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  • Hellqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bertero, Carina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dizdar, Nil
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sund-Levander, Marta
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
    Self-management education for persons with Parkinson's disease and their care partners: a quasi-experimental case-control study in clinical practice2020Ingår i: Parkinson's Disease, ISSN 2090-8083, E-ISSN 2042-0080, Vol. 2020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition with both physical and mental consequences that affect many aspects of everyday life. Persons with Parkinson's disease and their care partners want guidance from healthcare services in order to develop skills to adjust to life with a long-term condition. The Swedish National Parkinson School is a dyadic self-management programme to support both persons with Parkinson's disease and care partners.

    Objective

    To assess the outcomes of the Swedish National Parkinson School as reported by participants.

    Design

    A quasi-experimental case-control study in clinical care using self-reported questionnaires.

    Participants

    Swedish National Parkinson School was offered by health care professionals working in clinical care. Participants in the programme were also asked to participate in the study. A matched control group was recruited for a comparison of findings. In total, 92 persons with Parkinson's disease and 55 care partners were included. Settings. Five Swedish geriatric and neurologic outpatient clinics.

    Method

    Data were collected during 2015-2017, before and after participation in the National Parkinson School or before and after seven weeks of standard care. Outcomes were assessed using generic and Parkinson's specific questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe baseline characteristics. Mann-Whitney U and Chi(2) tests were used to test for between-group differences and within-group differences were tested by the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test.

    Results

    Improvements regarding health status, constructive attitudes and approaches, and skill and technique acquisition were found after the intervention among persons with Parkinson's disease. No changes were found among care partners.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the Swedish National Parkinson School may improve health status and self-management among persons with Parkinson's disease, but further studies are needed to better understand the effects of the programme.

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  • Bögl, H. P.
    et al.
    Gavle Cent Hosp, Dept Orthoped Surg, Lasarettsvagen 5, SE-80324 Gavle, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Orthoped & Expt & Clin Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Zdolsek, G.
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Orthoped & Expt & Clin Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Höijer, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Schilcher, J.
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Orthoped & Expt & Clin Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Increased rate of reoperation in atypical femoral fractures is related to patient characteristics and not fracture type: A nationwide cohort study2020Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 951-959Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atypical femoral fractures are burdened with a high rate of reoperation. In our nationwide analysis, the increased rate of reoperation was related to patient background characteristics, such as age and health status, rather than fracture type. Introduction Patients with atypical fractures are complex to treat and burdened with a high risk of reoperation. We hypothesized that patients with surgically treated, complete atypical fractures have a higher risk of any reoperation and reoperation related to healing complications than patients with common femoral shaft fractures but that this increase would become insignificant when adjusted for predefined characteristics. Methods A cohort of 163 patients with atypical fractures and 862 patients with common femoral shaft or subtrochanteric fractures treated from 2008 to 2010 and who had follow-up radiographs and register data available until 31 December 2014 was included. Reoperations were identified by a complementary review of radiographs and register data and were used to calculate risks for any reoperation and reoperations related to healing complications. Results Patients with atypical fractures were more likely to be reoperated for any reason, age-adjusted OR 1.76 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.86). However, patients with common fractures had a shorter follow-up due to a threefold higher death rate. Accordingly, in a multivariable-adjusted time-to-event model, the increased risk lost statistical significance for any reoperations, cause-specific HR 1.34 (95% CI, 0.85 to 2.13), and for reoperations related to healing complications, HR 1.32 (95% CI, 0.58 to 3.0). Continued use of bisphosphonate in the first year after the fracture did not affect the reoperation rate. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the increased risk of reoperation after an atypical femur fracture is largely explained by patient characteristics and not fracture type.

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  • Disputation: 2020-08-26 13:00 Humanistiska teatern, Uppsala
    Chantzi, Efthymia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Cancerfarmakologi och beräkningsmedicin.
    Algorithmic discovery, development and personalized selection of higher-order drug cocktails: A label-free live-cell imaging & secretomics approach2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An upward trend in clinical pharmacology is the use of multiple drugs to combat complex and co-occurring diseases due to better efficacy, decreased toxicity and reduced risk of evolving resistance. Despite high late-stage attrition rates and the need for multi drug treatments, most drug discovery and development efforts are still mainly focused on new one-size-fits-all monotherapies. This is unfortunate given the complex, heterogeneous and often only partially understood pathophysiology of many diseases. In this context, polypharmacotherapies hold strong potential, especially when patient tailored. However, as of today, the personalized combination therapy area remains vastly unexplored. A major reason is lack of standardized and robust tools that allow systematic in vitro drug combination sensitivity testing of different disease models and patient derived cells.

    This thesis fills in this lack by introducing two methodological frameworks, namely COMBImageDL and COMBSecretomics, designed to enable systematic second- and higher-order drug combination studies within and beyond cancer pharmacology. They include advanced quality control procedures, non-parametric resampling statistics to quantify uncertainty and a data driven methodology to evaluate response patterns and discern higher- from lower- and single-drug effects. Both are based on a standardized and reproducible format that could be employed with any experimental platform that provides the required raw data. COMBImageDL searches exhaustively for drug cocktails that induce changes in cell viability and time evolving cell culture morphology by employing conventional endpoint synergy analyses jointly with quantitative label-free live-cell imaging. Deep neural network learning, MapReduce parallel processing and method-specific parameter tuning are key components of the design. The purely phenotypic functionality of COMBImageDL is extended by COMBSecretomics, which searches exhaustively for drug cocktails that can modify, or even reverse malfunctioning secretomic patterns. It processes complex datasets involving drug treated cells observed before and after being stimulated by relevant proteins. Finally, the highest single agent method is generalized for higher-order drug combination analysis and adjusted for secreted protein profiles.

    The frameworks were used in five pharmacological studies being industrial, academic and clinical collaborations in areas where novel and personalized multi drug regimens are highly needed; oncology (acute myeloid leukemia and glioblastoma multiforme) and osteoarthritis. These studies demonstrate intriguing drug combination findings and in general the great potential of tools like COMBImageDL and COMBSecretomics to accelerate the discovery and development of novel potent polypharmacotherapeutic candidates.

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  • Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Stenberg, Anna M.
    Ahman, Hanna B.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Berglund, Lars
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för fysioterapi.
    Aberg, Anna Cristina
    Timed Up-and-Go Dual-Task Testing in the Assessment of Cognitive Function: A Mixed Methods Observational Study for Development of the UDDGait Protocol2020Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 5, artikel-id 1715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New methods to screen for and identify early-stage dementia disorders are highly sought after. The purpose of this pilot study is to develop a study protocol for a dual-task test aimed at aiding the early detection of dementia disorders. We used the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test, which is a mobility task involving starting in a sitting position, standing up, walking three meters to cross a line on the floor, turning around, walking back and sitting down again. We combined TUG with the verbal task of naming different animals. Pilot study participants were 43 individuals with and without established dementia diagnoses who attended a clinic for memory assessment. Video-recorded test performances were systematically analysed. Deviant test performances concerning the interplay between test administration and participants' responses to the assessment instructions were revealed and led to refinements being made to the final study protocol. Exploration of the dual-task test outcome measures in a sub-sample of 22 persons, ten with and twelve without dementia, indicated that step-length and number of named animals after the turning point of the dual-task test might constitute appropriate measures for examining this kind of sample. We concluded that the refined study protocol is feasible for testing individuals undergoing initial memory assessments and healthy controls. Follow-up studies with larger samples are being carried out and will bring new knowledge to this area of research. It may also provide an opportunity for further studies exploring possibilities for broad clinical implementation.

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  • Olsson Möller, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för hälsovetenskap, Forskningsmiljön PRO-CARE, Patient Reported Outcomes - Clinical Assessment Research and Education.
    Rydén, L
    Lunds universitet.
    Malmström, M
    Lunds universitet.
    Systematic screening as a tool for individualized rehabilitation following primary breast cancer treatment: study protocol for the ReScreen randomized controlled trial.2020Ingår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that women suffer from negative consequences following breast cancer (BC) treatment and that their largely varying needs for rehabilitation are often unmet. Up to 43% of these women are at risk of developing chronic distress requiring complex interventions; however, how to early identify and meet these women's needs is unknown, leaving them with suboptimal chances of rehabilitation. The aim of the ReScreen study is to develop a model for and evaluate the effect of screening-based, individualized rehabilitation following primary BC treatment.

    METHODS: The ReScreen study is designed as a complex intervention. Women with newly diagnosed BC are consecutively included in a three-armed randomized controlled trial. At inclusion, patients score their distress level on the Distress Thermometer (scale of 0-10) aiming to identify patients with extended rehabilitation needs. Patients scoring ≥5 are randomized to the intervention or control group while patients scoring ≤4 are followed longitudinally as an observational group. Patients in the intervention group, in conjunction with a dedicated research nurse, create an individualized rehabilitation plan based on an evidence-based decision support tool that was developed to create a solid base for the intervention. The research nurse will act as a continuous health care contact and be responsible for proactively and systematically evaluating patients' needs to ensure that potential new problems or changed rehabilitation needs are identified throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The intervention will be evaluated through self-reported data focusing on physical and psychological outcomes as well as evaluation of satisfaction with care at baseline, 2 weeks and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Evaluation will also include health economic aspects based on register data and patients' and relatives' experiences of the rehabilitation process. In addition, optimal cut-off levels for distress as an indicator for extended rehabilitation needs will be investigated.

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide important knowledge related to effectiveness of screening-based identification of rehabilitation needs and standardized evidence-based, individualized rehabilitation after primary BC treatment. With a complex intervention design, this study has the potential to form a comprehensive knowledge base which includes tools and guidelines for implementation into clinical practice.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03434717. Registered February 15, 2018.

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  • Heslin, Alison
    et al.
    Puma, Michael J.
    Marchand, Philippe
    Carr, Joel A.
    Dell'Angelo, Jampel
    D'Odorico, Paolo
    Gephart, Jessica A.
    Kummu, Matti
    Porkka, Miina
    Rulli, Maria Cristina
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Suweis, Samir
    Tavoni, Alessandro
    Simulating the Cascading Effects of an Extreme Agricultural Production Shock: Global Implications of a Contemporary US Dust Bowl Event2020Ingår i: FRONTIERS IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS, ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 4, artikel-id UNSP 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher temperatures expected by midcentury increase the risk of shocks to crop production, while the interconnected nature of the current global food system functions to spread the impact of localized production shocks throughout the world. In this study, we analyze the global potential impact of a present-day event of equivalent magnitude to the US Dust Bowl, modeling the ways in which a sudden decline in US wheat production could cascade through the global network of agricultural trade. We use observations of country-level production, reserves, and trade data in a Food Shock Cascade model to explore trade adjustments and country-level inventory changes in response to a major, multiyear production decline. We find that a 4-year decline in wheat production of the same proportional magnitude as occurred during the Dust Bowl greatly reduces both wheat supply and reserves in the United States and propagates through the global trade network. By year 4 of the event, US wheat exports fall from 90.5 trillion kcal before the drought to 48 trillion to 52 trillion kcal, and the United States exhausts 94% of its reserves. As a result of reduced US exports, other countries meet their needs by leveraging their own reserves, leading to a 31% decline in wheat reserves globally. These findings demonstrate that an extreme production decline would lead to substantial supply shortfalls in both the United States and in other countries, where impacts outside the United States strongly depend on a country's reserves and on its relative position in the global trade network.

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  • Hultqvist, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Betongvägen E6 vid Falkenberg: tillståndet för delen Heberg–Långås efter 14 års trafik2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betongvägen på E6 vid Falkenberg, delen Heberg-Långås, byggdes 1993 och har nu trafikerats ca 14 år. Betongvägen var den första i Sverige som byggdes med tvåskiktsläggning och med frilagd ballast i beläggningsytan. Samma utförandeteknik har sedan också använts på betongvägarna vid Fastarp-Heberg och Eskilstuna. På uppdrag av Vägverket har VTI dokumenterat vägens byggande och därefter följt vägens tillstånd under den första 10 årsperioden. Resultaten från tillståndsuppföljningen redovisas i föreliggande rapport.

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  • Zhao, Xiaofeng
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Southwest Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Environm Friendly Energy Mat, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, Peoples R China.;Southwest Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaoyong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Southwest Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Environm Friendly Energy Mat, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, Peoples R China.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Mat Theory Div, Condensed Matter Theory Grp, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Singh, Deobrat
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Panda, Pritam Kumar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Luo, Wei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Li, Yuxiang
    Southwest Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Environm Friendly Energy Mat, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, Peoples R China.;Southwest Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Strain-Engineered Metal-Free h-B2O Monolayer as a Mechanocatalyst for Photocatalysis and Improved Hydrogen Evolution Reaction2020Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 124, nr 14, s. 7884-7892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing stable metal-free materials with a highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has received intense research interest due to its renewable and environmentally friendly properties. In this work, we systematically investigated the HER catalytic activity of a new h-B2O monolayer based on first-principles calculations. The results show the B site in the h-B2O structure is energetically favorable for hydrogen with the calculated Gibbs free energy (Delta G(H*)) of -0.07 eV, which is comparable to that of the Pt catalyst (Delta G(H*)) = -0.09 eV). Moreover, the catalytic activity of the h-B2O monolayer is quite robust with increasing hydrogen coverages (from 1/9 to 9/9). Interestingly, the HER activity of the h-B2O monolayer is sensitive to the strains-driven. For example, applied tensile strains (0-2%) could weaken the bonding between hydrogen and the substrate, resulting in Delta G(H*) even close to 0 eV. However, the opposite trend is found for applied compressive strain. After analyzing the density of states (DOS), we found the h-B2O monolayer with absorbed hydrogen retains the metallic property, still exhibiting excellent electrical conductivity. These results reveal that the metal-free h-B2O monolayer is a promising candidate for HER applications.

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  • Skov, Jakob
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Cent Hosp, Dept Med, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Daniel
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Inflammat & Infect Theme, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Höijer, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Swedish Natl Diabet Register, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Svensson, Ann-Marie
    Swedish Natl Diabet Register, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Orebro, Sweden..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Inflammat & Infect Theme, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Bergen, KG Jebsen Ctr Autoimmune Dis, Bergen, Norway..
    Bensing, Sophie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Inflammat & Infect Theme, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Co-aggregation and heritability of organ-specific autoimmunity: a population-based twin study2020Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 182, nr 5, s. 473-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Co-aggregation of autoimmune diseases is common, suggesting pa rtly shared etiologies. Genetic factors are believed to be important, but objective measures of environ mental vs heritable influences on co-aggregation are absent. With a novel approach to twin studies, we aimed at esti mating heritability and genetic overlap in seven organspecific autoimmune diseases.

    Design: Prospective twin cohort study.

    Methods: We used a cohort of 110 814 twins to examine co-aggregation an d heritability of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, Graves' disease, type 1 dia betes, vitiligo and Addison's disease. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for twins developing the same or different disea se as compared to their co-twin. The differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were used to estim ate the genetic influence on co- aggregation. Heritability for individual disorders was calculated using stru ctural equational modeling adjusting for censoring and truncation of data.

    Results: Co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic twins (media n HR: 3.2, range: 2.2-9.2) than in dizygotic twins (median HR: 2.4, range: 1.1-10.0). Heritability was moder ate for atrophic gastritis (0.38, 95% CI: 0.23-0.53) but high for all other diseases, ranging from 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49-0. 71) for Graves' disease to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91- 1.00) for Addison's disease.

    Conclusions: Overall, co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic tha n in dizygotic twins, suggesting that disease overlap is largely attributable to genetic factors. Co- aggregation was common, and twins faced up to a ten-fold risk of developing diseases not present in their co-twin. Our r esults validate and refine previous heritability estimates based on smaller twin cohorts.

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  • Serholt, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Division of Learning, Communication and IT, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ekström, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Interaction Design, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Trouble and Repair in Child-Robot Interaction: A Study of Complex Interactions With a Robot Tutee in a Primary School Classroom2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 7, artikel-id 46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     View references (31)Today, robots are studied and expected to be used in a range of social roles within classrooms. Yet, due to a number of limitations in social robots, robot interactions should be expected to occasionally suffer from troublesome situations and breakdowns. In this paper, we explore this issue by studying how children handle interaction trouble with a robot tutee in a classroom setting. The findings have implications not only for the design of robots, but also for evaluating their benefit in, and for, educational contexts. In this study, we conducted video analysis of children's group interactions with a robot tutee in a classroom setting, in order to explore the nature of these troubles in the wild. Within each group, children took turns acting as the primary interaction partner for the robot within the context of a mathematics game. Specifically, we examined what types of situations constitute trouble in these child–robot interactions, the strategies that individual children employ to cope with this trouble, as well as the strategies employed by other actors witnessing the trouble. By means of Interaction Analysis, we studied the video recordings of nine group interaction sessions (n = 33 children) in primary school grades 2 and 4. We found that sources of trouble related to the robot's social norm violations, which could be either active or passive. In terms of strategies, the children either persisted in their attempts at interacting with the robot by adapting their behavior in different ways, distanced themselves from the robot, or sought the help of present adults (i.e., a researcher in a teacher role, or an experimenter) or their peers (i.e., the child's classmates in each group). In terms of the witnessing actors, they addressed the trouble by providing guidance directed at the child interacting with the robot, or by intervening in the interaction. These findings reveal the unspoken rules by which children orient toward social robots, the complexities of child–robot interaction in the wild, and provide insights on children's perspectives and expectations of social robots in classroom contexts. © Copyright © 2020 Serholt, Pareto, Ekström and Ljungblad

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  • Instruktionsbok skyddsmask 90: M7786-009031 IBOK SKYDDSMASK 902006 (uppl. 2)Bok (Refereegranskat)
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  • Reynolds, Eduardo
    et al.
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Halldin, S.
    Seibert, J.
    Xu, C. Y.
    Grabs, T.
    Flood prediction using parameters calibrated on limited discharge data and uncertain rainfall scenarios2020Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • Musuuza, Jude
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pimentel, Rafael
    Crochemore, Louise
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Impact of Satellite and In Situ Data Assimilation on Hydrological Predictions2020Ingår i: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id 811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • Instruktionsbok tillpassningsmästare skyddsmask: M7786-038471 IBOK TILLPASSN SKYMA2014 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Gyimothy, Szilvia
    Copenhagen Business School, Department of Marketing, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    The COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path2020Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has halted mobility globally on an unprecedented scale, causing the neoliberal market mechanisms of global tourism to be severely disrupted. In turn, this situation is leading to the decline of certain mainstream business formats and, simultaneously, the emergence of others. Based on a review of recent crisis recovery processes, the tourism sector is likely to rebound from this sudden market shock, primarily because of various forms of government interventions. Nevertheless, although policymakers seek to strengthen the resilience of post-pandemic tourism, their subsidies and other initiatives serve to maintain a fundamentally flawed market logic. The crisis has, therefore, brought us to a fork in the road–giving us the perfect opportunity to select a new direction and move forward by adopting a more sustainable path. Specifically, COVID-19 offers public, private, and academic actors a unique opportunity to design and consolidate the transition towards a greener and more balanced tourism. Tourism scholars, for example, can take a leading role in this by redesigning their curriculum to prepare future industry leaders for a more responsible travel and tourism experience. 

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  • Imani, Ali
    et al.
    Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Gharibi, Farid
    University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.
    Khezri, Ali
    University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Joudyian, Nasrin
    University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Economic costs incurred by the patients with multiple sclerosis at different levels of the disease: A cross-sectional study in Northwest Iran2020Ingår i: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes significant economic burden to the patients, families, health systems and society. This study aimed to estimate the annual economic costs incurred by patients with multiple sclerosis (pwms) at different levels of the disease. Method: This was a cross-sectional study, using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) tool for assessing the disease level of 300 (=N) pwms in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. To estimate the cost of MS, a questionnaire with its validity and reliability (CVR 92% and CVI 87%) and pilot test (Cronbach’s alpha score 0.89) was used. The data were collected by interviewing pwms and reviewing their clinical records. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship between disease levels and incurred costs. Results: The results revealed that the mean annual cost for pwms in Iran is 97,521,740 IRR (equivalent to 2321.94 USD; 1978.93 EURO) and the mean score of EDSS in pwms was 3.14. The annual cost incurred by pwms with mild, moderate and severe levels of disease were 83,918,150 IRR (1998.05 USD; 1702.88EURO), 137,772,660 IRR (3280.30 USD; 2795.71 EURO) and 119,962,670 IRR (2856.25 USD;2434.30 EURO), respectively. Also, on average, each increase in EDSS score in pwms in Iran led to increase 8,139,260 IRR (equivalent to 193.79 USD; and 165.16 EURO) in total annual cost which must paid from pwms and their households exclusively. Also, there was a significant relationship between total annual cost and disease severity in such a way that any increase in EDSS degree is led to 8,139,260 IRR (193.79 USD; 165.16 EURO) added cost for pwms. Conclusion: The study results could be helpful for Iranian health managers to solve problems which are facing by the patients with multiple sclerosis and their families. 

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  • Bennulf, Mattias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    A User-Friendly Approach for Applying Multi-Agent Technology in Plug & Produce Systems2020Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling presenterar metoder för att förenkla användningen av multiagent-system för Plug & Produce. Efterfrågan på kundanpassade produkter och lågvolymproduktion ökar ständigt. Industrin har under många år använt sig avdedikerade tillverkningssystem som gör det både svårt och dyrt att anpassa sig till nya produktdesigner. Istället tvingas fabriker att antälla onödigt många operatörer för vissa arbetsuppgifter där det krävs hög flexibilitet och snabb anpassning till nya produktdesigner. Flera lösningar har föreslagits under åren för att skapa flexibla automatiseringssystem som automatiskt hanterar snabb omställning till nya produkter. Ett koncept som heter Plug & Produce handlar om att skapa system där nya typer av resurser och produkter kan kopplas in i systemet på ett fåtal minuter snarare än dagar i traditionella system. För att implementera Plug & Produce kan multi-agent-system användas, där varje resurs och produkt får sin egen styrning. Agenterna kan sedan kommunicera med varandra för att nå de mål som satts upp för tillverkningen av produkterna. Tanken är att systemet automatiskt hanterar anpassningen till nya produkter. Idag är dock användningen av sådana system extremt begränsad i industrin. En av anledningarna är avsaknaden av mogna multi-agent-system som är lätta att använda och där komplexiteten hos det underliggande agensystemet kan döljas från användaren.

    Detta är ett stort problem eftersom multi-agent-system tenderar att vara mer komplexa än traditionella system. Därför fokuserar denna avhandling på att förenkla användningen av multi-agent-system genom att föreslå olika metoder som kan underlätta användandet av multi-agent-tekniken för Plug & Produce i industrin.

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  • Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Jönköping University, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Jönköping University, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Smittkoppsepidemin var 1700-talets stora dräpare2020Ingår i: Nyfiken Grå, nr 29 majArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • Faraj, Alan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Svensson, Robin J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Diacon, Andreas H.
    TASK Appl Sci, Cape Town, South Africa.;Stellenbosch Univ, Div Physiol, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Tygerberg, South Africa..
    Simonsson, Ulrika S H
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Drug Effect of Clofazimine on Persisters Explains an Unexpected Increase in Bacterial Load in Patients2020Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 64, nr 5, artikel-id e01905-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug development is dependent on informative trials to secure the development of new antibiotics and combination regimens. Clofazimine (CLO) and pyrazinamide (PZA) are important components of recommended standard multidrug treatments of TB. Paradoxically, in a phase IIa trial aiming to define the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of CLO and PZA monotherapy over the first 14 days of treatment, no significant drug effect was demonstrated for the two drugs using traditional statistical analysis. Using a model-based analysis, we characterized the statistically significant exposure-response relationships for both drugs that could explain the original findings of an increase in the numbers of CFU with CLO treatment and no effect with PZA. Sensitive analyses are crucial for exploring drug effects in early clinical trials to make the right decisions for advancement to further development. We propose that this quantitative semimechanistic approach provides a rational framework for analyzing phase IIa EBA studies and can accelerate anti-TB drug development.

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  • Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Medielogik eller hållbar kommunikation? En intervjustudie om medieringen av konstgräs som miljöfråga2020Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie intresserar sig för förhållandet mellan medierna och andra intressenter i kommunikationen av miljön, och centrerar kring medieringen av mikroplastutsläpp från konstgräsplaner. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöks kommunikationsstrategierna hos centrala aktörer i medieringen av dessa miljöfrågor. Syftet är att bidra till teoretiseringen av hur kommunikationsstrategier och institutionella logiker hos olika intressenter möts och omförhandlas i den medierade kommunikationen om specifika miljöfrågor. Studien bygger på 14 intervjuer med totalt 15 journalister och redaktörer, myndighetsföreträdare, politiker, forskare och representanter för däckbranschen. En tematisk analys visar att konstgräsfrågan blir intressant för redaktioner på grund av konfliktytorna som kan exploateras i frågan, och osäkerheten som finns kring konstgräsets utsläpp av mikroplaster integreras i strategierna som styr det journalistiska hantverket. Studien visar också att kommunikationsstrategier som är i linje med den så kallade medielogiken möjliggör för intressenter att nå fram med sina perspektiv i medierna och vice versa. Detta mönster visar sig exempelvis i däckbranschens kommunikativa arbete i konstgräsfrågan. Studien visar också att Naturvårdsverket, som innehaft en nyckelroll i frågan om mikroplaster, har haft en ambivalent kommunikationsstrategi i denna fråga. Myndigheten både använder sig av och bortser från medielogiken. Studien diskuterar också riskerna med miljökommunikationens anpassning till medielogiken, där denna anpassning riskerar att bli ett problem ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv.

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  • Dahlgren, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Cano-Cebrian, Maria-Jose
    Univ Valencia, Dept Pharm & Pharmaceut Technol & Parasitol, Valencia 46010, Spain..
    Olander, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Analytisk farmaceutisk kemi. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sjöblom, Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Sjöblom/Nylander: Gastrointestinal fysiologi.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaci.
    Regional Intestinal Drug Permeability and Effects of Permeation Enhancers in Rat2020Ingår i: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikel-id 242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient colonic absorption is necessary for all systemically acting drugs in dosage forms that release the drug in the large intestine. Preclinically, colonic absorption is often investigated using the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model. This model can determine intestinal permeability based on luminal drug disappearance, as well as the effect of permeation enhancers on drug permeability. However, it is uncertain how accurate the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model predicts regional intestinal permeability and absorption in human. There is also a shortage of systematic in vivo investigations of the direct effect of permeation enhancers in the small and large intestine. In this rat single-pass intestinal perfusion study, the jejunal and colonic permeability of two low permeability drugs (atenolol and enalaprilat) and two high-permeability ones (ketoprofen and metoprolol) was determined based on plasma appearance. These values were compared to already available corresponding human data from a study conducted in our lab. The colonic effect of four permeation enhancers-sodium dodecyl sulfate, chitosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and caprate-on drug permeability and transport of chromium EDTA (an established clinical marker for intestinal barrier integrity) was determined. There was no difference in jejunal and colonic permeability determined from plasma appearance data of any of the four model drugs. This questions the validity of the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model for predicting human regional intestinal permeability. It was also shown that the effect of permeation enhancers on drug permeability in the colon was similar to previously reported data from the rat jejunum, whereas the transport of chromium EDTA was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the colon than in jejunum. Therefore, the use of permeation enhancers for increasing colonic drug permeability has greater risks than potential medical rewards, as indicated by the higher permeation of chromium EDTA compared to the drugs.

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  • Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    The Listen-Say Test -: Assessment of speech processing in children 20152015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    et al.
    Hua, H
    Sundström, M
    Enqvist, K
    Hällgren, M
    Assessing Children’s Speech Processing Ability using a New Analytical Method: The Listen-Say Test2015Ingår i: Assessing Children’s Speech Processing Ability using a New Analytical Method: The Listen-Say Test., Uppsala, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    et al.
    Sundström, M
    Enkvist, K
    Hällgren, M
    Talperception hos svenska normalhörande skolbarn i tyst och störande tal: effekt av fonetiska kontraster, ljudbakgrund och kön2015Ingår i: Audionomen : medlemstidning för Audionomföreningen, ISSN 1403-1272, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • Sirikharin, Ratchanok
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Jämförande fysiologi.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Jämförande fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Jämförande fysiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The N-terminal peptide generated after activation of prophenoloxidase affects crayfish hematopoiesis2020Ingår i: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 108, artikel-id 103687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The circulating hemocytes of invertebrates are important mediators of immunity, and hemocyte homeostasis is of high importance for survival and health of crustaceans. The prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system is one of the most essential immune reactions, which can be activated by pattern recognition proteins from microorganisms. Activation of proPO by the proPO activating enzyme generates an N-terminal peptide, with cleavage site after Arg176, as well as the active enzyme phenoloxidase, which is the key enzyme for melanization. In the present study we demonstrate a role for the N-terminal proPO-peptide in hematopoiesis. Injection of this proPO-peptide increased the number of circulating hemocytes and especially granular hemocytes. We also show that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the anterior proliferative center was enhanced after proPO peptide injection, which is a prerequisite for rapid hemocyte release from the hematopoietic tissue. Moreover, this peptide had an effect on ROS production in in vitro cultured hematopoietic cells and induced spreading of these cells within 72 h. Taken together, our findings show a role of the N-terminal proPO peptide in stimulation of hematopoiesis in crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

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  • Swords, Wesley B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström. Univ N Carolina, Dept Chem, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Chem, 1101 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meyer, Gerald J.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Chem, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi.
    Excited-state proton-coupled electron transfer within ion pairs2020Ingår i: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 11, nr 13, s. 3460-3473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of light to drive proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions has received growing interest, with recent focus on the direct use of excited states in PCET reactions (ES-PCET). Electrostatic ion pairs provide a scaffold to reduce reaction orders and have facilitated many discoveries in electron-transfer chemistry. Their use, however, has not translated to PCET. Herein, we show that ion pairs, formed solely through electrostatic interactions, provide a general, facile means to study an ES-PCET mechanism. These ion pairs formed readily between salicylate anions and tetracationic ruthenium complexes in acetonitrile solution. Upon light excitation, quenching of the ruthenium excited state occurred through ES-PCET oxidation of salicylate within the ion pair. Transient absorption spectroscopy identified the reduced ruthenium complex and oxidized salicylate radical as the primary photoproducts of this reaction. The reduced reaction order due to ion pairing allowed the first-order PCET rate constants to be directly measured through nanosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy. These PCET rate constants saturated at larger driving forces consistent with approaching the Marcus barrierless region. Surprisingly, a proton-transfer tautomer of salicylate, with the proton localized on the carboxylate functional group, was present in acetonitrile. A pre-equilibrium model based on this tautomerization provided non-adiabatic electron-transfer rate constants that were well described by Marcus theory. Electrostatic ion pairs were critical to our ability to investigate this PCET mechanism without the need to covalently link the donor and acceptor or introduce specific hydrogen bonding sites that could compete in alternate PCET pathways.

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  • Odelstad, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Rosetta spacecraft potential and activity evolution of comet 67P2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma environment of an active comet provides a unique setting for plasma physics research. The complex interaction of newly created cometary ions with the flowing plasma of the solar wind gives rise to a plethora of plasma physics phenomena, that can be studied over a large range of activity levels as the distance to the sun, and hence the influx of solar energy, varies. In this thesis, we have used measurements of the spacecraft potential by the Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument (LAP) to study the evolution of activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it approached the sun from 3.6 AU in August 2014 to 2.1 AU in March 2015. The measurements are validated by cross-calibration to a fully independent measurement by an electrostatic analyzer, the Ion Composition Analyzer (ICA), also on board Rosetta.

    The spacecraft was found to be predominantly negatively charged during the time covered by our investigation, driven so by a rather high electron temperature of ~5 eV resulting from the low collision rate between electrons and the tenuous neutral gas. The spacecraft potential exhibited a clear covariation with the neutral density as measured by the ROSINA Comet Pressure Sensor (COPS) on board Rosetta. As the spacecraft potential depends on plasma density and electron temperature, this shows that the neutral gas and the plasma are closely coupled. The neutral density and negative spacecraft potential were higher in the northern hemisphere, which experienced summer conditions during the investigated period due to the nucleus spin axis being tilted toward the sun. In this hemisphere, we found a clear variation of spacecraft potential with comet longitude, exactly as seen for the neutral gas, with coincident peaks in neutral density and spacecraft potential magnitude roughly every 6 h, when sunlit parts of the neck region of the bi- lobed nucleus were in view of the spacecraft. The plasma density was estimated to have increased during the investigated time period by a factor of 8-12 in the northern hemisphere and possibly as much as a factor of 20-44 in the southern hemisphere, due to the combined effects of seasonal changes and decreasing heliocentric distance.

    The spacecraft potential measurements obtained by LAP generally exhibited good correlation with the estimates from ICA, confirming the accuracy of both of these instruments for measurements of the spacecraft potential. 

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  • Schwack, Fabian
    Untersuchungen zumBetriebsverhalten oszillierender Wälzlager am Beispiel von Rotorblattlagern in Windenergieanlagen2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pitch bearings in wind turbines are typical examples for oscillating rollingelement bearings. On the one hand pitch bearings are aected by intentionaloscillations due to the adaption of the aerodynamic angle of attack of the rotorblade. On the other hand, unwanted micro-oscillations (vibrations) are causedby turbulence when the wind turbine is at standstill. The occurring damagemechanisms can reduce the service life of component and, in the worst casescenario, lead to a failure of the whole technical system.On basis of the operating conditions of a reference wind turbine and loadsimulations for the reference pitch bearing, the occurring wear phenomena areanalysed. For this purpose, experimental investigations for the identicationand determination of inuencing parameters are undertaken. The experimentalinvestigations are carried out on angular contact ball bearings of the size7208. The operating conditions of the reference pitch bearing are transferredto the test bearing size using a scaling method. A time-dependent connectionof wear phenomena is established by the incubation hypotheses. The inuenceof the oscillation amplitude and frequency on occurring wear becomesclear through the investigations. In addition, experiments are carried out onfour-point contact ball bearing with a pitch diameter of 675 mm.The results of the experimental investigations are used to set up a simulationmodel which is focused on the contact kinematics between rolling elementsand raceways. The occurrence and the form of the wear can be explainedwith the simulated frictional work. Using the fully parametric structure of themodel, the inuence of the bearing geometry and input parameters on thefrictional work can be analysed.In order to determine the inuence of the type of lubricating grease, afurther series of experiments is carried out. In this experiments common usedlubricants for pitch bearings are tested. The results show that none of theexamined lubricants can prevent wear for all operating conditions. However,statements on suitable grease compositions can be made for certain operatingparameters.The results show the relationship between wear and operating parametersin pitch bearings based on experimental investigations and simulations.

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  • Odelstad, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Plasma environment of an intermediately active comet: Evolution and dynamics observed by ESA's Rosetta spacecraft at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the evolution and dynamics of the plasma environment of a moderately active comet before, during and after its closest approach to the Sun. For over 2 years in 2014-2016, the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft followed the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at distances typically between a few tens and a few hundred kilometers from the nucleus, the longest and closest inspection of a comet ever made. Its payload included a suite of five plasma instruments (the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, RPC), providing unprecedented in-situ measurements of the plasma environment in the inner coma of a comet.

    In the first two studies, we use spacecraft potential measurements by the Langmuir probe instrument (LAP) to study the evolving cometary plasma environment. The spacecraft potential was mostly negative, often below -10 V and sometimes below -20 V, revealing the presence of warm (around 5-10 eV) coma photoelectrons, not effectively cooled by collisions with the relatively tenuous coma gas. The magnitude of the negative spacecraft potential depends on the electron density and traced heliocentric, cometocentric, seasonal and diurnal variations in cometary outgassing, consistent with production at or inside the cometocentric distance of the spacecraft as the dominant source of the observed plasma.

    In the third study, we investigate ion velocities and electron temperatures in the diamagnetic cavity of the comet, combining LAP and Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) measurements. Ion velocities were generally in the range 2-4 km/s, well above the expected neutral velocity of at most 1 km/s. Thus, the ions were (at least partially) decoupled from the neutrals already inside the diamagnetic cavity, indicating that ion-neutral drag was not responsible for balancing the outside magnetic pressure. The spacecraft potential was around -5 V throughout the cavity, showing that warm electrons were consistently present inside the cavity, at least as far in as Rosetta reached. Also, cold (below about 0.1 eV) electrons were consistently observed throughout the cavity, but less consistently in the surrounding region, suggesting that while Rosetta never entered a region of efficient collisional cooling of electrons, such a region was possibly not far away during the cavity crossings. Also, it reinforces the idea of previous authors that the intermittent nature of the cold electron component was due to filamentation of this cold plasma at or near the cavity boundary, possibly related to an instability of this boundary.

    Finally, we report the detection of large-amplitude, quasi-harmonic density-fluctuations with associated magnetic field oscillations in association with asymmetric plasma and magnetic field enhancements previously found in the region surrounding the diamagnetic cavity, occurring predominantly on their descending slopes. Typical frequencies are around 0.1 Hz, i.e. about ten times the water and half the proton gyro-frequency, and the associated magnetic field oscillations, when detected, have wave vectors perpendicular to the background magnetic field. We suggest that they are Ion Bernstein waves, possibly excited by the drift-cyclotron instability resulting from the strong plasma inhomogeneities this region.

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  • Masoudi, Meysam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Sofia Lisi, Shari
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Cost-effective Migration towards Virtualized C-RAN with Scalable Fronthaul Design2020Ingår i: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, ISSN 1932-8184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from distributed to centralized radio access networks (C-RANs) can be expensive in terms of capital expenditures due to the initial investment while it has lower operational expenditures due to pooling baseband processing into the cloud and reduced power consumption. Partial centralization can be also an option by employing network function splitting and keeping lower physical layer functions co-located with the radio units. This increases the power consumption but relaxes the high capacity requirement in the fronthaul. It is not intuitive which migration strategy is more cost effective. In this paper, we formulate a pool placement optimization problem as an integer linear programming (ILP), which minimizes the total cost of ownership (TCO), and evaluate the migration cost to C-RAN with both full centralization of network functions, and partial centralization by using function splitting. We define a network upgrade optimization problem, by adding new cells to the network, as a revisited version of the original optimization problem to evaluate the upgradability of the architectures. We solve the problem with both ILP for optimality, and genetic algorithm for scalability. Simulation results show that partial centralization results in optimal TCO with lower crossover time compared to C-RAN with full centralization.

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  • Nguyen, Van Thang
    et al.
    National Economics University.
    Peiró, José María
    University of Valencia.
    Le, Quang Canh
    National Economics University.
    González-Romá, Vicente
    University of Valencia.
    Martinez -Tur, Vicente
    University of Valencia.
    Vietnamese Graduates' Labour Market Entry and Employment: A Tracer Study2020Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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  • Grundén, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA). Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Planning in mathematics teaching: a varied, emotional process influenced by others2020Ingår i: LUMAT: Luonnontieteiden, matematiikan ja teknologian opetuksen tutkimus ja käytäntö, ISSN 2323-7104, E-ISSN 2323-7112, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 67-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning is an essential part of teachers’ work that has consequences for students’ learning. However, previous research shows that what it means to plan vary. To explore the meaning of planning from teachers’ point of view, and to open up for planning as a situated and emotional process, an interview study with Swedish mathematics teachers was conducted. In the analysis, the theoretical concepts,meaning, and emotions were used as analytical tools to fill the gap identified in the review of previous research about planning. Findings reveal planning as a varied process in which teachers draw on different resources. Actors other than teachers influence both how planning is done and the mathematics teaching that is planned for. Findings also reveal that feelings, such as joy, shame, and insufficiency, are present in the process of planning. These feelings sometimes have consequences for decisions teachers make about their mathematics teaching.

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  • Shimizu, Cogan
    et al.
    Data Semantics Lab, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA.
    Hammar, Karl
    Jönköping University, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Datateknik och informatik, JTH, Jönköping AI Lab (JAIL).
    Hitzler, Pascal
    Data Semantics Lab, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA.
    Modular graphical ontology engineering evaluated2020Ingår i: The semantic web: 17th International Conference, ESWC 2020, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 31–June 4, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] A. Harth, S Kirrane, A.-C. Ngonga Ngomo, H. Paulheim, A. Rula, A. L. Gentile, P. Haase, & M. Cochez,, Cham: Springer, 2020, s. 20-35Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ontology engineering is traditionally a complex and time-consuming process, requiring an intimate knowledge of description logic and predicting non-local effects of different ontological commitments. Pattern-based modular ontology engineering, coupled with a graphical modeling paradigm, can help make ontology engineering accessible to modellers with limited ontology expertise. We have developed CoModIDE, the Comprehensive Modular Ontology IDE, to develop and explore such a modeling approach. In this paper we present an evaluation of the CoModIDE tool, with a set of 21 subjects carrying out some typical modeling tasks. Our findings indicate that using CoModIDE improves task completion rate and reduces task completion time, compared to using standard Protégé. Further, our subjects report higher System Usability Scale (SUS) evaluation scores for CoModIDE, than for Protégé. The subjects also report certain room for improvements in the CoModIDE tool – notably, these comments all concern comparatively shallow UI bugs or issues, rather than limitations inherent in the proposed modeling method itself. We deduce that our modeling approach is viable, and propose some consequences for ontology engineering tool development.

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  • Knekta, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, USA.
    Rowland, Ashley A.
    Corwin, Lisa A.
    Eddy, Sarah
    Measuring university students’ interest in biology: evaluation of an instrument targeting Hidi and Renninger’s individual interest2020Ingår i: International Journal of STEM education, E-ISSN 2196-7822, Vol. 7, artikel-id 23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Boosting students’ disciplinary interest has long been considered an important mechanism to increase student success and retention in STEM education. Yet, interest is a complex construct and can mean different things to different people, and many of the existing interest questionnaires do not identify a specific theoretical framework underlying their items. To demonstrate that curricular interventions targeting students’ interest are effective, educators need a theoretically based instrument to measure interest. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument measuring undergraduate students’ interest in the discipline of biology and collect initial validity evidence supporting the proposed use. The instrument structure is based on Hidi and Renninger’s (Educational Psychologist 41:111–127, 2006) conceptualization of individual interest, and the intended use is to evaluate changes in the biology interests of the US undergraduate students pursuing STEM degrees. To provide evidence of validity, the instrument was completed by 446 biology majors and 489 non-biology majors at two R1 universities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to evaluate the internal structure of the instrument.

    Results: The final three-factor instrument supported by these analyses includes 6 items representing positive feelings towards biology, 5 items representing personal value of biology, and 8 items representing reengagement in biology-related activities. Measurement invariance across biology and non-biology majors was established and subsequent comparisons of these populations demonstrated that biology majors report significantly higher positive feelings, personal value, and reengagement in biology-related activities compared to non-biology majors.

    Conclusions: The study findings support the use of the instrument to gain a broad understanding of students’ individual interest in biology. With minor adaptions, the instrument could also be evaluated for use in other STEM disciplines and for use by other populations.

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  • Skogman, Barbro H.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna. Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Nissers Vag 3, S-79182 Falun, Sweden..
    Lager, Malin
    Clin Microbiol, Jonkoping, Region Jonkopin, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Brudin, Lars
    Dept Clin Physiol, Kalmar, Region Kalmar C, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci IMH, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Tjernberg, Ivar
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.;Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Kalmar, Region Kalmar C, Sweden..
    Henningsson, Anna J.
    Clin Microbiol, Jonkoping, Region Jonkopin, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being evaluated for Lyme neuroborreliosis2020Ingår i: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 101390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Lyme neuroborrelios (LNB), the immune response has been in focus, but the association between different cytokines/chemokines and clinical manifestations in LNB patients has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large number of cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being evaluated for LNB. Materials and methods: Pediatric patients (n = 105) were recruited at seven Swedish pediatric departments during 2010-14. Serum and CSF samples were drawn on admission, before start of antibiotic treatment. Patients diagnosed as Definite LNB or Possible LNB were categorized as LNBtot patients, all LNBtot patients presented with pleocytosis in CSF. Patients diagnosed as Non-LNB or Other diagnosis were categorized as Controls(tot), all controls(tot) presented without pleocytosis in CSF. Multiplex bead array (Luminex) kits were used for analyses of 41 different cytokines/chemokines in CSF (Millipore). Results: Twenty-eight cytokines/chemokines were detectable in CSF and the levels of 26 of these mediators were significantly higher in LNBtot patients than in Controls(tot). In a discriminant analysis, a combination of four cytokines/chemokines (CXCL1, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-10) were shown to independently separate relevant patient groups. Furthermore, an IL-10/CXCL1 ratio was created and shown to have an improved diagnostic performance in distinguishing LNBtot vs Non-LNB patients, as compared to CXCL13 in CSF. No immune mediator differed significantly, when comparing LNBtot patients with different clinical presentation on admission or when comparing patients with or without recovery within 2 months of admission. Conclusion: A discriminant analysis was shown to be useful to distinguish the independently most important cytokines/chemokines (CXCL1, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-10) in CSF, in order to discriminate LNBtot patients from Non-LNB patients. An IL-10/CXCL1 ratio was shown to have a promising diagnostic profile with a better performance than the chemokine CXCL13 in CSF. However, further evaluation is required to address future possible usefulness of these cytokines and chemokines in laboratory diagnostics in LNB, including control groups with neuro-inflammation. No significant associations were found between CSF immune mediator levels and clinical presentation or recovery in pediatric LNB patients.

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  • Yang, Jiayi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kemiteknik.
    Utilization of cellulosic biomass towards sustainable chemicals and novel biomaterials2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en uppskattning gjord av FN så kommer världens befolkning år 2030 att förbruka minst 50 % mer mat, 45 % mer energi och 30 % mer vatten än idag. Koldioxidutsläppen från förbränning av icke-förnybara bränslen och material fortsätter också att öka. Samtidigt är uttaget av jordens resurser redan nu rekordhögt. Den ökande medvetenheten accelererar forskningen för att kunna underlätta en övergång från oljebaserad till en biobaserad ekonomi. Här spelar skogsindustri en signifikant roll för att underlätta för en hållbar utveckling och tillgodose ett ökande behov av material. Samtidigt är skogsindustrin en viktig spelare för att minska den globala uppvärmningen. Vår användning av produkter från skogen har en lång historia och insatserna för att konvertera skogsråvara till värdefulla och innovativa produkter har aldrig varit större än just nu. I den här avhandlingen presenteras några exempel från forskningen på hur skogsbiomassa kan upparbetas och hur omodifierad cellulosa kan användas på olika sätt i nya materialapplikationer.

    I avhandlingens första del så behandlas hur processvatten från termomekanisk massa (TMP) kan renas från lipofila substanser genom separation av löst och kolloidal substans. Resultaten visar att flotation med skumbildaren dodecyltrimetylammoniumklorid (DoTAC) effektivt kan avlägsna de lipofila substanserna (Paper I) och samtidigt bevara hemicellulosan (Paper II) i TMP processvattnet. Genom att tillsätta 80 ppm DoTAC vid pH 3,5 och 50 °C, kunde 94 % av de lipofila substanserna floteras ur processvattnet. Den effektiva bioraffineringen av de lipofila substanserna innebär inte bara en rening av processvattnet utan underlättar även för att selektivt kunna ”skörda” kvarvarande hemicellulosa av hög renhet.

    I den andra delen av avhandlingen så användes omodifierad cellulosa (sulfitmassa) upplöst i LiOH/urea för att tillverka sfäriska nanokompositpartiklar (Paper III), pH-responsiva nanokomposita ii filmer (Paper IV) och kemiskt tvärbundna cellulosahydrogeler (Paper V). Nanokomposita partiklar bestående av cellulosa-kitosan preparerades på tre olika sätt: genom att droppa alkalisk cellulosalösning ned i kitosan upplöst i utspädd ättiksyra, samt genom att emulsifiera en blandning av alkalisk cellulosa-kitosanlösning till en vatten-i-olja emulsion med och utan tillsatt kemisk tvärbindare. Sfäriska cellulosa-kitosan nanokompositpartiklar i storleksområdet millimeter till mikrometer kunde på detta vis framställas. Det kunde konstateras att några av egenskaperna för de sfäriska partiklarna, till exempel morfologin och storleksfördelningen, kunde kontrolleras genom de olika framställningsvägarna. Även nanokomposita cellulosakitosanfilmer med pH-responsiv svällning och långsam frisättning av kitosan tillverkades genom att först lösa upp biopolymererna i LiOH/urea. Filmer som innehöll 75 % kitosan uppvisade högst svällbarhet; 1500%, och samtidigt högst grad av frisättning av kitosan; 55 %, under 12 timmar vid pH 3. I en annan studie så tillverkades robusta hydrogeler, några med mycket hög vattenupptagande förmåga, av upplöst cellulosa genom olika grad av tvärbindning med metylenbisakrylamid (MBA). Den mest påfallande effekten åstadkoms för en hydrogel med ett molärt blandningsförhållandet [MBA]/[glukos] på 1,05 som fick reagera vid 60 °C under 30 minuter. Här kunde en svällningskapacitet av ca. 220 g H2O/ g torrvikt uppvisas. Att använda cellulosa upplöst i LiOH/urea följt av tvärbindning med MBA visar möjligheterna för en innovativ och snabb procedur att enkelt framställa tvärbundna cellulosahydrogeler med hög molekylvikt och extremt bra vattenupptagningsförmåga.

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  • Disputation: 2020-08-27 09:00 Ma135, Kalmar
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ).
    Creating clarity and managing complexity through co-operation and communication: The case of Swedish icebreaker operations2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea transportation is vital for the global economy, and the amount of seaborne trade is expected to increase in the future. In some areas, icebreakers are necessary for maintaining open shipping lanes all-year round and ensuring safe navigation. Vessels operating in ice are exposed to harsh environmental factors such as severe weather and heavy ice, and when external forces become too strong vessels will depend on icebreaker assistance. However, successful icebreaker operations require the icebreaker to operate in close vicinity to the assisted vessel to break the ice, which in turn increases the risk of collision.

    There are many factors which make icebreaker operations complex. The aim of this thesis is to use work organization, operational safety, and interpersonal communication as three lenses to describe and analyse the complexity of icebreaker operations, and its implications for practice. To thoroughly investigate this complexity, data are drawn from numerous sources; semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire, and a substantial amount of recorded authentic communication all provide complementary insights.

    The results show that the icebreaker performs a multitude of tasks directly concerned with icebreaking, e.g. directing and physically assisting other vessels, but that these tasks indirectly rely on interpersonal interaction and communication. A number of conflicting constraints add to the complexity. For example, harsh winter conditions impede vessels’ independent navigation in ice, while offering icebreaker crews opportunities to practice and maintain important skills. Furthermore, it was shown that language skills and communication play an important role in upholding the operational safety. However, closed-loop communication is not always used as intended, a deviation from intended communication protocol with potential to increase the risk of misunderstandings.

    This thesis suggests that safety and efficiency of winter navigation can be enhanced by making better use of existing technology and data; by examining the past track of other vessels, e.g. via AIS, finding suitable ice tracks will be made easier. Another implication concerning communication is that training institutes should emphasize the logic behind standardized communication protocols rather than focusing on standard phrases, i.e. facilitating means for advanced English speakers to adapt their communication style. That way, novice and advanced speakers could find common ground.

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  • Dancewicz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Univ Zielona Gora, Dept Bot & Ecol, Szafrana 1, PL-65516 Zielona Gora, Poland..
    Slazak, Blazej
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Farmakognosi. Polish Acad Sci, W Szafer Inst Bot, 46 Lubicz St, PL-31512 Krakow, Poland.
    Kielkiewicz, Malgorzata
    Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW WULS SGGW, Inst Hort Sci, Sect Appl Entomol, 159 Nowoursynowska, PL-02776 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kapusta, Malgorzata
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, 59 Wita Stwosza St, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Bohdanowicz, Jerzy
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Plant Cytol & Embryol, 59 Wita Stwosza St, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Gabrys, Beata
    Univ Zielona Gora, Dept Bot & Ecol, Szafrana 1, PL-65516 Zielona Gora, Poland..
    Behavioral and physiological effects of Viola spp. cyclotides on Myzus persicae (Sulz.)2020Ingår i: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 122, artikel-id 104025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclotides are defense peptides produced by several plant families. Viola spp. (Violaceae) produce an array of cyclotides with varying biological activities. The peach potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a generalist that feeds on the secondary hosts of over 40 plant families, including Violaceae. The present work aimed to evaluate the activities of cycloviolacins from Viola odorata L. and V. ulignosa Besser (cyO2, cyO3, cyO13, cyO19) against M. persicae. To investigate the peptides' influence on aphid feeding behavior, we used 20% sucrose diets supplemented with cyclotides and measured the effects with electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. We also applied anti-cyclotide antibodies and immunohistochemistry to track the peptides in the digestive systems of the aphids. Our study shows that cyclotides affect aphid probing and feeding behavior and limit their diet sap uptake. The cycloviolacin cyclotides: cyO13 (100 mu M) and cyO19 (50 mu M) most strongly impeded aphid ingestion activities when applied in sucrose diet. Sustained ingestion of the diet was blocked by 100 mu M cyO13, and no aphid showed ingestion of the diet for longer than 10 min. Cyclotides were detected in the pharynx, in contact with the epipharyngeal gustatory organ, in the stomach (midgut) and upper intestine. The present study shows the deterrent activity of cycloviolacins on M. persicae. This activity may be related to the peptides' effects on epithelial cells and gustatory organs along the aphid digestive system. We demonstrate that cyclotides may play an important role in plant-aphid interactions.

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  • Gerelli, Yuri
    et al.
    Inst Laue Langevin, Partnership Soft Condensed Matter, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;Polytech Univ Marche, Dept Life & Environm Sci, I-60131 Ancona, Italy..
    Skog, Amanda Eriksson
    Inst Laue Langevin, Partnership Soft Condensed Matter, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Div Theoret Chem, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jephthah, Stephanie
    Inst Laue Langevin, Partnership Soft Condensed Matter, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Welbourn, Rebecca J. L.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Pulsed Neutron Facil, STFC, Harwell Sci & Innovat Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialfysik.
    Skepo, Marie
    Lund Inst Adv Neutron & Xray Sci, LINXS, SE-23370 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Chem, Div Theoret Chem, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Spontaneous Formation of Cushioned Model Membranes Promoted by an Intrinsically Disordered Protein2020Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 36, nr 15, s. 3997-4004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, it is shown that by exposing commonly used lipids for biomembrane mimicking studies, to a solution containing the histidine-rich intrinsically disordered protein histatin 5, a protein cushion spontaneously forms underneath the bilayer. The underlying mechanism is attributed to have an electrostatic origin, and it is hypothesized that the observed behavior is due to proton charge fluctuations promoting attractive electrostatic interactions between the positively charged proteins and the anionic surfaces, with concomitant counterion release. Hence, we anticipate that this novel "green" approach of forming cushioned bilayers can be an important tool to mimic the cell membrane without the disturbance of the solid substrate, thereby achieving a further understanding of protein-cell interactions.

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  • Prahst, Claudia
    et al.
    Harvard Med Sch, Ctr Vasc Biol Res, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ashrafzadeh, Parham
    Mead, Thomas
    Francis Crick Inst, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Fac Nat & Math Sci, Dept Informat, London, England..
    Figueiredo, Ana
    Inst Med Mol, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Chang, Karen
    Harvard Med Sch, Schepens Eye Res Inst Massachusetts Eye & Ear, Dept Ophthalmol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Richardson, Douglas
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Ctr Biol Imaging, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Venkaraman, Lakshmi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Harvard Med Sch, Ctr Vasc Biol Res, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Richards, Mark
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Russo, Ana Martins
    Inst Med Mol, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Harrington, Kyle
    Harvard Med Sch, Ctr Vasc Biol Res, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Idaho, Virtual Technol & Design, Moscow, ID 83843 USA..
    Ouarne, Marie
    Inst Med Mol, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Pena, Andreia
    Inst Med Mol, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Chen, Dong Feng
    Harvard Med Sch, Schepens Eye Res Inst Massachusetts Eye & Ear, Dept Ophthalmol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Cho, Kin-Sang
    Harvard Med Sch, Schepens Eye Res Inst Massachusetts Eye & Ear, Dept Ophthalmol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Edith Nourse Rogers Mem Vet Hosp, Geriatr Res Educ & Clin Ctr, Off Res & Dev, Bedford, MA USA..
    Franco, Claudio A.
    Inst Med Mol, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Bentley, Katie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Harvard Med Sch, Ctr Vasc Biol Res, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Francis Crick Inst, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Fac Nat & Math Sci, Dept Informat, London, England.;Boston Univ, Biomed Engn Dept, Boston, MA 02215 USA..
    House retinal cell behaviour in space and time using light sheet fluorescence microscopy2020Ingår i: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 9, artikel-id e49779Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the general population ages, more people are affected by eye diseases, such as retinopathies. It is therefore critical to improve imaging of eye disease mouse models. Here, we demonstrate that 1) rapid, quantitative 3D and 4D (time lapse) imaging of cellular and subcellular processes in the mouse eye is feasible, with and without tissue clearing, using light-sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM); 2) flat-mounting retinas for confocal microscopy significantly distorts tissue morphology, confirmed by quantitative correlative LSFM-Confocal imaging of vessels; 3) LSFM readily reveals new features of even well-studied eye disease mouse models, such as the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model, including a previously unappreciated 'knotted' morphology to pathological vascular tufts, abnormal cell motility and altered filopodia dynamics when live-imaged. We conclude that quantitative 3D/4D LSFM imaging and analysis has the potential to advance our understanding of the eye, in particular pathological, neurovascular, degenerative processes.

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  • Ledberg, Sofia Knöchel
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Governing the military: Professional Autonomy in the People's LIberation Army2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The reform process that has been underway in China the past 30 years has affected most parts of Chinese society. In regard to core branches of the civilian state administration, public administration research provides evidence of far-reaching decentralization, marketization, and a relaxation of direct political control within many policy areas. Despite the fact that the military in any Marxist-Leninist state is an indispensable part of the state administration, it is rarely included in research on the Chinese state administrations. In this dissertation, it is argued that the military is intrinsically linked to the overall political stability of the Chinese state not only because it constitutes one of the most central branches of the Chinese cadre administration, but also given its close connection to the ruling communist party. Hence it deserves greater research focus.

    The overarching focus of this study is political control and governance vis-à-vis the Chinese military. Contrary to previous studies that have approached the issue of control by investigating military infringement on civilian policy making, the analysis here illustrates that the structures and the underlying logic of control are better captured by a study of the professional autonomy of the Chinese military officer corps. Professional autonomy is investigated within the military education system, given that education is a central undertaking for any profession.

    By suggesting a new approach to the study of the relationship between the political entities of the state and the military, an approach which makes use of insights from both the political science subfield of public administration and the sociology of professions, this dissertation makes important theoretical and analytical contributions to the field of civil-military relations. Yet the usefulness of the actor-centered approach put forward here, which focuses on the autonomy of the profession within the organization, reaches beyond the immediate study of the military and can be used in any analysis of power relations between the political entities of the state and its administrations. This dissertation also contributes to increase the understanding of Chinese military education, which is one of the military’s most important peace time undertakings.

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  • Plym, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Clements, Mark
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Voss, Margaretha
    Karolinska Inst, Department Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Endokrinkirurgi. Kings Coll London, Translat Urol & Oncol Res, London, England.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Urologkirurgi.
    Lambe, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Duration of sick leave after active surveillance, surgery or radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: a nationwide cohort study2020Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e032914Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare the loss of working time due to sick leave by treatment strategy for localised prostate cancer.

    Design: Nationwide cohort study.

    Setting: Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 15 902 working-aged men with localised low or intermediate-risk prostate cancer diagnosed during 2007-2016 from the Prostate Cancer Data Base Sweden, together with 63 464 prostate cancer-free men. Men were followed until 2016.

    Primary and secondary outcome measures: Using multistate Markov models, we calculated the proportion of men on work, sick leave, disability pension and death, together with the amount of time spent in each state. All-cause and cause-specific estimates were calculated.

    Results: During the first 5 years after diagnosis, men with active surveillance as their primary treatment strategy spent a mean of 17 days (95% CI 15 to 19) on prostate cancer-specific sick leave, as compared with 46 days (95% CI 44 to 48) after radical prostatectomy and 44 days (95% CI 38 to 50) after radiotherapy. The pattern was similar after adjustment for cancer and sociodemographic characteristics. There were no differences between the treatment strategies in terms of days spent on sick leave due to depression, anxiety or stress. Five years after diagnosis, over 90% of men in all treatment strategies were free from sick leave, disability pension receipt and death from any cause.

    Conclusions: Men on active surveillance experienced less impact on working life compared with men who received radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. From a long-term perspective, there were no major differences between treatment strategies. Our findings can inform men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer on how different treatment strategies may affect their working lives.

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  • Grandahl, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning.
    Stern, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Obstetrisk och reproduktiv hälsoforskning. Sophiahemmet Univ, Dept Hlth Promoting Sci, Box 5605, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Funkquist, Eva-Lotta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Perinatal, neonatal och barnkardiologisk forskning.
    Longer shared parental leave is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study among Swedish mothers and their partners2020Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 20, artikel-id 159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breastfeeding is associated with health benefits for both the mother and infant and is therefore important to support; moreover, parental leave is a beneficial factor for breastfeeding. The Swedish parental leave is generous, allowing each parent to take 90days; additionally, a further 300days can be taken by either parent. Generally, mothers take 70% of the parental leave days, mainly during the first year. However, breastfeeding duration has declined in the last decade, and it is not known how shared parental leave is associated with the duration of breastfeeding.

    Aim: To investigate how parental leave is associated with the duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding of the infant during the first 12months after birth. An additional aim was to describe infants' and parents' characteristics and mode of birth in association with the duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the Swedish Pregnancy Planning Study, conducted in Sweden in 2012-2015. The parents were recruited at 153 antenatal clinics in nine counties. In total, 813 couples completed a follow-up questionnaire 1 year after birth. Linear regression models were used to analyse the association between parental leave and the duration of breastfeeding.

    Results: Infants were exclusively breastfed for, on average, 2.5months (range 0-12months) and partially breastfed, on average, 7months (range 0-12months). Most of the parental leave was taken by the mother (mean=10.9months) during the infant's first 12months, while the partner took 3months, on average. The parental leave (used and planned) during the infant's first 24months were, on average, 21months. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, mothers' and partners' high level of education (p<0.001, p=0.044, respectively), mothers' higher age (p=0.049), non-instrumental vaginal birth (p=0.004) and longer parental leave for the first 24months (p<0.001) were associated with longer duration of partial breastfeeding.

    Conclusion: The duration of partial breastfeeding was associated with higher parental educational level, higher age, non-instrumental vaginal birth and longer parental leave.

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  • Nowak, Christoph
    et al.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Ostgren, Carl Johan
    Nystrom, Fredrik H.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes2018Ingår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1748-1757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. Methods We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. Results Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (+/- SD) of 6.4 +/- 2.3 years. We replicated associations (< 5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit alpha (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. Conclusions/interpretation We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.

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  • Ribeiro, Antonio H.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ribeiro, Manoel Horta
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Paixao, Gabriela M. M.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Telehlth Ctr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Oliveira, Derick M.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Gomes, Paulo R.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Telehlth Ctr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Canazart, Jessica A.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Telehlth Ctr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Ferreira, Milton P. S.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Andersson, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för systemteknik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Reglerteknik.
    Macfarlane, Peter W.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Wagner, Meira, Jr.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Schön, Thomas B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för systemteknik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Reglerteknik.
    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Telehlth Ctr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Automatic diagnosis of the 12-lead ECG using a deep neural network2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis in clinical practice is limited by the accuracy of existing models. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are models composed of stacked transformations that learn tasks by examples. This technology has recently achieved striking success in a variety of task and there are great expectations on how it might improve clinical practice. Here we present a DNN model trained in a dataset with more than 2 million labeled exams analyzed by the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais and collected under the scope of the CODE (Clinical Outcomes in Digital Electrocardiology) study. The DNN outperform cardiology resident medical doctors in recognizing 6 types of abnormalities in 12-lead ECG recordings, with F1 scores above 80% and specificity over 99%. These results indicate ECG analysis based on DNNs, previously studied in a single-lead setup, generalizes well to 12-lead exams, taking the technology closer to the standard clinical practice. The role of automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis in clinical practice is limited by the accuracy of existing models. In that context, the authors present a Deep Neural Network (DNN) that recognizes different abnormalities in ECG recordings which matches or outperform cardiology and emergency resident medical doctors.

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  • Andermo, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Lidin, Matthias
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hedby, Ulrika
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Nordenfelt, Anja
    The Foundation A Healthy Generation, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a family intervention on health-related quality of life-a healthy generation, a controlled pilot trial.2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 809Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with better health, but knowledge about health promoting interventions, including physical activity for families in disadvantaged areas and the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess HRQOL in children and their parents after participation in the programme "A Healthy Generation".

    METHODS: The programme is delivered in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Sweden and offers physical activity and a healthy meal or fruit twice a week from August to May to families with children in grade 2. Children (n = 67), aged 8-9 years, and their parents (n = 90) participated in this controlled study conducted in four schools, two control and two intervention schools. HRQOL of children and adults was assessed at baseline and follow-up after the intervention with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 and the Gothenburg Quality of Life scale, respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs), linear regression and Pearson's correlation were conducted.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between intervention and control in HRQOL among children or adults after the intervention. However, in a subgroup of children (n = 20) and adults (n = 29) with initial low HRQOL scores at baseline, there was a significant difference between the intervention group and control group after the intervention (children (total score): p = 0.02; adults (social domain) p = 0.04). Furthermore, within the intervention group, there was a significant relationship between level of participation in "A Healthy Generation" and the physical domain of HRQOL among girls (r = 0.44, p = 0.01), but not boys (r = - 0.07, p = 0.58).

    CONCLUSION: Participation in the programme "A Healthy Generation" did not show a significant intervention effect on HRQOL in general. However, the findings suggest that HRQOL may be increased for children and adults with low HRQOL in disadvantaged areas. This knowledge can contribute to the development of health promoting interventions in such areas, and to more equitable health.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN11660938. Retrospectively registered 23 September 2019.

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  • Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Andermo, Susanne
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Nordenfelt, Anja
    The Foundation A Healthy Generation, Sweden.
    Lidin, Matthias
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a Family Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Disadvantaged Areas-A Healthy Generation, a Controlled Pilot Study.2020Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 11, artikel-id E3794Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large social inequalities in health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a family intervention on physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in children and their parents. In this controlled pilot study, all 8-9-year-old children from four schools from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area in Sweden were invited and 67 children and 94 parents were included. The intervention was run by a foundation in co-operation with the municipality. The 9-month program included: (1) activity sessions, (2) healthy meals, (3) health information and (4) parental support groups. PA was primary outcome and ST was secondary outcome, measured by accelerometry. In total, 40 of the children (60%) and 45 of the adults (50%) had at least one day of valid accelerometer data at both baseline and follow-up. Significant intervention effects for the whole group were found in total PA (p = 0.048, mean difference (MD) intervention/control 150 counts per minute) and in vigorous PA (p = 0.02, MD 8 min/day) during the weekends. There were no differences between groups in the other PA variables or ST. This pilot study shows that it is possible to influence PA in families from a disadvantaged area through a family program.

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  • Vala, C. H.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Geriatr Med, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Geriatr Med Clin, Reg Vastra Gotaland, S-43180 Molndal, Sweden..
    Karrholm, J.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Orthoped Surg, S-43180 Molndal, Sweden..
    Kanis, J. A.
    Univ Sheffield, Med Sch, Ctr Metab Bone Dis, Sheffield S10 2RX, S Yorkshire, England.;Australian Catholic Univ, Mary McKillop Hlth Inst, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia..
    Johansson, H.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Geriatr Med, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Sundh, V.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Geriatr Med, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, M.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Orthoped & Clin Sci, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Lorentzon, M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Geriatr Med, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Geriatr Med Clin, Reg Vastra Gotaland, S-43180 Molndal, Sweden.;Australian Catholic Univ, Mary McKillop Hlth Inst, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, CBAR, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mellstrom, D.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Geriatr Med, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Geriatr Med Clin, Reg Vastra Gotaland, S-43180 Molndal, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, CBAR, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Risk for hip fracture before and after total knee replacement in Sweden2020Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 887-895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the risk for hip fracture before and after total knee replacement (TKR) in the entire population in Sweden. Women and men had a low risk for hip fracture before TKR but an increased risk the first year after TKR. Purpose It is known that osteoarthritis is associated with high bone mass. We therefore studied the risk of hip fracture before and after total knee replacement (TKR), risk of different hip fracture types, and risk subdivided in genders and age groups. Methods We followed the total Swedish population born between 1902 and 1952 (n = 4,258,934) during the period 1987-2002 and identified all patients with TKR due to primary OA (n = 39,291), and all patients with hip fracture (n = 195,860) in the Swedish National Inpatient Register. The risk time analyses were based on Poisson regression models. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture the last year before TKR was 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00) and the first year after 1.26 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) compared to individuals without TKR. The HR for femoral neck fracture 0-10 years after TKR was 0.95 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.01) and for trochanteric fracture was 1.13 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.21). The HR for hip fracture in the age group 50-74 was 1.28 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.43) and in the age group 75-90 years was 0.99 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.04) 0-10 years after TKR, compared to individuals without TKR. Conclusion Individuals had a low risk for hip fracture before TKR but an increased risk the first year after TKR. The risk in individuals below age 75 years and for trochanteric fractures was increased after TKR. Possible explanations include changed knee kinematics after a TKR, physical activity level, fall risk, and other unknown factors.

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  • Nilsson, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health & Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health & Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Norris, Shane A.
    MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Obstacles to intergenerational communication in caregivers' narratives regarding young people's sexual and reproductive health and lifestyle in rural South Africa2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, artikel-id 791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Statistics from South Africa show the world's highest HIV prevalence with an estimated seven million people living with the virus. Several studies have pointed to communication about sexuality between parents/caregivers and children as a protective factor. However, communication between generations has been described as problematic, especially due to discomfort in discussing sexual matters. The aim of this study was to explore how caregivers in a poor, rural part of South Africa talked about young people in general, their sexuality, and their lifestyle practices. A particular interest was directed towards central discourses in the caregivers' narratives and how these discourses were of importance for the caregivers to function as conversation partners for young people.

    METHODS: In this qualitative study convenience sampling was used to select and invite participants. Information was collected from nine one-on-one interviews conducted with caregivers from rural areas within South Africa. The interview guide included nine main questions and optional probing questions. Each interview took place in an uninterrupted setting of choice associated with the caregivers' home environment. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis.

    RESULTS: Interview narratives were characterized by three central discourses - demoralized youths in a changing society, prevailing risks and modernity and a generation gap. The youths were discursively constructed as a problematic group relating to specific prevailing risks such as early pregnancies, modern technologies, STI/HIV and contraceptives. The interview narratives illustrated that caregivers tried to impose their views of a respectable lifestyle in young people. At the same time caregivers expressed a morality of despair mirroring a generation gap which counteracted their ability to communicate with their children and grandchildren.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings add to the body of earlier research illustrating that rural South African caregivers and their children/grandchildren hold different moral standards. The interview material reflected a 'clash' between generations relating to their differing perceptions of a desirable lifestyle. To overcome the generational gap, we recommend further research about how a well-founded national and community collaboration linked to school-based programs can support family participation in order to empower adults in their communication with young people.

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  • Broiles, Thomas W.
    et al.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Chae, K.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Clark, G.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, 11100 Johns Hopkins Rd, Laurel, MD 20723 USA..
    Cravens, T. E.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, 1450 Jayhawk Blvd, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Fuselier, S. A.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.;Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA..
    Frahm, R. A.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Gasc, S.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Goldstein, R.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Henri, P.
    CNRS, LPC2E, F-45071 Orleans, France..
    Koenders, C.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Livadiotis, G.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Mandt, K. E.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.;Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA..
    Mokashi, P.
    Southwest Res Inst, Div Space Sci & Engn, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Nemeth, Z.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Odelstad, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Rymd- och plasmafysik.
    Rubin, M.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Samara, M.
    Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Heliophys Div, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Statistical analysis of suprathermal electron drivers at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 462, s. S312-S322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use observations from the Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) on board the Rosetta spacecraft to study the relationship between the cometary suprathermal electrons and the drivers that affect their density and temperature. We fit the IES electron observations with the summation of two kappa distributions, which we characterize as a dense and warm population (similar to 10 cm(-3) and similar to 16 eV) and a rarefied and hot population (similar to 0.01 cm(-3) and similar to 43 eV). The parameters of our fitting technique determine the populations' density, temperature, and invariant kappa index. We focus our analysis on the warm population to determine its origin by comparing the density and temperature with the neutral density and magnetic field strength. We find that the warm electron population is actually two separate sub-populations: electron distributions with temperatures above 8.6 eV and electron distributions with temperatures below 8.6 eV. The two sub-populations have different relationships between their density and temperature. Moreover, the two sub-populations are affected by different drivers. The hotter sub-population temperature is strongly correlated with neutral density, while the cooler sub-population is unaffected by neutral density and is only weakly correlated with magnetic field strength. We suggest that the population with temperatures above 8.6 eV is being heated by lower hybrid waves driven by counterstreaming solar wind protons and newly formed, cometary ions created in localized, dense neutral streams. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first observations of cometary electrons heated through wave-particle interactions.

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