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  • Blikstad, Mathias
    et al.
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lööw, Tomas
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    An optimisation approach for pre-runtime scheduling of tasks and communication in an integrated modular avionic system2018Ingår i: Optimization and Engineering, ISSN 1389-4420, E-ISSN 1573-2924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern integrated modular avionic systems, applications share hardware resources on a common avionic platform. Such an architecture necessitates strict requirements on the spatial and temporal partitioning of the system to prevent fault propagation between different aircraft functions. One way to establish a temporal partitioning is through pre-runtime scheduling of the system, which involves creating a schedule for both tasks and a communication network. While avionic systems are growing more and more complex, so is the challenge of scheduling them. The scheduling of the system has an important role in the development of new avionic systems, since functionality is typically added to the system over a period of several years and a scheduling tool is used both to detect if the platform can host the new functionality and, if this is possible, to create a new schedule. For this reason an exact solution strategy for avionics scheduling is preferred over a heuristic one. In this paper we present a mathematical model for an industrially relevant avionic system and present a constraint generation procedure for the scheduling of such systems. We apply our optimisation approach to instances provided by our industrial partner. These instances are of relevance for the development of future avionic systems and contain up to 20,000 tasks to be scheduled. The computational results show that our optimisation approach can be used to create schedules for such instances within a reasonable time.

  • Grip, Harald
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Naturgeografiska institutionen.
    Water chemistry and runoff in forest streams at Kloten1982Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural variability of stream water composition and discharge was studied in the Kloten area, Central Sweden, by means of statistical methods and simulation technique. The effects of Urea (155 kgN ha-1) and ammonium nitrate (AN, 160 kgN ha-1) fertilization and clear-cutting were studied by comparing treated and reference streams before and after management.

    The concentrations of the chemical constituents and runoff were mostly inhomogeneous in space and time and the coefficients of variation were considerable.

    Urea fertilization had a more prolonged nitrogen leaching and a total of 750 kgN km-2 compared with AN treated areas (500 kgN km-2). The difference was due to higher nitrate leaching. Base cation leaching was larger and pH increased after Urea fertilization. pH decreased after AN fertilization.

    Runoff increased 180 mm year-1 after clear-cutting, while no significant change was found after fertilization. The immediate effect of clear-cutting on stream water chemistry was an increase in dissolved organic matter, followed by increased leaching of ammonia (10x), nitrate (9x) and potassium (4.8x). The total excess leaching of nitrogen was 1 040 kgN km-2 during the first three years after clear-cutting.

    A Norwegian hydrochemical model, that explained stream water composition, was modified and parameterized (40 parameters) for two catchments to analyse differences between them.

    The differences in parameters between the catchments were interpreted as differences in slopes close to the drainage net, dilution due to different evaporation, differences in standing biomass and current annual increment and slightly different mineral composition of the soils. pH at high flows could be deduced from stand characteristics.

  • Hultman, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Perimed AB, Järfälla-Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evaluation of a high framerate multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging setup2018Ingår i: High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy III: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management / [ed] Kevin K. Tsia, Keisuke Goda, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first evaluation of a new multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (MELSCI) system for assessing spatial variations in the microcirculatory perfusion. The MELSCI system is based on a 1000 frames per second 1-megapixel camera connected to a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) capable of producing MELSCI data in realtime. The imaging system is evaluated against a single point laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system during occlusionrelease provocations of the arm in five subjects. Perfusion is calculated from MELSCI data using current state-of-the-art inverse models. The analysis displayed a good agreement between measured and modeled data, with an average error below 6%. This strongly indicates that the applied model is capable of accurately describing the MELSCI data and that the acquired data is of high quality. Comparing readings from the occlusion-release provocation showed that the MELSCI perfusion was significantly correlated (R=0.83) to the single point LDF perfusion, clearly outperforming perfusion estimations based on a single exposure time. We conclude that the MELSCI system provides blood flow images of enhanced quality, taking us one step closer to a system that accurately can monitor dynamic changes in skin perfusion over a large area in real-time

  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    The adaptation of the Dignity Care Intervention to a Swedish context2018Ingår i: Nordic Conference in Nursing Research - Methods and Networks for the future, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Dignity Care Intervention (DCI) was developed in Scotland by Johnston and co-workers for nurses in municipality care, to enhance dignity in persons with palliative care needs. DCI includes a questionnaire, examples of reflective questions and suggests care actions. DCI has been tested in Ireland, and is now adapted to Swedish.

    Objective: To translate and adapt the DCI to a Swedish palliative context.

    Method: The questionnaire was translated and adapted into Swedish and reviewed by an expert group, before validated in cognitive interviews (N=7) with older persons. To update evidence concerning care actions from a Swedish context, a review of Swedish research literature and interviews with older persons, relatives and health care professionals were carried out. This gathered knowledge has been integrated into the Swedish DCI (DCI-SWE) and a feasibility study now takes place in one municipality in home care, Sweden. Included nurses got repeated information and participated in a shorter DCI-education, and will use the DCI in their everyday work for three months. Follow-up interviews will be conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The Swedish version of the questionnaire was experienced relevant for older persons, and both the Swedish review and the interviews gave culturally relevant proposals about dignity care actions. Further, a feasibility study will contribute to the ongoing development of the Swedish DCI-version.

    Conclusion and implication for practice: Implementing DCI in Sweden can enhance dignity in persons with palliative care needs and facilitate for a person-centered care.

  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Enhancing dignity in older persons in Sweden: adaptation of the Dignity Care Intervention2018Ingår i: 24th Nordic Congress of Gerontology, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : In end of life, the older persons´ experiences of dignity can be affected due to serious illness and life changes, derived from physical, psychological, social and existential dimension. Loss of dignity impact the persons´ will to live. The Dignity Care Intervention (DCI) was developed and tested in Scotland and Ireland, to enhance dignity of older persons with palliative care needs, by nurses in municipality care. DCI consists a patient dignity inventory, reflective questions and examples of evidence-based care actions.

    The aim was to develop and adapt the DCI to a Swedish context.

    Methods: The patient dignity inventory was overall accepted by older persons in home care, however some changes in the wording were performed. The Swedish care actions reflected mostly earlier care actions described in the original version. However some more care actions derived in some of the categories in the Swedish DCI (DCI-SWE) e.g. “social support”, and some less care actions derived for example in the category “aftermath concerns”.  In DCI-SWE general care actions like e.g. to show respect were concretized unlike the original DCI.

    Conclusions: The DCI-SWE has prospects to enhance older persons´ dignity, and is now tested in a feasibility study by twelve nurses in home care.

  • de Alwis, M.P.
    et al.
    Garme, K:
    Martire, R. Lo
    Kåsin, J.I.
    Äng, Björn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Crew acceleration exposure, health and performance in high-speed operations at sea2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research program investigates the association between working conditions aboard High-Speed Craft (HSC) and its outcomes in terms of acceleration exposure and crew health and systems performance respectively. The aim is to identify the related risk factors and further, to use them to improve the assessment criteria in a simulation-based-design framework. The investigation initially document a seaborne population by a web-based questionnaire tailored for High-Performance Marine Craft Personnel (HPMCP) and similar populations. Then data is collected during regular service by measuring craft acceleration and through another questionnaire especially resolute on perceived work-exposure, health and performance. Exposure and performance data is collected daily and health data weekly, depending on seaborne frequency. The population repeats the prevalence questionnaire about a year later enabling a longitudinal follow-up for identifying long-term effects of exposure. The paper reports the two questionnaires´ development and pilot test as well as the first application for baseline data collection in the target group. The results indicate health and performance characteristics of the study population and data shows a promising correlation between the self-reported subjective exposure and the measured objective acceleration. Data indicates a comparatively higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the study population than that of the general population.

  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    En intervention för att bevara sköra äldre personers värdighet: utveckling och anpassning till en svensk kontext 2018Ingår i: Forskningen och utvecklingens dag, 2018, Örebro, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Utvärdering av palliativ vård i Sverige har visat att vården är ojämlik och att äldre personer får sämre palliativ vård. För att främja äldre personers livskvalitet den sista tiden i livet är bevarande av värdighet grundläggande. Förlust av värdighet kan innebära förtvivlan, en känsla av att vara en börda för andra och en önskan om att få dö, vanliga upplevelser hos sköra äldre personer. Konkreta arbetssätt behöver därför utvecklas för att bevara äldre personers värdighet, vilket idag saknas inom svensk palliativ vård. En värdighetsbevarande intervention (DCI) har utvecklats och prövats i Skottland och Irland. Interventionen består av ett formulär för kartläggning av värdighet, reflekterande frågor samt evidensbaserade vårdhandlingar.

    Syfte: Syftet var att utveckla och anpassa DCI till en svensk kontext.

    Metod: Utveckling och kulturanpassning skedde genom 1) översättning och anpassning av formuläret till svensk kontext via en expertpanel och via kognitiva intervjuer med äldre personer 2) identifiering av värdighetsbevarande vårdhandlingar relevanta för en svensk kontext, utifrån en litteraturgenomgång samt via intervjuer med äldre personer, deras närstående och vårdpersonal.

    Resultat: Mindre revideringar av formuläret genomfördes, men överlag accepterades det av de äldre personerna. Identifierade värdighetsbevarande vårdhandlingar speglade mestadels de redan angivna i originalversionen DCI. Dock framkom fler vårdhandlingar än i originalet vid några av kategorierna i den svenska DCI (DCI-SWE) som t.ex. ”socialt stöd”, medan det framkom färre vårdhandlingar än originalet vid t.ex. ”dödens följder för andra”. I DCI-SWE konkretiserades generella vårdhandlingar som t.ex. att lyssna och visa respekt, till skillnad från originalet.

    Konklusion: DCI-SWE har möjlighet att främja sköra äldre personers värdighet, och prövas nu av sjuksköterskor i en genomförbarhetsstudie inom hemsjukvården.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Damasceno, Davi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Johansson, Jan
    Naturgasteknik AB.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Investigation of research needs regarding the storage of hydrogen gas in lined rock caverns: Prestudy for Work Package 2.3 in HYBRIT Research Program 12018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med HYBRIT RP1 är att undersöka och utvärdera möjliga vägar till att göra värdekedjorna för energi-gruva-järn-stål fossilfria och därigenom ge en grund för industriella utvecklingsarbeten och den framtida omställningen. En viktig del i HYBRIT-konceptet utgörs av behovet av lagring av stora volymer vätgas. Lagring i inklädda bergrum är ett möjligt alternativ: en storskalig demonstrationsanläggning för lagring av naturgas byggdes 2002 i södra Sverige och har använts sedan dess. Eftersom denna anläggning konstruerades för naturgas, är syftet med denna rapport att undersöka det nuvarande forskningsbehovet för att kunna lagra vätgas i en sådan typ av anläggning. Detta kommer att utgöra basen för det fortsatta arbetet inom delprojekt 2.3 i HYBRIT RP1.

    Efter att ha studerat resultaten från svensk och internationell forskning, samt erfarenheterna från byggnation av inklädda bergrum för gaslagring, är slutsatsen att inklädda bergrum utgör ett rimligt alternativ för lagring av vätgas. Avseende bergmekanik finns det för närvarande inga kritiska frågeställningar. Däremot finns möjlighet att vidareutveckla riskbaserade dimensioneringsmetoder för inklädda bergrum, vilket kan stärka förmågan till god riskhantering vid byggnation av sådana anläggningar. Rapporten identifierar flera forskningsuppslag inom detta område att arbeta med inom delprojekt 2.3: utveckling av en riskbaserad dimensioneringsmetod med hjälp av subset-simulering, studie av optimeringspotentialen för betongliningens tjocklek, samt hur bergmassans rumsliga variation påverkar en plats lämplighet för anläggandet av ett inklätt bergrum.

    Avseende materialfrågor finns dock en kritisk frågeställning för underjordisk vätgaslagring: vätgasförsprödning av stålliningen ses som ett möjligt problem och bör studeras vidare. Men eftersom detta inte är relaterat till bergmekanik kommer det inte att studeras vidare inom delprojekt 2.3.

  • Lenau, Torben Anker
    et al.
    Orrù, Anna Maria
    Linkola, Lilli
    Biomimicry in the Nordic Countries2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of Biomimicry within the processes of design and development in Nordic companies are not well known. As a result, The Nordic Council of Ministers Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production has called for this report to highlight Nordic forerunners in Biomimicry and actors and activities in the field of biomimicry, biomimetics and biologically inspired design in Nordic countries today. The study conducted by Torben Lenau, Lilli Linkola and Anna Maria Orrù, will present a basis for planning further activities to leverage the possibilities for actors in biomimicry and to disseminate knowledge and methodology on if and how nature's solutions can provide environmental and competitive advantages in business development. Results showed that over 100 organisations and almost 100 professionals from the Nordic countries are listed in the stakeholder map.

  • Agrawal, Sumit
    et al.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada.
    Schart-Moren, Nadine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Liu, Wei
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Ladak, Hanif M.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Med Biophys, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, London, ON, Canada.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    The secondary spiral lamina and its relevance in cochlear implant surgery2018Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 9-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We used synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) to study the 3D microanatomy of the basilar membrane (BM) and its attachment to the spiral ligament (SL) (with a conceivable secondary spiral lamina [SSL] or secondary spiral plate) at the round window membrane (RWM) in the human cochlea. The conception of this complex anatomy may be essential for accomplishing structural preservation at cochlear implant surgery.

    Material and methods: Sixteen freshly fixed human temporal bones were used to reproduce the BM, SL, primary and secondary osseous spiral laminae (OSL), and RWM using volume-rendering software. Confocal microscopy immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to analyze the molecular constituents.

    Results: SR-PCI reproduced the soft tissues including the RWM, Reissner's membrane (RM), and the BM attachment to the lateral wall (LW) in three dimensions. A variable SR-PCI contrast enhancement was recognized in the caudal part of the SL facing the scala tympani (ST). It seemed to represent a SSL allied to the basilar crest (BC). The SSL extended along the postero-superior margin of the round window (RW) and immunohistochemically expressed type II collagen.

    Conclusions: Unlike in several mammalian species, the human SSL is restricted to the most basal portion of the cochlea around the RW. It anchors the BM and may influence its hydro-mechanical properties. It could also help to shield the BM from the RW. The microanatomy should be considered at cochlear implant surgery.

  • Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, S-72218 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    More secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents2018Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 62-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate whether more secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with less depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to explore possible sex differences.

    Method: A population-based sample of adolescents completed a school-based survey assessing demographic data, attachment to father and mother, as well as depressive symptoms. Participation rate was 80% of the eligible population, and 3,988 adolescents (1,937 boys and 2,051 girls) had complete data for the analyses.

    Results: Paired samples t tests showed that participants rated their attachment to mothers as slightly more secure than their attachment to fathers (t = 15.94, P < 0.001; boys: t = 5.23, P < 0.001; girls: t = 16.16, P < 0.001). In linear regression analyses there was an association between the outcome, number of depressive symptoms, and more secure attachment to the mother for boys (B=-0.532; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.656, -0.407, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.623; 95% CI -0.730, -0.516, P < 0.001). Analogous results were found for more secure attachment to the father for boys (B = -0.499; 95% CI -0.608, -0.391, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.494; 95% CI -0.586, -0.401, P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Understanding the relationship between attachment to both father and mother and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls is essential for further development of strategies for prevention and treatment of depression.

  • Vesterlund, Sabina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. FIHD - Forskarskolan för idrott och hälsas didaktik, GIH.
    Hälsa med andra ord: Innebörden av att genomföra och värdera street dance utifrån begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet2018Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To grasp what learning, teaching and knowing health might be in relation to a physical activity, the study explores what ninth grade students find difficult, and what they need to discern in teaching to experience the knowing of participation and evaluation of street dance classes through the concepts comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. These concepts are brought from Aron Antonovsky perspective of salutogenic health by Sense of Coherence (SOC). However I do not claim to embrace the complete SOC since it relates to life as a whole (Antonovsky, 1991; 2005).

    The aim of the study is to investigate how to deal with the content of teaching making the students develop the ability to participate and evaluate physical activity in relation to the concepts mentioned. Furthermore by using the onset of phenomenography and theory of variation the study explores ways for teachers and students to discern critical features of the content of teaching.

    The study design used is Learning study. It is a cyclic, pedagogical design aiming for making it possible for teachers to scientifically explore the quality of their own teaching in relation to a specific content being taught. In a Learning study teachers are collaborating with content of teaching, trying to discern critical features of the content to make these aspects come clear for the students in renewed teaching. A phenomenographic perspective is used to discern how the students’ experiences of the teaching content vary. The theory of variation is used for planning and carrying out lessons and evaluating them in order to make the critical aspects discernable for the students.

    Three lessons within one Learning study cycle were staged. They were videotaped and field notes were taken. The sample consisted of three groups of ninth grade students, 15 to 16 years of age (n=52) and three teachers.

    Three critical aspects according to the object of learning were discerned in the study:

    • Experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness within the context of street dance.
    • Experiences of different forms of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness within different situations of the context of street dance.
    • Within the context of street dance experience how the actions and experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness by oneself simultane-ously relates to actions and experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness of others.

    The study shows how young students’ ability to carry through and evaluate street dance with point of departure in the meaning of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness may be improved when the students are offered a variation in the critical features of the subject content.

  • Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurship on Regional Development in Western Sweden2018Ingår i: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 18-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how immigrant entrepreneurship impacts regional development. Three towns in Western Sweden are analysed,using unique data on company start-ups at a local level. The findings suggest that immigrant entrepreneurs are overrepresented in the start-ups of labour intensive and low productive businessesin the service sector. Such entrepreneurship does not promoteregional development, but it may get the entrepreneur out of thereliance onwelfare schemes and meet theirbills. Resultantly, the region appears to be caught in a vicious circle of underdevelopment, whereincompanies started by immigrant entrepreneurs experience a limited market expansion, and this leads to low savings,low consumption, reduced stock of capital in the economy,and low income.

    Thispaper offers important insights on how theory and results that stem from an aggregate national level may differ when entrepreneurship is analysed at a local level. It concludes that what works well and promotes regional development in metropolitan areas may lead to completely different outcomes in smaller towns in decaying industrial regions.

  • Bydler, Charlotte
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Konstvetenskap.
    Gedin, AndreasRingarp, JohannaSödertörns högskola.
    Pontus Hultén på Moderna Museet: Vittnesseminarium Södertörns högskola, 26 april 20172018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 9 maj 1958 invigdes Moderna Museet i marinens gamla Exercishall på Skeppsholmen i Stockholm. Museet var inte en självständig institution utan Nationalmuseums avdelning för modern konst med Bo Wennberg som chef. Året därpå tog Pontus Hultén över.

    Under Hulténs ledning blev Moderna ett av Europas viktigaste museer för modern konst. Men det var också något av stockholmarnas kulturhus, bland annat inspirerat av Stedelijk Museum i Amsterdam, med plats för film, musik, teater, happenings och modevisningar.

    Efter de första årens framgångar möttes Hultén av ett kulturpolitiskt motstånd mot slutet av 1960-talet. Hultén kritiserades för ointresse för den svenska konsten, för bristande politiskt engagemang och för att gå den amerikanska imperialismens ärenden.

    Den 26 april 2017 anordnade Samtidshistoriska institutet tillsammans med forskningsprojektet Levande arkiv: Pontus  Hultén på Moderna Museet (1957-73), fiansierat av Vetenskapsrådet och placerat vid ämnet Konstvetenskap, Södertörns högskola, ett vittnesseminarium om Pontus Hulténs tid på Moderna Museet.

  • Iveson, Timothy J.
    et al.
    Southampton Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Southampton SO16 0YD, Hants, England.
    Kerr, Rachel S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Oncol, Oxford, England.
    Saunders, Mark P.
    Christie Hosp, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Cassidy, Jim
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Henrik Hollander, Niels
    Zealand Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol & Palliat Care, Naestved, Denmark.
    Tabernero, Josep
    Vall dHebron Univ Hosp, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CIBERONC, Inst Oncol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Haydon, Andrew
    Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Harkin, Andrea
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Allan, Karen
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    McQueen, John
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Scudder, Claire
    Univ Oxford, Dept Oncol, OCTO, Oxford, England.
    Boyd, Kathleen Anne
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Briggs, Andrew
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Ctr Hlth & Policy Outcomes, New York, NY 10021 USA.
    Waterston, Ashita
    Beatson West Scotland Canc Ctr, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Medley, Louise
    Royal United Hosp, Bath, Avon, England.
    Wilson, Charles
    Addenbrookes Hosp, Cambridge, England.
    Ellis, Richard
    Royal Cornwall Hosp NHS Trust, Truro, England.
    Essapen, Sharadah
    Royal Surrey Cty Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Lukes Canc Ctr, Guildford, Surrey, England.
    Dhadda, Amandeep S.
    Castle Hill Hosp, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England.
    Harrison, Mark
    Mt Vernon Canc Ctr, Northwood, Middx, England.
    Falk, Stephen
    Bristol Canc Inst, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Raouf, Sherif
    Barking Havering & Redbridge Univ Hosp NHS Trust, Barking, England.
    Rees, Charlotte
    Southampton Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Southampton SO16 0YD, Hants, England.
    Olesen, Rene K.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Propper, David
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts Canc Inst, London, England.
    Bridgewater, John
    UCL, UCL Canc Inst, London, England.
    Azzabi, Ashraf
    Newcastle Upon Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Newcastle, England.
    Farrugia, David
    Cheltenham Gen Hosp, Gloucestershire Oncol Ctr, Cheltenham, Glos, England.
    Webb, Andrew
    Brighton & Sussex Univ Hosp Trust, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Cunningham, David
    Royal Marsden Hosp, London, England.
    Hickish, Tamas
    Bournemouth Univ, Poole Hosp, Bournemouth, Dorset, England.
    Weaver, Andrew
    Oxford Univ Hosp Fdn Trust, Dept Oncol, Oxford, England.
    Gollins, Simon
    North Wales Canc Treatment Ctr, Rhyl, Wales.
    Wasan, Harpreet S.
    Imperial Coll London, Hammersmith Hosp, London, England.
    Paul, James
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    3 versus 6 months of adjuvant oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine combination therapy for colorectal cancer (SCOT): an international, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial2018Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 562-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 6 months of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is usually given as adjuvant treatment for stage 3 colorectal cancer. We investigated whether 3 months of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy would be non-inferior to the usual 6 months of treatment.

    Methods: The SCOT study was an international, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done at 244 centres. Patients aged 18 years or older with high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer underwent central randomisation with minimisation for centre, choice of regimen, sex, disease site, N stage, T stage, and the starting dose of capecitabine. Patients were assigned (1: 1) to receive 3 months or 6 months of adjuvant oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy. The chemotherapy regimens could consist of CAPOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX (bolus and infused fluorouracil with oxaliplatin). The regimen was selected before randomisation in accordance with choices of the patient and treating physician. The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival and the non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio of 1.13. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in patients who started study treatment. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN59757862, and follow-up is continuing.

    Findings: 6088 patients underwent randomisation between March 27, 2008, and Nov 29, 2013. The intended treatment was FOLFOX in 1981 patients and CAPOX in 4107 patients. 3044 patients were assigned to 3 month group and 3044 were assigned to 6 month group. Nine patients in the 3 month group and 14 patients in the 6 month group did not consent for their data to be used, leaving 3035 patients in the 3 month group and 3030 patients in the 6 month group for the intention-to-treat analyses. At the cutoff date for analysis, there had been 1482 disease-free survival events, with 740 in the 3 month group and 742 in the 6 month group. 3 year disease-free survival was 76.7% (95% CI 75.1-78.2) for the 3 month group and 77.1% (75.6-78.6) for the 6 month group, giving a hazard ratio of 1.006 (0.909-1.114, test for non-inferiority p=0.012), significantly below the non-inferiority margin. Peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or worse was more common in the 6 month group (237 [58%] of 409 patients for the subset with safety data) than in the 3 month group (103 [25%] of 420) and was long-lasting and associated with worse quality of life. 1098 serious adverse events were reported (492 reports in the 3 month group and 606 reports in the 6 month group) and 32 treatment-related deaths occurred (16 in each group).

    Interpretation: In the whole study population, 3 months of oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy was non-inferior to 6 months of the same therapy for patients with high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer and was associated with reduced toxicity and improved quality of life. Despite the fact the study was underpowered, these data suggest that a shorter duration leads to similar survival outcomes with better quality of life and thus might represent a new standard of care.

  • Havnen, Ingvard
    Norden – nye muligheter: Forslag til økt mobilitet og integrasjon mellom de nordiske landene2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten inneholder 16 forslag fra Norges tidligere ambassadør til Danmark, Ingvard Havnen, om hvordan man kan øke mobiliteten og integrasjonen i Norden.

    Forslagene handler om nordisk identitet og språk, digitalisering, næringsliv, arbeidsliv, utdanning, lovgivning, transport og helse. Et forslag handler om strukturen for Nordisk ministerråds arbeid med mobilitet og integrasjon.

    Havnen trekker spesielt frem et forslag om elektronisk ID, som vil kunne legge til rette for at man kan bruke sin nasjonale elektroniske ID i alle de nordiske landene. Det kan bli like viktig for det nordiske samarbeidet som passunionen i sin tid.

    Målet med forslagene er å frigjøre potensialet for enkeltpersoner og næringslivet som enda ikke er realisert. Rapporten skal også gi et bidrag til diskusjonen om hvordan vi kan styrke samarbeidet og mobiliteten i Norden.

  • Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Förbättrat lärande i utredningsmetodik2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt var att öka förståelsen för hur vi i undervisningen kan stötta studenternas lärande i utredningsmetodik.

    Efter att inledningsvis studerat litteratur om utredningsmetodik, interv-juades representanter för olika avdelningar på LiU, där studenterna arbe-tar med utredningsprojekt som ligger inom ramen för ovanstående be-skrivning. Intervjuer på 45-90 minuter genomfördes med representanter för sju avdelningar, från tre av LiUs institutioner. En specificering av res-pondenterna finns i bilaga 1. Intervjuerna spelades in med respondenter-nas samtycke.

    Utifrån intervjuerna valdes en kurs ut som case för djupare studier. Denna kurs följdes under projektets gång genom diskussioner med exami-nator och andra involverade lärare, samt genom enkäter riktade till kurs-deltagarna. Upplevda problem med kursen identifierades, förändringar genomfördes och följdes upp under två kursgenomföranden.

  • Björkvall, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Det värdefulla skräpet: ”Upcycling” och värdeökningens semiotik2018Ingår i: Grammatik, kritik, didaktik: Nordiska studier i systemisk-funktionell lingvistik och socialsemiotik / [ed] Inga-Lill Grahn, Hans Landqvist, Benjamin Lyngfelt, Andreas Nord, Lena Rogström, Barbro Wallgren Hemlin, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018, Vol. 34, s. 55-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • Nehme, Ralda
    et al.
    Zuccaro, Emanuela
    Ghosh, Sulagna Dia
    Li, Chenchen
    Sherwood, John L.
    Pietilainen, Olli
    Barrett, Lindy E.
    Limone, Francesco
    Worringer, Kathleen A.
    Kommineni, Sravya
    Zang, Ying
    Cacchiarelli, Davide
    Meissner, Alex
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Haggarty, Stephen
    Madison, Jon
    Muller, Matthias
    Arlotta, Paola
    Fu, Zhanyan
    Feng, Guoping
    Eggan, Kevin
    Combining NGN2 Programming with Developmental Patterning Generates Human Excitatory Neurons with NMDAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission2018Ingår i: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 2509-2523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcription factor programming of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has emerged as an approach to generate human neurons for disease modeling. However, programming schemes produce a variety of cell types, and those neurons that are made often retain an immature phenotype, which limits their utility in modeling neuronal processes, including synaptic transmission. We report that combining NGN2 programming with SMAD and WNT inhibition generates human patterned induced neurons (hpiNs). Single-cell analyses showed that hpiN cultures contained cells along a developmental continuum, ranging from poorly differentiated neuronal progenitors to well-differentiated, excitatory glutamatergic neurons. The most differentiated neurons could be identified using a CAMK2A::GFP reporter gene and exhibited greater functionality, including NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We conclude that utilizing single-cell and reporter gene approaches for selecting successfully programmed cells for study will greatly enhance the utility of hpiNs and other programmed neuronal populations in the modeling of nervous system disorders.

  • Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gustavsson, MariaLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.Fejes, AndreasLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Book of Abstracts: 3rd International ProPEL Conference 2017, 14-16 June 2017, Hosted by Linköping University, Sweden2017Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Hammarström, Anne
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health2018Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikel-id 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden. Methods: The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups. Results: Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed that the social determinants included in the model accounted for 43-51% of the inequalities among youths, 42-98% of the inequalities among adults and 60-65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course. Conclusions: The health gap between employed and unemployed was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from this study corroborate that much of the mental health inequality in the Swedish labour market is socially and politically produced and potentially avoidable. Greater attention from researchers, policy makers on unemployment and public health should be devoted to the social and economic deprivation of unemployment from a life course perspective to prevent mental health inequality.

  • Libby, Eric
    et al.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, 87501, USA.
    Driscoll, William W.
    Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55108, USA.
    Ratcliff, William C.
    School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.
    Programmed cell death can increase the efficacy of microbial bet hedging2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 1120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. While PCD plays a key role in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, explaining why single-celled organisms would evolve to actively commit suicide has been far more challenging. Here, we explore the potential for PCD to act as an accessory to microbial bet-hedging strategies that utilize stochastic phenotype switching. We consider organisms that face unpredictable and recurring disasters, in which fitness depends on effective phenotypic diversification. We show that when reproductive opportunities are limited by carrying capacity, PCD drives population turnover, providing increased opportunities for phenotypic diversification through stochastic phenotype switching. The main cost of PCD, providing resources for growth to a PCD(−) competitor, is ameliorated by genetic assortment in spatially structured populations. Using agent -based simulations, we explore how basic demographic factors, namely bottlenecks and local dispersal, can generate sufficient spatial structure to favor the evolution of high PCD rates.

  • Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Xu, Liguo
    May, Ross
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    A review of reinforcement learning methodologies on control systems for building energy2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of energy directly leads to a great amount of consumption of the non-renewable fossil resources. Exploiting fossil resources energy can influence both climate and health via ineluctable emissions. Raising awareness, choosing alternative energy and developing energy efficient equipment contributes to reducing the demand for fossil resources energy, but the implementation of them usually takes a long time. Since building energy amounts to around one-third of global energy consumption, and systems in buildings, e.g. HVAC, can be intervened by individual building management, advanced and reliable control techniques for buildings are expected to have a substantial contribution to reducing global energy consumptions. Among those control techniques, the model-free, data-driven reinforcement learning method seems distinctive and applicable. The success of the reinforcement learning method in many artificial intelligence applications has brought us an explicit indication of implementing the method on building energy control. Fruitful algorithms complement each other and guarantee the quality of the optimisation. As a central brain of smart building automation systems, the control technique directly affects the performance of buildings. However, the examination of previous works based on reinforcement learning methodologies are not available and, moreover, how the algorithms can be developed is still vague. Therefore, this paper briefly analyses the empirical applications from the methodology point of view and proposes the future research direction.

  • Sörme, Louise
    et al.
    SCB.
    Eklund, Veronica
    SCB.
    Mietala, Johanna
    SCB.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Ek, Mats
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Skårman, Tina
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Mapping of emissions from reporting point sources and Estimation of emission factors from reporting waste water treatment plants2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt EG-förordningen 166/2006 är verksamhetsutövaren ansvarig för kvaliteten på den information som de rapporterar. Den behöriga myndigheten är dock ansvarig för att bedöma om den rapporterade informationen är fullständig, konsekvent och trovärdig. Sverige har rapporterat data till det E-PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) sedan år 2007. Däremot har det inte funnits någon allmän kartläggning av de rapporterande punktkällorna avseende vilka ämnen som redovisas av före-tagen inom en viss bransch eller vilken metod som har använts för att redovisa utsläppen.

    Tidigare arbete har visat att endast ett fåtal organiska föreningar rapporterades från ett fåtal renings-verk (ARV) i SMP, t.ex. DEHP, alkylfenoler, nonylfenol och PAH. Tidigare studier har också visat att det verkar finnas en stor underrapportering av utsläpp av organiska ämnen. För alkylfenoler och alkylfenoletoxylater, DEHP, nonylfenol, oktylfenol och PAH uppskattas det att de värden som redovisas för Sverige ska öka med 204, 202, 2288, 823 och 300% respektive om alla reningsverk rapporterade sina utsläpp. Det är också svårt att mäta ämnen i avloppsvattnet och därför finns det ett behov av att hitta andra sätt, till exempel användning av emissionsfaktorer för att uppskat-ta utsläpp till vatten. Ett hjälpmedel för att beräkna utsläppen skulle kunna ge en mer komplett rappor-tering från reningsverk i framtiden.

    Projektet hade två delprojekt:

    Syftet med det första delprojektet var att kartlägga rapporterade data för 2011 (utsläpp till vat-ten och luft och som transport till reningsverk) till E-PRTR, alla rapporterade E-PRTR ämnen och alla branscher. Med att kartlägga menas här att sortera, organisera och gruppera utsläpps-data och metodik för framtagning av utsläppsdata för verksamhetsutövare inom samma bransch

    Syftet med det andra delprojektet var att utveckla emissionsfaktorer för att uppskatta utsläpp till vatten för E-PRTR från kommunala reningsverk för 18 ämnen / ämnesgrupper2. Dessa emissionsfaktorer skulle kunna användas av reningsverk vid rapporteringen av utsläppsdata i emissionsdeklarationerna som i sin tur används för att rapportera till E-PRTR.

    2 nonylfenol and nonylfenoletoxilat, oktylfenol and oktylfenoletoxilat, polybromerade dinfenyletrar(PBDEs) dietylhexylftalat (DEHP), tetrakloretylen (per), tetraklorometan (koltetraklorid), triklorbensen, 1,2-dikloroetan, trikloretylen (tri) diklormetan, triklrmetan (kloroform), PAH (summa 4) antracen, flouranten, benzo (g, h, i) perylen, kloroalkaner (C10-13), hexaklorobutadien (HCBD), isodrin.

    I det första delprojektet studerades utsläppsdata från Svenska miljörapporteringsportalen (SMP) gäl-lande utsläppsåret 2011 för följande mottagare: luft, vatten och borttransport av föroreningar i av-loppsvatten. En sammanställning av utsläppsdata gjordes för PRTR-klassade anläggningar. För motta-garkod luft, rapporterade totalt 666 anläggningar utsläpp år 2011. Motsvarande siffror för utsläpp till vatten och som borttransport av föroreningar i avloppsvatten var 331 respektive 157.

    Kartläggningen av utsläppen från rapportering punktkällor utfördes för varje mottagarkod, förorening och PRTR-kod. För varje PRTR kod och förorening presenteras utsläppsdata som en procentsats av det totala antalet PRTR klassade anläggningar inom respektive mottagarkod. Resultaten presenterades som procent under (<tv) och över (> tv) tröskelvärdena till E-PRTR. Vidare genomfördes också en sammanställning av de metoder som används för framtagning av utsläppsdata från rapporterande punktkällor. Metoderna delades upp i uppmätta (M), beräknade (C) och uppskattade (E) och samman- 9

    ställdes för varje mottagarkod och föroreningar. För organiska ämnen undersöktes även om en branschspecifik uppdelning av de använda metoderna kunde genomföras.

    Generellt, för alla tre mottagande media och föroreningar, är andelen av de rapporterade utsläppen under tröskelvärdena till E-PTRT högre jämfört med utsläppen över tröskelvärdena. Resultaten från föreliggande projekt indikerar att i vissa fall kan tröskelvärden till E-PRTR vara för högt satta. Utsläpp av alla föroreningar förväntas inte ske från samtliga E-PRTR sektorer. Det finns dock exempel på sektorer för vilka förväntade utsläppsdata saknas. Ett exempel är utsläpp av CH4 och N2O till luft från sektor 7 (Intensiv animalieproduktion och intensivt vattenbruk). Av alla anläggningar inom sektor 7 rapporterar endast en anläggning utsläpp av N2O under tröskelvärdet till E-PRTR och ingen av an-läggningarna rapporterar några utsläpp av CH4. Med undantag för utsläpp av dioxiner och PAH till luft, AOX till vatten och fenoler och TOC/CODCr till vatten och som borttransport av föroreningar i avloppsvatten rapporteras organiska ämnen endast från ett fåtal verksamhetsutövare. Om data rappor-teras, är utsläppen i allmänhet under tröskelvärdena till E-PRTR.

    Användningen av bestämningsmetoder för rapportering av utsläpp till luft, vatten och som borttrans-port av föroreningar i avloppsvatten (C, M, E) varierar med olika föroreningar och mottagande media. För många av de föroreningarna gör brist på data det svårt att jämföra och kartlägga utsläppen. Gene-rellt är mätmetoder vanligare och uppskattningsmetoder används mer sällan.

    I det andra delprojektet användes två olika metoder för att försöka utveckla emissionsfaktorer; tidigare mätningar och modellering. Genom att använda tidigare mätningar av ämnen i avloppsvatten från reningsverk och i avloppsslam kunde en faktor uppskattas. Data hämtades från en rapport och från nationella miljöövervakningen. För modelleringen användes en reningsverksmodell (STP) som beräk-nar hur ett ämne fördelar sig mellan luft, vatten, avloppsslam och biologisk nedbrytning. Modellen som har använts kallas STP-EX och har utvecklats av Seth et al. (2008). Modellen inkluderar oktanol-vatten fördelningskoefficienten (Kow), vilket är ett mått på hur en substans/grupp ämnen fördelas mellan vatten och fett. Ju mer hydrofoba substanser är, desto mer de binder till partiklar, såsom av-loppsslam. Metoden använder fördelningen mellan de olika medierna och den kända mängden av-loppsslam som produceras i reningsverket och uppskattar sedan mängden (eller koncentrationen) av ämnet i utgående vatten från reningsverk. Av 132 mätningar var 110 av totalt 132 under detektionsgränsen för analyserna. Motsvarande siffror för slam var 39 av 164. En faktor (total mängd kemikalie i vatten/total mängd kemikalie i slam) beräk-nades för de olika kemikalierna vid respektive reningsverk när det fanns tillgänglig data På grund av ett stort antal värden under detektionsgränsen, kunde faktorer endast utvecklas för 4-tert-oktylfenol och 4-nonylfenol. Faktorerna för 4-tert-ocylphenol varierade mellan 0,06 och 0,52 för de olika re-ningsverken, med ett genomsnitt på 0,11. Faktorerna för 4-nonylfenol, grenad varierade mellan 0,02 och 23 med ett medelvärde av 4.4. Att faktorerna varierar mellan olika avloppsreningsverk kan bero på både normala variansen på grund av olika belastning, storlek och tekniska egenskaper hos olika re-ningsverk. Resultaten från modelleringen visade att den förutspådda kemiska fördelningen skiljer sig åt mellan kemikalier samt mellan olika reningsverk, men det allmänna mönstret är att hydrofoba föreningar, främst kommer att hamna i slammet och VOC kommer främst brytas ned eller avdunsta. Andra före-ningar av mellanliggande hydrofobicitet och reaktivitet, som t.ex. fluoranten, kommer delvis brytas ned och delvis att hamna i slammet. De flesta ämnen som ingår i studien hade ett förhållande på 0,1 eller lägre, vilket innebär att endast en mindre del kommer att hamna i utgående avloppsvatten. En 10

    kvot över 1 innebär på årsbasis, att större mängder av kemikalier förutspås att hamna i utgående av-loppsvatten än med slam. En emissionsfaktor (total mängd kemikalie i vatten/total mängd kemikalie i slam) på ca ett eller högre uppskattades för tetrakloreten, tetraklormetan, triklorbensen, 1,2-dikloretan, trikloretylen, diklormetan och triklormetan. Resultaten visade att förhållandena för enskilda ämnen skiljer sig åt mellan de ingående reningsverk, med upp till en faktor 30 (för trikloretylen). Vatten/slam förhållandet skiljer sig inte bara mellan kemikalier och olika reningsverk, det kan också variera mellan åren. TSS (Torr Suspenderad Substans) i utgående avloppsvatten och volymen av inkommande vatten (påverkar den hydrauliska retentionstiden och därmed den biologiska nedbrytningen) med dess egen-skaper var parametrar som hade en hög påverkan på faktorn för de studerade ämnena. Dessa två fakto-rer är troligen också en förklaring till de stora variationerna i faktorer beräknade från mätningar. Båda metoderna (mätningar och modellering) illustrerar en stor variation mellan olika reningsverk, vilket innebär att det är olämpligt att använda en gemensam ämnesspecifik kvot för utsläppsberäk-ningar. Detta leder till rekommendationen att utveckla reningsverksspecifika kvoter som kan användas för att uppskatta utsläppen med utgående vatten från data i avloppsslam. Det är relativt få reningsverk som måste rapportera till E-PRTR och för dem är modellering att föredra, eftersom det visade sig vara svårt att mäta de flesta ämnen i så låg koncentration som behövs. Det är också viktigt att uppmärk-samma förändrade villkor mellan åren i reningsverken, eftersom det påverkar var kemikalierna ham-nar. För att utvärdera den föreslagna modellen för svenska reningsverk är det önskvärt att genomföra empiriska studier i utvalda reningsverk och för utvalda substanser för att undersöka hur väl modellen överensstämmer med mätningar. Trots att modellen har visat goda resultat jämfört med mätdata från tidigare studier har det inte utvärderats för svenska förhållanden, som i vissa fall avviker, till exempel på grund av den praxis för kemisk fällning, biologisk kväverening och slamrötning, som inte ingår i modellen. Resultaten från STP-modellen visade också att det endast är ett fåtal ämnen som är nära eller över utsläppströskeln för rapportering; DEHP, nonylfenoler, oktylfenoler PBDE, PAH och kloralkaner. Detta är viktig information för reningsverk. I en tidigare studie har 17 ämnen identifierades vara av intresse, till stor del baserad på koncentrationer under detektionsgränserna. Denna studie har begränsat antal ämnen eller grupper till sex.

  • Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Batty, G. David
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Kuosma, Eeva
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Vuoksimaa, Eero
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK; Population-based Epidemiologic Cohort Unit, UMS 011, Inserm, Villejuif, France.
    Jokela, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals2018Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 601-609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Higher midlife body mass index (BMI) is suggested to increase the risk of dementia, but weight loss during the preclinical dementia phase may mask such effects. Methods: We examined this hypothesis in 1,349,857 dementia-free participants from 39 cohort studies. BMI was assessed at baseline. Dementia was ascertained at follow-up using linkage to electronic health records (N = 6894). We assumed BMI is little affected by preclinical dementia when assessed decades before dementia onset and much affected when assessed nearer diagnosis. Results: Hazard ratios per 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI for dementia were 0.71 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.77), 0.94 (0.89-0.99), and 1.16 (1.05-1.27) when BMI was assessed 10 years, 10-20 years, and >20 years before dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The association between BMI and dementia is likely to be attributable to two different processes: a harmful effect of higher BMI, which is observable in long follow-up, and a reverse-causation effect that makes a higher BMI to appear protective when the follow-up is short. 

  • Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Wierup, Nils
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Effects of GIP on regional blood flow during normoglycemia and hyperglycemia in anesthetized rats2018Ingår i: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, nr 8, artikel-id e13685Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects -cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60ng/kg*min) for 30min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused exvivo with GIP (10(-6)-10(-12)mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded. The highest dose of GIP potentiated insulin secretion during hyperglycemia, but had no effect in normoglycemic rats. The highest GIP concentration decreased blood perfusion of whole pancreas, pancreatic islets, duodenum, colon, liver and kidneys. The decrease in blood flow was unaffected by ganglion blockade or adenosine receptor inhibition. In contrast to this, in single perfused islets GIP induced a dose-dependent arteriolar dilation. Thus, high doses of GIP exert a direct dilatory effect on islet arterioles in isolated islets, but induce a generalized vasoconstriction in splanchnic organs, including the whole pancreas and islets, invivo. The latter effect is unlikely to be mediated by adenosine, the autonomic nervous system, or endothelial mediators.

  • Ueckert, Sebastian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Modeling Composite Assessment Data Using Item Response Theory2018Ingår i: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology, ISSN 2163-8306, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 205-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite assessments aim to combine different aspects of a disease in a single score and are utilized in a variety of therapeutic areas. The data arising from these evaluations are inherently discrete with distinct statistical properties. This tutorial presents the framework of the item response theory (IRT) for the analysis of this data type in a pharmacometric context. The article considers both conceptual (terms and assumptions) and practical questions (modeling software, data requirements, and model building).

  • Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi.
    Bjork, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kvarnstrom, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wahren-Herlenius, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Reumatologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transcription profiling of peripheral B cells in antibody-positive primary Sjogren's syndrome reveals upregulated expression of CX3CR1 and a type I and type II interferon signature2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 87, nr 5, artikel-id UNSP e12662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to analyse the transcriptome of CD19+ B cells from patients with pSS and healthy controls to decipher the B cell-specific contribution to pSS. RNA from purified CD19+ B cells from 12 anti-SSA antibody-positive untreated female patients with pSS and 20 healthy blood donors was subjected to whole transcriptome sequencing. A false discovery rate corrected significance threshold of <0.05 was applied to define differential gene expression. As validation, gene expression in B cells from 17 patients with pSS and 16 healthy controls was analysed using a targeted gene panel. RNA-sequencing identified 4047 differentially expressed autosomal genes in pSS B cells. Upregulated expression of type I and type II interferon (IFN)-induced genes was observed, establishing an IFN signature in pSS B cells. Among the top upregulated and validated genes were CX3CR1, encoding the fractalkine receptor involved in regulation of B-cell malignancies, CCL5/RANTES and CCR1. Increased expression of several members of the TNF superfamily was also identified; TNFSF4/Ox40L, TNFSF10/TRAIL, TNFSF13B/BAFF, TNFRSF17/BCMA as well as S100A8 and -A9/calprotectin, TLR7, STAT1 and STAT2. Among genes with downregulated expression in pSS B cells were SOCS1 and SOCS3, CD70 and TNFAIP3/A20. We conclude that B cells from patients with anti-SSA antibody-positive pSS display immune activation with upregulated expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors and a prominent type I and type II IFN signature, while suppressors of cytokine signalling are downregulated. This adds insight into the autoimmune process and suggests potential targets for future functional studies.

  • Östergren, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006–20092018Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 5, s. 122-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands. Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education.

    Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35–64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006–2009. The final population comprised 2.3 million individuals, 6.2 million person-years and 14,362 deaths. Income was modeled using splines in order to allow variation in the functional form of the association across educational categories. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used.

    The curvilinear shape of the association between income and mortality was more pronounced among those with a low education. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in premature mortality tended to be larger at low levels of income. The greatest income differences in mortality were observed for those with a low education and the smallest for the highly educated.

    Education and income interact as predictors of mortality. Education is a more important factor for health when access to material resources is limited.

  • Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Technical knowledge in Industrial-technology program as it emerges from three vocational teachers’ life stories2017Ingår i: Education: Opole University annual, ISSN 2450-7121, Vol. 2, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the focus is on three vocational teachers’ stories of their lives and teaching experiences. The research method that I use in this study is life story and the teachers are Johnny, Oscar and Omed. From the teachers stories emerge the technical knowledge that they believe that their students should learn during their Industrial-technology education.

    In terms of analytical method I focused on the stories content and I chose to do a thematic analysis of the stories, and through a holistic approach to see the different patterns which emerge from the stories. Based on Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s stories about their lives and teaching experiences, various themes of knowledge which their students should learn, became apparent. These themes are: knowledge about being a good citizen, knowledge of technology, knowledge about coping with life as an adult, knowledge which can be used in real life and knowledge which can lead to employment. In the article, I even discuss how these prominent aspects of knowledge can be understood in relation to Aristotle’s definition of the concept of knowledge Episteme, Techne and Phronesis. 

    Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s life stories show even an important thing. It shows that the technical knowledge that teachers believe that their students should learn are contractions. In these contractions, technical knowledge “creates” in the interaction between teachers, students and their environment. In addition, in this interaction teachers’ life experiences even have certain significance.

  • Jacobsson, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskap.
    Changes in the relative pin power distribution in a nuclear fuel assembly due to channel bow and pin dislocations2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations of the relative pin power distribution in a nuclear fuel assembly have been performed using the core-analysis code CASMO-4. A cross section of a previously unirradiated BWR assembly of the GE12S fuel type was simulated in a burnup range of 0–16 MWd/kgU. The simulated void content was kept constant at 25%. Two main types of geometric disturbances from the nominal assembly geometry were investigated: (1) channel bow and (2) dislocations of individual fuel pins. The disturbances were simulated to be constant throughout the whole burnup range.

    It was concluded that the first type of disturbance could give rise to the largest changes in relative pin power, as compared to the non-disturbed case. The maximum increase was about 4% per simulated mm channel bow up to a simulated bow of 9 mm. Due to the reflective boundary conditions used in CASMO‑4, this corresponds to a 2% change in pin power per mm change in water gap between adjacent assemblies. For dislocations of individual fuel pins, the largest increase in relative pin power was 2.6% per mm, obtained for a peripheral pin. The largest changes were generally obtained at beginning of cycle (BOC).

    As expected due to effects from enhanced neutron moderation, it was found that relative pin powers generally increased in regions where water gaps were widened and vice versa. There was also an influence from BA-pins, i.e. pins with a content of burnable neutron absorbers. When a pin was dislocated towards a BA-pin, its relative power decreased. The decrease in BA content with irradiation also gave rise to non-linear dependencies between burnup and changes in BA pin power, as compared to the non-disturbed case.

  • Manzo, Gianluca
    GEMASS–CNRS & University of Paris-Sorbonne.
    Is rational choice theory still a rational choice of theory?: A response to Opp2013Ingår i: Social Science Information, ISSN 0539-0184, E-ISSN 1461-7412, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 361-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritative rational choice theorists continue to argue that wide variants of rational choice theory should be regarded as the best starting-point to formulate theoretical hypotheses on the micro foundations of complex macro-level social dynamics. Building on recent writings on neo-classical rational choice theory, on behavioral economics and on cognitive psychology, the present article challenges this view and argues that: (1) neo-classical rational choice theory is an astonishingly malleable and powerful analytical device whose descriptive accuracy is nevertheless limited to a very specific class of choice settings; (2) the ‘wide’ sociological rational choice theory does not add anything original to the neo-classical framework on a conceptual level and it is also methodologically weaker; (3) at least four alternative action-oriented approaches that reject portrayal of actors as computational devices operating over probability distributions can be used to design sociological explanations that are descriptively accurate at the micro level.

  • Edman, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Käkkirurgi. Publ Dent Hlth Serv, Ctr Oral Rehabil, Falun, Sweden.
    Holmlund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg. Publ Dent Hlth Serv, Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Nordstrom, Birgitta
    Ctr Publ Dent Serv, Falun, Sweden.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Attitudes to dental care, Sweden 2003-2013, and clinical correlates of oral health-related quality of life in 20132018Ingår i: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 257-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate attitudes to dental care, and to assess possible associations with socio‐economic and clinical variables over a period of ten years, and to investigate the association between OHRQoL assessed by oral impact on daily performance (OIDP), and socio‐economic, dental care habits, smoking and oral status.

    Materials and methods: Cross‐sectional studies performed in the county of Dalarna, Sweden, in 2003, 2008 and 2013. Random samples of 1,107‐1,115 dentate individuals, aged 30‐85 years, who answered a questionnaire and who were radiographically and clinically examined were included.

    Results: The importance of preventive treatment, regular recalls and meeting the same caregiver as on previous visits became less important. In individuals with alveolar bone loss, meeting the same caregiver as on previous visits was important (P<.05). In individuals with manifest caries, information on treatment cost was important, while prevention became less important (P<.05). OIDP was reported by 31% of the individuals in the study, and frequent impact was reported by 10%. Individuals with manifest caries lesions, less than 20 remaining teeth, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) reported OIDP to a significantly higher degree, compared to orally healthy individuals.

    Conclusion: Attitudes important in maintaining and improving good oral health, such as preventive care and regular recalls to dentistry, became less important during this period of 10 years. Oral impact was found to be associated with irregular dental visits and limited economy for dental care, individuals with less than 20 remaining teeth, TMD and manifest caries.

  • Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Uppsala UniUniv Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Univ Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Fac Sci, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ninnemann, Ulysses S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, Allegaten 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.
    Wacker, Lukas
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Lab Ion Beam Phys, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Moving beyond the age-depth model paradigm in deep-sea palaeoclimate archives: dual radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis on single foraminifera2018Ingår i: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 515-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Late-glacial palaeoclimate reconstructions from deep-sea sediment archives provide valuable insight into past rapid changes in ocean chemistry. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of the ocean floor with sufficiently high sediment accumulation rate (SAR) is suitable for such reconstructions using the long-standing age-depth model approach. We employ ultra-small radiocarbon (C-14) dating on single microscopic foraminifera to demonstrate that the long-standing age-depth model method conceals large age uncertainties caused by post-depositional sediment mixing, meaning that existing studies may underestimate total geochronological error. We find that the age-depth distribution of our C-14-dated single foraminifera is in good agreement with existing bioturbation models only after one takes the possibility of Zoophycos burrowing into account. To overcome the problems associated with the age-depth paradigm, we use the first ever dual C-14 and stable isotope (delta O-18 and delta C-13) analysis on single microscopic foraminifera to produce a palaeoclimate time series independent of the age-depth paradigm. This new state of the art essentially decouples single foraminifera from the age-depth paradigm to provide multiple floating, temporal snapshots of ocean chemistry, thus allowing for the successful extraction of temporally accurate palaeoclimate data from low-SAR deep-sea archives. This new method can address large geographical gaps in late-glacial benthic palaeoceanographic reconstructions by opening up vast areas of previously disregarded, low-SAR deep-sea archives to research, which will lead to an improved understanding of the global interaction between oceans and climate.

  • Lindberg, Renny
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formative evaluation of an adaptive game for engaging learners of programming concepts in K-122018Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, ISSN 0218-6543, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 3-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global demand for programmers is soaring, several countries have integrated programming into their K-12 curricula. Finding effective ways to engage children in programming education is an important objective. One effective method for this can be presenting learning materials via games, which are known to increase engagement and motivation. Current programming education games often focus on a single genre and offer one- size-fits-all experience to heterogeneous learners. In this study, we presented Minerva, a multi-genre (adventure, action, puzzle) game to engage elementary school students in learning programming concepts. The game content is adapted to play and learning styles of the player to personalize the gameplay. We conducted a formative mixed-method evaluation of Minerva with 32 Korean 6th grade students who played the game and compared their learning outcomes with 32 6th grade students who studied the same concepts using handouts. The results indicated that, in terms of retention, learning was equally effective in both groups. Furthermore, the game was shown to facilitate engagement among the students. These results, together with uncovered issues, will guide Minerva’s further development.

  • Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 247-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

  • Manzo, Gianluca
    et al.
    CNRS & University of Paris–Sorbonne, Paris, France.
    Baldassarri, Delia
    New York University, New York, NY, USA.
    Heuristics, Interactions, and Status Hierarchies: An Agent-based Model of Deference Exchange2015Ingår i: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 329-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since Merton’s classical analysis of cumulative advantage in science, it has been observed that status hierarchies display a sizable disconnect between actors’ quality and rank and that they become increasingly asymmetric over time, without, however, turning into winner-take-all structures. In recent years, formal models of status hierarchies tried to account for these facts by combining two micro-level, counterbalancing mechanisms: “social influence” (supposedly driving inequality) and the desire for “reciprocation in deferential gestures” (supposedly limiting inequality). In the article, we adopt as empirical benchmark basic features that are common to most distributions of status indicators (e.g., income, academic prestige, wealth, social ties) and argue that previous formal models were only partially able to reproduce such macro-level patterns. We then introduce a novel agent-based computational model of deferential gestures that improves on the realism of previous models by introducing heuristic-based decision making, actors’ heterogeneity, and status homophily in social interactions. We systematically and extensively study the model’s parameter space and consider a few variants to determine under which conditions the macroscopic patterns of interest are more likely to appear. We find that specific forms of status-based heterogeneity in actors’ propensity to interact with status-dissimilar others are needed to generate status hierarchies that best approximate these macroscopic features.

  • Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, KI, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Berglund, Marika
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, KI, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Children’s exposure to chemicals in indoor environments - a literature survey of chemicals in dust2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Children spend the majority of their time indoors where they can be exposed to hazardous chemicals in dust. Due to their frequent hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth activities, children have a higher intake of dust compared to adults. Therefore, there is a need to estimate and evaluate children’s exposure to chemicals via dust in the indoor environments where they spend most time.

    In this report, we have reviewed the literature about chemicals in indoor dust collected in Europe, North America and Australasia over the last 13 years. In total, data from 132 publications reporting concentrations of chemicals in dust from homes, schools and preschools were included. The main chemical groups that have been measured in dust were brominated and organophosphate flame retardants (BFRs and OPEs), phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, bisphenols, parabens and metals.

    High molecular weight phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers were generally found at the highest concentrations in dust, followed by lead and some OPEs. The intakes of different chemicals via dust ingestion in 1-2 year old children, based on the highest reported median concentrations in dust, did not exceed available health based reference values. The estimated intakes of the phthalates DEHP and DBP, the brominated flame retardants BDE-47 and -99 as well as lead were among the highest in relation to the health based reference values. The relatively high intakes of phthalates are representative for indoor environments in Sweden, whereas the relatively high intakes of PBDEs reflect the high degree of contamination in the US, which is not relevant for Sweden. For lead, there is no established safe exposure level and the intakes of lead via dust ingestion in 1-2 year old children were

  • Nieri, Fabrizio
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Pan, Yiwen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Zabzine, Maxim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    3d expansions of 5d instanton partition functions2018Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 4, artikel-id 092Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a set of novel expansions of Nekrasov's instanton partition functions. Focusing on 5d supersymmetric pure Yang-Mills theory with unitary gauge group on C-q,t(2) 1 x S-1, we show that the instanton partition function admits expansions in terms of partition functions of unitary gauge theories living on the 3d subspaces C-q x S-1, Ct-1 x S-1 and their intersection along S-1. These new expansions are natural from the BPS/CFT viewpoint, as they can be matched with W-q,W-t correlators involving an arbitrary number of screening charges of two kinds. Our constructions generalize and interpolate existing results in the literature.

  • Falklöf, Lennart (Redaktör)
    Linköpings universitet, Universitetsförvaltningen.
    LiU Magazine2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Klinth, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet.
    Frihet, jämlikhet, faderskap: Om relationen mellan faderskap och svenskhet i kommunikationen av svensk familjepolitik till utlandet2018Ingår i: Barn och föräldrar i socialförsäkringen: Rapport från forskarseminarium i Umeå 17–18 januari 2018, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2018, , s. 13s. 113-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    “I’ve read that women in Sweden find a man pushing the pram sexier than anything else”. Så startar inslaget i australiensiska 60 Minutes om svensk pappaledighet (60 Minutes: 2017) Inslaget sändes i samband med att fotoutställningen Swedish Dads visades i Sydney. Bakom utställningen stod Svenska institutet tillsammans med svenska ambassaden i Australien. Visningen i Sydney var endast ett av stoppen på utställningens långa världsturné. Under 2016 och 2017 visades Swedish Dads i sammanlagt 40 länder (Svenska institutet 1: 2017).

    Fotoutställningen utgjorde en del av Svenska institutets informationsinsatser till utlandet om Sverige och svenska förhållanden. Svenska institutet är en statlig myndighet och har som mål att via ”strategisk kommunikation /…/ öka omvärldens förtroende och intresse för Sverige” och stärka ”Sveriges attraktionskraft” (Svenska institutet 2: 2017). Svenska institutets arbete kan beskrivas som en form av varumärkesbyggande (Klinth: 2012). Eller som institutet själva uttrycker saken: ”Vi levandegör berättelsen om dagens Sverige.” (Svenska institutet 2: 2017)

  • Lennard, C. J.
    et al.
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Dosio, A.
    Moufouma-Okia, W.
    On the need for regional climate information over Africa under varying levels of global warming2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 060401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Bourgeois, Quentin
    et al.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Renard, Jean-Baptiste
    Krejci, Radovan
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Atmosfärisk fjärranalys.
    Bender, Frida A. -M.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Berthet, Gwenael
    Tackett, Jason L.
    How much of the global aerosol optical depth is found in the boundary layer and free troposphere?2018Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 7709-7720Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Osima, Sarah
    et al.
    Indasi, Victor S.
    Zaroug, Modathir
    Endris, Hussen Seid
    Gudoshava, Masilin
    Misiani, Herbert O.
    Nimusiima, Alex
    Anyah, Richard O.
    Otieno, George
    Ogwang, Bob A.
    Jain, Suman
    Kondowe, Alfred L.
    Mwangi, Emmah
    Lennard, Chris
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Dosio, Alessandro
    Projected climate over the Greater Horn of Africa under 1.5 degrees C and 2 degrees C global warming2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 065004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Nikulin, Grigory
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Lennard, Chris
    Dosio, Alessandro
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Chen, Youmin
    Haensler, Andreas
    Kupiainen, Marco
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Laprise, Rene
    Mariotti, Laura
    Maule, Cathrine Fox
    van Meijgaard, Erik
    Panitz, Hans-Juergen
    Scinocca, John F.
    Somot, Samuel
    The effects of 1.5 and 2 degrees of global warming on Africa in the CORDEX ensemble2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 065003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Maure, G.
    et al.
    Pinto, I.
    Ndebele-Murisa, M.
    Muthige, M.
    Lennard, C.
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Dosio, A.
    Meque, A.
    The southern African climate under 1.5 degrees C and 2 degrees C of global warming as simulated by CORDEX regional climate models2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 065002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Bauer, Barbara
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Casini, Michele
    Hoff, Ayoe
    Margonski, Piotr
    Orio, Alessandro
    Saraiva, Sofia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Steenbeek, Jeroen
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Reducing eutrophication increases spatial extent of communities supporting commercial fisheries: a model case study (vol 75, pg 1155, 2018)2018Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 75, nr 3, s. 1155-1155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Brostrom, Goran
    Almroth, Bethanie Carney
    Gipperth, Lena
    Hassellov, Martin
    The unaccountability case of plastic pellet pollution2018Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 129, nr 1, s. 52-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • Rosenkvist, Wei Hing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Kinesiska.
    Flipping the Classroom – Integrating Intercultural Communication Competence into a Chinese Foreign Language Course2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information communicative technology today not only accelerates the pace of internationalization and globalization but also shape the modes of human communication. Facing this overwhelming challenge, the cross-cultural and societal aspects of pragmatics, intercultural communication competence has especially become one of the main focuses in second/foreign language education worldwide. 

    Responding to this challenge, the latest issued official documents for Chinese as a second/foreign language education in China propose a renewed syllabus, emphasizing the importance of culture as an integral element in effective communication. However, how to integrate intercultural communication theories into present foreign language courses remains mostly on a theoretical level. Very few practical or empirical studies have been done in this academic arena.

    This motivated the implementation of an action research in which aims to explore the possibilities and limitations of integrating Chinese culture and intercultural communication theory into a present Chinese foreign language course for beginners. The research utilizes an interactive online learning platform to deliver a series of online tasks - “flipping the classroom” – to explicitly demonstrate how cultural differences affect the language used by Chinese, English and Swedish speakers. Through case studies and other brainstorming activities, the tasks gradually enhance the students’ awareness of cross-cultural differences in varying social situations.

    This paper will present the findings of this action research, in particular, the design and implementation of the online tasks for “flipping the classroom”, such as: 1) the characteristics of this interactive online tool, “flipping the classroom”; 2) the cultural elements and intercultural communication theory included in the online tasks; 3) the specific tasks integrated into the enhanced course; 4) student response to the tasks and 5) the effectiveness of these tasks in developing students’ intercultural communication competence.

    Key words: Chinese as a second language, culture, cultural pragmatics, intercultural communication, intercultural communicative competence, action research

  • Disputation: 2018-08-30 10:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Kalered, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quantum chemical studies of deposition and catalytic surface reactions2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum chemical calculations have been used to model chemical reactions in epitaxial growth of silicon carbide by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes and to study heterogeneous catalytic reactions for methanol synthesis. CVD is a common method to produce high-quality materials and e.g. thin films in the semiconductor industry, and one of the many usages of methanol is as a promising future renewable and sustainable energy carrier. To optimize the chemical processes it is essential to understand the reaction mechanisms. A comprehensive theoretical model for the process is therefore desired in order to be able to explore various variables that are difficult to investigate in situ. In this thesis reaction paths and reaction energies are computed using quantum chemical calculations. The quantum-chemical results can subsequently be used as input for thermodynamic, kinetic and computational fluid dynamics modelling in order to obtain data directly comparable with the experimental observations.

    For the CVD process, the effect of halogen addition to the gas mixture is studied by modelling the adsorption and diffusion of SiH2, SiCl2 and SiBr2 on the (0001̅) 4H-SiC surface. SiH2 was found to bind strongest to the surface and SiBr2 binds slightly stronger than the SiCl2 molecule. The diffusion barrier is shown to be lower for SiH2 than for SiBr2 and SiCl2 which have similar barriers. SiBr2 and SiCl2 are found to have similar physisorption energies and bind stronger than the SiH2 molecule. Gibbs free-energy calculations also indicate that the SiC surface is not fully hydrogen terminated at CVD conditions since missing-neighboring pair of surface hydrogens is found to be common. Calculations for the (0001) surface show that SiCl, SiCl2, SiHCl, SiH, and SiH2 likely adsorb on a methylene site, but the processes are thermodynamically less favorable than their reverse reactions. However, the adsorbed products may be stabilized by subsequent surface reactions to form a larger structure. The formation of these larger structures is found to be fast enough to compete with the desorption processes. Also the Gibbs free energies for adsorption of Si atoms, SiX, SiX2, and SiHX where X is F or Br are presented. Adsorption of Si atoms is shown to be the most thermodynamically favorable reaction followed by SiX, SiHX, and SiX2, X being a halide. The results in this study suggest that the major Si contributors in the SiC–CVD process are Si atoms, SiX and SiH.

    Methanol can be synthesized from gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen using solid metal-metal oxide mixtures acting as heterogeneous catalysts. Since a large surface area of the catalyst enhances the speed of the heterogeneous reaction, the use of nanoparticles (NP) is expected to be advantageous due to the NPs’ large area to surface ratio. The plasma-induced creation of copper NPs is investigated. One important element during particle growth is the charging process where the variation of the work function (W) with particle size is a key quantity, and the variation becomes increasingly pronounced at smaller NP sizes. The work functions are computed for a set of NP charge numbers, sizes and shapes, using copper as a case study. A derived analytical expression for W is shown to give quite accurate estimates provided that the diameter of the NP is larger than about a nanometer and that the NP has relaxed to close to a spherical shape. For smaller sizes W deviates from the approximative expression, and also depends on the charge number. Some consequences of these results for NP charging process are outlined.

    Key reaction steps in the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism using a Cu/ZrO2 nanoparticle catalyst is investigated. Two different reaction paths for conversion of CO2 to CO is studied. The two paths result in the same complete reaction 2 CO2 → 2 CO + O2 where ZrO2 (s) acts as a catalyst. The highest activation energies are significantly lower compared to that of the gas phase reaction. The presence of oxygen vacancies at the surface appear to be decisive for the catalytic process to be effective. Studies of the reaction kinetics show that when oxygen vacancies are present on the ZrO2 surface, carbon monoxide is produced within a microsecond. The IR spectra of CO2 and H2 interacting with ZrO2 and Cu under conditions that correspond to the catalyzed CH3OH production process is also studied experimentally and compared to results from the theoretical computations. Surface structures and gas-phase molecules are identified through the spectral lines by matching them to specific vibrational modes from the literature and from the new computational results. Several surface structures are verified and can be used to pin point surface structures in the reaction path. This gives important information that help decipher how the reaction mechanism of the CO2 conversion and ultimately may aid to improve the methanol synthesis process.