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  • Norberg Boysen, Gabriella
    Patientens tillit till den prehospitala vårdkedjan: Ändamålsenlig vårdnivå för patienter med primärvårdsbehov2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to investigate whether a new care-model can be introduced – in which patients with primary care needs and not in need of hospital emergency department care can be referred directly to a healthcare centre – and respond to the patient’s need of trust and patient safety.  

    Methods: The four sub studies employ different methods: three are quantitative with varying approaches and one is qualitative. Sub study I is a retrospective explorative register study aimed to identify characteristics and frequency. Sub study II is an instrument development study aimed to measure patient trust. Sub study III is a randomized controlled trial, which compared the level of patient trust and patient-safety among low-priority ambulance patients who were randomized into two groups: the experimental group (care at the healthcare centre) and the control group (traditional care at Emergency department). Finally, sub study IV is a hermeneutic lifeworld study based on interviews with patients who participated in the new care model.  

    Main results: Sixteen percent of the patients to whom an ambulance was allocated could have received care at a healthcare centre instead of an emergency department. They were slightly younger and healthier as regards their histories, but were found at all priority levels and with almost all symptom codes. Patient trust in care did not differ regardless of whether they were cared for at a healthcare centre or at the emergency department. However, 59 patients of 188 overall (31%) fulfilled one or more of the given criteria for potentially reduced patient safety. The phenomenon of trust does not automatically involve medical care. However, attention to the patient’s lifeworld in a professional caring relationship enables the patient to trust the caregiver and the healthcare environment. It is clear that the “voice of lifeworld” enables the patient to feel trust. 

    Conclusion: One in six patients allotted an ambulance may get taken to primary care instead of the hospital emergency department. These patients are found at all priority levels and in most of the symptom codes.  An instrument has been developed that measures patient trust in the prehospital chain of care (Study I). The instrument has proved to be useful in this patient group and is based on two dimensions: Credibility and Accessibility (Study II). Patients’ trust in the prehospital care chain proved to be high and bore no relation to where they received care. Patient safety, on the other hand, appeared to be limited in view of the fact that an excessive proportion of patients were exposed to potential patient safety risks (Study III). Communication that appeals to a patient's lifeworld increases the opportunities for understanding and participation. In all, lifeworld communication creates trust in care at the right level of care as well as in care relationships and the healthcare environment (Study IV). 

  • Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank
    et al.
    Kern-Nielsen, Kristina
    Implementering af MARPOL Annex VI i nordiske småsamfund2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordisk Ministerråds Småsamfundsgruppe har igangsat et for-projekt vedrørende implementering af IMOs aftaler om luftemissioner fra skibe - MARPOL Annex VI. Projektrapporten er baseret på indmelding af regulatorisk status på området for svovl, nitrogenoxider og ozonnedbrydende stoffer fra Island, Færøerne og Grønland, samt indsamling af information om erfaringer fra andre lande og organisationer. Der er endnu kun begrænsede erfaringer til rådighed fra andre småsamfund med denne komplicerede regulering. Der er peget på en række punkter med udfordringer, som netop småsamfund er stillet overfor, og hvor der er mulighed for assistance i form af risikoværktøjer og erfaring i det nordiske område. For-projektet er gennemført i januar-marts 2017.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-18 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Liu, Zhendong
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Spårfordon.
    Measures to Enhance the Dynamic Performanceof Railway Catenaries2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pantograph-catenary system is used in railways to transfer electric power from infrastructure to trainset. As the pantograph slides against the catenary, the contact between the two surfaces is not stable due to stiffness variation, propagating wave and other environmental perturbation, especially at high speeds or in multi-pantograph operation. Heavy oscillation can result in poor power-transmission quality, electromagnetic interference, severe wear or even structural damage. So the pantograph-catenary dynamics has become one of the key issues which limits the operational speed and determines the maintenance cost. There are many types of catenary systems in Sweden, which are relatively soft and sensitive compared with the systems in other countries. They work well at low operational speed and have strict limitations to multi-pantograph operation. It is possible to achieve an operational speed of 350 km/h on newly-built high-speed lines, but there is still a large demand for higher operational speed and more capacity on the existing lines.Many researchers and engineers have made progress to improve its dynamic performance. From the research aspect, many numerical models have been built up to demonstrate the dynamics of the pantograph-catenary system and to unveil the key influencing factors. There have been many applications developed in recent years. Regarding the catenary, high-tensile loads on the catenary and low-stiffness-variation designs are widely used to improve the dynamic performance. Regarding the pantograph, aerodynamic-friendly designs and active-control technique contribute to the development of high-speed pantograph. But all these methods need not only large investment but long out-of-service. Considering the large scale and heavy service duty of the existing lines, it becomes almost impossible to completely upgrade the existing pantograph-catenary systems. So it is necessary to find practical and efficient methods to exploit the potentials of the existing systems to enhance their dynamic performances.This thesis investigates the dynamic behaviour of the Swedish pantograph-catenary systems and proposes methods for better usage. A numerical study on multi-pantograph operation is performed and the relationships between dynamic performance and some key parameters is established. By studying the multi-pantograph operation at short spacing distance, a method to use the leading pantograph as auxiliary pantograph is proposed to increase the operational speed on the soft catenary system. To ensure operational safety in abnormal conditions, numerical studies on pantograph raising/lowering processes and in catenary overlap sections are performed. By studying the influence of the lumped-mass on the dynamic performance, it shows that it is even possible to implement some artificial tuned-masses on the catenary for dynamic optimization.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:15 4001, Uppsala
    Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Studying neutron-induced fission at IGISOL-4: From neutron source to yield measurements and model comparisons2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fission yields represent the probability of producing a certain nuclide in a fission event, and are important observables for fission research. For applications, accurate knowledge of the yields is fundamental at all stages of the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors, e.g., for reactivity calculations, or to estimate (spent) fuel inventory. Fission yields also help in the basic understanding of the fission process, for nucleosynthesis models, and for radioactive ion beam production.

    This thesis was developed in the framework of the AlFONS project, the objective of which was to measure neutron-induced fission yields of relevance for partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. The work is performed at the IGISOL-4 facility in JYFL (University of Jyväskylä).

    The first part of this thesis work is dedicated to the development and characterisation of a suitable 9Be(p(30MeV),nx) neutron source for IGISOL-4. The neutron energy spectrum and the neutron yield from a 5mm thick converter were studied with Monte Carlo simulations. Two characterisation campaigns that validated the MCNPX code were also performed. At the maximum current available from the cyclotron at JYFL, a total neutron yield between 2 and 5×1012 neutrons/(sr s) can be obtained. This satisfies the design goal for studies of fission yields.

    The neutron source was used in the measurement of fission yields from high-energy neutron-induced fission of natU at IGISOL-4, discussed in the second part of this thesis. The fission products were online-separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were identified using γ-spectroscopy. Data for the relative yields of tin and antimony, as well as isomeric yield ratios for five nuclides will be reported. The yields show trends not observed in the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, and only in part confirmed by the GEF model.

    The final part of this thesis concerns a study of the performance of different nuclear model codes, that aim at describing the states of the fission fragments right after scission. Reproduction of experimental data serves to benchmark the models and it indicates, to some extent, how reliably the results can be extrapolated to regions where no data exist.

    A methodology to compare and test these models has been developed, which was implemented in the DEℓFIN code. DEℓFIN takes the excited fission fragments, defined by the model under test, and de-excites them in a standardised way using the nuclear model code TALYS. Eliminating any variability in the way the final observables are extracted helps focusing on each model's assumptions. DEℓFIN was tested on five models, and interesting features in the prompt neutron multiplicity were found for some of them. This study will promote a better understanding of the ideas used in the development of fission models.

  • Sandlund, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Pohl, Petra
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Gender perspectives on views and preferences of older people on exercise to prevent falls: a systematic mixed studies review2017Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, 58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To offer fall prevention exercise programs that attract older people of both sexes there is a need to understand both women's and men's views and preferences regarding these programs. This paper aims to systematically review the literature to explore any underlying gender perspectives or gender interpretations on older people's views or preferences regarding uptake and adherence to exercise to prevent falls. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out using a convergent qualitative design based on systematic searches of seven electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Amed, PsycINFO, Scopus, PEDro, and OTseeker). Two investigators identified eligible studies. Each included article was read by at least two authors independently to extract data into tables. Views and preferences reported were coded and summarized in themes of facilitators and barriers using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Nine hundred and nine unique studies were identified. Twenty five studies met the criteria for inclusion. Only five of these contained a gender analysis of men's and women's views on fall prevention exercises. The results suggests that both women and men see women as more receptive to and in more need of fall prevention messages. The synthesis from all 25 studies identified six themes illustrating facilitators and six themes describing barriers for older people either starting or adhering to fall prevention exercise. The facilitators were: support from professionals or family; social interaction; perceived benefits; a supportive exercise context; feelings of commitment; and having fun. Barriers were: practical issues; concerns about exercise; unawareness; reduced health status; lack of support; and lack of interest. Considerably more women than men were included in the studies. Conclusion: Although there is plenty of information on the facilitators and barriers to falls prevention exercise in older people, there is a distinct lack of studies investigating differences or similarities in older women's and men's views regarding fall prevention exercise. In order to ensure that fall prevention exercise is appealing to both sexes and that the inclusion of both men and women are encouraged, more research is needed to find out whether gender differences exists and whether practitioners need to offer a range of opportunities and support strategies to attract both women and men to falls prevention exercise.

  • TekniskUnd informerar 2010:62010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2010:52010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Tekniskund informerar 2010:42010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2010:32010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2010:22010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2010:12010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:62011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:52011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:42011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:32011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:2Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2011:1Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Disputation: 2017-10-12 13:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Adamaki, Angeliki
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Seismicity Analyses Using Dense Network Data: Catalogue Statistics and Possible Foreshocks Investigated Using Empirical and Synthetic Data2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Precursors related to seismicity patterns are probably the most promising phenomena for short-term earthquake forecasting, although it remains unclear if such forecasting is possible. Foreshock activity has often been recorded but its possible use as indicator of coming larger events is still debated due to the limited number of unambiguously observed foreshocks. Seismicity data which is inadequate in volume or character might be one of the reasons foreshocks cannot easily be identified. One method used to investigate the possible presence of generic seismicity behavior preceding larger events is the aggregation of seismicity series. Sequences preceding mainshocks chosen from empirical data are superimposed, revealing an increasing average seismicity rate prior to the mainshocks. Such an increase could result from the tendency of seismicity to cluster in space and time, thus the observed patterns could be of limited predictive value. Randomized tests using the empirical catalogues imply that the observed increasing rate is statistically significant compared to an increase due to simple clustering, indicating the existence of genuine foreshocks, somehow mechanically related to their mainshocks. If network sensitivity increases, the identification of foreshocks as such may improve. The possibility of improved identification of foreshock sequences is tested using synthetic data, produced with specific assumptions about the earthquake process. Complications related to background activity and aftershock production are investigated numerically, in generalized cases and in data-based scenarios. Catalogues including smaller, and thereby more, earthquakes can probably contribute to better understanding the earthquake processes and to the future of earthquake forecasting. An important aspect in such seismicity studies is the correct estimation of the empirical catalogue properties, including the magnitude of completeness (Mc) and the b-value. The potential influence of errors in the reported magnitudes in an earthquake catalogue on the estimation of Mc and b-value is investigated using synthetic magnitude catalogues, contaminated with Gaussian error. The effectiveness of different algorithms for Mc and b-value estimation are discussed. The sample size and the error level seem to affect the estimation of b-value, with implications for the reliability of the assessment of the future rate of large events and thus of seismic hazard.

  • Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Andrich, David
    The University of Western Australia.
    Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model2017Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 15, 1-8 s., 181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rasch analysis with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is increasingly used for examination of psychometric properties of health outcome measures. To take account of DIF in order to retain precision of measurement, split of DIF-items into separate sample specific items has become a frequently used technique. The purpose of the paper is to present and summarise recent advances of analysis of DIF in a unified methodology. In particular, the paper focuses on the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method to simultaneously detect uniform and non-uniform DIF, the need to distinguish between real and artificial DIF and the trade-off between reliability and validity. An illustrative example from health research is used to demonstrate how DIF, in this case between genders, can be identified, quantified and under specific circumstances accounted for using the Rasch model.

    Methods: Rasch analyses of DIF were conducted of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems using Swedish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study for grade 9 students collected during the 1985–2014 time periods.

    Results: The procedures demonstrate how DIF can be identified efficiently by ANOVA of residuals, and how the magnitude of DIF can be quantified and potentially accounted for by resolving items according to identifiable groups and using principles of test equating on the resolved items. The results of the analysis also show that the real DIF in some items does affect person measurement estimates.

    Conclusions: Firstly, in order to distinguish between real and artificial DIF, the items showing DIF initially should not be resolved simultaneously but sequentially. Secondly, while resolving instead of deleting a DIF item may retain reliability, both options may affect the content validity negatively. Resolving items with DIF is not justified if the source of the DIF is relevant for the content of the variable; then resolving DIF may deteriorate the validity of the instrument. Generally, decisions on resolving items to deal with DIF should also rely on external information.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 10:00 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Esfandiarfard, Keyhan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik. Uppsala University.
    Novel Organophosphorus Compounds for Materials and Organic Synthesis2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to the development of new organophosphorus compounds for potential uses in material science and as reagents in Organic Chemistry. Organophosphorus compounds in a single molecule or organic electronics context are appealing as the phosphorous centers perturb the electronic properties of the π-conjugated systems while at the same time provide synthetic handles for subsequent synthetic modifications. As such, new synthetic methodology to such compounds and the exploration of new building blocks is of considerable interest. In a different study, novel organophosphorus compounds are synthesized and shown to promote a reaction in Organic Chemistry that has previously not been possible, i.e. the stereoselective reductive coupling of aldehydes to alkenes. Such developments enlarge the toolkit of reactions that are available to Organic Chemists, and may impact the synthetic routes to pharmaceuticals and other important commodity chemicals.

    A general introduction of the key structural unit of this thesis, phosphaalkenes, is given in the first chapter. The synthesis, reactivity, properties and applications of these P=C double bond containing compounds are highlighted. The Wittig reaction and its variations as well as the phosphorus analogues that produce phosphaalkenes are outlined in detail.

    The second chapter is dedicated to the synthesis of a precursor that is used for the preparation of novel π-conjugated, organophosphorus compounds. C,C-Dibromophosphaalkenes are prepared and the halide substituents are used for the selective introduction of acetylene units. Besides the phosphaalkenes, the successful syntheses of two new diphosphenes is presented, indicating a broad applicability of the precursors.

    The third chapter is dedicated to the isolation of a metal-free phosphanylphosphonate that transforms aldehydes quantitatively to their corresponding E-phosphaalkenes in a transition metal-free phospha-HWE (Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons) reaction. The reaction benefits from mild conditions, high E-stereoselectivity, and a broad substrate scope.

    In the last chapter, a novel method for the reductive coupling of aldehydes to olefins is introduced. The reaction, which is a vast improvement over the McMurry coupling, allows for the selective synthesis of symmetrical and most importantly unsymmetrical E-alkenes. The phosphanylphosphonate mentioned above is the reagent that facilitates the coupling of the aldehydes via a phosphaalkene intermediate. This one-pot reaction benefits from mild conditions, good conversions, and high E-stereoselectivity.

    In summary, the thesis presents novel aspects of organophosphorus chemistry. These include the preparations and exploration of interesting precursors for the construction of π-conjugated organophosphorus compounds, and the use of organophosphorus reagents for unprecedented transformations in Organic Chemistry.

  • Wibroe, Morten
    et al.
    Rigshosp, Dept Neurosurg, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cappelen, Johan
    St Olavs Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Trondheim, Norway..
    Castor, Charlotte
    Lund Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Clausen, Niels
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Grillner, Pernilla
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gudrunardottir, Thora
    Posterior Fossa Soc Https Www Posteriorfossa Org, Stockholm, Sweden.;North Zealand Hosp, Dept Oncol & Palliat, Hillerod, Denmark..
    Gupta, Ramneek
    Tech Univ Denmark, Ctr Biol Sequence Anal, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heyman, Mats
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holm, Stefan
    Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karppinen, Atte
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Helsinki, Finland..
    Klausen, Camilla
    Rigshosp, Univ Hosp Copenhagen, Dept Neuroradiol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lönnqvist, Tuula
    Univ Helsinki, Cent Hosp, Dept Child Neurol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mathiasen, Rene
    Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Nysom, Karsten
    Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Persson, Karin
    Child & Youth Rehabil Ctr, Habilitat & Tech Aid, Lund, Sweden..
    Rask, Olof
    Lund Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Schmiegelow, Kjeld
    Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Inst Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Langone, Med Ctr, Perlmutter Canc Ctr, Div Pediat Hematol Oncol, New York, NY USA..
    Sehested, Astrid
    Rigshosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Thomassen, Harald
    St Olavs Hosp, Dept Pediat, Trondheim, Norway..
    Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid
    Lund Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Zetterqvist, Barbara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Intervent & Tech, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Juhler, Marianne
    Rigshosp, Dept Neurosurg, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Inst Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa2017Ingår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, 439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined.

    Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles.

    Discussion: Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions, and 4) the role of host genome variants, we aim to achieve a better understanding of risk factors for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition.

  • Safdari, Majid
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Phuyal, Dibya
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Svensson, Per H.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;SP Proc Dev, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Butorin, Sergei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Kvashnina, Kristina O.
    ESRF European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043 Grenoble 9, France.;Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Inst Resource Ecol, D-01314 Dresden, Germany..
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gardner, James M.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Impact of synthetic routes on the structural and physical properties of butyl-1,4-diammonium lead iodide semiconductors2017Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, nr 23, 11730-11738 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the significant role of synthetic routes and the importance of solvents in the synthesis of organic-inorganic lead iodide materials. Through one route, the intercalation of dimethylformamide in the crystal structure was observed leading to a one-dimensional (1D) [NH3(CH2)(4)NH3]Pb2I6 structure of the product. This product was compared with the two-dimensional (2D) [NH3(CH2)(4)NH3]PbI4 recovered from aqueous solvent based synthesis with the same precursors. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy showed a red-shift of 0.1 eV for the band gap of the 1D network in relation to the 2D system. This shift primarily originates from a shift in the valence band edge as determined from photoelectron-and X-ray spectroscopy results. These findings also suggest the iodide 5p orbital as the principal component in the density of states in the valence band edge. Single crystal data show a change in the local coordination around iodide, while in both materials, lead atoms are surrounded by iodide atoms in octahedral units. The conductivity of the one-dimensional material ([NH3(CH2)(4)NH3]Pb2I6) was 50% of the two-d(i)mensional material ([NH3(CH2)(4)NH3]PbI4). The fabricated solar cells reflect these changes in the chemical and electronic structure of both materials, although the total light conversion efficiencies of solar cells based on both products were similar.

  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:62012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:52012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:42012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:32012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:22012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2012:12012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2013:62013Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2013:52013Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2013:42013Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2013:22013Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2013:1Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Germany / Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional interplay in the Baltic Sea Region2017Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the use of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Based on selected criteria for EAM, the article traces and compares the impact of EAM on HELCOM’s Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSPD). Starting from the assumption that institutional interplay determines the impact of the EAM on marine policies, the article examines how different forms of interplay (interplay through cognition, commitment and compliance) affect the spread of EAM and its implementation in the BSR. The study finds strong interplay between HELCOM’s BSAP and the EU’s MSFD. Although HELCOM is still an important player in marine governance in the BSR, since it includes Russia, taking over responsibilities for the implementation of EU legislation has repercussions and affects its independence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

  • Raclariu, Ancuta C.
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Plant Evolut & Metabarcoding Grp, Oslo, Norway.;Natl Inst Res & Dev Biol Sci NIRDBS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Mocan, Andrei
    Iuliu Hatieganu Univ Med & Pharm, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Bot, Cluj Napoca, Romania.;Univ Agr Sci & Vet Med Cluj Napoca, ICHAT, Cluj Napoca, Romania.;Univ Agr Sci & Vet Med Cluj Napoca, Inst Life Sci, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Popa, Madalina O.
    Natl Inst Res & Dev Biol Sci NIRDBS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Vlase, Laurian
    Univ Oslo, CEES, Dept Biosci, Oslo, Norway..
    Ichim, Mihael C.
    Natl Inst Res & Dev Biol Sci NIRDBS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Crisan, Gianina
    Iuliu Hatieganu Univ Med & Pharm, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Bot, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Brysting, Anne K.
    CEES, Dept Biosci, Oslo, Norway..
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Plant Evolut & Metabarcoding Grp, Oslo, Norway.
    Veronica officinalis Product Authentication Using DNA Metabarcoding and HPLC-MS Reveals Widespread Adulteration with Veronica chamaedrys2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Pharmacology, ISSN 1663-9812, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 8, 378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying herbal products derived from local and traditional knowledge and their value chains is one of the main challenges in ethnopharmacology. The majority of these products have a long history of use, but non-harmonized trade and differences in regulatory policies between countries impact their value chains and lead to concerns over product efficacy, safety and quality. Veronica officinalis L. (common speedwell), a member of Plantaginaceae family, has a long history of use in European traditional medicine, mainly in central eastern Europe and the Balkans. However, no specified control tests are available either to establish the quality of derived herbal products or for the discrimination of its most common substitute, V. chamaedrys L. (germander speedwell). In this study, we use DNA metabarcoding and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to authenticate sixteen V. officinalis herbal products and compare the potential of the two approaches to detect substitution, adulteration and the use of unreported constituents. HPLC-MS showed high resolution in detecting phytochemical target compounds, but did not enable detection of specific plant species in the products. DNA metabarcoding detected V. officinalis in only 15% of the products, whereas it detected V. chamaedrys in 62% of the products. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Veronica species, and detect substitution and/or admixture of other Veronica species, as well as simultaneously detect all other species present. Our results confirm that none of the herbal products contained exactly the species listed on the label, and all included substitutes, contaminants or fillers. This study highlights the need for authentication of raw herbals along the value chain of these products. An integrative methodology can assess both the quality of herbal products in terms of target compound concentrations and species composition, as well as admixture and substitution with other chemical compounds and plants.

  • Suikkanen, Johanna
    et al.
    Nissinen, Ari
    Circular Economy and the Nordic Swan Ecolabel: An Analysis of Circularity in the Product-Group-Specific Environmental Criteria2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to Circular Economy necessitates right incentives for choosing products and services with lower environmental impacts, in the form of price signals and sufficient environmental information. An ecolabel indicates that the product is, environmentally speaking, among the best products available on the market and thus has the role to steer stepwise developments towards sustainability. The Swan criteria promote quality products with requirements on durability and the use of secondary raw materials. To further align the criteria with Circular Economy, future criteria development might focus more on aspects including upgradability, reparability, multi-functionality, component reuse and innovative forms of consumption and production. This report was prepared as part of a Nordic project, and the results could be useful in the development of the Nordic Ecolabel in the future.

  • Malmström, Rickard E.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Sweden.
    Godman, Brian B.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden; University of Liverpool, England; University of Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Diogene, Eduard
    Catalan Institute Heatlh, Spain.
    Baumgartel, Christoph
    Austrian Medical and Medical Dev Agency, Austria.
    Bennie, Marion
    University of Strathclyde, Scotland; NHS National Serv Scotland, Scotland.
    Bishop, Iain
    NHS National Serv Scotland, Scotland.
    Brzezinska, Anna
    Agency Health Technology Assessment, Poland.
    Bucsics, Anna
    Hauptverband Osterreichischen Sozialversicherung, Austria.
    Campbell, Stephen
    University of Manchester, England.
    Ferrario, Alessandra
    LSEHealth, England.
    Finlayson, Alexander E.
    Weston Educat Centre, England.
    Furst, Jurij
    Health Insurance Institute, Slovenia.
    Garuoliene, Kristina
    National Health Insurance Fund, Lithuania.
    Gomes, Miguel
    Institute Nacl Farmacia and Med, Portugal.
    Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Inaki
    Ministry Health Basque Country, Spain.
    Haycox, Alan
    University of Liverpool, England.
    Hviding, Krystyna
    Norwegian Medical Agency, Norway.
    Herholz, Harald
    Kassenarztliche Vereinigung Hessen, Germany.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jan, Saira
    Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield New Jersey, NJ USA.
    Jones, Jan
    NHS Tayside, Scotland.
    Joppi, Roberta
    Local Health Unit Verona, Italy.
    Kalaba, Marija
    Republ Institute Health Insurance, Serbia.
    Kvalheim, Christina
    Norwegian Medical Agency, Norway.
    Laius, Ott
    State Agency Med, Estonia.
    Langner, Irene
    Wissenschaftliches Institute AOK, Germany.
    Lonsdale, Julie
    Lancashire Commissioning Support Unit, England.
    Lööv, Sven-Åke
    Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Malinowska, Kamila
    HTA Consulting, Poland; Medical Centre Postgrad Educat, Poland.
    McCullagh, Laura
    St James Hospital, Ireland.
    Paterson, Ken
    Scottish Medical Consortium, Scotland.
    Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda
    University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herceg; Ministry Health and Social Welfare, Bosnia and Herceg.
    Martin, Andrew
    NHS Bury, England.
    Piessnegger, Jutta
    Hauptverband Osterreichischen Sozialversicherung, Austria.
    Selke, Gisbert
    State Agency Med, Estonia.
    Sermet, Catherine
    Institute Rech and Documentat Econ St, France.
    Simoens, Steven
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Tulunay, Cankat
    President Turkish Rational Drug Use Platform, Turkey.
    Tomek, Dominik
    Comenius University, Slovakia; Slovak Medical University, Slovakia.
    Voncina, Luka
    Minist Heatlh, Croatia.
    Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera
    University Hospital Rijeka, Croatia.
    Wale, Janet
    Independent Consumer Advocate, Australia.
    Wilcock, Michael
    Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, England.
    Wladysiuk, Magdalena
    HTA Consulting, Poland.
    van Woerkom, Menno
    Dutch Institute Rational Use Med, Netherlands.
    Zara, Corrine
    Catalan Health Serv, Spain.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden.
    Dabigatran - a case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive approaches to optimize the use of new drugs2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Pharmacology, ISSN 1663-9812, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 4, 39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are safety and/or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies have shown dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of AF. There are also issues with potentially re-designing anticoagulant services. This has resulted in activities across countries to better manage its use. Objective: To (i) review authority activities in over 30 countries and regions, (ii) use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs, and (iii) review the implications for all major stakeholder groups. Methodology: Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran and the development of guidance for groups through an iterative process. Results: There has been a plethora of activities among authorities to manage the prescribing of dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions, and monitoring of prescribing post-launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centering on three pillars of pre-, pen-, and post-launch activities. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimize their prescribing especially where there are concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/or struggle for funding.

  • TekniskUnd informerar 2014:6Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2014:5Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Korinek, Michal
    et al.
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Dept Biotechnol, Coll Life Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Tsai, Yi-Hong
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    El-Shazly, Mohamed
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Ain Shams Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Fac Pharm, Cairo, Egypt..
    Lai, Kuei-Hung
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi. Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Backlund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Wu, Shou-Fang
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Dev Ctr Biotechnol, Nat Resource Dev Inst Pharmaceut, New Taipei, Taiwan..
    Lai, Wan-Chun
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Wu, Tung-Ying
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Chen, Shu-Li
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Wu, Yang-Chang
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Nat Prod & Drug Dev, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Dept Med Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Cheng, Yuan-Bin
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Nat Prod & Drug Dev, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Ctr Infect Dis & Canc Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Hwang, Tsong-Long
    Chang Gung Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Med, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Univ Sci & Technol, Res Ctr Chinese Herbal Med, Res Ctr Food & Cosmet Safety, Coll Human Ecol, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Univ Sci & Technol, Coll Human Ecol, Grad Inst Hlth Ind Technol, Taoyuan, Taiwan.;Chang Gung Mem Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol, Taoyuan, Taiwan..
    Chen, Bing-Hung
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Dept Biotechnol, Coll Life Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Dept Med Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Inst Biomed Sci, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Chang, Fang-Rong
    Kaohsiung Med Univ, Grad Inst Nat Prod, Coll Pharm, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Ctr Infect Dis & Canc Res, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Dept Marine Biotechnol & Resources, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ, Res Ctr Environm Med, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.;Kaohsiung Med Univ Hosp, Canc Ctr, Kaohsiung, Taiwan..
    Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Pharmacology, ISSN 1663-9812, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 8, 356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z, 13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E, 12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R *-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14-3.73 mu M) and elastase release (IC50 1.26-4.57 mu M) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187-and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 mu M, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from clinically used drugs. The bioactivity of T. blumei, which is historically utilized in folk medicine, might be related to the content of fatty acids and their metabolites.

  • Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Wretland, Anders
    University West.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Grit Blasting for Removal of Recast Layer from EDM Process on Inconel 718 Shaft:: An Evaluation of Surface Integrity2016Ingår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 25, nr 12, 5540-5550 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat generated during EDM melts the work material and thereby allows large amounts to be removed, but an unfavorable surface of a recast layer (RCL) will also be created. This layer has entirely different properties compared to the bulk. Hence, it is of great interest to efficiently remove this layer and to verify that it has been removed. The main objective of this work has been to study the efficiency of grit blasting for removal of RCL on an EDM aero space shaft. Additionally, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been evaluated as a nondestructive measurement to determine RCL presence. The results show that the grit-blasting processing parameters have strong influence on the ability to remove RCL and at the same time introduce beneficial compressive stresses even after short exposure time. Longer exposure will remove the RCL from the surface but also increase the risk that a larger amount of the blasting medium will get stuck into the surface. This investigation shows that a short exposure time in combination with a short grit-blasting nozzle distance is the most preferable process setting. It was further found that handheld XRF equipment can be used as a nondestructive measurement in order to evaluate the amount of RCL present on an EDM surface. This was realized by analyzing the residual elements from the EDM wire.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-12 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hernández-Neuta, Iván
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Nucleic acid analysis tools: Novel technologies and biomedical applications2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of living organisms functioning essentially as the molecular information carriers of life. From how an organism is built to how it responds to external conditions, all of it, can be found in the form of nucleic acid sequences inside every single cell of every life form on earth.

    Therefore, accessing these sequences provides key information regarding the molecular identity and functional state of any living organism, this is very useful for areas like biomedicine, where accessing and understanding these molecular signatures is the key to develop strategies to understand, treat and diagnose diseases.

    Decades of research and technological advancements have led to the development of a number of molecular tools and engineering technologies that allow accessing the information contained in the nucleic acids. This thesis provides a general overview of the tools and technologies available for nucleic acid analysis, and proposes an illustrative concept on how molecular tools and emergent technologies can be combined in a modular fashion to design methods for addressing different biomedical questions. The studies included in this thesis, are focused on the particular use of the molecular tools named: padlock and selector probes, rolling circle amplification, and fluorescence detection of single molecules in combination with microfluidics and portable microscopy. By using this combination, it became possible to design and demonstrate novel approaches for integrated nucleic acid analysis, inexpensive digital quantification, mobile-phone based diagnostics and the description of viral infections.

    These studies represent a step forward towards the adoption of the selected group of tools and technologies, for the design and building of methods that can be used as powerful alternatives to conventional tools used in molecular diagnostics and virology. 

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 09:00 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship in an urban world: Civic engagement and human–nature relations in the Anthropocene2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Never before have humans wielded a greater ability to alter and disrupt planetary processes. Our impact is becoming so noticeable that a new geological epoch has been proposed – the Anthropocene – in which Earth systems might no longer maintain the stable and predictable conditions of the past 12 millennia. This is particularly evident in the rapid expansion of urban areas, where a majority of humans now live and where environmental changes such as rising temperatures and habitat loss are happening faster than elsewhere.  In light of this, questions have been raised about what a more responsible relationship between humans and the rest of the planet might look like. Scholars in sustainability science employ the concept of ‘stewardship’ in searching for an answer; however, with multiple different applications and definitions, there is a need to better understand what stewardship is or what novelty it might add to sustainability research. This thesis investigates stewardship empirically through two case studies of civic engagement for protecting nature in cities – Bengaluru, India and New York City, USA. Further, the thesis also proposes a conceptual framework for how to understand stewardship as a relation between humans and the rest of nature, based on three dimensions: care, knowledge and agency. This investigation into stewardship in the urban context uses a social–ecological systems approach to guide the use of mixed theory and methods from social and natural sciences. The thesis is organized in five papers. Paper I reviews defining challenges in managing urban social–ecological systems and proposes that these can more effectively be addressed by collaborative networks where public, civic, other actors contribute unique skills and abilities. Paper II and Paper III study water resource governance in Bengaluru, a city that has become dependent on external sources while its own water bodies become degraded and depleted.Paper II analyzes how locally based ‘lake groups’ are able to affect change through co-management arrangements, reversing decades of centralization and neglect of lakes’ role in Bengaluru’s water supply.Paper III uses social–ecological network analysis to analyze how patterns in lake groups’ engagements and collaborations show better fit with ecological connectivity of lakes.Paper IV employs sense of place methods to explore how personal bonds to a site shapes motivation and goals in waterfront stewardship in New York City. Finally,Paper V reviews literature on stewardship and proposes a conceptual framework to understand and relate different uses and underlying epistemological approaches in the field. In summary, this thesis presents an empirically grounded contribution to how stewardship can be understood as a human–nature relation emergent from a deep sense ofcare and responsibility, knowledge and learning about how to understand social–ecological dynamics, and theagency and skills needed to influence these dynamics in a way that benefits a greater community of humans as others. Here, the care dimension is particularly important as an underappreciated aspect of social–ecological relations, and asset for addressing spatial and temporal misalignment between management institutions and ecosystem. This thesis shows that care for nature does not erode just because green spaces are degraded by human activities – which may be crucial for promoting stewardship in the Anthropocene.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan
    Linell, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Child protection through an abuse-focused lens: Adolescent victimization and Swedish social services responses2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge concerning the social services’ use of the Care of Young Persons (Special Provisions) Act 1990:52 (CYPA) is relatively scarce, especially when it comes to the protection of adolescents victimized by abuse. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate and discuss different conceptualisations of abuse, adolescents’ agency regarding abuse, victimization and social intervention, and how abuse and adolescent victimization are responded to, primarily by the social services. This is done from a stance influenced by critical realism as well as victim- and child-centred responses. The dissertation consists of four papers and examines these themes in two samples of judgments and related documents concerning applications for care of adolescents aged 13-17 under the CYPA. The findings from the total study of all judgments in the selected year clearly confirm § 2 CYPA as a rare intervention to protect adolescents. In only 85 of Sweden's 290 municipalities was a CYPA application made, but a main finding is that such care to a large extent was used to protect adolescents from various forms of abuse. In the total study, the applications of § 2 CYPA concerned 196 adolescents, for 70 per cent of whom abuse was described, and where more girls (96) than boys (41) were being considered for care based on abuse. Of all the girls, 79 per cent were described as subjected to abuse and of the boys 55 per cent. Also in the smaller sample consisting of judgments for 37 girls in care under § 2 CYPA and §§ 2 and 3 CYPA, abuse was described for many. For several adolescents in both samples abuse was described as having been exerted to maintain standards of honour, shame and virginity, and/ or to enable a forced marriage. The initiative and agency of the adolescents themselves in both the disclosure of abuse as well as the decision on alternative care is one of the most striking findings in the thesis. The majority of the adolescents, 71 per cent, were categorized as having intentionally disclosed the abuse. The aftermath of the disclosure was for many of the adolescents described as intensely challenging. For the majority the abuse was denied during the investigation, not only by the alleged abusers but also by non-abusing parents and other relatives. The findings relating to the social services responses suggest that the initial response to a high degree could be understood as parent-oriented. For 33 per cent, the judgment also revealed that the abuse had been disclosed to authorities one or several times prior to the investigation leading to the application for care under the CYPA. That the abuse in these cases had been known to the social services for on average 5 years can from a child-centred position be seen as a major failure regarding the system’s ability to reach children and stop abuse. A central conclusion is that the various forms of abuse described seem more connected to domination, fear, power and control than to conflict; to some extent mirroring the kind of systematic oppression described for victimized adults seeking the protection of NGOs and public authorities. The findings imply that interventions under the CYPA may enable more child-centred, safe and stable protection of children subjected to this kind of abuse. Given the findings in the present thesis it is argued that it may be important to differentiate the concept of abuse as well as to acknowledge the agency of children in both research and in practice.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 13:00 Föreläsningssalen, Stockholm
    Snoyman, Natalie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "In to Stay": Selling Three-Strip Technicolor and Fashion in the 1930s and 1940s2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between the fashion and film industries during the classical era between the early 1930s and mid-1940s. It focuses on the three-strip Technicolor process as the binding force upon which these two industries relied in collaborations during that time and looks at technical challenges the new process presented to productions in terms of wardrobe design. Another issue explored is fashion’s role in the actual development of the three-strip process, allowing the Technicolor laboratory to improve the technology through a popular, marketable, and readily available product. Using Technicolor as a point of focus and continuity, this dissertation explores different types of productions filmed in the three-strip process, including shorts and newsreels, industrial and sponsored films, as well as feature-length films. 

    Drawing from a wide range of archival material and a highly interdisciplinary approach, the study delves into the relationship between the fashion and film industries. While the ties between them have been strong since the advent of cinema, previous research has approached their relationship almost exclusively from a promotional perspective. Technicolor’s multifaceted affiliation with the fashion industry, however, warrants a more thorough investigation and this dissertation takes steps towards expanding that research area through a series of case studies.

    The first chapter provides an overview of color film methods that preceded three-strip Technicolor and outlines some of the key discourses involving color and realism. Chapter 2 addresses the intertwined relationship between the fashion and film industries through a study of fashion department in the popular fan magazine Photoplay and also examines the use of color in that publication. Chapter 3 investigates the fashion short as a vehicle for demonstrating the commercial potential of the three-strip process. It does this by examining the making and promotion of Vyvyan Donner’s Fashion Forecast series. This chapter also looks at the specific work carried out by Technicolor’s Color Control Department. Chapter 4 explores industrial and sponsored films in three-strip Technicolor for the fashion industry with an emphasis on those made to promote rayon. The second half of this chapter examines the 1930/1940 seasons of the New York World’s Fair, focusing on the presence there of Technicolor and the American rayon industry. Lastly, Chapter 5 looks at three-strip Technicolor in feature-length films by considering its collaborations with the fashion industry that took place in the classical era. This chapter also examines design considerations made regarding wardrobe in those films. 

    The study concludes that color’s versatility made it incredibly influential on consumer culture and was key to ventures between the fashion and film industries in this era and beyond. It also ultimately demonstrates the ways in which color, fashion, and film intersected and complemented one another in terms of their aesthetic and commercial commonalities.

  • Disputation: 2017-10-13 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Higher education and family formation: A story of Swedish educational expansion2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is trends in family formation among highly educated men and women in Sweden. The highly educated have typically differed from other educational groups in their patterns of childbearing. This has particularly been

    the case for highly educated women, who used to be in the minority among the highly educated and who were much more likely to be childless than other women. The goal of this dissertation is to understand how the expansion of higher education has transformed  the formation of childbearing unions among the highly educated group. The context for the dissertation is the dramatic expansion of higher education which has occurred in Sweden over the last half century. As the share of cohorts graduating from post-secondary education has grown, diversity among the highly educated has also increased. This dissertation draws upon rich Swedish administrative register data to answer questions about changes in the behavior of the highly educated group, as well as emerging stratification within the group. This dissertation consists of five studies and an introductory chapter.

    In Study 1, we examine changes in geographical distances between young couples and their parents. We find that among younger cohorts, generations live further apart. The expansion of higher education contributes to these distances, though the introduction of regional colleges has mediated the impact of educational expansion to some extent. In Study 2, we consider how effective colleges are as partner markets. We follow one birth cohort (1970), and examine the likelihood that they form a childbearing union with someone who attended the same university at the same time. We find that colleges are an important potential meeting place for childbearing partners, and examine how the likelihood of partnering with a fellow student is related to the college composition.

    In Study 3, I assess changes in partner choice among the highly educated, by comparing the likelihood that highly

    educated men and women born in 1940-2, 1950-2, 1960-2, and 1970-2 form a childbearing union, and whether they do

    so with a highly or a lower educated partner. I find that female graduates are much more likely to enter unions, and to

    “partner down”. Men’s likelihood of forming a childbearing union hasn’t changed across cohorts, but men from later cohorts are much more likely to find a highly educated partner than men from earlier cohorts. I show that partnership outcomes for graduates are related to social class background, university experience (degree length and institution type), and post-graduation income. In Study 4, we study unions with at least one highly educated partner, including men and women born in 1950-2, 1960-2, 1970-2, and 1980-2. We examine the extent to which educational (in)equality is mirrored in other measures of status such as social class background, income, and occupational prestige. We conclude that although the number of women “partnering down” in terms of education has increased dramatically, these unions are not necessarily characterized by female status-dominance more generally. In Study 5, I focus on highly educated men who do not form any childbearing union, studying men born in the years 1945-1974. I find that the consistent levels of childlessness among highly educated men may best be explained by changes in the composition of graduates in terms of field of study and post-graduation income.

  • TekniskUnd informerar 2014:32014Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2014:22014Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • TekniskUnd informerar 2014:12014Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Halcox, Julian P.
    et al.
    Swansea Univ, Inst Life Sci 2, Coll Med, Singleton Pk, Swansea SA2 8PP, W Glam, Wales..
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain.;CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain..
    Roy, Carine
    Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, INSERM CIC EC 1425, Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Dept Epidemiol & Rech Clin, Paris, France..
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Univ Lille Nord France, Inst Pasteur Lille, INSERM, U744, Lille, France..
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium..
    Guallar, Eliseo
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Med, Baltimore, MD USA.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Welch Ctr Prevent Epidemiol & Clin Res, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Hlth & Caring Sci, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Hajage, David
    Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, INSERM CIC EC 1425, Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Dept Epidemiol & Rech Clin, Paris, France..
    Henriksson, Karin M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Borghi, Claudio
    Univ Bologna, Dept Internal Med Ageing & Clin Nephrol, Bologna, Italy..
    Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study2017Ingår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, 160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Methods: This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease.

    Results: Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated.