analyses as well as autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Overall, children with high levels of hyperactive behavior were less engaged in everyday activities in preschool. In addition, the peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness were rated lower for these children, both in current time and longitudinally. Children’s hyperactive behavior had more negative influence on their core engagement (e.g. attentional behavior and persistence behavior), compared to their developmental engagement, (e.g.problem solving, involvement in complex rule-based play, more common for older preschoolers). The levels of social interaction explained a large percent of the negative effect between hyperactive behavior and engagement. Peer-to-child interaction explained between 56-78 percent, whereas teacher responsiveness explained between 33-34 percent.

    Over time, the level of hyperactive behavior decreased more dramatically for girls than for boys. However, boys who became more engaged, showed less hyperactive behavior over time. The majority (63%) of the children displaying behavior difficulties (BD) did not receive special support on top of what was provided to all children in the classroom. No support was related to children being a second language learner in Swedish (EL2) or BDs that did not disturb the peer group or the teachers. Children more often received special support if the staff perceived the child’s behavior difficulties as disruptive in preschool activities or among peers. The most common type of support, mentioned by the staff, was paying attention to the child’s negative behavior, achieved by at least one member of the staff staying close to the child. Other examples of attention to the child’s negative behavior involved the preschool staff providing special support by paying attention to critical situations, by teacher’s proximity to the children, or by distracting the child from situations that could trigger negative behavior. Distractions were used more often for children with high engagement and BD.

    Concerning directional and transactional paths, children’s core engagement was a significant predictor for both peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness. That is, high levels of core engagement at T1 predicted both types of social interaction at T2, which in turn predicted children’s levels of core engagement at T3. Children’s hyperactive behavior did not predict lower ratings in social interactions in preschool over time, whereas, high ratings in peer-to-child interactions and teacher responsiveness were significant predictors for decreased hyperactive behavior over time. Once again, social interactions were important factors for promoting a decrease in children’s hyperactive behavior. Children with high levels of core engagement were more likely to be met by teacher responsiveness and positive peer-to-child interactions over time.

    Several statistical relations exist between children’s engagement, BD, social interactions and special support in preschool settings. This thesis shows that perceived negative behaviors such as BD can co-exist with more positively perceived behaviors or characteristics, such as engagement. However, this research shows that well-functioning peer-to-child interaction and teacher interactions improve child engagement for children with hyperactive behavior, special support is not always provided and seldom focused on improving children’s engagement. In order to improve engagement among children in need of special support due to BD, it is necessary to consider both hyperactive behavior and engagement as well as the influence of social interactions. Teacher responsiveness and peer-to-child interaction may work as supportive factors for children with hyperactive behavior to help sustain attention and stay actively engaged in the activities. Preschool teachers need to self-reflect on their organization, planning ofeveryday activities and how to design special support that consider individual children’s needs for improving their engagement.

  • Samuelsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Resistanskurvor för elektriska fuktkvotsmätare1990Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-04-06 10:15 F 234, Östersund
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Communicating, Negotiating and Stereotyping: The roles of context, situation and gender in small group decision-making2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Making decisions together in groups takes an important role in society. Everywhere and in many different contexts people meet to make more or less formal decisions. As stereotypes constitute simplified group based perceptions of other people, decision-making groups risk making biased judgments and commit discriminating decisions. Stereotyping often follow the two universal dimensions competence and warmth (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2008). How people´s judgments are affected by stereotypes has mainly been studied on individual level and less is known about how stereotypes and prejudice is communicated and negotiated in group decision-making situations. One approach to study this is to investigate how different contexts may lead to different communication patterns, different experiences, and different decisions.  In this thesis context was varied in two different ways in two experiments. In the first experiment the goal set for the decision-making was varied. A competitive goal was contrasted to a cooperative goal in a group decision task using a sports scenario where the participants had to select members to a relay team. In the second experiment different information was used as a context variable. This was done by varying the information of gender and parenthood status of the applicants in a fictive recruitment scenario. In addition, in both experiments the gender composition in the groups was varied, forming yet another variable that might play a role for how the decision-making was carried out. These three factors were assumed to influence the form of the communication, the content of the communication in terms of stereotyping, and how the decision-making process was experienced. A mixed-method approach was chosen where quantitative and qualitative data were used in conjunction with each other, which was assumed to give a richer picture of the results.

    In paper I the form of the communication, as analyzed with interaction process analysis (IPA), did not differ much between the two goals. On the other hand, the content showed more systematic patterns. A competitive goal seemed to lead to both inclusion and exclusion with use of both positive and negative stereotypes. A cooperative goal seemed to lead to inclusion mechanisms and only use of positive stereotypes. In paper II where the aim was to investigate what was experienced as constituting a successful decision-making process it was found that equality of influence was of importance. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of the conversation patterns, by use of the conversational argument coding scheme (CACS), seemed to validate this. The successful groups had a more complex communication pattern than the less successful groups. In paper III, where the information for the decision task was varied in terms of gender and parenthood status of the applicants, it was found that parenthood information triggered a lot of discussion. The participants did not differentiate between mothers and fathers, but they applied attributes of competence and warmth differently to the targets. Furthermore, gender and gender composition seemed to matter as male and female groups applied the attributes differently. Paper IV used data from both experiments in order to investigate how the context variables and gender composition influenced how the decision situation was experienced. The results indicate that the context variables and gender composition interacted with own gender. Men seemed more content in male groups with male targets and a male parent condition while women seemed more content in mixed groups and a female parent condition.

    Context seems to play an important role, as it provides the participants in the group discussions with different information, leading to different patterns of stereotyping in the discussions. Also how the decision was experienced seems to be related to the context. Furthermore, group composition seems to function in this way too. The results are discussed in relation to practical implications and suggestions for future research. 

  • Ambavane, Apoorva
    et al.
    Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, London, United Kingdom.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Giannitsis, Evangelos
    Medizinische Klinik III, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Roiz, Julie
    Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, London, United Kingdom .
    Mendivil, Joan
    Market Access, Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland .
    Frankenstein, Lutz
    Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Pulmonology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Body, Richard
    Emergency Department, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom .
    Christ, Michael
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg General Hospital, Nuremberg, Germany .
    Bingisser, Roland
    Emergency Department, University of Basel, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland .
    Alquezar, Aitor
    Servei de Urgencies. Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain .
    Mueller, Christian
    Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland .
    Economic evaluation of the one-hour rule-out and rule-in algorithm for acute myocardial infarction using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay in the emergency department2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The 1-hour (h) algorithm triages patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED) towards "rule-out," "rule-in," or "observation," depending on baseline and 1-h levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). The economic consequences of applying the accelerated 1-h algorithm are unknown.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a post-hoc economic analysis in a large, diagnostic, multicenter study of hs-cTnT using central adjudication of the final diagnosis by two independent cardiologists. Length of stay (LoS), resource utilization (RU), and predicted diagnostic accuracy of the 1-h algorithm compared to standard of care (SoC) in the ED were estimated. The ED LoS, RU, and accuracy of the 1-h algorithm was compared to that achieved by the SoC at ED discharge. Expert opinion was sought to characterize clinical implementation of the 1-h algorithm, which required blood draws at ED presentation and 1h, after which "rule-in" patients were transferred for coronary angiography, "rule-out" patients underwent outpatient stress testing, and "observation" patients received SoC. Unit costs were for the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Germany. The sensitivity and specificity for the 1-h algorithm were 87% and 96%, respectively, compared to 69% and 98% for SoC. The mean ED LoS for the 1-h algorithm was 4.3h-it was 6.5h for SoC, which is a reduction of 33%. The 1-h algorithm was associated with reductions in RU, driven largely by the shorter LoS in the ED for patients with a diagnosis other than AMI. The estimated total costs per patient were £2,480 for the 1-h algorithm compared to £4,561 for SoC, a reduction of up to 46%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of 1-h algorithm is associated with reduction in overall AMI diagnostic costs, provided it is carefully implemented in clinical practice. These results need to be prospectively validated in the future.

  • Ståhlberg, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Från marknadsföring till propagandakrig2017In: Ikaros, tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett projekt som inleddes som en studie i nation branding i Ukraina kom efter Majdanrevolten 2013-14 att övergå i en undersökning av hur ukrainska myndigheter och medier hanterar information i konflikten mellan Ukraina och Ryssland. Ryssland antas ha en mäktig propagandaapparat, men hur agerar Ukraina i informationskriget mot Ryssland?

  • Schlackow, Iryna
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Kent, Seamus
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Herrington, William
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Emberson, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Haynes, Richard
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Reith, Christina
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Wanner, Christoph
    Univ Hosp Wurzburg, Dept Med, Div Nephrol, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Renal Medicine. Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gray, Alastair
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Landray, Martin J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Baigent, Colin
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, MRC, Populat Hlth Res Unit, Oxford, England..
    Mihaylova, Borislava
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    A policy model of cardiovascular disease in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 23, p. 1880-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To present a long-term policy model of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods: A Markov model with transitions between CKD stages (3B, 4, 5, on dialysis, with kidney transplant) and cardiovascular events (major atherosclerotic events, haemorrhagic stroke, vascular death) was developed with individualised CKD and CVD risks estimated using the 5 years' follow-up data of the 9270 patients with moderate-to-severe CKD in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) and multivariate parametric survival analysis. The model was assessed in three further CKD cohorts and compared with currently used risk scores.

    Results: Higher age, previous cardiovascular events and advanced CKD were the main contributors to increased individual disease risks. CKD and CVD risks predicted by the state-transition model corresponded well to risks observed in SHARP and external cohorts. The model's predictions of vascular risk and progression to end-stage renal disease were better than, or comparable to, those produced by other risk scores. As an illustration, at age 60-69 years, projected survival for SHARP participants in CKD stage 3B was 13.5 years (10.6 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) in men and 14.8 years (10.7 QALYs) in women. Corresponding projections for participants on dialysis were 7.5 (5.6 QALYs) and 7.8 years (5.4 QALYs). A non-fatal major atherosclerotic event reduced life expectancy by about 2 years in stage 3B and by 1 year in dialysis.

    Conclusions: The SHARP CKD-CVD model is a novel resource for evaluating health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of interventions in CKD.

  • Chabok, Abbas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Andreasson, Kalle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nikberg, Maziar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Low risk of complications in patients with first-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis2017In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1699-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) has been considered to have an increased risk of complication, but the level of evidence is low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of complications in patients with first-time AUD and in patients with a history of diverticulitis. This paper is a population-based retrospective study at Vastmanland's Hospital, VasterA<yen>s, Sweden, where all patients were identified with a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease ICD-10 K57.0-9 from January 2010 to December 2014. The records of all patients were surveyed and patients with a computed tomography (CT)-verified AUD were included. Complications defined as CT-verified abscess, perforation, colonic obstruction, fistula, or sepsis within 1 month from the diagnosis of AUD were registered. Of 809 patients with AUD, 642 (79%) had first-time AUD and 167 (21%) had a previous history of AUD with no differences in demographic or clinical characteristics. In total, 16 (2%) patients developed a complication within 1 month irrespective of whether they had a previous history of diverticulitis (P = 0.345). In the binary logistic regression analysis, first-time diverticulitis was not associated with increased risk of complications (OR 1.58; CI 0.52-4.81). The rate of antibiotic therapy was about 7-10% during the time period and outpatient management increased from 7% in 2010 to 61% in 2014. The risk for development of complications is low in AUD with no difference between patients with first-time or recurrent diverticulitis. This result strengthens existing evidence on the benign disease course of AUD.

  • Aoki, Yasunori
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Natl Inst Informat, Tokyo, Japan..
    Roshammar, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden.;SGS Exprimo, Mechelen, Belgium..
    Hamren, Bengt
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hooker, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Model selection and averaging of nonlinear mixed-effect models for robust phase III dose selection2017In: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, ISSN 1567-567X, E-ISSN 1573-8744, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 581-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population model-based (pharmacometric) approaches are widely used for the analyses of phase IIb clinical trial data to increase the accuracy of the dose selection for phase III clinical trials. On the other hand, if the analysis is based on one selected model, model selection bias can potentially spoil the accuracy of the dose selection process. In this paper, four methods that assume a number of pre-defined model structure candidates, for example a set of dose-response shape functions, and then combine or select those candidate models are introduced. The key hypothesis is that by combining both model structure uncertainty and model parameter uncertainty using these methodologies, we can make a more robust model based dose selection decision at the end of a phase IIb clinical trial. These methods are investigated using realistic simulation studies based on the study protocol of an actual phase IIb trial for an oral asthma drug candidate (AZD1981). Based on the simulation study, it is demonstrated that a bootstrap model selection method properly avoids model selection bias and in most cases increases the accuracy of the end of phase IIb decision. Thus, we recommend using this bootstrap model selection method when conducting population model-based decision-making at the end of phase IIb clinical trials.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    How to calibrate a questionnaire: quality-assuring categorical data with psychometric measurement theory2018In: / [ed] Charité, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the social sciences – with ‘instruments’ such as questionnaires, ability tests, – in education, healthcare and so on, need metrological quality assurance. A patient, for instance, expects the same quality of care wherever and whenever provided. This is a challenge since the usual tools of statistics do not always work on the categorical scales typical of such measurements. Modelling a measurement system where the instrument is a human being, and where the output is a performance metric, i.e., how well the set-up performs an assessment, appears to be a way forward. This BEMC Colloquium will present the necessary tools, such as psychometric Rasch measurement theory, and will be followed by a hands-on workshop where you yourselves can analyse cases such as (i) the Quality of the BEMC Colloquium Series and (ii) a Healthy Lifestyle.

  • Warnecke, Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Abele, Sonja
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Musunuri, Sravani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Harris, Robert A.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Scavenger Receptor A Mediates the Clearance and Immunological Screening of MDA-Modified Antigen by M2-Type Macrophages2017In: Neuromolecular medicine, ISSN 1535-1084, E-ISSN 1559-1174, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 463-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the uptake of malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the context of lipid peroxidation and its implications in CNS autoimmunity. The use of custom-produced fluorescently labeled versions of MOG or MDA-modified MOG enabled us to study and quantify the uptake by different macrophage populations and to identify the responsible receptor, namely SRA. The SRA-mediated uptake of MDA-modified MOG is roughly tenfold more efficient compared to that of the native form. Notably, this uptake is most strongly associated with anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. MDA-modified MOG was demonstrated to be resistant to degradation by lysine-dependent proteases in vitro, but the overall digestion fragments appeared to be similar in cell lysates, although their relative abundance appeared to be altered as a result of faster uptake. Accordingly, MDA-modified MOG is processed for presentation by APCs, allowing maximized recall proliferation of MOG(35-55)-specific 2D2 T cells in vitro due to higher uptake. However, MDA modification of MOG did not enhance immune priming or disease course in the in vivo MOG-EAE model, but did induce antibody responses to both MOG and MDA adducts. Taken together our results indicate that MDA adducts primarily constitute clearance signals for phagocytes and promote rapid removal of antigen, which is subjected to immunological screening by previously licensed T cells.

  • Snäll, Tord
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Victor
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Stat Sweden, Reg & Environm Dept, Environm & Tourism, Box 24300, SE-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammar, Torun
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Caruso, Alexandro
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Måns
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Transient trade-off between climate benefit and biodiversity loss of harvesting stumps for bioenergy2017In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1751-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To replace fossil fuel and thereby mitigate climate change, harvesting of wood such as stumps for bioenergy will likely increase. Coarse deadwood is an important resource for biodiversity and stumps comprise the main part of the coarse deadwood in managed forests. We provide the first integrated analysis of the long-term climate and biodiversity impacts of a whole landscape. We simultaneously project climate and biodiversity impacts of harvesting stumps to substitute for fossil coal, assuming scenarios with different proportions of the landscape with stump harvest (10, 50, 80%) the coming 50years. A life cycle approach was used to calculate future global temperature changes and future metapopulation changes in six epixylic lichens. Metapopulation dynamics were projected using colonization and extinction models based on times series data. Harvesting stumps from 50% of the clear-cut forest land benefits climate with a net global temperature reduction >0.5.10(-9)Kha(-1) after 50years if assuming substitution of fossil coal. For all scenarios, using stump bioenergy leads to immediate (within 1year) reductions in temperature of >= 50% compared to using fossil coal, increasing to 70% reduction after 50 years. However, large-scale stump harvest inflicted substantial metapopulation declines for five of six lichens. High stump harvest levels (>= 50%) put common lichens at risk of becoming red-listed following the IUCN criteria. The net temperature reduction (cooling effect) from substituting fossil coal with stumps harvested for bioenergy increased over time, while lichen metapopulations stabilized at lower equilibria after two to three decades. This indicates that trade-offs between climate and metapopulations of commons species are transient, where climate benefits become more prevalent in the long term. As both objectives are important for meeting (inter-)national climate and biodiversity targets, integrated analyses such as this should be encouraged and urged to guide policymaking about large-scale implementation of stump harvest.

  • Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Håkansson, Nina
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record2018In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 633-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50% of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50% over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid-to high latitudes where at least 50% of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts with the highest altitudes over Greenland and Antarctica. It is suggested to quantify the detection performance of other CDRs in terms of a sensitivity threshold of cloud optical thickness, which can be estimated using active lidar observations. Validation results are proposed to be used in Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulation Package (COSP) simulators for cloud detection characterization of various cloud CDRs from passive imagery.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 14:00 F11, Stockholm
    Altafi, Nasrin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Lefschetz Properties of Monomial Ideals2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the study of the Lefschetz properties of artinian monomial algebras. An artinian algebra is said to satisfy the strong Lefschetz property if multiplication by all powers of a general linear form has maximal rank in every degree. If it holds for the first power it is said to have the weak Lefschetz property (WLP).

    In the first paper, we study the Lefschetz properties of monomial algebras by studying their minimal free resolutions. In particular, we give an afirmative answer to an specific case of a conjecture by Eisenbud, Huneke and Ulrich for algebras having almost linear resolutions. Since many algebras are expected to have the Lefschetz properties, studying algebras failing the Lefschetz properties is of a great interest. In the second paper, we provide sharp lower bounds for the number of generators of monomial ideals failing the WLP extending a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig which provides upper bounds for such ideals. In the second paper, we also study the WLP of ideals generated by forms of a certain degree invariant under an action of a cyclic group. We give a complete classication of such ideals satisfying the WLP in terms of the representation of the group generalizing a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Dalirian, Maryam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Investigating parameters governing liquid-phase cloud activation of atmospheric particles2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main sources of uncertainties in modeling and predicting the Earth’s climate. To overcome this uncertainty, we need to improve the understanding about the processes and parameters defining how aerosol particles turn into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) to produce cloud droplets or ice crystals. The focus of this dissertation is on liquid phase cloud droplets. The thesis investigates the effect of water solubility and surface tension on the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles. These parameters are among the key properties defining how an aerosol particle can turn into a cloud droplet. The main goals of this thesis are to investigate 1) the CCN activity of aerosol particles containing both water soluble and insoluble substances and 2) the contribution of molecular-scale surface structure to the surface tension and CCN activity of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures.

    In the first part of this thesis, the CCN activity of water-insoluble aerosol constituents coated by water-soluble or sparingly soluble species was investigated. The results showed that the CCN activity of the insoluble silica and black carbon particles, with sizes between 100 and 300 nm, increased with the amount of the coating on the insoluble cores and at thick enough coating approached the CCN activity of the soluble species. Moreover, controlled dry coating of the insoluble BC cores yielded a size-independent distribution of the coating material on the insoluble cores, which was not achieved by wet coating of the silica particles. The results also confirmed that by knowing the fraction of soluble material (coating thicknesses), the existing theories gave a reasonable estimate of the CCN activity for the mixed soluble-insoluble particles. Finally, the results highlight the need for including the impacts of co-emitted or later condensed compounds in estimates of the climate impacts of atmospheric insoluble aerosol species.

    In the second part of the thesis, surface propensity of succinic acid, pure or mixed with soluble inorganic salts in the aqueous droplets, were quantified via molecular-level surface composition measurement by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of succinic acid aqueous solutions showed strong enrichment of the succinic acid at the surface of the liquid droplets compared to the bulk solution. This effect was more pronounced in the presence of the highly soluble inorganic salts like NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 in the system. The modeled surface tension of the pure organic or mixture of organic and inorganic substances, using surface enrichment factors derived from the XPS experiments were in good agreement with the experimental surface tension data. This demonstrates the high potential of XPS for direct measurements of the surface composition of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures. The results suggest that for modeling the phase-state and water content of the atmospheric particles, the contribution by the surface layer needs to be considered, because aqueous droplet can contain larger amounts of organic compounds than the bulk solubility limit of the solutions. However, the effect of the aqueous surface composition on the CCN activation of particles consisting of the studied mixtures was estimated to be very small.

    The results presented in this thesis provide new insights into the relationship between aerosol particle composition and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the effect of more realistic complex mixtures will require more research. The results showed that for modeling semi-volatile species, the partitioning between the gas and condensed phase needs to be considered. In addition, along with the liquid-phase cloud activation, the ice nucleation ability of the particles made of soluble and insoluble species requires to be further investigated.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-Salen), Stockholm
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Transformative Imagination: Re-imagining the world towards sustainability2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central task for sustainability science in the Anthropocene is to offer guidance on alternative pathways of change. Even though this search and implementation of pathways towards sustainability is likely to require profound social-ecological transformations, little is yet known about the individual and collective capacities needed to support such transformations. This thesis explores the connection between human imagination and sustainability transformations, and introduces the notion of the transformative imagination to support methodological innovation in sustainability sciences, and practices aiming to support transformations towards sustainability. The transformative imagination is suggested to support fundamentally new ways of seeing, feeling, encountering and envisioning the world. The thesis takes a transdisciplinary action-research approach and studies how specific participatory practices, including the arts, may foster the transformative imagination as a means to more skilfully respond to, anticipate and shape social-ecological trajectories in the Anthropocene. The four included papers, each explores how practices may support particular features of the imagination as a transformative capacity. Paper I analyses a case in coastal Kenya where participatory modelling and future scenarios are applied to foster imagination of dynamics of interdependences and trade-offs within the context of poverty alleviation and ecosystems change. Paper II explores system diagrams and scenarios as practices for the development of social-ecological narratives that may support robust interventions in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Paper III implements, and studies how an art-based approach based on performances, visual methods and an art installation, could support transformative visions of the Iberian Peninsula in the context of extreme climate change. Paper IV is a literature review of the potential contributions of the arts to transformations, in the context of climate change. These papers focus on different features of imagination, which under certain circumstances may progressively develop into societal transformative capacities with the potential to re-structure current social-ecological realities. Overall, this thesis is a step towards forging new kinds of reflexive, imaginative and deliberative practices that can support the emergence of local arrangements of a sustainable world where life can carry on.

  • Sarén, Tina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ramachandran, Mohanraj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Martikainen, Miika
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Yu, Di
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Insertion of the Type-I IFN Decoy Receptor B18R in a miRNA-Tagged Semliki Forest Virus Improves Oncolytic Capacity but Results in Neurotoxicity2017In: MOLECULAR THERAPY-ONCOLYTICS, ISSN 2372-7705, Vol. 7, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncolytic Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been suggested as a potential candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. However, the oncolytic capacity of SFV is restricted by the anti-viral type-I interferon (IFN) response. The aim of this study was to increase the oncolytic capacity of a microRNA target tagged SFV against glioblastoma by arming it with the Vaccinia-virus-encoded type-I IFN decoy receptor B18R (SFV4B18RmiRT) to neutralize type-I IFN response. Expression of B18R by SFV4B18RmiRT aided neutralization of IFN-b, which was shown by reduced STAT-1 phosphorylation and improved virus spread in plaque assays. B18R expression by SFV4 increased its oncolytic capacity in vitro against murine glioblastoma (CT-2A), regardless of the presence of exogenous IFN-b. Both SFV4B18RmiRT and SFV4miRT treatments controlled tumor growth in mice with syngeneic orthotopic gliomablastoma (CT-2A). However, treatment with SFV4B18RmiRT induced severe neurological symptoms in some mice because of virus replication in the healthy brain. Neither neurotoxicity nor virus replication in the brain was observed when SFV4miRT was administered. In summary, our results indicate that the oncolytic capacity of SFV4 was improved in vitro and in vivo by incorporation of B18R, but neurotoxicity of the virus was increased, possibly due to loss of microRNA targets.

  • Yacob Abraham, Getahun
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    von Brömssen, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst.
    Internationalisation in teacher education: student teachers’ reflections on experiences from a field study in South Africa2018In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, ISSN 2000-4508, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of higher education and teacher education has been a key issue since the 1990s and many universities still attempt to increase student mobility ever since. Much research has been done on the topic of internationalisation and higher education, including teacher education trying to show how a certain programme impacts on students’ learning, especially intercultural learning when it comes to programmes in teacher education. These studies are often directed towards programmes that last several months or a whole year. The focus of this study is rather to explore if and in what way experiences in a two-week field study can contribute to a student teacher’s intercultural learning and professional development. The findings of the research show that even a short field study has an important impact on the individual student teacher’s understanding of themselves and on awareness of teachers’ living and working conditions in a different culture like South Africa.

  • Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa.
    Wiemerslage, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Burch, K H
    Maiorana, S A
    Cocolas, E
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kamaloodien, K
    Stein, D J
    The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users2017In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, no 12, p. 1911-1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

    METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

    RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

    CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

  • Pisanu, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Cagliari Cagliari Italy.
    Preisig, Martin
    Castelao, Enrique
    Glaus, Jennifer
    Pistis, Giorgio
    Squassina, Alessio
    Del Zompo, Maria
    Merikangas, Kathleen R
    Waeber, Gérard
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A genetic risk score is differentially associated with migraine with and without aura2017In: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 136, no 8, p. 999-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence, subtypes and severity in a large population-based sample. The sample comprised 446 subjects with migraine and 2511 controls from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. Fifty-four SNPs earlier associated with migraine were selected. SNPs with a low impact on migraine prevalence in our sample were excluded using random forest. We combined the remaining 21 SNPs into a GRS and analyzed the association with migraine using logistic regression models. The GRS was significantly associated with migraine (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) and migraine without aura (MWOA) (OR = 2.01, p = 0.003), but not with migraine with aura (MWA). The GRS was not associated with migraine frequency, intensity or interference with daily activities. We show that a GRS combining multiple genetic risk variants is associated with MWOA but not MWA, suggesting a different genetic susceptibility background underlying the two forms of migraine.

  • Devine, Josefin
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Onomastics, Uppsala.
    Älgen – skogens konung i flera bemärkelser?2018In: Katharina och namnen: Vänskrift till Katharina Leibring på 60-årsdagen den 20 januari 2018 / [ed] Leila Mattfolk & Kristina Neumuller (huvudred.), Josefin Devine, Elin Pihl, Lennart Ryman & Annette C. Torensjö, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, p. 225-229Chapter in book (Other academic)