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  • Sadiek, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Mikkonen, Tommi
    Vainio, Markku
    Toivonen, Juha
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Optical frequency comb photoacoustic spectroscopy2018Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, nr 44, s. 27849-27855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first photoacoustic detection scheme using an optical frequency comb—optical frequency comb photoacoustic spectroscopy (OFC-PAS). OFC-PAS combines the broad spectral coverage and the high resolution of OFCs with the small sample volume of cantilever-enhanced PA detection. In OFC-PAS, a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is used to modulate the intensity of the exciting comb source at a frequency determined by its scanning speed. One of the FTS outputs is directed to the PA cell and the other is measured simultaneously with a photodiode and used to normalize the PA signal. The cantilever-enhanced PA detector operates in a non-resonant mode, enabling detection of a broadband frequency response. The broadband and the high-resolution capabilities of OFC-PAS are demonstrated by measuring the rovibrational spectra of the fundamental C–H stretch band of CH4, with no instrumental line shape distortions, at total pressures of 1000 mbar, 650 mbar, and 400 mbar. In this first demonstration, a spectral resolution two orders of magnitude better than previously reported with broadband PAS is obtained, limited by the pressure broadening. A limit of detection of 0.8 ppm of methane in N2 is accomplished in a single interferogram measurement (200 s measurement time, 1000 MHz spectral resolution, 1000 mbar total pressure) for an exciting power spectral density of 42 μW/cm−1. A normalized noise equivalent absorption of 8 × 10−10 W cm−1 Hz−1/2 is obtained, which is only a factor of three higher than the best reported with PAS based on continuous wave lasers. A wide dynamic range of up to four orders of magnitude and a very good linearity (limited by the Beer–Lambert law) over two orders of magnitude are realized. OFC-PAS extends the capability of optical sensors for multispecies trace gas analysis in small sample volumes with high resolution and selectivity.

  • Wicha, Sebastian G.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap. Univ Hamburg, Inst Pharm, Dept Clin Pharm, Hamburg, Germany.
    Clewe, Oskar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Svensson, Robin J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Gillespie, Stephen H.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Med, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Hu, Yanmin
    St Georges Univ London, Inst Infect & Immun, London, England.
    Coates, Anthony R. M.
    St Georges Univ London, Inst Infect & Immun, London, England.
    Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Forecasting Clinical Dose-Response From Preclinical Studies in Tuberculosis Research: Translational Predictions With Rifampicin2018Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 1208-1218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial step for accelerating tuberculosis drug development is bridging the gap between preclinical and clinical trials. In this study, we developed a preclinical model-informed translational approach to predict drug effects across preclinical systems and early clinical trials using the in vitro-based Multistate Tuberculosis Pharmacometric (MTP) model using rifampicin as an example. The MTP model predicted rifampicin biomarker response observed in 1) a hollow-fiber infection model, 2) a murine study to determine pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices, and 3) several clinical phase IIa early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies. In addition, we predicted rifampicin biomarker response at high doses of up to 50 mg/kg, leading to an increased median EBA(0-2 days) (90% prediction interval) of 0.513 log CFU/mL/day (0.310; 0.701) compared to the standard dose of 10 mg/kg of 0.181 log/CFU/mL/day (0.076; 0.483). These results suggest that the translational approach could assist in the selection of drugs and doses in early-phase clinical tuberculosis trials.

  • von Berens, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kirn, Dylan
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Laussen, Jonathan
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Nydahl, Margaretha
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Reid, Kieran
    Tufts Univ, Nutr Exercise Physiol & Sarcopenia Lab, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Travison, Thomas G.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA;Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Div Gerontol, Boston, MA 02215 USA;Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, MA USA.
    Zhu, Hao
    Hebrew SeniorLife, Inst Aging Res, Boston, MA USA.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Koochek, Afsaneh
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Effect of exercise and nutritional supplementation on health-related quality of life and mood in older adults: the VIVE2 randomized controlled trial2018Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, artikel-id 286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and absence of depressive symptoms are of great importance for older people, which may be achieved through lifestyle interventions, e.g., exercise and nutrition interventions. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program in combination with protein supplementation on HRQoL and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling, mobility-limited older adults. Methods: In the Vitality, Independence, and Vigor 2 Study (VIVE2), community-dwelling men and women with an average age of 77.55.4 years, some mobility limitations and low serum vitamin D levels (25(OH)Vit D 22.5-60 nmol/l) from two study sites (Stockholm, Sweden and Boston, USA) were randomized to receive a nutritional supplement or a placebo for 6 months. All took part in a physical activity program 2-3 times/week. The primary outcome examined in VIVE2 was 400 M walk capacity. HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36), consisting of the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS), and depressive symptoms were measured using The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In the sensitivity analyses, the sample was divided into sub-groups based on body measures and function (body mass index (BMI), appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), handgrip strength and gait speed). Results: For the whole sample, there was a significant improvement in both MCS, mean (95% CI) 2.68 (0.5, 4.9) (p 0.02), and CES-D -2.7 (-4.5, -0.9) (p 0.003) during the intervention, but no difference was detected between those who received the nutritional supplement and those who received the placebo. The results revealed no significant change in PCS or variation in effects across the sub-categories. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a six-month intervention using a physical activity program had positive effects on mental status. No additional effects from nutritional supplementation were detected.

  • Lindh, Mikaela
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk farmakogenomik och osteoporos. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallberg, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk farmakogenomik och osteoporos. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Yue, Qun-Ying
    Swedish Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadelius, Mia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk farmakogenomik och osteoporos. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Clinical factors predicting drug-induced liver injury due to flucloxacillin2018Ingår i: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, ISSN 1179-1365, E-ISSN 1179-1365, Vol. 10, s. 95-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious adverse reaction due to flucloxacillin. The pathogenesis is not fully understood. Female sex, age over 60 years, and a longer treatment duration have been suggested to be predisposing factors. Carriers of HLA-B*57:01 have an 80-fold increased risk, but due to the rarity of the reaction, testing of all patients is not cost-effective. We aimed to validate and detect clinical risk factors for flucloxacillin DILI.

    Methods: Clinical characteristics of flucloxacillin-treated patients with (n=50) and without DILI (n=2,330) were compared in a retrospective case control study. Cases were recruited from the Swedish database of spontaneously reported adverse drug reactions. Treated controls were selected from the Swedish Twin Registry. Statistical comparisons were made using chi-squared test and logistic regression. The significance threshold was set to P<0.00357 to correct for multiple comparisons. Reliable variables were tested in a multiple regression model.

    Results: DILI was associated with female sex, OR 2.79,95% CI 1.50-5.17, P=0.0011, and with a history of kidney stones, OR 5.51, 95% CI 2.21-13.72, P=0.0003. Cases were younger than controls, OR per increase in years 0.91,95% CI 0.88-0.94, P<0.0001, probably due to selection bias. No difference in treatment duration was detected, OR 1.03,95% CI 0.98-1.08, P=0.1790.

    Conclusion: We established female sex as a risk factor for flucloxacillin-induced DILI, and a history of kidney stones was identified as a potential risk factor. Clinical risk factors for flucloxacillin-induced DILI could be used to indicate whom to test for HLA-B*57:01 before treatment.

  • Zhang, Suping
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qian
    Quanzhou Med Coll, Dept Physiol, Quanzhou, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Xiaoxia
    Honghe Hlth Vocat Coll, Dept Basic Med Sci, Mengzi, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Shan
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Nan
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Qin
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Xiaoyun
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Tian, Jiong
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Lai, En Yin
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Kidney Dis Ctr, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Zhejiang Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Physiol, Sch Med, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Osthole Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Mice by Suppressing Fibroblast Activation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renal fibrosis is a common pathway of virtually all progressive kidney diseases. Osthole (OST, 7-Methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2-chromenone), a derivative of coumarin mainly found in plants of the Apiaceae family, has shown inhibitory effects on inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and tumor progression. The present study investigated whether OST mediates its effect via suppressing fibroblast activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in mice. Herein, we found that OST inhibited fibroblast activation in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1)-Smad pathway. OST also blocked fibroblast proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis and downregulating the expressions of proliferation- and cell cycle-related proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), CyclinD1 and p21 Waf1/Cip1. Meanwhile, in the murine model of renal interstitial fibrosis induced by UUO, myofibroblast activation with increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and proliferation were attenuated by OST treatment. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that OST repressed EMT with preserved E-cadherin and reduced Vimentin expression in obstructed kidney. UUO injury-induced upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors, Snail family transcriptional repressor-1(Snail 1) and Twist family basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factor (Twist) as well as elevated G2/M arrest of tubular epithelial cell, were rescued by OST treatment. Further, OST treatment reversed aberrant expression of TGF beta 1-Smad signaling pathway, increased level of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB (NF-kappa B) activation in kidneys with obstructive nephropathy. Taken together, these findings suggest that OST hinder renal fibrosis in UUO mouse mainly through inhibition of fibroblast activation and EMT.

  • Kaden, Rene
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Solna, Sweden.
    Rautelin, Hilpi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Which methods are appropriate for the detection of Staphylococcus argenteus and is it worthwhile to distinguish S. argenteus from S. aureus?2018Ingår i: Infection and Drug Resistance, ISSN 1178-6973, E-ISSN 1178-6973, Vol. 11, s. 2335-2344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To further analyze a clinical isolate originally identified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics.

    Materials and methods: Classical diagnostic methods such as cultivation, biochemical tests, and PCR were supplemented with whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics, to identify the isolate.

    Results: The isolate was phenotypically similar to MRSA. However, the presence of the nuc gene could not be confirmed using PCR, while it was positive for the mecA gene. Whole-genome sequencing correctly identified the isolate as Staphylococcus argenteus. The isolate possessed several resistance genes, such as mecA, blaZ (beta-lactam antibiotics) and dfrG (trimethoprim). The me gene differed from that of MRSA. Six phylogenetic distinct clusters were identified by average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of all available S. argenteus whole-genome sequences. Our isolate, RK308, clustered with those isolated in Europe and Asia.

    Conclusion: Due to the invasive potential, the multi-drug resistance and the similarity to MRSA, S. argenteus should be included in the MRSA screening. Due to the divergent genome compared to MRSA, new PCR approaches have to be developed to avoid an unnoticed spreading of S. argenteus.

  • Nyekel, Flavie Ngo
    et al.
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Pacreau, Emeline
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Benadda, Samira
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Msallam, Rasha
    Univ Paris 05, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Fac Med, Inst Necker Enfants Malad,INSERM,U1151,CNRS,UMR82, Paris, France;ASTAR, Singapore Immunol Network SIgN, Singapore, Singapore.
    Abrink, Magnus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, VHC, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Immunol Sect, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Davoust, Jean
    Univ Paris 05, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Fac Med, Inst Necker Enfants Malad,INSERM,U1151,CNRS,UMR82, Paris, France.
    Benhamou, Marc
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Charles, Nicolas
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Launay, Pierre
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Blank, Ulrich
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Gautier, Gregory
    INSERM, UMRS 1149, Paris, France;CNRS, ERL8252, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Lab Excellence INFLAMEX, Paris, France.
    Mast Cell Degranulation Exacerbates Skin Rejection by Enhancing Neutrophil Recruitment2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidences indicate an important role of tissue inflammatory responses by innate immune cells in allograft acceptance and survival. Here we investigated the role of mast cells (MC) in an acute male to female skin allograft rejection model using red MC and basophil (RMB) mice enabling conditional MC depletion. Kinetic analysis showed that MCs markedly accelerate skin rejection. They induced an early inflammatory response through degranulation and boosted local synthesis of KC, MIP-2, and TNF. This enhanced early neutrophil infiltration compared to a female-female graft-associated repair response. The uncontrolled neutrophil influx accelerated rejection as antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils delayed skin rejection. Administration of cromolyn, a MC stabilizer and to a lesser extent ketotifen, a histamine type I receptor antagonist, and absence of MCPT4 chymase also delayed graft rejection. Together our data indicate that mediators contained in secretory granules of MC promote an inflammatory response with enhanced neutrophil infiltration that accelerate graft rejection.

  • Iakunkov, Artem
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Sun, Jinhua
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Steenhaut, Timothy
    Hermans, Sophie
    Filinchuk, Yaroslav
    Talyzin, Alexandr
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Gravimetric tank method to evaluate material-enhanced hydrogen storage by physisorbing materials2018Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, nr 44, s. 27983-27991Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common methods to evaluate hydrogen sorption (volumetric and gravimetric) require significant experience and expensive equipment for providing reproducible results. Both methods allow one to measure excess uptake values which are used to calculate the total amount of hydrogen stored inside of a tank as required for applications. Here we propose an easy to use and inexpensive alternative approach which allows one to evaluate directly the weight of hydrogen inside a material-filled test tank. The weight of the same tank filled with compressed hydrogen in the absence of loaded material is used as a reference. We argue that the only parameter which is of importance for hydrogen storage applications is by how much the material improves the total weight of hydrogen inside of the given volume compared to compressed gas. This parameter which we propose to name Gain includes both volumetric and gravimetric characterization of the material; it can be determined directly without knowing the skeletal volume of the material or excess sorption. The feasibility of the Gravimetric Tank (GT) method was tested using several common carbon and Metal Organic Framework (MOF) materials. The best Gain value of ∼12% was found for the Cu-BTC MOF which means that the tank completely filled with this material stores a 12% higher amount of hydrogen compared to H2 gas at the same PTconditions. The advantages of the GT method are its inexpensive design, extremely simple procedures and direct results in terms of tank capacity as required for industrial applications. The GT method could be proposed as a standard check for verification of the high hydrogen storage capacity of new materials. The GT method is expected to provide even better accuracy for evaluation of a material's performance for storage of denser gases like e.g. CO2 and CH4.

  • Nilsson, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Hedberg, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Hosp Vastmanland, Dept Clin Physiol, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Basic Anthropometric Measures in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients and Individually Sex- and Age-Matched Controls from the General Population2018Ingår i: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, artikel-id 3839482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared weight, height, waist and hip circumferences (hip), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients and individually sex-and age-matched control subjects from the general population in the catchment area of the patients and predicted the risk of MI status by these basic anthropometric measures. The study cohort comprised 748 patients <= 80 years of age with acute MI from a major Swedish cardiac center and their individually sex- and age-matched controls. The analyses were stratified for sex and age (<= 65/>= 66 years). Risk of MI was assessed by conditional logistic regression. A narrow hip in men >66 years was the single strongest risk factor of MI among the anthropometric measures. The combination of hip and weight was particularly efficient in discriminating men >= 66 years with MI from their controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve = 0.82). In men <= 65 years, the best combination was hip, BMI, and height (AUROC = 0.79). In women >= 66 years, the best discriminatory model contained only waist-to-hip ratio (AUROC = 0.67), whereas in women <= 65 years, the best combination was hip and BMI (AUROC = 0.68). A narrow hip reasonably reflects small gluteal muscles. This finding might suggest an association between MI and sarcopenia, possibly related to deficiencies in physical activity and nutrition.

  • Eriksson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

    Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

    Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

  • Budd, Graham
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Mann, Richard P.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Math, Dept Stat, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
    History is written by the victors: The effect of the push of the past on the fossil record2018Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, nr 11, s. 2276-2291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Survivorship biases can generate remarkable apparent rate heterogeneities through time in otherwise homogeneous birth-death models of phylogenies. They are a potential explanation for many striking patterns seen in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. One such bias is the "push of the past": clades that survived a substantial length of time are likely to have experienced a high rate of early diversification. This creates the illusion of a secular rate slow-down through time that is, rather, a reversion to the mean. An extra effect increasing early rates of lineage generation is also seen in large clades. These biases are important but relatively neglected influences on many aspects of diversification patterns in the fossil record and elsewhere, such as diversification spikes after mass extinctions and at the origins of clades; they also influence rates of fossilization, changes in rates of phenotypic evolution and even molecular clocks. These inevitable features of surviving and/or large clades should thus not be generalized to the diversification process as a whole without additional study of small and extinct clades, and raise questions about many of the traditional explanations of the patterns seen in the fossil record.

  • Linder, Anna
    et al.
    Hagberg Thulin, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Damber, Jan-Erik
    Welen, Karin
    Analysis of regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2) expression and function during prostate cancer progression2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 17259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PC) represents the second highest cancer-related mortality among men and the call for biomarkers for early discrimination between aggressive and indolent forms is essential. Downregulation of Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) has been shown in PC, however the underlying mechanism has not been described. Aberrant RGS2 expression has also been reported for other carcinomas in association to both positive and negative prognosis. In this study, we assessed RGS2 expression during PC progression in terms of regulation and impact on tumour phenotype and evaluated its prognostic value. Our experimental data suggest that the RGS2 downregulation seen in early PC is caused by hypoxia. In line with the common indolent phenotype of a primary PC, knockdown of RGS2 induced epithelial features and impaired metastatic properties. However, increased STAT3, TWIST1 and decreased E-cadherin expression suggest priming for EMT. Additionally, improved tumour cell survival and increased BCL-2 expression linked decreased RGS2 levels to fundamental tumour advantages. In contrast, high RGS2 levels in advanced PC were correlated to poor patient survival and a positive metastatic status. This study describes novel roles for RGS2 during PC progression and suggests a prognostic potential discriminating between indolent and metastatic forms of PC.

  • Wang, Yunzhang
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Zhang, Qian
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Hedman, Åsa K
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiovasc Med Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almgren, Malin
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Catarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McRae, Allan F.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Marioni, Riccardo E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Morris, Tiffany
    UCL, Canc Inst, London, England.
    Beck, Stephan
    UCL, Canc Inst, London, England.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagg, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Epigenetic influences on aging: a longitudinal genome-wide methylation study in old Swedish twins2018Ingår i: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 975-987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation were observed in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal evidence is still limited. Here, we aimed to characterize longitudinal age-related methylation patterns using 1011 blood samples collected from 385 Swedish twins (age at entry: mean 69 and standard deviation 9.7, 73 monozygotic and 96 dizygotic pairs) up to five times (mean 2.6) over 20 years (mean 8.7). We identified 1316 age-associated methylation sites (P<1.3x10(-7)) using a longitudinal epigenome-wide association study design. We measured how estimated cellular compositions changed with age and how much they confounded the age effect. We validated the results in two independent longitudinal cohorts, where 118 CpGs were replicated in Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, 390 samples) (P<3.9x10(-5)), 594 in Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC, 3018 samples) (P<5.1x10(-5)) and 63 in both. Functional annotation of age-associated CpGs showed enrichment in CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and other transcription factor binding sites. We further investigated genetic influences on methylation and found no interaction between age and genetic effects in the 1316 age-associated CpGs. Moreover, in the same CpGs, methylation differences within twin pairs increased with 6.4% over 10 years, where monozygotic twins had smaller intra-pair differences than dizygotic twins. In conclusion, we show that age-related methylation changes persist in a longitudinal perspective, and are fairly stable across cohorts. The changes are under genetic influence, although this effect is independent of age. Moreover, methylation variability increase over time, especially in age-associated CpGs, indicating the increase of environmental contributions on DNA methylation with age.

  • Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Dairy intake revisited - associations between dairy intake and lifestyle related cardio-metabolic risk factors in a high milk consuming population2018Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, artikel-id 110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account.

    Methods: Respondents in the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses.

    Results: The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.

    Conclusions: Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.

  • Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gothemshammar: a late Bronze Age coastal rampart on Gotland2018Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 65-75Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a project aiming to use survey and excavation ofthe Gothemshammar rampart in a digital reconstruction to understand the site inits original landscape setting. Excavations uncovered internal construction detailsand dateable materials from domestic animals and charcoal. Fifteen AMS datesindicate that the rampart was built and used in the Late Bronze Age, c. 950–700 calAD.Its northern end is situated at a steep scarp towards the current sea shore, andthe southern end is in an open slightly sloping terrain, currently about a kilometrefrom the sea. LiDAR data and an up-to-date shoreline displacement model indicatethat the seashore was about 10 m higher when the rampart was built and used thanit is today. The landscape reconstruction shows that the rampart originally cut offa headland on an islet that was strategically located at the mouth of an inland watersystem.To further understand the site’s Bronze Age context we made a spatial analysisof features tied to the same time frame, including other monumental structures(stone ships, burial cairns, other ramparts/enclosures) and metalwork hoards. Itbecame evident that all kinds of monuments were mainly located close to the seashore on capes and islets. We could also see that the monuments, especially thestone ships, were mostly on the north shore of the ancient waterway and that itsentry/exit where Gothemshammar is situated served as an important control pointfor travel into Gotland as well as overseas.

  • Forsberg, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Zhang, Yingshuang
    Reiners, Johanna
    Ander, Martina
    Niedermayer, Alexandra
    Fang, Lubin
    Neugebauer, Hermann
    Kassubek, Jan
    Katona, Istvan
    Weis, Joachim
    Ludolph, Albert C.
    Del Tredici, Kelly
    Braak, Heiko
    Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz
    Endothelial damage, vascular bagging and remodeling of the microvascular bed in human microangiopathy with deep white matter lesions2018Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications, E-ISSN 2051-5960, Vol. 6, artikel-id 128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common manifestation of small vessel disease (SVD) in the elderly population. They are associated with an enhanced risk of developing gait abnormalities, poor executive function, dementia, and stroke with high mortality. Hypoperfusion and the resulting endothelial damage are thought to contribute to the development of WMLs. The focus of the present study was the analysis of the microvascular bed in SVD patients with deep WMLs (DWMLs) by using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Simultaneous visualization of collagen IV (COLL4)-positive membranes and the endothelial glycocalyx in thick sections allowed us to identify endothelial recession in different types of string vessels, and two new forms of small vessel/capillary pathology, which we called vascular bagging and ghost string vessels. Vascular bags were pouches and tubes that were attached to vessel walls and were formed by multiple layers of COLL4-positive membranes. Vascular bagging was most severe in the DWMLs of cases with pure SVD (no additional vascular brain injury, VBI). Quantification of vascular bagging, string vessels, and the density/size of CD68-positive cells further showed widespread pathological changes in the frontoparietal and/or temporal white matter in SVD, including pure SVD and SVD with VBI, as well as a significant effect of the covariate age. Plasma protein leakage into vascular bags and the white matter parenchyma pointed to endothelial damage and basement membrane permeability. Hypertrophic IBA1-positive microglial cells and CD68-positive macrophages were found in white matter areas covered with networks of ghost vessels in SVD, suggesting phagocytosis of remnants of string vessels. However, the overall vessel density was not altered in our SVD cohort, which might result from continuous replacement of vessels. Our findings support the view that SVD is a progressive and generalized disease process, in which endothelial damage and vascular bagging drive remodeling of the microvasculature.

  • Ahlberg, Sara
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Univ Helsinki, Dept Food & Environm Sci, POB 66, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Kiarie, Gideon
    Mt Kenya Univ, POB 342, Thika 01000, Kenya.
    Kirino, Yumi
    Univ Miyazaki, Dept Vet Sci, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya2018Ingår i: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM(1) consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM(1). Cancer risk caused by AFM(1) was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM(1) alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM(1) consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM(1) levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM(1) exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM(1) levels found in milk could contribute to an average of -0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM(1) from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM(1).

  • Ridefelt, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Hilsted, Linda
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Juul, Anders
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Growth & Reprod, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hellberg, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna.
    Rustad, Pal
    Furst Med Lab, Oslo, Norway.
    Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components: merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 365-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study.

    Methods: Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used.

    Results: Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles.

    Conclusion: The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  • DiBernardo, Allitia
    et al.
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Lin, Xiwu
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Zhang, Qiaoyi
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Xiang, Jim
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Lu, Lang
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Jamieson, Carol
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Benson, Carmela
    Janssen Sci Affairs LLC, Titusville, NJ USA.
    Lee, Kwan
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA.
    Bodén, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Ctr Pharmacoepidemiol Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandt, Lena
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Ctr Pharmacoepidemiol Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brenner, Philip
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Ctr Pharmacoepidemiol Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reutfors, Johan
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Ctr Pharmacoepidemiol Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Gang
    Janssen Res & Dev LLC, Titusville, NJ 08560 USA;Janssen R&D US, Real World Evidence Stat & Decis Sci, 920 US Highway 202 S, Raritan, NJ 08869 USA.
    Humanistic outcomes in treatment resistant depression: a secondary analysis of the STAR*D study2018Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 18, artikel-id 352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIn the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, a third of patients did not achieve remission or adequate response after two treatment trials, fulfilling requirements for treatment resistant depression (TRD). The present study is a secondary analysis of the STAR*D data conducted to compare the humanistic outcomes in patients with TRD and non-TRD MDD.MethodsPatients with major depressive disorder who entered level 3 of the STAR*D were included in the TRD group, while patients who responded to treatment and entered follow-up from level 1 or 2 were included in the non-TRD group. The first visit in level 1 was used for baseline assessments. The time-point of assessments for comparison was the first visit in level 3 for TRD patients (median day: 141), and the visit closest to 14160days from baseline for non-TRD patients. Outcomes were assessed by the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF12), 16-item Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale (WPAI). Scores were compared in a linear model with adjustment for covariates including age, gender, and depression severity measured by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS17) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS).ResultsA total of 2467 (TRD: 377; non-TRD: 2090) patients were studied. TRD patients were slightly older (mean age 44 vs 42years), had a higher proportion of men (49% vs 37%, p<.0001), and baseline depression severity (HDRS17: 24.4 vs 22.0, p<.0001) vs non-TRD patients. During follow-up, TRD patients had lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores on mental (30 vs 45.7) and physical components (47.7 vs 48.9) of the SF12, and lower Q-LES-Q scores (43.6 vs 63.7), greater functional and work impairments and productivity loss vs non-TRD patients (all p<0.05).Conclusion Patients with TRD had worse HRQOL, work productivity, and social functioning than the non-TRD patients.

  • Disputation: 2019-02-04 14:00 L1, Stockholm
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Trips2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous urban growth, environmental issues, competition for limited space, longer commuting distances as well as the need to promote equity and equality in society are the primary reasons that make the improvement of public transport (PT) services a key policy area in many countries across the globe. Travel satisfaction measures the perceived quality of the PT service and it is an important aspect that operators and PT authorities need to consider when improving the service offered.Desk research identified a number of important issues that previous studies had neglected. These knowledge gaps include the investigation of: (a) the evolution over time of the determinants (service attributes) of travel satisfaction, (b) the main determinants of travel satisfaction for different traveler segments and travel modes; (c) the most relevant part of door-to-door trips for different types of trip configurations; (d) the impact on the travel experience of weather, accessibility and proximity measures and built-environment characteristics of the first mile of the trip; (e) the [non]linear and [a]symmetric nature of the relationship between PT service attributes and overall travel satisfaction for different travelers and travel modes.The five papers included in this doctoral thesis present an array of approaches and methodologies aiming at increasing overall travel satisfaction with PT services while covering the knowledge gaps that previous research failed to address.Paper I, investigates the determinants of PT satisfaction and their evolution over time (2001-2013). The results show that: a) customer interface and operation, and at a lesser extent trip duration are the quality of service attributes that need to be prioritized; b) while satisfaction, in general, remains rather constant, relative importance fluctuates year after year. However, the QoSAs remain in the same quadrant of the priority map and thus the determinants of travel satisfaction stay invariable.Paper II, reduces the diversity of needs and priorities of Swedish travelers to 5 distinctive multi-modal travelers’ segments. Considering the importance attached to service attributes, these travelers’ segments exhibit geographical disparities and in between-groups overall similarity. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences can be observed. Service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent PT user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while one of the groups - rural motorist commuters - is markedly dissatisfied with the service operation attributes.Paper III, first aims to understand how travelers combine trip legs’ satisfactions into an overall evaluation of their trip, and then to investigate the relative importance of satisfaction with access, main and egress segments for the entire door-to-door travel experience. A number of both normative and heuristic satisfaction aggregation rules are tested for different types of trip configurations. The results show that normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules, indicating that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yield the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction, especially when applying a penalty for each waiting time of 3 or 4 times in- vehicle or walking time.Paper IV, investigates the impact that built-environment, accessibility and weather characteristics from the access stage of the trip have on the overall travel experience. This is done in two geographical contexts (urban and peri-urban and rural) and with models regarding the last and the overall trips. The results indicate that perceptual and non-perceptual built-environment variables have a rather weak effect in the overall satisfaction. Safety feelings around PT stations/stops have an effect on the overall travel experience while safety feelings related to travelers’ neighborhood of residence have none. Accessibility results indicate that living in an area that is well-connected to all other areas, and in particular to the attractive ones, has a positive impact on the overall travel experience. Most of the tested weather conditions at the time of the start of the trip exert an impact on travel satisfaction.Based on the three-factor theory, Paper V classifies quality of service attributes regarding their influence (positive, negative or both) on overall travel satisfaction. The analysis is done for different traveler segments and travel modes and presented in the form of a series of three-level cubes. For a general travel, attributes that can mainly bring dissatisfaction when they are not well-provided are, staff and assistance and ticket accessibility (basic factor). These are followed by attributes that can provide both satisfaction and dissatisfaction in a similar way and depending on their performance level (performance factor). Performance attributes are related to operational aspects (trip duration and operation) and safety perceptions while traveling. Quality of service attributes that can mainly bring satisfaction when they are well provided are network and on-board conditions (exciting factor). Important differences are found in the attribute factor classification between travel modes and segments which indicates that a “one size fits all” approach is not recommendable to adopt.This set of papers can help authorities to better evaluate and cater for travelers’ needs by supporting the allocation of resources and prioritizing policy measures in the most impactful part of the door-to-door trip and to the most important factors.

  • Rondung, Elisabet
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psycholgy, Campus Ostersund, S-83125 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Ternström, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning. Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nursing, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Haines, Helen M.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Rural Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psycholgy, Campus Ostersund, S-83125 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Johanna
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psycholgy, Campus Ostersund, S-83125 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Karlström, Annika
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nursing, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Larsson, Birgitta
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nursing, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Segeblad, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Baylis, Rebecca
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psycholgy, Campus Ostersund, S-83125 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning. Lund Univ, Fac Med, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Comparing Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Standard Care for Women With Fear of Birth: Randomized Controlled Trial2018Ingår i: JMIR MENTAL HEALTH, ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikel-id e10420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although many pregnant women report fear related to the approaching birth, no consensus exists on how fear of birth should be handled in clinical care.

    Objective: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy of a guided internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (guided ICBT) with standard care on the levels of fear of birth in a sample of pregnant women reporting fear of birth.

    Methods: This nonblinded, multicenter randomized controlled trial with a parallel design was conducted at three study centers (hospitals) in Sweden. Recruitment commenced at the ultrasound screening examination during gestational weeks 17-20. The therapist-guided ICBT intervention was inspired by the Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders and consisted of 8 treatment modules and 1 module for postpartum follow-up. The aim was to help participants observe and understand their fear of birth and find new ways of coping with difficult thoughts and emotions Standard care was offered in the three different study regions. The primary outcome was self-assessed levels of fear of birth, measured using the Fear of Birth Scale.

    Results: We included 258 pregnant women reporting clinically significant levels of fear of birth (guided ICBT group, 127; standard care group, 131). Of the 127 women randomized to the guided ICBT group, 103 (81%) commenced treatment, 60 (47%) moved on to the second module, and only 13 (10%) finished >= 4 modules. The levels of fear of birth did not differ between the intervention groups postintervention. At 1-year postpartum follow-up, participants in the guided ICBT group exhibited significantly lower levels of fear of birth (U=3674.00, z=-1.97, P=.049, Cohen d=0.28, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.57). Using the linear mixed models analysis, an overall decrease in the levels of fear of birth over time was found (P <= .001), along with a significant interaction between time and intervention, showing a larger reduction in fear of birth in the guided ICBT group over time (F-1,(192).(538) =4.96, P=.03).

    Conclusions: Fear of birth decreased over time in both intervention groups; while the decrease was slightly larger in the guided ICBT group, the main effect of time alone, regardless of treatment allocation, was most evident. Poor treatment adherence to guided ICBT implies low feasibility and acceptance of this treatment.

  • Thielecke, Marlene
    et al.
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
    Nordin, Per
    Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ngomi, Nicholas
    African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Feldmeier, Hermann
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
    Treatment of Tungiasis with dimeticone: a proof-of-principle study in rural Kenya2014Ingår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikel-id e3058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by an inflammatory response against penetrated female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans) embedded in the skin of the host. Although associated with debilitating acute and chronic morbidity, there is no proven effective drug treatment. By consequence patients attempt to remove embedded sand fleas with non-sterile sharp instruments, such as safety pins, a procedure that represents a health threat by itself. In this proof-of-principle study we compared the topical application of a mixture of two dimeticones of low viscosity (NYDA) to the topical application of a 0.05% solution of KMnO4 in 47 school children in an endemic area in rural Kenya. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed during a follow up period of seven days using viability signs of the embedded parasites, alterations in the natural development of lesion morphology and the degree of local inflammation as outcome measures. Seven days after treatment, in the dimeticone group 78% (95% CI 67-86%) of the parasites had lost all signs of viability as compared to 39% (95% CI 28-52%) in the KMnO4 group (p<0.001). In the dimeticone group 90% (95% CI 80-95%) of the penetrated sand fleas showed an abnormal development already after 5 days, compared to 53% (95% CI 40-66%; p<0.001) in the KMnO4 group. Seven days after treatment, signs of local skin inflammation had significantly decreased in the dimeticone group (p<0.001). This study identified the topical application of dimeticones of low viscosity (NYDA) as an effective means to kill embedded sand fleas. In view of the efficacy and safety of the topical treatment with dimeticone, the mechanical extraction of embedded sand fleas using hazardous instruments is no longer warranted.

  • Disputation: 2019-01-11 09:15 Fåhreussalen, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala
    Spyrou, Argyris
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Brain Tumor Development2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Malignant brain tumors are aggressive neoplasms that remain challenging to treat in spite of their detailed molecular characterization. Both adults and children may suffer from brain tumors, which, if not lethal, can cause severe long-term and devastating side effects. The exceptionally invasive behavior of tumor cells, causing infiltrative disease, is among the reasons why these brain tumors often remain fatal. This thesis focuses on a group of molecules of the brain tumor microenvironment, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), and their roles in development of malignant brain tumors. The extracellular matrix in the brain has a unique composition with abundant HSPGs, and the hypothesis was, therefore, that heparan sulfate (HS)-degrading and HS-biosynthetic enzymes may have an important role in glioma and pediatric brain tumors.

    In our first study, we describe the role of the HS degrading enzyme, heparanase (HPSE), in glioblastoma (GBM) development, as well as its clinical relevance. A series of mechanistic studies revealed the effect of HPSE on signaling pathway activation and its protumorigenic activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Next, we expanded our work to encompass HPSE in pediatric brain tumors by presenting evidence of high HPSE expression in human tumors, and in cells derived from patients. We showed that tumor cell growth and invasion were increased by HPSE, an effect that could be inhibited by pharmacological treatment against the enzyme, suggesting that HPSE could be a targetable molecule in these tumors.

    We further explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-tumorigenic properties of HPSE and in study III we describe a novel HPSE-CD24-L1CAM axis which was found to influence glioma tumorigenesis. Clinical data revealed a significantly shorter patient survival in HPSE-high/CD24-high tumors compared to CD24-low tumors, and experiments in mice showed that anti-CD24 and anti-L1CAM treatment inhibited tumor growth.

    In the fourth study, we investigated the dysregulation of the HS biosynthetic machinery and focused on N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1) in GBM development. We show overall low NDST1 expression levels across GBM patient samples, and patient-derived cell lines, and that low NDST1 levels correlate to poorer patient survival. Furthermore, altering the NDST1 expression had profound effects on GBM cell invasion, migration and stemness.

  • Nordin, Per
    et al.
    The Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poggensee, Gabriele
    Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Mtweve, Sabina
    Department of Community Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Krantz, Ingela
    The Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    From a weighing scale to a pole: a comparison of two different dosage strategies in mass treatment of Schistosomiasis haematobium2014Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, artikel-id 25351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical schistosomiasis in endemic countries is treated with a single dose of praziquantel per 40 mg/kg body weight. Treating according to weight, in resource-poor settings when thousands of doses are to be administered in mass treatment campaigns, is considered problematic. A calibrated dose-pole based on height was developed and is now used in mass treatment campaigns for determining the doses for schoolchildren. The dose-pole will generate dose errors since every child population contains individuals that are either short or tall for weight. The aim of this study is to explore whether the WHO praziquantel pole is a satisfactory dose instrument for mass treatment of S. haematobium.

    METHODS: In 1996 and 2002, 1,694 children were surveyed in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We compared doses given by weight to doses given by height using descriptive statistics and regression.

    CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATION: The WHO dose-pole for praziquantel is based on height of the patient; however, children with the same height will differ in weight. Our study shows that children with the same weight could qualify for up to four different dose levels based on their height. The largest variation of doses based on the WHO dose-pole will be found in children below 20 kg of bodyweight. Using bodyweight and tablet halves as the smallest tablet division unit to determine the doses of praziquantel, one only has to identify every 6th kilogram of bodyweight; the doses will then vary a lot less than when using the WHO dose-pole.

  • Procházka, Vladimir
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    The conformal anomaly in bCFT from momentum space perspective2018Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 10, artikel-id 170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the momentum space representation of energy-momentum tensor two-point functions on a space with a planar boundary in d = 3. We show that non-conservation of momentum in the direction perpendicular to the boundary allows for new phenomena compared to the boundary-less case. Namely we demonstrate how local contact terms arise when the correlators are expanded in the regime where parallel momentum is small compared to the perpendicular one, which corresponds to the near-boundary limit. By exploring two-derivative counterterms involving components of Riemann tensor we identify a finite, scheme-independent part of the two-point function. We then relate this component to the conformal anomaly c proportional to the boundary curvature . In the formalism of this paper c arises due to integrating out bulk modes coupled to the curved space, which generate local contributions the effective action at the boundary. To calculate the anomaly in specific (free-field) examples, we combine the method of images with Feynman diagrammatic techniques and propose a general methodology for perturbative computations of this type. The framework is tested by computing c on the explicit example of free scalar with mixed boundary conditions where we find agreement with the literature.

  • Vouzouneraki, Konstantina
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Endokrinologi och mineralmetabolism.
    Warn, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Patient Area Endocrinol & Nephrol Inflammat & Inf, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jenny Tiberg
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Endocrinol, Inst Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wik, Helena
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Endocrinol, Inst Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Christina
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ann-Sofie
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Malmo, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Malmo, Sweden.
    Alkebro, Caroline
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Div Diabetol & Endocrinol, Dept Med, Orebro, Sweden.
    Burman, Pia
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Malmo, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Malmo, Sweden.
    Erfurth, Eva-Marie
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Malmo, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Malmo, Sweden.
    Wahlberg, Jeanette
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Akerman, Anna-Karin
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Div Diabetol & Endocrinol, Dept Med, Orebro, Sweden.
    Hoybye, Charlotte
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Patient Area Endocrinol & Nephrol Inflammat & Inf, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ragnarsson, Oskar
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Endocrinol, Inst Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edén Engström, Britt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Endokrinologi och mineralmetabolism.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Temporal relationship of sleep apnea and acromegaly: a nationwide study2018Ingår i: Endocrine (Basingstoke), ISSN 1355-008X, E-ISSN 1559-0100, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 456-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of sleep apnea, but reported prevalence rates vary largely. Here we aimed to evaluate the sleep apnea prevalence in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly, to examine possible risk factors, and to assess the proportion of patients diagnosed with sleep apnea prior to acromegaly diagnosis.

    Methods: Cross-sectional multicenter study of 259 Swedish patients with acromegaly. At patients' follow-up visits at the endocrine outpatient clinics of all seven university hospitals in Sweden, questionnaires were completed to assess previous sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habits, anthropometric data, and S-IGF-1 levels. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients suspected to have undiagnosed sleep apnea were referred for sleep apnea investigations.

    Results: Of the 259 participants, 75 (29%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea before the study start. In 43 (57%) of these patients, sleep apnea had been diagnosed before the diagnosis of acromegaly. After clinical assessment and sleep studies, sleep apnea was diagnosed in an additional 20 patients, yielding a total sleep apnea prevalence of 37%. Higher sleep apnea risk was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and index finger circumference. Sleep apnea was more frequent among patients with S-IGF-1 levels in the highest quartile.

    Conclusion: Sleep apnea is common among patients with acromegaly, and is often diagnosed prior to their acromegaly diagnosis. These results support early screening for sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and awareness for acromegaly in patients with sleep apnea.

  • Ablikim, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Walter Ikegami
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Johansson, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Kupsc, Andrzej
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Li, Cui
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Papenbrock, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Pettersson, Joachim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Schönning, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Wolke, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Zou, J. H.
    Measurement of the Branching Fraction For the Semileptonic Decay D0(+) -> pi(-(0))mu(+)nu(mu )and Test of Lepton Flavor Universality2018Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, nr 17, artikel-id 171803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector operated at the BEPCII collider, we perform an analysis of the semileptonic decays D0(+) -> pi(-(0))mu(+)nu(mu ). The branching fractions of D-0 -> pi(-)mu(+)nu(mu), and D+ -> pi(0)mu(+)nu(mu ) are measured to be (0.272 +/- 0.008(start) +/- 0.006(syst))% and (0.350 +/- 0.011(star) +/- 0.010(syst))%, respectively, where the former is of much improved precision compared to previous results and the latter is determined for the first time. Using these results along with previous BESIII measurements of D0(+) -> pi(-(0))e(+)nu(e), we calculate the branching fraction ratios to be R-0 BD0 -> pi(-)mu(+)nu mu BD0 -> pi(-)e(+)nu e=0.922 +/- 0.030(start) +/- 0.022(syst) and R+ BD+ -> pi(0)mu(+)nu mu/BD+ -> pi(0)e(+)nu e= 0.964 +/- 0.037(start) +/- 0.026(syst), which arc compatible with the theoretical expectation of lepton flavor universality within 1.7 sigma and 0.5 sigma, respectively. We also examine the branching fraction ratios in different four-momentum transfer square regions, and find no significant deviations from the standard model predictions.

  • Kärvemo, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Meurling, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Effects of host species and environmental factors on the prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in northern Europe2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0199852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) poses a major threat to amphibian populations. To assist efforts to address such threats, we examined differences in Bd host infection prevalence among amphibian species and its relations to both local environmental factors in breeding habitats and landscape variables measured at three scales (500, 2000 and 5000 m radii) around breeding sites in southernmost Sweden. We sampled 947 anurans of six species in 31 ponds and assessed their infection status. We then examined correlations of infection prevalence with canopy cover, pond perimeter and pH (treated as local-scale pond characteristics), and the number of ponds, area of arable land, area of mature forest, number of resident people and presence of sea within the three radii (treated as landscape variables). The Bd infection prevalence was very low, 0.5-1.0%, in two of the six anuran species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria), and substantially higher (13-64%) in the other four (Bombina bombina, Bufotes variabilis, Epidalea calamita, Rana arvalis). In the latter four species Bd infection prevalence was positively associated with ponds' pH (site range: 5.3-8.1), and negatively associated with areas of mature forest and/or wetlands in the surroundings. Our results show that the infection dynamics of Bd are complex and associated with host species, local pond characteristics and several landscape variables at larger spatial scales. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with Bd infections and differences in species' susceptibility may help to counter further spread of the disease and guide conservation action plans, especially for the most threatened species.

  • Disputation: 2019-01-12 09:00 Hedstrandsalen, Uppsala
    Månsson, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Irreversible electroporation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a severe diagnosis with poor prognosis. Radical surgery is the only treatment that can possibly lead to a cure, and even with surgery, the 5-year survival is only 20%–25%. The majority of patients cannot be resected due to metastases or having a tumour that is too advanced locally (LAPC) with encasement of blood-vessels.

    Short electrical pulses can change the cell membrane, creating reversible pores in it. With a higher current, the pores become permanent, resulting in irreversible electroporation (IRE). This leads to specific cell death, with the chance to save surrounding scaffold material, such as the walls of blood vessels and bile ducts. This led to the theory that IRE might be suitable for treating LAPC.

    In Paper I, we found that IRE can be safely performed percutaneously with ultrasound guidance in humans with PC, with promising efficacy, since one of the five patients included was downstaged due to the IRE and could be surgically resected. In Paper II, which is an extension of Paper I, we treated 24 patients with LAPC (3 were also included in Paper I) who had received chemotherapy and, after IRE, stable disease was seen. Median overall survival was 17.9 months. Eleven patients had some form of complication, but we still concluded that IRE is reasonably safe in LAPC patients, with promising efficacy. In Paper III, we chose to treat LAPC with IRE followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. We compared the overall survival of our patients with those with LAPC in the National Quality Registry for Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer. No significant survival gain could be seen in the group that received IRE compared to the registry group (13.3 months versus 9.9 months, p=0.511). In the IRE group, there were six major complications and we found no support for using IRE in this setting. Paper IV examines the response on the tumour marker CA19-9 in PC treated with IRE. We found 35 patients suitable for this analysis. The hypothesis that IRE would lower the CA19-9 value could not be proven. In fact, the CA19-9 was slightly higher one month after IRE (282 U/ml versus 315 U/ml). However, the 25th percentile of patients with the best CA19-9 response had a better survival (p=0.01) compared to the 25th percentile with the worst response, indicating that CA19-9 can be used as a prognostic marker after IRE in PC.

  • Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.
    et al.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Niels Bohr Int Acad, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark;Niels Bohr Inst, Discovery Ctr, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Damgaard, Poul H.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Niels Bohr Int Acad, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark;Niels Bohr Inst, Discovery Ctr, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Festuccia, Guido
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Plante, Ludovic
    Minist Econ & Finances, Direct Gen Entreprises, F-94200 Ivry, France.
    Vanhove, Pierre
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA, Inst Phys Theor, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Nat Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow 123592, Russia.
    General Relativity from Scattering Amplitudes2018Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, nr 17, artikel-id 171601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weoutline the program to apply modern quantum field theory methods to calculate observables in classical general relativity through a truncation to classical terms of the multigraviton, two-body, on-shell scattering amplitudes between massive fields. Since only long-distance interactions corresponding to nonanalytic pieces need to be included, unitarity cuts provide substantial simplifications for both post-Newtonian and post-Minkowskian expansions. We illustrate this quantum field theoretic approach to classical general relativity by computing the interaction potentials to second order in the post-Newtonian expansion, as well as the scattering functions for two massive objects to second order in the post-Minkowskian expansion. We also derive an all-order exact result for gravitational light-by-light scattering.

  • Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

  • Liu, Peng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl Martin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Gao, Jiajia
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Molecular Engineering of D-pi-A Type of Blue-Colored Dyes for Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells through Co-Sensitization2018Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 42, s. 35946-35952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel blue-colored organic donor-pi-acceptor sensitizer, the so-called MKA16 dye, has been employed to construct solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). Using 2,2',7-,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine) 9,9'-spirobifuorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) as hole-transport material, a good conversion efficiency of 5.8% was recorded for cells based on the MKA16 dye and a high photovoltage of 840 mV in comparison with 5.6% efficiency using the known (Dyenamo Blue) dye. By co-sensitization using the orange-colored D35 dye and MKA16 together, the solid-state solar cells showed an excellent efficiency of 7.5%, with a high photocurrent of 12.41 mA cm(-2) and open-circuit voltage of 850 mV. The results show that the photocurrent of ssDSSCs can be significantly improved by co-sensitization mainly attributed to the wider light absorption range contributing to the photocurrent. In addition, results from photo-induced absorption spectroscopy show that the dye regeneration is efficient in co-sensitized solar cells. The current results possible routes of improving the design of aesthetic and highly efficient ssDSSCs.

  • Frisk, Gabriella
    et al.
    Ekberg, Sara
    Lidbrink, Elisabet
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Fredriksson, Irma
    Lambe, Mats
    Smedby, Karin E.
    No association between low-dose aspirin use and breast cancer outcomes overall: a Swedish population-based study2018Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 20, artikel-id 142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Results from previous studies indicate that use of low-dose aspirin may improve breast cancer prognosis. We evaluated aspirin use and breast cancer outcomes in relation to clinical characteristics as well as dose and duration of aspirin use.

    Methods: We used information from the Regional Breast Cancer Quality-of-Care Registries in three Swedish regions to identify 21,414 women diagnosed with a first stage I-III breast cancer between 1 April 2006 and 31 December 2012. The cohort was further linked to nationwide registers to retrieve information about dispensing low-dose aspirin before and after breast cancer diagnosis, comorbidity and causes of death. In a separate analysis, we investigated time to breast cancer death among 621 women with stage IV disease at diagnosis. Associations were evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.

    Results: Among women with stage I-III breast cancer, 2660 (12.4%) used low-dose aspirin shortly before breast cancer diagnosis and 4091 (19.1%) were users during follow-up. Women were followed for a median of 3.8years after diagnosis. There was no association between aspirin use and breast cancer-specific death in multivariable analyses (use before diagnosis: hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.12; use after diagnosis: HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74-1.37). Similarly, aspirin use was not associated with risk of first recurrence/metastases in a subgroup of stage I-III breast cancer patients (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.10). However, in analyses stratified by stage, an inverse association between low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis and breast cancer death was found for women with stage I tumors (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.96). Among women with stage IV disease at diagnosis, aspirin use was not associated with time to breast cancer death (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.23).

    Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study there was no evidence that low-dose aspirin use before or after breast cancer diagnosis is associated with a reduced risk of adverse outcomes overall in breast cancer. However, a potential benefit was noted among women with stage I tumors, warranting further investigation.

  • Iliadis, Stavros I
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Johansson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Women with prolonged nausea in pregnancy have increased risk for depressive symptoms postpartum2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 15796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this population-based, longitudinal study was to assess the association between nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and perinatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (N = 4239) undergoing routine ultrasound at gestational week (GW) 17 self-reported on NVP and were divided into those without nausea (G0), early (<= 17 GW) nausea without medication (G1), early nausea with medication (G2), and prolonged (>17 GW) nausea (G3). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at GW 17 and 32 (cut-off >= 13) and at six weeks postpartum (cut-off >= 12) was used to assess depressive symptoms. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms at GW 32 and at six weeks postpartum. NVP was experienced by 80.7%. The unadjusted logistic regression showed a positive association between all three nausea groups and depressive symptoms at all time-points. After adjustment, significant associations with postpartum depressive symptoms remained for G3, compared to G0 (aOR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.1-2.52). After excluding women with history of depression, only the G3 group was at higher odds for postpartum depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI 1.04-4.92). In conclusion, women with prolonged nausea have increased risk of depressive symptoms at six weeks postpartum, regardless of history of depression.

  • Beven, Keith
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England.
    Aspinall, Willy P.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Earth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Bates, Paul D.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Geog Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Borgomeo, Edoardo
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Oxford, England.
    Goda, Katsuichiro
    Univ Bristol, Dept Civil Engn, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Hall, Jim W.
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Oxford, England.
    Page, Trevor
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England.
    Phillips, Jeremy C.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Earth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Simpson, Michael
    Univ Oxford, Environm Change Inst, Oxford, England.
    Smith, Paul J.
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster, England;European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Reading, Berks, England.
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Univ Bristol, Dept Civil Engn, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Cabot Inst, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Watson, Matt
    Univ Bristol, Sch Earth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessment - Part 2: What should constitute good practice?2018Ingår i: Natural hazards and earth system sciences, ISSN 1561-8633, E-ISSN 1684-9981, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 2769-2783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Part 1 of this paper has discussed the uncertainties arising from gaps in knowledge or limited understanding of the processes involved in different natural hazard areas. Such deficits may include uncertainties about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions made, say, for risk management, so it is important to examine the sensitivity of such decisions to different feasible sets of assumptions, to communicate the meaning of associated uncertainty estimates, and to provide an audit trail for the analysis. A conceptual framework for good practice in dealing with epistemic uncertainties is outlined and the implications of applying the principles to natural hazard assessments are discussed. Six stages are recognized, with recommendations at each stage as follows: (1) framing the analysis, preferably with input from potential users; (2) evaluating the available data for epistemic uncertainties, especially when they might lead to inconsistencies; (3) eliciting information on sources of uncertainty from experts; (4) defining a workflow that will give reliable and accurate results; (5) assessing robustness to uncertainty, including the impact on any decisions that are dependent on the analysis; and (6) communicating the findings and meaning of the analysis to potential users, stakeholders, and decision makers. Visualizations are helpful in conveying the nature of the uncertainty outputs, while recognizing that the deeper epistemic uncertainties might not be readily amenable to visualizations.

  • Pardo-Perez, Judith M.
    et al.
    Staatliches Museum Nat Kunde Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany;Univ Magallanes, Vicerrectoria Invest & Postgrad, Punta Arenas, Chile.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Mallison, Heinrich
    Museum Natur Kunde Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gomez, Marcelo
    Univ Austral Chile, Fac Ciencias Vet, Escuela Med Vet, Valdivia, Chile.
    Moroni, Manuel
    Univ Austral Chile, Fac Ciencias Vet, Escuela Med Vet, Valdivia, Chile.
    Maxwell, Erin E.
    Staatliches Museum Nat Kunde Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Pathological survey on Temnodontosaurus from the Early Jurassic of southern Germany2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0204951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleopathologies document skeletal damage in extinct organisms and can be used to infer the causes of injury, as well as aspects of related biology, ecology and behavior. To date, few studies have been undertaken on Jurassic marine reptiles, while ichthyosaur pathologies in particular have never been systematically evaluated. Here we survey 41 specimens of the apex predator ichthyosaur Temnodontosaurus from the Early Jurassic of southern Germany in order to document the range and absolute frequency of pathologies observed in this taxon as a function of the number of specimens examined. According to our analysis, most observed pathologies in Temnodontosaurus are force-induced traumas with signs of healing, possibly inflicted during aggressive interactions with conspecifics. When the material is preserved, broken ribs are correlated in most of the cases with traumas elsewhere in the skeleton such as cranial injuries. The range of cranial pathologies in Temnodontosaurus is similar to those reported for extinct cetaceans and mosasaurs, which were interpreted as traces of aggressive encounters. Nevertheless, Temnodontosaurus differs from these other marine amniotes in the absence of pathologies in the vertebral column, consistent with the pattern previously documented in ichthyosaurs. We did not detect any instances of avascular necrosis in Temnodontosaurus from southern Germany, which may reflect a shallow diving life style. This study is intended to provide baseline data for the various types of observed pathologies in large ichthyosaurs occupying the 'apex predator' niche, and potentially clarifies aspects of species-specific behavior relative to other ichthyosaurs and marine amniotes.

  • Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew
    et al.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Ntaganira, Joseph
    Govender, Kaymarlin
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Quality of antenatal care services in Rwanda: assessing practices of health care providers2018Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, artikel-id 865Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although most pregnant women in Rwanda visit antenatal care (ANC) clinics, little has been studied about the quality of services being provided. We investigated the ANC providers' (HCPs) current practices in relation to prevention, management and referral of maternal conditions as well as the information provided to pregnant women attending ANC services in Rwanda.

    Methods: This facility-based, cross-sectional study included 312 ANC providers as participants and a review of 605 ANC medical records from 121 health centers. Data collection was performed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a structured observation checklist. For the analyses, descriptive statistics and bi-and multivariable logistic regression were used.

    Results: Nurses and midwives in ANC services failed to report a number of pregnancy-related conditions that would need urgent referral to a higher level of health care. Midwives did somewhat better than nurses in reporting these conditions. There was no statistically significant difference in how nurses and midwives informed pregnant women about pregnancy-related issues. Ever been trained in how to manage a pregnant woman exposed to violence was reported by 14% of the participants. In 12, 13 and 15% of the medical records there was no report on tetanus immunization, anthelmintic treatment and syphilis testing, respectively.

    Conclusion: The providers in ANC clinics reported suboptimal practices on conditions of pregnancy that needed urgent referral for adequate management. Information to pregnant women on danger signs of pregnancy, recommended medicines and tests do not seem to be consistently provided. Midwifery training in Rwanda should be expanded so that most of staff at ANC clinics are trained as midwives to help lower maternal and child mortality and morbidity.

  • Hoferichter, Martin
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Nucl Theory, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hoid, Bai-Long
    Univ Bonn, Helmholtz Inst Strahlen & Kernphys Theorie, D-53115 Bonn, Germany;Univ Bonn, Bethe Ctr Theoret Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Kubis, Bastian
    Univ Bonn, Helmholtz Inst Strahlen & Kernphys Theorie, D-53115 Bonn, Germany;Univ Bonn, Bethe Ctr Theoret Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Leupold, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Kärnfysik.
    Schneider, Sebastian P.
    Univ Bonn, Helmholtz Inst Strahlen & Kernphys Theorie, D-53115 Bonn, Germany;Univ Bonn, Bethe Ctr Theoret Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: pion pole2018Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 10, artikel-id 141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g - 2) is fully determined by the doubly-virtual pion transition form factor. Although this crucial input quantity is, in principle, directly accessible in experiment, a complete measurement covering all kinematic regions relevant for (g -2) is not realistic in the foreseeable future. Here, we report in detail on a reconstruction from available data, both space- and time-like, using a dispersive representation that accounts for all the low-lying singularities, reproduces the correct high- and low-energy limits, and proves convenient for the evaluation of the (g - 2) loop integral. We concentrate on the systematics of the fit to e(+)e(-) 3 data, which are key in constraining the isoscalar dependence, as well as the matching to the asymptotic limits. In particular, we provide a detailed account of the pion transition form factor at low energies in the time- and space-like region, including the error estimates underlying our final result for the pion-pole contribution, a(mu)(pi 0) (-pole) = 62.6(-2.5)(+3.0) x 10(-11),, and demonstrate how forthcoming singly-virtual measurements will further reduce its uncertainty.

  • Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stakeholders’ stake and relation to smartness in smart city development: Insights from a Swedish city planning project2018Ingår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 693-702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of today's city planning projects aim to realize smart city ambitions. In order to plan and build a smart city district, where ICT is integrated in critical infrastructure and used to control and govern city functions in innovative ways, new ways of working in city planning are needed. The purpose of this article is to develop a framework that takes into account stakeholders and smartness dimensions in city planning. We have studied a city district development in Sweden where a new planning approach was implemented. The developed framework was used to analyze the complexity of this city planning process. By defining which smartness dimension each stakeholder primarily focus on and analyzing the consequences of this, the framework pinpoints each stakeholder's contribution and/or hindrance to the process and outcome. A recommendation from this study is that new stakeholder groups are important to involve in smart city planning, but this also adds complexity that must be acknowledged when setting up this kind of projects. The developed framework can be useful when organizing and staffing city planning processes as well as when evaluating project outcomes.

  • Kristoffersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Diderichsen, Saima
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    To select or be selected - gendered experiences in clinical training affect medical students' specialty preferences2018Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 18, artikel-id 268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature investigating female and male medical students' differing career intentions is extensive. However, medical school experiences and their implications for professional identity formation and specialty choice have attracted less attention. In this study we explore the impact of medical school experiences on students' specialty preferences, investigate gender similarities and differences, and discuss how both might be related to gender segregation in specialty preference.

    Methods: In a questionnaire, 250 Swedish final-year medical students described experiences that made them interested and uninterested in a specialty. Utilizing a sequential mixed methods design, their responses were analyzed qualitatively to create categories that were compared quantitatively.

    Results: Similar proportions of women and men became interested in a specialty based on its knowledge area, patient characteristics, and potential for work-life balance. These aspects, however, often became secondary to whether they felt included or excluded in clinical settings. More women than men had been deterred by specialties with excluding, hostile, or sexist workplace climates (W = 44%, M = 16%). In contrast, more men had been discouraged by specialties' knowledge areas (W = 27%, M = 47%).

    Conclusions: Male and female undergraduates have similar incentives and concerns regarding their career. However, the prevalence of hostility and sexism in the learning environment discourages especially women from some specialties. To reduce gender segregation in specialty choice, energy should be directed towards counteracting hostile workplace climates that explain apparent stereotypical assumptions about career preferences of men and women.

  • Krickov, Ivan V.
    et al.
    Lim, Artem G.
    Manasypov, Rinat M.
    Loiko, Sergey V.
    Shirokova, Liudmila S.
    Kirpotin, Sergey N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Riverine particulate C and N generated at the permafrost thaw front: case study of western Siberian rivers across a 1700km latitudinal transect2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 22, s. 6867-6884Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to numerous studies on the dynamics of dissolved (< 0.45 mu m) elements in permafrost-affected highlatitude rivers, very little is known of the behavior of river suspended (> 0.45 mu m) matter (RSM) in these regions. In order to test the effect of climate, permafrost and physiogeographical landscape parameters (bogs, forest and lake coverage of the watershed) on RSM and particulate C, N and P concentrations in river water, we sampled 33 small and medium-sized rivers (10-100 000 km(2) watershed) along a 1700 km N-S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL). The concentrations of C and N in RSM decreased with the increase in river watershed size, illustrating (i) the importance of organic debris in small rivers which drain peatlands and (ii) the role of mineral matter from bank abrasion in larger rivers. The presence of lakes in the watershed increased C and N but decreased P concentrations in the RSM. The C V N ratio in the RSM reflected the source from the deep soil horizon rather than surface soil horizon, similar to that of other Arctic rivers. This suggests the export of peat and mineral particles through suprapermafrost flow occurring at the base of the active layer. There was a maximum of both particulate C and N concentrations and export fluxes at the beginning of permafrost appearance, in the sporadic and discontinuous zone (62-64 degrees N). This presumably reflected the organic matter mobilization from newly thawed organic horizons in soils at the active latitudinal thawing front. The results suggest that a northward shift of permafrost boundaries and an increase in active layer thickness may increase particulate C and N export by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean by a factor of 2, while P export may remain unchanged. In contrast, within a long-term climate warming scenario, the disappearance of permafrost in the north, the drainage of lakes and transformation of bogs to forest may decrease C and N concentrations in RSM by 2 to 3 times.

  • Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Biblioteket.
    BTH Newsletter on Science Publishing and Open Access Issues: December 20182018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Disputation: 2019-01-30 10:15 Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Linköping
    Jung, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inverse system identification with applications in predistortion2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are commonly used to simulate events and processes, and can be constructed from measured data using system identification. The common way is to model the system from input to output, but in this thesis we want to obtain the inverse of the system.

    Power amplifiers (PAs) used in communication devices can be nonlinear, and this causes interference in adjacent transmitting channels. A prefilter, called predistorter, can be used to invert the effects of the PA, such that the combination of predistorter and PA reconstructs an amplified version of the input signal. In this thesis, the predistortion problem has been investigated for outphasing power amplifiers, where the input signal is decomposed into two branches that are amplified separately by highly efficient nonlinear amplifiers and then recombined. We have formulated a model structure describing the imperfections in an outphasing \abbrPA and the matching ideal predistorter. The predistorter can be estimated from measured data in different ways. Here, the initially nonconvex optimization problem has been developed into a convex problem. The predistorters have been evaluated in measurements.

    The goal with the inverse models in this thesis is to use them in cascade with the systems to reconstruct the original input. It is shown that the problems of identifying a model of a preinverse and a postinverse are fundamentally different. It turns out that the true inverse is not necessarily the best one when noise is present, and that other models and structures can lead to better inversion results.

    To construct a predistorter (for a PA, for example), a model of the inverse is used, and different methods can be used for the estimation. One common method is to estimate a postinverse, and then using it as a preinverse, making it straightforward to try out different model structures. Another is to construct a model of the system and then use it to estimate a preinverse in a second step. This method identifies the inverse in the setup it will be used, but leads to a complicated optimization problem. A third option is to model the forward system and then invert it. This method can be understood using standard identification theory in contrast to the ones above, but the model is tuned for the forward system, not the inverse. Models obtained using the various methods capture different properties of the system, and a more detailed analysis of the methods is presented for linear time-invariant systems and linear approximations of block-oriented systems. The theory is also illustrated in examples.

    When a preinverse is used, the input to the system will be changed, and typically the input data will be different than the original input. This is why the estimation of preinverses is more complicated than for postinverses, and one set of experimental data is not enough. Here, we have shown that identifying a preinverse in series with the system in repeated experiments can improve the inversion performance.

  • Jarnkvist, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Fluid Positions and Changing Strategies: A Narrative Analysis of How Parents Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence Talk about Their Contact with Social Services2016Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many parents exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) encounter the childcare unit at Personal Social Services (PSS) in Sweden. This article explores how different ways of positioning in relation to the childcare unit, on one hand, and the other parent, on the other, may influence how parents exposed to IPV respond to interventions from the PSS organisation. The article draws on findings from qualitative interviews with 16 PSS clients who are or have been exposed to IPV and who have children with the abusive partner. Positioning Theory is used for the narrative analysis of the material. The narrative of one person is presented as an example of how narratives of IPV victims can be told. The study reveals that clients’ responses to different interventions might be the result of strategies for handling both the other parent and social services. Furthermore, over time, clients may change strategies in their contact with social services as a result of new ways of positioning in relation to social services and primary relations. An understanding of how primary relations, such as the relation to the other parent, may influence clients’ contacts with PSS and vice versa may improve the understanding of why clients act a certain way in relation to the organisation or why they suddenly seem to change their approach to interventions.

  • Zelleroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Toxic Impact of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Primary Rat Cortical Cell Cultures2019Ingår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 397, s. 172-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) among non-athletes is a public health-problem, as abusers underestimate the negative effects associated with these drugs. The present study investigated the toxic effects of testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, and trenbolone, and aimed to understand how AAS abuse affects the brain. Mixed cortical cultures from embryonic rats were grown in vitro for 7 days and thereafter treated with increasing concentrations of AASs for 24 h (single-dose) or 3 days (repeated exposure). Cells were co-treated with the androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist flutamide, to determine whether the potential adverse effects observed were mediated by the AR. Cellular toxicity was determined by measuring mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and caspase-3/7 activity. Nandrolone, unlike the other AASs studied, indicated an effect on mitochondrial activity after 24 h. Furthermore, single-dose exposure with testosterone, nandrolone and trenbolone increased LDH release, while no effect was detected with stanozolol. However, all of the four steroids negatively affected mitochondrial function and resulted in LDH release after repeated exposure. Testosterone, nandrolone, and trenbolone caused their toxic effects by induction of apoptosis, unlike stanozolol that seemed to induce necrosis. Flutamide almost completely prevented AAS-induced toxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function, cellular integrity, and inhibition of apoptosis. Overall, we found that supra-physiological concentrations of AASs induce cell death in mixed primary cortical cultures, but to different extents, and possibly through various mechanisms. The data presented herein suggest that the molecular interactions of the AASs with the AR are primarily responsible for the toxic outcomes observed.

  • Workshop on joint strategies for PFASs: Proceedings of an international workshop on per- and polyfluorinated substances held on 5-6 April 2017, at the Swedish Chemicals Agency, Sundbyberg, Sweden2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The “Nordic workshop on joint strategies for per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs)” was hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency in Stockholm, Sweden on 5-6 April, 2017.The aim of the workshop was to gather scientific and regulatory experts, identify common issues related to PFASs, recommend priorities and steps/strategies forwards and facilitate continued information exchange and cooperation. The workshop consisted of two sections: firstly providing an update on the current status of work on PFASs, including an update on the current activities and responsibilities of participating national agencies; and secondly identifying possible strategic ways to deal with PFASs and identifying issues.

  • Erman, Maria
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för tillämpad signalbehandling.
    Applications of Soft Computing Techniques for Wireless Communications2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Lidmo, Johannes
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    Bogason, Ágúst
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordregio.
    The Compact City of the North: – functions, challenges and planning strategies2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the characteristics and consequences of the compact city ideal in Nordic cities, and more specifically in their city centres, are investigated. The research was done in the form of a series of small case studies of city centre development, and they are presented thematically. They focus on public spaces and the threat from external shopping, densification as a planning strategy, new housing as a planning tool, and finally governance and actor collaboration. The Nordic region is dominated by small and medium sized cities, and we chose the following cities for our investigation of city centre challenges and planning strategies: Bodø (Norway), Kokkola (Finland), Mariehamn (Åland), Mosfellsbær (Iceland), Sorø (Denmark) and Västervik (Sweden).

    The cities were investigated through planning and policy documents, interviews and observations, and the work was guided by the following questions: What does “the compact city” mean in the investigated cities – and how is it operationalized? What are the main planning problems related to city centres, and what are the visions for the future in relation to these? What can we learn from different ways of approaching city centre development across the different Nordic countries? Two strong themes related to development in city centres, and to the commonly held view that the city core needs to be strengthened, regenerated or recreated, are competition from external shopping centres, and urban sprawl.

     These themes point to the challenges to the central city as the one and only centre. The examples from the Nordic region show that the competition from external shopping is very real, and that planning regulations do not always have the desired effect on the competition. This has led to a variety of responses – new central housing, new attractive spaces, new types of plans and new governance collaborations. In addition to their different approaches to competition from external shopping, cities employ diverse strategies to increase the critical mass of people who populate the city and its venues.

    This study was interested in what the city centre is, or should be, when it no longer has an obvious role. The investigations have led us to conclude that there is no essence to be found and it is instead important to understand the city centre as dynamic and constantly changing. In line with this, the importance of actor collaboration and flexible urban spaces are among the lessons learned from the study.

  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lessons from Facilitating Participatory Enterprise Modeling2018Ingår i: Enterprise Modeling and Information Systems Architectures, CEUR-WS.org , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Modeling (EM) has become a widespread activity in enterprises. Strategy development, business process mapping, requirements engineering, product development, enterprise architecture management, information system design are just a few examples of organizational activities that benefit from a model-based way of working and knowledge representation in the form of models. EM helps addressing organizational development from a number of perspectives, such, strategy (goals, challenges, opportunities, capabilities), business operations (processes, actors, resources), information (business concepts, products), information technology (requirements, components), etc. However, to develop efficient solutions and to ensure their fit in the organization all of these perspectives need to be analyzed in an integrated way. Furthermore, EM activities often require involving groups of people, i.e. the models are created in a participatory way. To be efficient, such participatory EM sessions need the support of dedicated persons who know how to organize a modeling project and modeling sessions, how to manage discussions during a modeling session, and what aspects influence the success and efficiency of modeling in practice. This talk will address a number of lessons learned from managing modeling projects and facilitating participatory EM sessions. More specifically, we will focus on the critical success aspects of the EM process, stereotypes of actor behavior in modeling sessions and modeling projects, as well as, patterns and anti-patterns of EM project management.

  • Disputation: 2018-12-20 09:00 ACAS: Hus A, Linköping
    Paulson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development at manufacturing companies2018Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to current consumption and production patterns of products, pressure on already constrained natural resources, an increasing global population, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reduced access to clean water globally, studying manufacturing companies’ inclusion of sustainability aspects in their product development becomes important.

    The aim of this thesis is to expand current knowledge on the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development at manufacturing companies. More specifically, the expansion of current knowledge covers how manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in product development, the challenges manufacturing companies may face when including sustainability aspects in product development, and the reasons for these challenges.

    To fulfil this aim, a literature study and a multiple case study were conducted at two international, listed, manufacturing companies in Sweden. Empirical data was collected using semi-structured interviews with two employees at each company and by analyzing the companies’ latest sustainability report.

    Empirical results include two context-dependent descriptions of how manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in product development, 21 challenges the companies face, and 14 reasons for those challenges.

    Conclusions include: (1) the role of conventional methods when including sustainability aspects in product development has been largely ignored in prior research; (2) a company’s product owner influences the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development, and in product requirements in particular; (3) the following three challenges are proposed incorporated in a comprehensive framework of challenges that has been developed in prior research:

    • Making suppliers fulfil the sustainability requirements that are placed on them.
    • Transforming sustainability aspects, or general goals, into measurable requirements that contribute to reduced environmental impact from products while at the same time contributing to competitive profit.
    • Identifying how to reach economic goals more efficiently with a more sustainable initiative or solution than other initiatives.