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  • Disputas: 2017-05-23 14:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Manta, Bianca
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    Quantum Chemical Studies of Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer modeling of enzymes is a valuable complement to experiments. Quantum chemical studies of enzymatic reactions can provide a detailed description of the reaction mechanism and elucidate the roles of various residues in the active site. Different reaction pathways can be analyzed, and their feasibility be established based on calculated energy barriers.

    In the present thesis, density functional theory has been used to study the active sites and reaction mechanisms of three different enzymes, cytosine deaminase (CDA) from Escherichia coli, ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (Cv-ωTA) and dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DraG) from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The cluster approach has been employed to design models of the active sites based on available crystal structures. The geometries and energies of transition states and intermediates along various reaction pathways have been calculated, and used to construct the energy graphs of the reactions.

    In the study of CDA (Paper I), two different tautomers of a histidine residue were considered. The obtained reaction mechanism was found to support the main features of the previously proposed mechanism. The sequence of the events was established, and the residues needed for the proton transfer steps were elucidated.

    In the study of Cv-ωTA (Paper II and Paper III), two active site models were employed to study the conversion of two different substrates, a hydrophobic amine and an amino acid. Differences and similarities in the reaction mechanisms of the two substrates were established, and the role of an arginine residue in the dual substrate recognition was confirmed.

    In the study of DraG (Paper IV), two different substrate-binding modes and two different protonation states of an aspartate residue were considered. The coordination of the first-shell ligands and the substrate to the two manganese ions in the active site was characterized, and a possible proton donor in the first step of the proposed reaction mechanism was identified.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-18 13:00 KB3A9, Umeå
    Sundell, David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Novel resources enableing comparative regulomics in forest tree species2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic plants are the most abundant source of terrestrial biomass and are one of the potential sources of renewable energy that can replace the use of fossil fuels. For a country such as Sweden, where the forest industry accounts for 10% of the total export, there would be large economical benefits associated with increased biomass yield. The availability of research on wood development conducted in conifer tree species, which represent the majority of the forestry in Sweden, is limited and the majority of research has been conducted in model angiosperm species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the large evolutionary distance between angiosperms and gymnosperms limits the possibility to identify orthologous genes and regulatory pathways by comparing sequence similarity alone. At such large evolutionary distances, the identification of gene similarity is, in most cases, not sufficient and additional information is required for functional annotation. In this thesis, two high-spatial resolution datasets profiling wood development were processed; one from the angiosperm tree Populus tremula and the other from the conifer species Picea abies. These datasets were each published together with a web resource including tools for the exploration of gene expression, co-expression and functional enrichment of gene sets. One developed resource allows interactive, comparative co-expression analysis between species to identify conserved and diverged co-expression modules. These tools make it possible to identifying conserved regulatory modules that can focus downstream research and provide biologists with a resource to identify regulatory genes for targeted trait improvement.

  • Burmakin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Div Vasc Biol, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Wieringen, Tijs
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Birmingham, Sch Biosci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Olsson, P. Olof
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, S-22363 Lund, Sweden..
    Stuhr, Linda
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biomed, Bergen, Norway..
    Åhgren, Aive
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Reed, Rolf K.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biomed, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Ctr Canc Biomarkers CCBIO, Bergen, Norway..
    Rubin, Kristofer
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, S-22363 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Expt Med Sci, BMC D10, S-22381 Lund, Sweden..
    Hellberg, Carina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Birmingham, Sch Biosci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Imatinib increases oxygen delivery in extracellular matrix-rich but not in matrix-poor experimental carcinoma2017Inngår i: Journal of Translational Medicine, ISSN 1479-5876, E-ISSN 1479-5876, Vol. 15, 47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Imatinib causes increased turnover of stromal collagen, reduces collagen fibril diameter, enhances extracellular fluid turnover and lowers interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in the human colonic carcinoma KAT-4/HT-29 (KAT-4) xenograft model. Methods: We compared the effects of imatinib on oxygen levels, vascular morphology and IFP in three experimental tumor models differing in their content of a collagenous extracellular matrix. Results: Neither the KAT4 and CT-26 colonic carcinoma models, nor B16BB melanoma expressed PDGF beta-receptors in the malignant cells. KAT-4 tumors exhibited a well-developed ECM in contrast to the other two model systems. The collagen content was substantially higher in KAT-4 than in CT-26, while collagen was not detectable in B16BB tumors. The pO(2) was on average 5.4, 13.9 and 19.3 mmHg in KAT-4, CT-26 and B16BB tumors, respectively. Treatment with imatinib resulted in similar pO(2)-levels in all three tumor models but only in KAT-4 tumors did the increase reach statistical significance. It is likely that after imatinib treatment the increase in pO(2) in KAT-4 tumors is caused by increased blood flow due to reduced vascular resistance. This notion is supported by the significant reduction observed in IFP in KAT-4 tumors after imatinib treatment. Vessel area varied between 4.5 and 7% in the three tumor models and was not affected by imatinib treatment. Imatinib had no effect on the fraction of proliferating cells, whereas the fraction of apoptotic cells increased to a similar degree in all three tumor models. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the effects of imatinib on pO(2)-levels depend on a well-developed ECM and provide further support to the suggestion that imatinib acts by causing interstitial stroma cells to produce a less dense ECM, which would in turn allow for an increased blood flow. The potential of imatinib treatment to render solid tumors more accessible to conventional treatments would therefore depend on the degree of tumor desmoplasia.

  • Ekelund, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Dept Pediat, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Aalto, Kristiina
    Univ Helsinki Hosp, Childrens Hosp, Dept Pediat, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fasth, Anders
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Herlin, Troels
    Arhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Nielsen, Susan
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Pediat Rheumatol Dept, Pediat Clin 2, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nordal, Ellen
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Dept Pediat, Tromso, Norway.;UIT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Clin Med, Tromso, Norway..
    Peltoniemi, Suvi
    Univ Helsinki Hosp, Childrens Hosp, Dept Pediat, Helsinki, Finland..
    Rygg, Marite
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Lab Med Childrens & Womens Hlth, Trondheim, Norway.;St Olavs Hosp, Dept Pediat, Trondheim, Norway..
    Zak, Marek
    Pediatric Rheumatology Department, Pediatric Clinic II, Copenhagen University Hospital.
    Berntson, Lillemor
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Psoriasis and associated variables in classification and outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis - an eight-year follow-up study2017Inngår i: Pediatric Rheumatology, ISSN 1546-0096, E-ISSN 1546-0096, Vol. 15, 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To study the impact of psoriasis and features associated with psoriasis on classification and outcome in a population-based follow-up cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: In all, 440 children with JIA were followed for a median of 8 years in a prospective Nordic population-based cohort study. Data for remission was available for 427 of these children. The presence of psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash, dactylitis, nail pitting, enthesitis, tenosynovitis and heredity was assessed in relation to ILAR classification and remission. Results: Clinical findings associated with psoriasis developed consecutively during the 8-year period. Six of 14 children with psoriasis were not classified as juvenile psoriatic arthritis according to the ILAR criteria at 8 year follow-up. Dactylitis was more common in children with early onset of JIA. After 8 years we found a cumulative median number of eleven arthritic joints in children with psoriasis or psoriasis- like rash compared with six in the rest of the cohort (p = 0.02). Also, the chance for not being in remission after 8 years increased significantly in patients with psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash or at least two of: 1) first-degree heredity for psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, 2) dactylitis or 3) nail pitting, compared with the rest of the group (OR 3.32, p = 0.010). Conclusions: Our results indicate a more severe disease over time in psoriasis- associated JIA, as features of psoriasis develop during the disease course. This group is a major challenge to encompass in a future JIA classification in order to facilitate early tailored treatment.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-22 13:00 C310, Sundsvall
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Public Values and Decision Making in the Swedish e-Government Context2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses topics of public values and decision making in relation to the use of technology in the public sector. The research is conducted in the Swedish government context. A range of values that is specific to the public sector has been defined and classified in prior research. These public values can be defined as normative agreements of how a government should act. The Swedish government spends SEK 46.5 billion on information technology every year. Some of these funds are invested in improvements that are intended to increase efficiency and openness, as well as to make it easier for citizens to use government services. Such ambitions are studied in the e-Government research field. The literature suggests that reasons to question the promised values of implementing technology in the public sector exist and that many initiatives ultimately fail. The public sector has some unique features that may increase complexity, such as the variety of stakeholders and multitude of organizations that are both involved in the development process and affected by the outcomes. The purpose of this thesis is to explore public values and decision making in the Swedish e-Government context by posing three research questions. 1: How can public values be utilized in decision making? 2: Under what conditions are decisions made in the studied context? 3: How can value-based decision making be adopted by e-Government practice? The thesis is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from case studies and a survey. Its theoretical contribution is a comparison of theoretical concepts from decision theory and public values, which are then applied to e-Government. Several fragmented concepts from e-Government can be tied together under decision theory. The study’s results show that many decisions are taken under a great deal of uncertainty due to the absence of formal support mechanisms. The Swedish public administration leans toward a variety of project models in its work with e-Government, and these models constitute the arena in which decisions are made and risk analysis is performed. However, many risks as well as opportunities reside beyond the studied projects’ control. Holistic stakeholder inclusion and risk analysis are suggested as practices beneficial for increasing value and reducing uncertainty. The thesis concludes by suggesting that further research should continue to apply concepts from decision theory on e-Government. This includes revealing the motivations and values behind digitalization of the public sector.

  • Fu, Chaochao
    et al.
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yan
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Peng
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Yue, Lei
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Feng
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, David Wei
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Luo, Jun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Dongping
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Understanding the microwave annealing of silicon2017Inngår i: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 7, nr 3, 035214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Though microwave annealing appears to be very appealing due to its unique features, lacking an in-depth understanding and accurate model hinder its application in semiconductor processing. In this paper, the physics-based model and accurate calculation for the microwave annealing of silicon are presented. Both thermal effects, including ohmic conduction loss and dielectric polarization loss, and non-thermal effects are thoroughly analyzed. We designed unique experiments to verify the mechanism and extract relevant parameters. We also explicitly illustrate the dynamic interaction processes of the microwave annealing of silicon. This work provides an in-depth understanding that can expedite the application of microwave annealing in semiconductor processing and open the door to implementing microwave annealing for future research and applications.

  • Westenbrink, B. Daan
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Alings, Marco
    Working Grp Cardiovasc Res, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Granger, Christopher B.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Alexander, John H.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Lopes, Renato D.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Hylek, Elaine M.
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA..
    Thomas, Laine
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Wojdyla, Daniel M.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Duke Clin Res Inst, Durham, NC USA..
    Hanna, Michael
    Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ USA..
    Keltai, Matyas
    Hungarian Inst Cardiol, Budapest, Hungary..
    Steg, P. Gabriel
    Univ Paris Diderot, AP HP, Hop Bichat, INSERM,DHU FIRE, Paris, France..
    De Caterina, Raffaele
    Univ G dAnnunzio, Chieti, Italy.;Fdn Toscana G Monasterio, Chieti, Italy..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    van Gilst, Wick H.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Anemia is associated with bleeding and mortality, but not stroke, in patients with atrial fibrillation: Insights from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial2017Inngår i: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 185, 140-149 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are prone to cardiovascular events and anticoagulation-related bleeding complications. We hypothesized that patients with anemia are at increased risk for these outcomes. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial, which included >18,000 patients with AF randomized to warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0-3.0) or apixaban 5 mg twice daily. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to determine if anemia (defined as hemoglobin <13.0 in men and <12.0 g/dL in women) was associated with future stroke, major bleeding, or mortality. Results Anemia was present at baseline in 12.6% of the ARISTOTLE population. Patients with anemia were older, had higher mean CHADS2 and HAS-BLED scores, and were more likely to have experienced previous bleeding events. Anemia was associated with major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.62-2.28; P < .0001) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.46-1.93; P <. 0001) but not stroke or systemic embolism (adjusted HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.21). The benefits of apixaban compared with warfarin on the rates of stroke, mortality, and bleeding events were consistent in patients with and without anemia. Conclusions Chronic anemia is associated with a higher incidence of bleeding complications and mortality, but not of stroke, in anticoagulated patients with AF. Apixaban is an attractive anticoagulant for stroke prevention in patients with AF with or without anemia.

  • Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kawecki, Tadeusz J.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hollis, Brian
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Sch Life Sci, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Experimental evolution of slowed cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster2017Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 3, 662-670 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive output and cognitive performance decline in parallel during aging, but it is unknown whether this reflects a shared genetic architecture or merely the declining force of natural selection acting independently on both traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test for the presence of genetic variation for slowed cognitive aging, and assess its independence from that responsible for other traits' decline with age. Replicate experimental populations experienced either joint selection on learning and reproduction at old age (Old + Learning), selection on late-life reproduction alone (Old), or a standard two-week culture regime (Young). Within 20 generations, the Old + Learning populations evolved a slower decline in learning with age than both the Old and Young populations, revealing genetic variation for cognitive aging. We found little evidence for a genetic correlation between cognitive and demographic aging: although the Old + Learning populations tended to show higher late-life fecundity than Old populations, they did not live longer. Likewise, selection for late reproduction alone did not result in improved late-life learning. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila harbor genetic variation for cognitive aging that is largely independent from genetic variation for demographic aging and suggest that these two aspects of aging may not necessarily follow the same trajectories.

  • Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Program Man Soc Environm, Dept Environm Sci, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland..
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Medicinaregatan 18A, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kutschera, Verena E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Rosenblad, Magnus Alm
    Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, NBIS Bioinformat Infrastruct Life Sci, Medicinaregatan 9C, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pippel, Martin
    Heidelberg Inst Theoret Studies, Schloss Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Winkler, Sylke
    Max Planck Inst Mol Cell Biol & Genet, Pfotenhauerstr 108, D-01307 Dresden, Germany..
    Schloissnig, Siegfried
    Heidelberg Inst Theoret Studies, Schloss Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blomberg, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Linnaeus Ctr Marine Evolutionary Biol, POB 46040530, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Medicinaregatan 9C, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia
    Univ Basel, Program Man Soc Environm, Dept Environm Sci, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, 11455 Saskatchewan Dr, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    The mitochondrial genome sequences of the round goby and the sand goby reveal patterns of recent evolution in gobiid fish2017Inngår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, 177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vertebrate mitochondrial genomes are optimized for fast replication and low cost of RNA expression. Accordingly, they are devoid of introns, are transcribed as polycistrons and contain very little intergenic sequences. Usually, vertebrate mitochondrial genomes measure between 16.5 and 17 kilobases ( kb). Results: During genome sequencing projects for two novel vertebrate models, the invasive round goby and the sand goby, we found that the sand goby genome is exceptionally small (16.4 kb), while the mitochondrial genome of the round goby is much larger than expected for a vertebrate. It is 19 kb in size and is thus one of the largest fish and even vertebrate mitochondrial genomes known to date. The expansion is attributable to a sequence insertion downstream of the putative transcriptional start site. This insertion carries traces of repeats from the control region, but is mostly novel. To get more information about this phenomenon, we gathered all available mitochondrial genomes of Gobiidae and of nine gobioid species, performed phylogenetic analyses, analysed gene arrangements, and compared gobiid mitochondrial genome sizes, ecological information and other species characteristics with respect to the mitochondrial phylogeny. This allowed us amongst others to identify a unique arrangement of tRNAs among Ponto-Caspian gobies. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the round goby mitochondrial genome may contain novel features. Since mitochondrial genome organisation is tightly linked to energy metabolism, these features may be linked to its invasion success. Also, the unique tRNA arrangement among Ponto- Caspian gobies may be helpful in studying the evolution of this highly adaptive and invasive species group. Finally, we find that the phylogeny of gobiids can be further refined by the use of longer stretches of linked DNA sequence.

  • Disputas: 2017-06-01 10:00 Sal F3, Stockholm
    Jonsson, Peder
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Kommunikationsmodeller inom public relations2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Once a year for over forty years public relations’ practitioners in Sweden gathers, the political week in Almedalen, in the town of Visby. There they exchange knowledge and experience on all types of subjects using different and common communication models whether they are aware of them or not. The research on communication models is sparse, with one exception: Grunig’s model. Both practitioners and researches believe them to be important, even strategic. But too little knowledge about the models as such negatively impacts the understanding of public relations’ activities. It also contributes to the view that public relations is frittered.

    The thesis studies and analyses communication models of public relations. Models have been created by theorists and practitioners to describe the phenomenon, to understand communication as such and to facilitate communication between humans. The thesis addresses basic questions such as which models there are, where they stem from, who the originators were and the characteristics of each respective model. The basis of the study is comprehensive Anglo-American literature. All in all, over twenty different models have been analyzed in three different ways, i.e. the structure of a model, its historical deposits (sediment) and the application of the model. The result is manifold, since many characteristics form ten attributes and three families of models (a reduction).

    The characteristics can be seen as the models’ building blocks, e.g. the direction of the communication, the number of contacts and synchronism. Three model families are built on three differentiating characteristics, and the families are named correspondingly. Directional model (Riktningsmodellen), the Co-orientational model (Saminriktningsmodellen) and the Connectivity model (Konnektivitetsmodellen). The classification is of course not set in stone. It should be regarded as a first step to reduce the number of models in use and concentrate on the important characteristics of the models that help public relations researchers and professionals to solve problems and theorists to explain, foresee or guide to better public relations.

    Finally, five areas of future research are presented: a multinational study of models, a study of practitioners’ model use, a deeper history study according the concept of sediment, a notational system for models and, last but not least, a development of the Connectivity model. The last subject is the one that once inspired me to write a thesis.

  • Storbjörk, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping.
    Kommunerna och klimatomställningen: Lärdomar om klimatfrågans integrering i lokal policy och planering. En slutrapport från forskningsprojektet CLIPP2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar slutresultat från forskningsprojektet Climate Change Policy Integration in Local Policy and Planning (CLIPP), som har finansierats av forskningsrådet Formas (Dnr 242-2011-1599). Projektet har utformats, planerats och genomförts av Sofie Storbjörk och Mattias Hjerpe, Linköpings universitet, och Karolina Isaksson, Robert Hrelja och Hans Antonson, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut. Storbjörk och Hjerpe är verksamma vid Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning och Tema miljöförändring vid Linköpings universitet. Isaksson, Antonson och Hrelja är verksamma vid enheten Mobilitet, aktörer och planering vid Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut. Författarna riktar ett tack till FORMAS för finansiellt stöd samt till de tre fallstudiekommunerna och intervjupersoner från offentlig och privat verksamhet som så generöst har delat med sig av tid och sina erfarenheter.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-19 10:15 ITC 2446, Uppsala
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för beräkningsvetenskap.
    Numerical Methods for Darcy Flow Problems with Rough and Uncertain Data2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We address two computational challenges for numerical simulations of Darcy flow problems: rough and uncertain data. The rapidly varying and possibly high contrast permeability coefficient for the pressure equation in Darcy flow problems generally leads to irregular solutions, which in turn make standard solution techniques perform poorly. We study methods for numerical homogenization based on localized computations. Regarding the challenge of uncertain data, we consider the problem of forward propagation of uncertainty through a numerical model. More specifically, we consider methods for estimating the failure probability, or a point estimate of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of a scalar output from the model.

    The issue of rough coefficients is discussed in Papers I–III by analyzing three aspects of the localized orthogonal decomposition (LOD) method. In Paper I, we define an interpolation operator that makes the localization error independent of the contrast of the coefficient. The conditions for its applicability are studied. In Paper II, we consider time-dependent coefficients and derive computable error indicators that are used to adaptively update the multiscale space. In Paper III, we derive a priori error bounds for the LOD method based on the Raviart–Thomas finite element.

    The topic of uncertain data is discussed in Papers IV–VI. The main contribution is the selective refinement algorithm, proposed in Paper IV for estimating quantiles, and further developed in Paper V for point evaluation of the cdf. Selective refinement makes use of a hierarchy of numerical approximations of the model and exploits computable error bounds for the random model output to reduce the cost complexity. It is applied in combination with Monte Carlo and multilevel Monte Carlo methods to reduce the overall cost. In Paper VI we quantify the gains from applying selective refinement to a two-phase Darcy flow problem.

  • Giannuzzi, Viviana
    et al.
    Fdn Ric Farmacol Gianni Benzi Onlus, Via Abate Eustasio 30, I-70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy..
    Devlieger, Hugo
    Univ Leuven, Dept Dev & Regenerat, O&N 4 Herestr 49 Box 805, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Margari, Lucia
    Aldo Moro Univ Bari, Dept Basic Med Sci Neurosci & Sense Organs, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Odlind, Viveca Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Ragab, Lamis
    Cairo Univ, Giza 12613, Egypt..
    Bellettato, Cinzia Maria
    Brains Brain Fdn Onlus, Padua, Italy..
    D'Avanzo, Francesca
    Brains Brain Fdn Onlus, Padua, Italy..
    Lampe, Christina
    Brains Brain Fdn Onlus, Padua, Italy.;Horst Schmidt Klin Wiesbaden, Ctr Rare Dis, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Cassis, Linda
    IRP HSJD, Dept Neurol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Gastroenterol Pathol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Clin Biochem, Barcelona, Spain.;CIBERER, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cortes-Saladelafont, Elisenda
    IRP HSJD, Dept Neurol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Gastroenterol Pathol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Clin Biochem, Barcelona, Spain.;CIBERER, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cazorla, Angels Garcia
    IRP HSJD, Dept Neurol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Gastroenterol Pathol, Barcelona, Spain.;IRP HSJD, Dept Clin Biochem, Barcelona, Spain.;CIBERER, Barcelona, Spain..
    Baric, Ivo
    Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Cvitanovic-Sojat, Ljerka
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Fumic, Ksenija
    Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Dali, Christine I.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Genet, Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bartoloni, Franco
    Fdn Ric Farmacol Gianni Benzi Onlus, Via Abate Eustasio 30, I-70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy..
    Bonifazi, Fedele
    Fdn Ric Farmacol Gianni Benzi Onlus, Via Abate Eustasio 30, I-70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy..
    Scarpa, Maurizio
    Brains Brain Fdn Onlus, Padua, Italy.;Horst Schmidt Klin Wiesbaden, Ctr Rare Dis, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Ceci, Adriana
    Fdn Ric Farmacol Gianni Benzi Onlus, Via Abate Eustasio 30, I-70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy..
    The ethical framework for performing research with rare inherited neurometabolic disease patients2017Inngår i: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 176, nr 3, 395-405 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for performing clinical trials to develop well-studied and appropriate medicines for inherited neurometabolic disease patients faces ethical concerns mainly raising from four aspects: the diseases are rare; include young and very young patients; the neurological impairment may compromise the capability to provide 'consent'; and the genetic nature of the disease leads to further ethical implications. This work is intended to identify the ethical provisions applicable to clinical research involving these patients and to evaluate if these cover the ethical issues. Three searches have been performed on the European regulatory/legal framework, the literature and European Union-funded projects. The European legal framework offers a number of ethical provisions ruling the clinical research on paediatric, rare, inherited diseases with neurological symptoms. In the literature, relevant publications deal with informed consent, newborn genetic screenings, gene therapy and rights/interests of research participants. Additional information raised from European projects on sharing patients' data from different countries, the need to fill the gap of the regulatory framework and to improve information to stakeholders and patients/families. Conclusion: Several recommendations and guidelines on ethical aspects are applicable to the inherited neurometabolic disease research in Europe, even though they suffer from the lack of a common ethical approach.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-17 09:30 Frödingesalen, Uppsala
    Bergsten, Eva L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, SE-801 76 Gävle, Sweden.
    Working conditions and musculoskeletal disorders in flight baggage handling2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Baggage handling is considered to be a heavy manual handling job including biomechanical exposures suspected of increasing the risk for musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: To document low back pain (LBP), shoulder pain (SP), and physical and psychosocial factors in baggage handlers, and to evaluate the implementation of an ergonomic intervention aiming to increase the use of loading assist devices. Methods: A questionnaire was utilized to characterize pain and psychosocial work conditions in 525 baggage handlers. The postures of 55 baggage handlers during 114 shifts were measured using inclinometry, half shift video-recordings were made for subsequent task analysis, and the number of aircraft handled was registered. Associations for psychosocial and biomechanical exposures with pain were assessed using regression analyses. An ergonomic intervention was implemented and evaluated using questionnaires and repeated interviews. Feasibility, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators were assessed. Results: The prevalence rates of reported LBP and SP were 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain interfering with work (LBP - 30% and SP - 18%) and high pain intensity (LBP - 34% and SP - 28%) were associated with poor psychosocial working conditions. Extreme postures with arms elevated >60° occurred for 6.4% of the total time, and in trunk flexion >60° for 2.1% total time. In contrast, 71% of the total time was spent in a neutral trunk posture. The 90th percentile trunk forward flexion was 34.1°.  Daily shoulder pain increased in approximately one-third of all shifts and was positively associated with extreme work posture and the number of aircraft handled; this association was modified by influence and support. The intervention was delivered as planned, and dose received and satisfaction were rated as high. Motivated trainees facilitated implementation while lack of manager support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, follow-up activities, staff reduction, and job insecurity were barriers. Conclusion: The high prevalence rates of LBP and SP in baggage handlers were associated with psychosocial exposures, and daily shoulder pain was associated with higher biomechanical exposure. Barriers to implementation can be minimized by recruiting motivated trainees, securing strong organizational support, and carrying out follow-up activities.

  • Elwin, Marie
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Reg Orebro Cty, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Box 1613, S-70116 Orebro, Sweden..
    Schröder, Agneta
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Reg Orebro Cty, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Box 1613, S-70116 Orebro, Sweden..
    Ek, Lena
    Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Lund, Sweden..
    Wallsten, Tuula
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Reg Orebro Cty, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Box 1613, S-70116 Orebro, Sweden..
    Sensory Clusters of Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Conditions2017Inngår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, nr 3, 579-589 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We identified clusters of atypical sensory functioning adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis. A new scale for commonly self-reported sensory reactivity was used as a measure. In a low frequency group (n = 37), all subscale scores were relatively low, in particular atypical sensory/motor reactivity. In the intermediate group (n = 17) hyperreactivity, sensory interests and sensory/motor issues were significantly elevated in relation to the first group, but not hyporeactivity. In a high frequency subgroup (n = 17) all subscale scores were significantly elevated and co-occurrence of hyper- and hyporeactivity was evident. In a population sample, a cluster of low scorers (n = 136) and high scorers relative to the other cluster (n = 26) was found. Identification of atypical sensory reactivity is important for targeting support.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-19 10:15 Room 4573, Uppsala
    Epstein, Yaffa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    The Big Bad EU? Species Protection and European Federalism: A Case Study of Wolf Conservaton and Contestation in Sweden2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how eco-knowledge intersects with the changes to EU legal cultures and practices known as eurolegalism. This conjunction has created a mechanism for the extension of EU law in the Member States even in the face of a weakened EU.

    Through a portfolio of six articles, controversies over the protection of wolves in Sweden are used to illustrate and explicate the changing roles and responsibilities of various actors in protecting species, and the centralization of competence for environmental protection in Europe at the EU level. In doing so, some substantive requirements of the Habitats Directive are also analyzed. The first article maps the movement of competence to determine conservation policy towards the EU level and away from international and Member State actors. The second article examines what the EU requires of its Member States by analyzing the Habitats Directive’s key concept, favourable conservation status. It also makes normative arguments for how contested aspects of this concept should be interpreted to best achieve the Directive’s conservation goals. The third article deepens this analysis by applying these arguments to the Swedish wolf population. The fourth article is a case commentary illustrating the enforcement of the Habitats Directive through public interest litigation to stop the hunting of Swedish wolves. The fifth argues that the greater availability of public interest standing in the US than in the EU has led to the greater implementation of federal law. The sixth argues that greater availability of public interest litigation in Sweden than previously is also leading to the greater enforcement of “federal” EU law. Each of these articles demonstrates or explains factors that lead to the hollowing out of state power in favor of the EU and interest groups.

  • Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Ek, Caroline
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota, 2017: Övervakning av metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, 20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarises the monitoring activities within the National Swedish Contaminant Programme in marine biota. Time series of analysed contaminants (heavy metals, organochlorines, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in biota are presented together with summaries of the results from the statistical analyses. The data represent the bioavailable portion of the investigated contaminants i.e. the portion that has effectively passed through biological membranes and may cause toxic effects. The report does not in general give background or explanations to significant changes found in the time series. Thus, increasing concentrations highlight the need for intensified studies. - There was no general trend in heavy metal concentrations except for lead that is generally decreasing over the study period (in time series of sufficient length), supposedly due to the elimination of lead in gasoline. - Generally, decreasing concentrations were observed for organochlorines (DDT’s, PCB’s, HCH’s, HCB), also including TCDD-equivalents over the whole study period, but not during the last decades. The chlorinated compounds generally show higher concentrations in the Bothnian Sea and/or Baltic Proper when compared to the Bothnian Bay and the Swedish west coast. - Increasing trends of brominated flame retardants in guillemot eggs from late 1960s until early 1990s for polybrominated diphenyl ethers such as BDE-47, -99 and -100 and until mid-2000s for HBCDD, but with decreasing concentrations during the more recent time period. The PBDEs and HBCDD show higher concentrations in the Baltic Sea compared to the Swedish west coast. - A consistently increasing concentration of PFOS in guillemot eggs has been observed throughout the whole time period, however, during the most recent ten years a change of direction is seen.

  • Solberger, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Ministry of Finance, Sweden.
    Spånberg, Erik
    Ministry of Finance, Sweden.
    Estimating a dynamic factor model in EViews using the Kalman filter and smoother2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we set up a dynamic factor model in EViews using only a small amount of programming. The model is particularly useful for nowcasting the economy, that is,forecasting of the very recent past, the present, or the very near future of economic activity.A subroutine that estimates the model is provided. In a simulation study, the precisionof the estimated factors are evaluated, and in an empirical example, the usefulness of themodel is illustrated.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-18 10:00 12:108, Gävle
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Experimental study of an intermittent ventilation system in high occupancy spaces2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Spaces with high occupancy density like classrooms are challenging to ventilate and use a lot of energy to maintain comfort. Usually, a compromise is made between low energy use and good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), of which poor IEQ has consequences for occupants’ health, productivity and comfort. Alternative strategies that incorporate elevated air speeds can reduce cooling energy demand and provide occupant’s comfort and productivity at higher operative temperatures. A ventilation strategy, Intermittent Air Jet Strategy (IAJS), which optimizes controlled intermittent airflow and creates non-uniform airflow and non-isothermal conditions, critical for sedentary operations at elevated temperatures, is proposed herein.

    The primary aim of the work was to investigate the potential of IAJS as a ventilation system in high occupancy spaces. Ventilation parameters such as air distribution, thermal comfort and indoor air quality are evaluated and the system is compared with a traditional system, specifically, mixing ventilation (MV). A 3-part research process was used: (1) Technical (objective) evaluation of IAJS in-comparison to MV and displacement ventilation (DV) systems. (2) An occupant response study to IAJS. (3) Estimation of the cooling effect under IAJS and its implications on energy use. All studies were conducted in controlled chambers.

    The results show that while MV and DV creates steady airflow conditions, IAJS has  cyclic airflow profiles which results in a sinusoidal temperature profile around occupants. Air distribution capability of IAJS is similar to MV, both having a generic local air quality index in the occupied zone. On the other hand, the systems overall air change rate was higher than a MV. Thermal comfort results suggest that IAJS generates comfortable thermal climate at higher operative temperatures compared to MV. Occupant responses to IAJS show an improved thermal sensation, air quality perception and acceptability of indoor environment at higher temperatures as compared to MV. A comparative study to estimate the cooling effect of IAJS shows that upper HVAC setpoint can be increased from 2.3 – 4.5 oC for a neutral thermal sensation compared to a MV. This implies a substantial energy saving potential on the ventilation system. In general, IAJS showed a potential for use as a ventilation system in classrooms while promising energy savings.  

  • Scaini, Anna
    et al.
    Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol LIST, Environm Res & Innovat Dept ERIN, Catchment & EcoHydrol Res Grp CAT, L-L4422 Luxembourg, Luxembourg.;Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Audebert, Marine
    Natl Res Inst Sci & Technol, Environm & Agr IRSTEA, HBAN Res Unit, 1 rue Pierre Gilles Gennes, F-92761 Gennes, France.;Sorbonne Univ, UMR 7619 METIS, UPMC Univ Paris 06, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Hissler, Christophe
    Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol LIST, Environm Res & Innovat Dept ERIN, Catchment & EcoHydrol Res Grp CAT, L-L4422 Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Fenicia, Fabrizio
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Gourdol, Laurent
    Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol LIST, Environm Res & Innovat Dept ERIN, Catchment & EcoHydrol Res Grp CAT, L-L4422 Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Pfister, Laurent
    Luxembourg Inst Sci & Technol LIST, Environm Res & Innovat Dept ERIN, Catchment & EcoHydrol Res Grp CAT, L-L4422 Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Beven, Keith John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Environm Ctr, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England..
    Velocity and celerity dynamics at plot scale inferred from artificial tracing experiments and time-lapse ERT2017Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 546, 28-43 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between tracer velocities and wave or wetting front celerities is essential to understand water flowing from hillslopes to the stream. The connection between maximum velocity and celerities estimated by means of experimental techniques has not been explored. To assess the pattern of infiltrating water front and dominant flow direction, we performed sprinkling experiments at a trenched plot in the Weierbach catchment in Luxembourg. Maximum velocities and wetting front celerities were inferred at different depths using artificial tracers, soil moisture measurements (TDR), and geophysical techniques. The flow direction was predominantly vertical within the observed plot, with almost no lateral flow observed until depths of 2-3 m; shallow trench flow was intermittent and associated with preferential flow. Average celerity estimates using TDR and geophysical techniques were equal to 707 +/- 234 mm h(-1) and 971 +/- 625 mm h(-1), respectively. Vertical maximum velocity estimates were tracer-dependent and had very variable ranges: 109.3 +/- 89.3 mm h(-1) (Cl-), 177.8 +/- 199.1 mm h(-1) (Br-), and 604.1 +/- 610.7 mm h(-1) (Li+). Preferential flow processes were inferred from maximum velocities apparently greater than celerities and scattered trench flow with highly variable tracer concentrations. The high variability between maximum velocities of different tracers indicated a complex pattern of tracer movement through the soil, not captured by celerity values alone. Our study demonstrated the importance to assess both velocities and celerities to understand flow dynamics in response to sprinkling while information on the wetting front alone would have missed important preferential flow processes.

  • Tabár, László
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Hsu, Chen-Yang
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang
    Taipei Med Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chen, Sam Li-Sheng
    Taipei Med Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia
    Chang Gung Univ, Taoyuan, Taiwan..
    Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan
    Kainan Univ, Taoyuan, Taiwan..
    Beckmann, Kerri
    Univ South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Smith, Robert A.
    Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA..
    Duffy, Stephen W.
    Queen Mary Univ London, London, England..
    Evaluation issues in the Swedish Two-County Trial of breast cancer screening: An historical review2017Inngår i: Journal of Medical Screening, ISSN 0969-1413, E-ISSN 1475-5793, Vol. 24, nr 1, 27-33 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial. Results: There has been considerable commentary on the closure screen of the control group, ascertainment of cause of death, and cluster randomization. The issues raised were researched in detail and the main questions answered in publications between 1989 and 2003. Overdiagnosis issues still remain, but methods of estimation taking full account of lead time and of nonscreening influences on incidence (taking place mainly before 2005) suggest that it is a minor phenomenon. Conclusion: Despite resolution of issues relating to this trial in peer-reviewed publications dating from years, or even decades ago, issues that already have been addressed continue to be raised. We suggest that it would be more profitable to concentrate efforts on current research issues in breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  • Kacar, Betuel
    et al.
    NASA, Astrobiol Inst, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA.;Harvard Univ, Organism & Evolut Biol, 26 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Ge, Xueliang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Struktur- och molekylärbiologi.
    Gaucher, Eric A.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Biol, 950 Atlantic Dr, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Petit H Parker Inst Bioengn & Biosci, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Experimental Evolution of Escherichia coli Harboring an Ancient Translation Protein2017Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Evolution, ISSN 0022-2844, E-ISSN 1432-1432, Vol. 84, nr 2-3, 69-84 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to design synthetic genes and engineer biological systems at the genome scale opens new means by which to characterize phenotypic states and the responses of biological systems to perturbations. One emerging method involves inserting artificial genes into bacterial genomes and examining how the genome and its new genes adapt to each other. Here we report the development and implementation of a modified approach to this method, in which phylogenetically inferred genes are inserted into a microbial genome, and laboratory evolution is then used to examine the adaptive potential of the resulting hybrid genome. Specifically, we engineered an approximately 700-million-year-old inferred ancestral variant of tufB, an essential gene encoding elongation factor Tu, and inserted it in a modern Escherichia coli genome in place of the native tufB gene. While the ancient homolog was not lethal to the cell, it did cause a twofold decrease in organismal fitness, mainly due to reduced protein dosage. We subsequently evolved replicate hybrid bacterial populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory and examined the adaptive response via fitness assays, whole genome sequencing, proteomics, and biochemical assays. Hybrid lineages exhibit a general adaptive strategy in which the fitness cost of the ancient gene was ameliorated in part by upregulation of protein production. Our results suggest that an ancient-modern recombinant method may pave the way for the synthesis of organisms that exhibit ancient phenotypes, and that laboratory evolution of these organisms may prove useful in elucidating insights into historical adaptive processes.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-04 10:00 1440, Stockholm
    Rauh, Sebastian Felix
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Heilbronn University.
    Exploring the Potential of Head Worn Displays for Manual Work Tasks in Industrial Environments2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore the potential of modern Head-Worn Displays for aiding manual work tasks in the manufacturing industries. In such settings, workers are already supported by using mobile hand-held devices that show instructions and enable the worker to document work tasks. However, the most important disadvantage of hand-held devices is that users need to put them aside when performing tasks that require both of their hands. The current generation of Head-Worn Displays promises hands-free usage with little added complexity and also enables the augmentation of workers’ vision,

    thereby supporting the work task in a more effective and efficient way.

    For assessing the potential of Head-Worn Displays on factory floors, a series of studies has been conducted. The studies have been carried out directly on the production line of a German car manufacturer together with workers or in-lab, depending on the study goals. Together with workers and managers in the industrial settings we identified two work tasks whereby support for Head-Worn Displays showed good potential for increasing productivity, quality and worker comfort. The Head-Worn Display support was improved in an iterative manner within a Human-Centred Design approach.

    The thesis contributes with experiences on introducing Head-Worn Displays in real world settings and for long time periods. The recorded productivity increases attributed to the Head-Worn Displays are discussed, along with worker and manager feedback. For long-term use on a factory floor, extending battery operating time was found to be of central importance. CPU and Camera were identified as the most energy consuming devices and an approach to address that is presented. A benchmark suite is introduced to enable designers, developers, and project managers to make informed decisions when selecting Head-Worn Displays. Finally, a theoretical discussion of Head-Worn Displays is presented by situating them in a sense-based Augmented Reality taxonomy, I proposed.

  • Hansson, Erika
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Daukantaité, Daiva
    Lund University.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University.
    Disordered eating and emotion dysregulation among adolescents and their parents2017Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored.

    METHOD: The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child.

    RESULTS: Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE.

    CONCLUSION: The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.

  • Matsvinn och datummärkning: Faktorer som påverkar kylvarors hållbarhet2017Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kortrapport handlar om hur användningen av datummärkning kan förbättras så att den bidrar till att minska matsvinnet utan att livsmedelssäkerheten äventyras. Det handlar om vägledning kring vilken typ av datummärkning som sätts på livsmedelsförpackningar och om vilka faktorer som spelar in för valet av angiven hållbarhetstid. Exempel på sådana faktorer är förvaringstempereratur och typ av förpackningsgas. Konsumenter behöver bättre vägledning om hållbarhet av öppnade förpackningar liksom om datummärkningsfrågor generellt.

  • Jørgensen, Øyvind
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Psykologi.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Judgments of warmth and competence in a computerized paradigm: little evidence of proposed impression formation asymmetries.2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of what we know concerning impression formation is based on experimental methods where the participant receives a list of traits or behaviors and is asked to make trait judgments or meta-cognitive judgments. The present study aimed to put some well-known effects from the impression formation literature to a test in a more dynamic computerized environment, more akin to many real world impression formation scenarios. In three studies participants were introduced to multiple target persons. They were given information about the target persons' behavior, one at a time, while making ratings of their warmth and competence, and their probability of performing related behaviors in the future. In neither of the studies the negativity effect of warmth or the positivity effect of competence were reproduced.

  • Tadesse, Amare Worku
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH). Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, POB 26751-1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Tadesse, Elazar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH). Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, POB 26751-1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Berhane, Yemane
    Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, POB 26751-1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Comparison of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-for-Height to Diagnose Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Study in Southern Ethiopia2017Inngår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, nr 3, 267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify the same population of children as having SAM. Understanding how this discrepancy relates to age and sex may provide valuable information for care programmes for children with SAM. Age and sex distribution for differences between children identified as SAM by MUAC and WHZ were examined and the degree of agreement calculated. Children (n = 4297) aged 6-59 months with validated anthropometric measures were recruited from a population-based survey conducted in rural southern Ethiopia. MUAC < 115 mm and WHZ < 3 were used to define severe wasting as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The kappa coefficient (kappa) was calculated. There was fair agreement between the MUAC and WHZ definitions of severe wasting in boys (kappa = 0.37) and children younger than 24 months (kappa = 0.32) but poor agreement in girls (kappa = 0.15) and children aged 24 months and above (kappa = 0.13). More research is needed on response to treatment and prediction of mortality using different anthropometric measurements in relation to ages and sex of children.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Measurement of the ZZ production cross section in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV using the ZZ -> l(-) l(+) l '(-) l '(+) and ZZ -> l(-) l(+) nu(nu)over-bar decay channels with the ATLAS detector2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 1, 099Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement of the ZZ production cross section in the l(-)l(+)l'(-)l'(+) and l(-)l(+) nu(nu) over bar channels (l = e, mu) in proton-proton collisions at root s = 8TeV at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1) collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2012 is presented. The fi ducial cross sections for ZZ -> l(-)l(+)l'(-)l'(+) and ZZ -> l(-)l(+) nu(nu) over bar are measured in selected phase-space regions. The total cross section for ZZ events produced with both Z bosons in the mass range 66 to 116 GeV is measured from the combination of the two channels to be 7.3 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.3 (syst) (-0.2)(-0.1) (lumi) pb, which is consistent with the Standard Model prediction of 6.6(-0.6)(+0.7) pb. The di ff erential cross sections in bins of various kinematic variables are presented. The differential event yield as a function of the transverse momentum of the leading Z boson is used to set limits on anomalous neutral triple gauge boson couplings in ZZ production.

  • Wadström, Jonas
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ericzon, Bo-Goran
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Halloran, Philip F.
    Alberta Transplant Appl Genom Ctr, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bechstein, Wolf O.
    Frankfurt Univ Hosp & Clin, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Opelz, Gerhard
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seron, Daniel
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Hosp Univ Vall dHebron, Barcelona, Spain.;Inst Carlos III, Red Invest Renal REDinREN, Madrid, Spain..
    Grinyo, Josep
    Univ Barcelona, Hosp Univ Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain..
    Loupy, Alexandre
    Hop Necker Enfants Malad, Serv Nephrol Transplantat, Paris, France..
    Kuypers, Dirk
    Univ Hosp Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Mariat, Christophe
    Univ Jean Monnet, Univ Hosp St Etienne, St Etienne, France..
    Clancy, Marc
    Western Infirm & Associated Hosp, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Jardine, Alan G.
    Western Infirm & Associated Hosp, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Guirado, Lluis
    Fundacio Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain..
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    O'Grady, John
    Kings Coll Hosp London, London, England..
    Pirenne, Jacques
    Univ Hosp Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    O'Leary, Jacqueline G.
    Baylor Univ, Med Ctr Dallas, Dallas, TX USA..
    Aluvihare, Varuna
    Kings Coll Hosp London, London, England..
    Trunecka, Pavel
    Inst Clin & Expt Med IKEM, Transplantctr, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Baccarani, Umberto
    Univ Hosp Udine, Dept Med & Biol Sci, Udine, Italy..
    Neuberger, James
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Liver Unit, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;NHS Blood & Transplant, Directorate Organ Donat & Transplantat, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Pathol, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Geissler, Edward K.
    Univ Regensburg, Univ Hosp Regensburg, Expt Surg, Regensburg, Germany..
    Metzger, Monty
    Ahead Time GmbH, Starnberg, Germany..
    Gray, Muir
    Better Value Healthcare, Oxford, England..
    Advancing Transplantation: New Questions, New Possibilities in Kidney and Liver Transplantation2017Inngår i: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2017-05-19 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Bolinder, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Pollen and pollination in Ephedra (Gnetales)2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ephedra (Gnetales) is a gymnosperm genus with a long evolutionary history; the first dispersed pollen grains with affinity to the group are known already from the Permian. This thesis focuses on the evolutionary history of the group and different aspects of its pollination mechanisms. Despite the limited number of extant species of the genus (50-60), and a low morphological and genetic divergence among species, there is variation in pollination syndrome in the genus. The prevailing state in Ephedra, and most gymnosperms, is wind pollination. It is therefore surprising that one species, E. foeminea, is insect-pollinated. Together with co-workers I documented the pollination syndromes of E. foeminea and a sympatric species, E. distachya, based on long term field experiments in north-eastern Greece and aerodynamic investigations and calculations. Placing the results into an evolutionary framework reveals that the insect-pollinated species E. foeminea is sister to the remaining (mostly wind-pollinated) genus, and indicates that insect pollination is the ancestral state in the Gnetales. During the course of evolution of the group there has been a shift to wind pollination, which may have played a crucial role for the diversification of the crown group in the Paleogene. Pollination biology is often correlated with the morphology of the pollen such that pollen grains of anemophilous plants are small with a smooth surface, whereas pollen grains of entomophilous plants are larger with an ornamented surface and a covering of pollenkitt. The pollen morphology of Ephedra can be broadly divided into two types: an ancestral type with an unbranched pseudosulcus between each pair of plicae, and a derived type with a branched pseudosulcus between each pair of plicae. Further, the pollen morphology and ultrastructure of the pollen wall in Ephedra are to some degree correlated with the pollination syndrome and capability of long distance dispersal. Pollen of E. foeminea has a denser ultrastructure, as a result a higher settling velocity and is therefore capable of flying shorter distances than does pollen of the anemophilous E. distachya, and other investigated anemophilous species that show a more spacious ultrastructure of the pollen grain. These results can be useful in the reconstruction of the pollination mechanism of extinct taxa of the Ephedra-lineage in the future.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-19 10:00 Aula Svea, Stockholm
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Between Two Worlds: Studies of migration, work, and health2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate the extent to which work-related factors contribute to the health inequalities often observed between foreign-origin and native-origin persons in Sweden. Four empirical studies using survey data and population-based registers assessed the health impact of different labor market adversities among groups of foreign-origin persons who were both in and outside the labor market relative to native-origin Swedes.

    Studies I and II examined associations between different measures of working life quality, including adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions and educational mismatch, and self-reported health among the employed. Adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions minimally contributed to the excess risk of poor health found among workers from low- and middle-income countries. Over-education had a stronger association with increased risk of poor health, most notably among foreign-born workers from countries outside of Western Europe. Under-educated women from these countries also demonstrated an elevated risk of poor health.  There was no association between educational mismatch and poor health among native-born workers. 

    Studies III and IV focused on the health implications of labor market exclusion, and examined relationships between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality and suicide. The majority of foreign-origin groups that experienced unemployment showed an elevated risk of both mortality and suicide. The magnitude of excess risk varied by generational status and region of origin. Variations in patterns of suicide risk were also evident among migrants by age at arrival and duration of residence. Yet within many foreign-origin groups, health advantages were observed among the employed.

    The health of migrants is affected by the confluence of several different pre- and post-migration factors.  The extent to which health inequalities are found among persons of foreign-origin in Sweden is influenced by the degree to which they experience labor market adversities, as well as differential vulnerability to the negative effects of these adversities across foreign-origin groups.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-22 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    P-hacking in academic research: a critical review of the job strain model and of the association between night work and breast cancer in women2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    P-hacking can be described as a more or less deliberate, explorative approach to data analysis with a flexible/opportunistic search space and the reporting of primarily statistically significant findings. This leads to inflated type-1 error rates and to bias in reported estimates in the scientific literature.

    This thesis aims to describe how p-hacking can be manifested in academic research and to illustrate how bias due to p-hacking is expected to affect the veracity of published findings using two specific examples from the literature. This thesis also argues that when evaluating published findings in the current academic environment, we should assume a priori that biases due to p-hacking and publication bias are present.

    The thesis used Monte Carlo simulations and systematic reviews of the literature in two specific fields: the proposed associations between exposure to night work and breast cancer in women, and between job strain and coronary heart disease.

    A general model and mathematical framework to predict expected bias from p-hacking was developed, and can be used for  a priori defined protected inferences of any published finding, under explicit assumptions of various levels of p-hacking. The model indicated a close to 100% chance of demonstrating a false positive association in larger studies, but also showed that even minimal p-hacking results in substantial bias in estimates.

    The literature review identified large flexibility in the analytical process, allowing for the final model to be picked from a large pool of available models, with an implied search space of thousands of estimates. Some of the specific observations made here could be used to argue evidence for high risk of p-hacking and publication bias in the reviewed literature:

    • None of the 17 reviewed studies on job strain and coronary heart disease reported the proper estimate of the job strain interaction (chapter 6) and our analysis showed that the proper estimate would not have been statistically significant in any of the studies (chapter 7).
    • One study described a data driven approach with an implied search space of at least 502 models, where adjusting for confounding did not reduce the strength of the association, as would be expected, but instead increased its strength so it fell above the threshold for statistical significance (chapter 5).
    • One study was based on a speculative and marginally significant estimate after arbitrarily restricting the analysis to a subgroup, when estimates on the full group were available and indicated a non-significant association (chapter 5).
    • Statistical power analyses on research into night work and breast cancer indicated that statistically significant findings were over-represented in the literature (p≈.001) suggesting the presence of bias from p-hacking or selective publishing of significant findings (chapter 5).

    The findings also suggest that previously reported estimates in meta-analyses was likely to represent prevailing bias in the two fields reviewed here. A bias-adjusted meta-analysis on the job strain model and coronary heart disease with a total of 462,220 subjects and 6,836 CHD events indicated no support for the job strain interaction (RR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.88--1.14). In addition, it did not show an increased risk due to high job demand (RR=1.03; 95% CI: 0.97--1.11) but it did confirm previously reported risks due to low job control (RR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.03--1.20).

  • Disputas: 2017-05-22 09:00 Lilla Hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Inclusive Digital Socialisation: Designs of Education and Computer Games in a Global Context2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital socialisation is to learn the ways of living online, across national borders, local cultures and societies and has to be inclusive for equal participation. Conditions for this socialisation process are different due to both local and individual limitations. In a high-income country like Sweden, playing computer games are one of the most common practices for digital socialisation among youth online (digital youth), but rarely in school with teachers. Thus, there is limited institutionalised support taking responsibility for the socialisation process online of digital youth. As contrast, in a lower middle-income country like Sri Lanka, telecentres provide holistic community services with free access to computer hardware and sometimes also Internet to bridge an internal digital divide. However, there are still several barriers for inclusive digital socialisation, such as shortage of teachers, infrastructure, accessibility and a language barrier. The problem is that digital youth have to overcome barriers for inclusive digital socialisation, often with limited institutionalised support. Game oriented education (GOE) is a potential approach to bridge these barriers. Thematic questions were: How can environments for inclusive digital socialisation be designed for digital youth who: T1) are gamers that are excluded in school; T2) are living in underprivileged communities; and/or T3) have disabilities and play games? A related thematic main question is: T4) how can education about game accessibility be designed for game developers? Within a design science framework, ethnography showed that GOE with entertainment games enabled gamers excluded in Swedish schools to be included, but could not be sustained by the schools. GOE workshops about programming were a possible way to raise awareness about ICT opportunities at Sri Lankan telecentres. Furthermore, a game prototype for deaf versus blind was demonstrated in workshops within formal education settings in Sweden and Sri Lanka, exploring a design method. Finally, two international online surveys provided data for designing a game accessibility curriculum framework, based upon opinions from researchers and game developers. Conclusions are that GOE may be an environment for inclusive digital socialisation, if it is: 1) sustained in the educational social system; 2) enabled within limits of ICTD; and 3) accessible for digital youth with disabilities. The latter requires: 4) education for game developers. This thesis shows how these requirements may be fulfilled, enabling GOE as a design to achieve inclusive digital socialisation in a global context.

  • Wang, Tianheng
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ, Dept Phys, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Gang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik. Nanjing Univ, Dept Phys, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Normal Univ, Dept Phys, Jinhua, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.
    Nanjing Univ, Dept Phys, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Feng
    Weavi Corp Ltd, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    A differential operator for integrating one-loop scattering equations2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 1, 028Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a differential operator for computing the residues associated with a class of meromorphic n-forms that frequently appear in the Cachazo-He-Yuan form of the scattering amplitudes. This differential operator is conjectured to be uniquely determined by the local duality theorem and the intersection number of the divisors in the n-form. We use the operator to evaluate the one-loop integrand of Yang-Mills theory from their generalized CHY formulae. The method can reduce the complexity of the calculation. In addition, the expression for the 1-loop four-point Yang-Mills integrand obtained in our approach has a clear correspondence with the Q-cut results.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-19 10:15 B41, Uppsala
    Elmsjö, Albert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för analytisk farmaceutisk kemi.
    Selectivity in NMR and LC-MS Metabolomics: The Importance of Sample Preparation and Separation, and how to Measure Selectivity in LC-MS Metabolomics.2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Until now, most metabolomics protocols have been optimized towards high sample throughput and high metabolite coverage, parameters considered to be highly important for identifying influenced biological pathways and to generate as many potential biomarkers as possible. From an analytical point of view this can be troubling, as neither sample throughput nor the number of signals relates to actual quality of the detected signals/metabolites. However, a method’s selectivity for a specific signal/metabolite is often closely associated to the quality of that signal, yet this is a parameter often neglected in metabolomics.

    This thesis demonstrates the importance of considering selectivity when developing NMR and LC-MS metabolomics methods, and introduces a novel approach for measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS metabolomics.

    Selectivity for various sample preparations and HILIC stationary phases was compared. The choice of sample preparation affected the selectivity in both NMR and LC-MS. For the stationary phases, selectivity differences related primarily to retention differences of unwanted matrix components, e.g. inorganic salts or glycerophospholipids. Metabolites co-eluting with these matrix components often showed an incorrect quantitative signal, due to an influenced ionization efficiency and/or adduct formation.

    A novel approach for measuring selectivity in LC-MS metabolomics has been introduced. By dividing the intensity of each feature (a unique mass at a specific retention time) with the total intensity of the co-eluting features, a ratio representing the combined chromatographic (amount of co-elution) and signal (e.g. in-source fragmentation) selectivity is acquired. The calculated co-feature ratios have successfully been used to compare the selectivity of sample preparations and HILIC stationary phases.

    In conclusion, standard approaches in metabolomics research might be unwise, as each metabolomics investigation is often unique.  The methods used should be adapted for the research question at hand, primarily based on any key metabolites, as well as the type of sample to be analyzed. Increased selectivity, through proper choice of analytical methods, may reduce the risks of matrix-associated effects and thereby reduce the false positive and false negative discovery rate of any metabolomics investigation.

  • Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Combining pedagogical strategies and ICT support for fostering the digitalized agentic learner2017Inngår i: INTED2017 Proceedings, 2017, 1433-1441 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education is facing exceptional challenges due to an increased complexity on the labour market. The work life of today is highly specialized and demands continuous education, i.e. lifelong learning. Higher education must focus on developing competencies for work life, beyond traditional theoretical knowledge [1]. To cater for these demands, higher education must adopt more application-oriented and trans-disciplinary research [2]. Moreover, colleges and universities could more systematically take responsibility for career development and adjust curricula for both traditional and non-traditional students [3]. A crucial question to address is how higher education could foster a student to become a “lifelong learner”? From a pedagogical perspective, it is of course vital to teach a student how to learn [4], aiming at achieving the skill to become a self-directed learner. Interestingly, it is argued that the qualities for being a proactive and agentic learner in higher education are the very same abilities required for effective professional practice [5]. We need to use educational strategies, e.g. work-integrated learning (WiL), as a part of the preparation of becoming an agentic learner, that permit them to successfully negotiate, engage and learn from what they are afforded, for both personal and professional outcomes [6]. Furthermore, we need to adopt important key factors that support fostering agentic learners [7]. 

    In parallel to pedagogical strategies and key factors, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could play an important role for continuous learning [8-10]. Research shows that over the recent years, social media has been pointed out as a tool, not only for external communication, but also for informal learning within organizations [11-14]. 

    In this paper we wish to suggest a combination where important pedagogical strategies are combined with ICT-support. Moreover, we wish to suggest a strategy for how this combination could be practiced in higher education, making the transfer to work life smoother. 

    We acknowledge that students of today most often have good knowledge of the use of various digital tools such as Facebook, Youtube etc. This is however often constrained to the use of various platforms and tools for entertainment and social contacts. How these tools can be used for learning portfolios, both during their studies and for lifelong learning, is less known and used. We suggest that students during their education choose digital tools based on individual preferences and build a personal learning environment (PLE) [15]. The PLE should include “open tools”, such tools are available outside closed systems within organizations, in order to be useful also after graduation. The student has the possible to develop and re-use knowledge of tools and platforms to work in the new context, working life. However, the use of a PLE will not in itself do the trick. 

    Portfolio is one of many tools to assess learning. When the digital development progressed and applications on the Internet has expanded, the portfolio characteristics can be changed to the e-portfolio [16]. We advocate that both teachers and student need support for developing pedagogical strategies that optimize the use of ICT and aims at fostering agentic learners. We suggest that an e-portfolio may constitute such a joint support. 

    In this paper we will show that an e-portfolio and PLE can support important factors for fostering agentic learners who in an efficient way take advantage of modern ICT. In sum, we suggest an approach for fostering “digitalized agentic learners”. 

  • Constantin, Andrei
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Gray, James
    Virginia Tech, Dept Phys, Robeson Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Lukas, Andre
    Univ Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Ctr Theoret Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Hodge numbers for all CICY quotients2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 1, 001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun's classification [1].

  • Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: intervjustudie2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett permanent system för alkolås efter rattfylleri trädde i kraft den 1 januari 2012. Det betyder att förare som gjort sig skyldiga till alkoholrattfylleribrott har möjlighet att ansöka om körkort med villkor om alkolås i stället för att vara utan körkort. Transportstyrelsen ansvarar för systemet som gäller samtliga körkortsbehörigheter. De som har gjort sig skyldiga till grovt rattfylleri, till upprepade fall av rattfylleri till följd av alkoholförtäring de senaste fem åren, eller har diagnosen alkoholberoende eller alkoholmissbruk får två års villkorstid. Övriga får ett års villkorstid. Vid VTI utvärderas systemet med alkolås efter rattfylleri på olika sätt. Här presenteras resultat från en intervjustudie där totalt 31 personer som begått ett rattfylleribrott intervjuats dels vid ett möte, dels vid uppföljande telefonintervjuer. Det är 11 personer som haft alkolås med 2 års villkorstid, 10 personer med villkorstid 1 år och 10 personer som inte haft alkolås efter rattfylleri.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-17 09:00 N420, Umeå
    Skrypnychuk, Vasyl
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Vertical charge transport in conjugated polymers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are novel organic electronic materials highly important for organic photovoltaic applications. Charge transport is one of the key properties which defines the performance of conjugated polymers in electronic devices.

    This work aims to explore the charge transport anisotropy in thin films of P3HT, one of the most common conjugated polymers. Using X-ray diffraction techniques and charge transport measurements, the relation between vertical charge transport through thin P3HT films and structure of the films was established.

    It was shown that particular orientations of crystalline domains of P3HT, namely face-on and chain-on, are beneficial for vertical charge transport. These orientations provide the efficient pathways for the charges to be transported vertically, either via π-π stacking interaction between the adjacent conjugated chains, or via the conjugated chain backbones. It was also demonstrated that particular orientations of crystallites are favourable for the formation of interconnected percolated pathways providing enhanced vertical charge transport across the film.

    Deposition of P3HT on most commonly used silicon substrates typically results in the formation of mostly edge-on orientation of crystallites which is unfavourable for vertical charge transport. Nanoimprint lithography was demonstrated as a powerful processing method for reorienting the edge-on crystalline domains of P3HT into chain-on (vertical) orientation. It is also shown that thin P3HT films with preferentially face-on orientations of crystallites can be deposited on graphene surface by spin coating.

    Using patterning of thin P3HT films by nanoimprint lithography, unprecedentedly high average vertical mobilities in the range of 3.1-10.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved in undoped P3HT.

    These results demonstrate that charge transport in thin films of a relatively simple and well-known conjugated polymer P3HT can be significantly improved using optimization of crystallinity,orientation of crystallites, polymer chain orientation and alignment in the films.

  • Laun, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Wallenius, Johanna
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Having It All? Employment, Earnings and Children2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden boasts high fertility and high female employment. However, part-time employmentis very prevalent. There is a notable gender gap in both wages and earnings,which widens substantially after women have children. In this paper we studythe effect of family policies on female employment, fertility and the gender wagegap. To this end, we develop a structural, life cycle model of heterogeneous householdswhich features endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, fertilityand home production. We find that family policies, such as subsidized daycare andpart-time work options, promote maternal employment and fertility. Part-time workcontributes greatly to the widening of the gender wage gap following the arrival ofchildren. However, restricting part-time work options would lower maternal employment, and thereby also widen the gender wage gap.

  • Hoffner, Mattias
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.;Blekinge Hosp, Dept Surg, SE-37185 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Bagheri, Shirin
    Cedars Sinai, Dept Rheumatol, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Hansson, Emma
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Plast & Reconstruct Surg, Malmo, Sweden..
    Manjer, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Plast & Reconstruct Surg, Malmo, Sweden..
    Troëng, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi. Blekinge Hosp, Dept Surg, SE-37185 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Brorson, Hakan
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Plast & Reconstruct Surg, Malmo, Sweden..
    SF-36 Shows Increased Quality of Life Following Complete Reduction of Postmastectomy Lymphedema with Liposuction2017Inngår i: Lymphatic Research and Biology, ISSN 1539-6851, E-ISSN 1557-8585, Vol. 15, nr 1, 87-98 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Arm lymphedema after breast cancer surgery affects women both from physical and psychological points of view. Lymphedema leads to adipose tissue deposition. Liposuction and controlled compression therapy (CCT) reduces the lymphedema completely. Methods and Results: Sixty female patients with arm lymphedema were followed for a 1-year period after surgery. The 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients completed the SF-36 questionnaire before liposuction, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Preoperative excess arm volume was 1365 +/- 73mL. Complete reduction was achieved after 3 months and was sustained during follow-up. The adipose tissue volume removed at surgery was 1373 +/- 56mL. One month after liposuction, better scores were found in mental health. After 3 months, an increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and vitality was detected. After 1 year, an increase was also seen for social functioning. The physical component score was higher at 3 months and thereafter, while the mental component score was improved at 3 and 12 months. Compared with SF-36 norm data for the Swedish population, only physical functioning showed lower values than the norm at baseline. After liposuction, general health, bodily pain, vitality, mental health, and social functioning showed higher values at various time points. Conclusions: Liposuction of arm lymphedema in combination with CCT improves patients HRQoL as measured with SF-36. The treatment seems to target and improve both the physical and mental health domains.

  • Disputas: 2017-05-29 12:00 Sal C, Stockholm
    Xhagjika, Vamis
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS. Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
    Resource, Data and Application Management for Cloud Federations and Multi-Clouds2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed Real-Time Media Processing refers to classes of highly distributed, delay no-tolerant applications that account for the majority of the data traffic generated in the world today. Real-Time audio/video conferencing and live content streaming are of particular research interests as technology forecasts predict video traffic surpassing every other type of data traffic in the world in the near future. Live streaming refers to applications in which audio/video streams from a source need to be delivered to a set of geo-distributed destinations while maintaining low latency of stream delivery. Real-time conferencing platforms are application platforms that implement many-to-many audio/video real-time communications. Both of these categories exhibit high sensitivity to both network state (latency, jitter, packet loss, bit rate) as well as stream processing backend load profiles (latency and jitter introduced as Cloud processing of media packets). This thesis addresses enhancing real-time media processing both at the network level parameters as well as Cloud optimisations.

    We provide a novel, bandwidth management algorithm, for cloud services sharing the same network infrastructure, which provides a 2x improvement in system stability. Further examining network impact on cloud services, we provide a novel hybrid Cloud-Network distributed Cloud architecture to enable locality aware, application enhancements. This architecture led to a multi-cloud management overlay algorithm that maintains low management overhead on large scale cloud deployments. On the application level we provide a study of Media Quality parameters for a WebRTC enabled Media Cloud back-end, and provide patterns of quality metrics with respect to back-end stream load and network parameters. Additionally we empirically show that a "minimal load" algorithm for stream allocation, outperforms other Rotational, or Static Threshold based algorithms.

  • Dahlgren, K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Holzmann, M. J.
    Carlsson, A. C.
    Wandelld, P.
    Hasselstrom, J.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    The use of a Swedish telephone medical advice service by the elderly: a population-based study2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, nr 1, 98-104 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study aimed to describe contact made by the elderly to Sweden's nationwide medical helpline, Healthcare Guide 1177 by Phone (HGP). Other objectives were to study potential gender differences and the association between different HGP referral levels and acute visits to hospital-based emergency departments and acute visits to primary care centres. Design: De-identified data from recorded calls to HGP was extracted for analysis (n=7477 for the oldest age group). Information about acute visits to emergency departments and to primary care reception was extracted from the patient administration system.Setting: Vasterbotten County, Sweden.Subjects: Patients over 80 years.Main outcome measures: Calling and visiting frequencies for different age groups as well as reasons for contact and individual recommendations. Results: The utilisation rate of the telephone advice service for the oldest age group was high, with an incidence rate of 533 per 1000 person-years. Women had a 1.17 times higher incidence rate compared with men. The most common reason for contact was drug-related questions (17% of all contacts). Calls that were recommended to care by a medical specialist correlated with total emergency department visits (r=0.30, p<0.05) and calls that were given advice correlated with acute primary healthcare visits (r=0.38, p=0.005). Conclusion: The high utilisation of the telephone advice service by the elderly gives the telephone advice service a unique ability to function as a gatekeeper to further healthcare. Our data suggest that with the telephone advice service's present guidelines, a significant proportion of all calls are being directed to further medical help. The high frequency of drug-related questions raises concerns about the elderly's medication regimens.

  • Goldin, Simon
    Kungl. Konsthögskolan. Malmö Faculty of Fine and Performing Ars.
    Zero magic: Shifting the Valuation Convention2016Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Zero Magic is a trick for the financial markets, which has the capacity to undermine the perceived value of a publicly traded company and profit from this. Short selling is a way of profiting from loss: Making money if and when a target company loses in value. It is a fundamental market activity that goes as far back as the first stock, yet to this day little is publicly known about the strategies employed by short sellers. On the US exchanges there is no requirement for hedge funds to disclose short positions, and in other jurisdictions such requirements are very limited. Zero Magic was developed by covertly infiltrating a secretive hedge fund specializing in short selling, and reverse engineering its methods. In brief, the hedge fund’s trading strategy is based on identifying suitable short selling targets through analyzing networks of corruption, and then framing critical newsworthy stories about these target companies that can be anonymously distributed among journalists. Profit is gained when a target company loses in value. Rigorous measures are taken by the fund never to be identified as the source of a negative campaign.Access to the hedge fund was gained through the art world. The founder and co-director routinely supports artists and art institutions and is said to have gotten the idea for his fund when looking at a Mark Lombardi drawing (an artist known for mapping networks of power and corruption). It is hard to tell whether the founder’s engagement with art merely entertains personal vanity, or if it functions more strategically as a means of “secret publicity” for the fund; giving access to investors, while staying under the radar of more mainstream public relations. Covert techniques such as hidden recordings and proxy researchers were used to uncover the fund’s methods. With the assistance of Théo Bourgeron, sociologist of finance, Zero Magic not only reconstructs the workings of the trading strategy, but offers a fully operational magic gimmick. The magic gimmick is a computer program providing non-expert users the means to identify relevant short selling targets (companies with weak “valuation conventions”), and a step-by-step guide to undermining their perceived value. With this gimmick one can execute a successful short sale without any previous contacts in the investor community or access to insider information. A US patent application for the trick was filed in January 2016.The artistic PhD “Zero Magic: Shifting the Valuation Convention” concludes with a stage performance and a magic box:The stage performance, “On a Long Enough Timeline the Survival Rate for Everyone Drops to Zero” with magician Malin Nilsson, performed on May 11 and 12, 2016, at Cirkus Cirkör, Stockholm. Through the ticket sales, audience members are drawn into the Zero Magic trick, buying into the predicted future loss of a target company. The magic box, prepared for public archives, contains the Zero Magic computer software, a US patent application for a “Computer Assisted Magic Trick Executed in the Financial Markets” and four historical examples of magic tricks played out beyond the stage, in the world at large.

  • Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, KI, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Berglund, Marika
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Karolinska institutet, KI, Karolinska institutet, institutet för miljömedicin, IMM.
    Tidstrender av kemiska ämnen i barns urin och utvärdering av förskoledamm som exponeringskälla2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tidsserie av kemiska ämnen i urin från fyraåriga barn i Stockholm samlades urinprov in 2015 från 113 barn och analyserades för ftalater, bisfenoler och bekämpningsmedel. Resultaten jämfördes med urinprov insamlade 1998-2000 från en jämförbar grupp fyraåringar. Halter av BPA och metaboliter till idag tillståndspliktiga ftalater var signifikant lägre i urinproven från 2015, medan halterna av metaboliter till en ftalat som fortfarande används i stor utsträckning (DiNP) var högre 2015.

    I studien utvärderades även förekomsten av ftalater, alternativa mjukgörare, bisfenoler, fosforbaserade och bromerade flamskyddsmedel i damm från förskolor, samt faktorer av betydelse för dammhalterna av dessa ämnen. Byggnadsår och förekomst av vissa produkter, som skummadrasser, elektronik och PVC-golv, samvarierade med halter av vissa mjukgörare och flamskyddsmedel i damm.

    Barns exponering för de undersökta ämnena via dammintag beräknades och jämfördes med hälsobaserade riktvärden. Exponeringen för de undersökta ämnena via damm i förskolan underskred i samtliga fall de hälsobaserade riktvärdena. Exponeringen via intag av damm på förskolan uppskattades motsvara 2-27% av barnens totala intag (baserat på urindata) av olika ftalater och BPA.

    Halter av mjukgörare och BPA i damm samvarierade inte med halter av motsvarande metaboliter i urin från förskolebarn, vilket talar för att andra källor än förskoledamm är viktigare för den totala exponeringen för dessa ämnen. Däremot observerades signifikanta korrelationer mellan vissa flamskyddsmedel i damm och handavstrykningsprov från förskolebarn, vilket reflekterar betydelsen av kemikalier i damm för hand-till-mun exponering

  • Disputas: 2017-05-18 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Pignier, Nicolas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Predicting the sound field from aeroacoustic sources on moving vehicles: Towards an improved urban environment2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a society where environmental noise is becoming a major health and economical concern, sound emissions are an increasingly critical design factor for vehicle manufacturers. With about a quarter of the European population living close to roads with heavy traffic, traffic noise in urban landscapes has to be addressed first. The current introduction of electric vehicles on the market and the need for sound systems to alert their presence is causing a shift in mentalities requiring engineering methods that will have to treat noise management problems from a broader perspective. That in which noise emissions need not only be considered as a by-product of the design but as an integrated part of it. Developing more sustainable ground transportation will require a better understanding of the sound field emitted in various realistic operating conditions, beyond the current requirements set by the standard pass-by test, which is performed in a free-field. A key aspect to improve this understanding is the development of efficient numerical tools to predict the generation and propagation of sound from moving vehicles.

    In the present thesis, a methodology is proposed aimed at evaluating the pass-by sound field generated by vehicle acoustic sources in a simplified urban environment, with a focus on flow sound sources. Although it can be argued that the aerodynamic noise is still a minor component of the total emitted noise in urban driving conditions, this share will certainly increase in the near future with the introduction of quiet electric engines and more noise-efficient tyres on the market.

    This work presents a complete modelling of the problem from sound generation to sound propagation and pass-by analysis in three steps. Firstly, computation of the flow around the geometry of interest; secondly, extraction of the sound sources generated by the flow, and thirdly, propagation of the sound generated by the moving sources to observers including reflections and scattering by nearby surfaces. In the first step, the flow is solved using compressible detached-eddy simulations. The identification of the sound sources in the second step is performed using direct numerical beamforming with linear programming deconvolution, with the phased array pressure data being extracted from the flow simulations. The outcome of this step is a set of uncorrelated monopole sources. Step three uses this set as input to a propagation method based on a point-to-point moving source Green's function and a modified Kirchhoff integral under the Kirchhoff approximation to compute reflections on built surfaces. The methodology is demonstrated on the example of the aeroacoustic noise generated by a NACA air inlet moving in a simplified urban setting. Using this methodology gives insights on the sound generating mechanisms, on the source characteristics and on the sound field generated by the sources when moving in a simplified urban environment.

  • Nylander, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Tunback, Petra
    Commentary on "Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults"2017Inngår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 97, nr 1, 145-145 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Droeser, Raoul A.
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Lund, Sweden..
    Ottosson, Johan
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Muth, Andreas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hultin, Hella
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Endokrinkirurgi.
    Lindwall-Ahlander, Karin
    Gavle Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Gavle, Sweden..
    Bergenfelz, Anders
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Almquist, Martin
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy in patients with previous gastric bypass2017Inngår i: Langenbeck's archives of surgery (Print), ISSN 1435-2443, E-ISSN 1435-2451, Vol. 402, nr 2, 273-280 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Case reports suggest that patients with previous gastric bypass have an increased risk of severe hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy, but there are no population-based studies. The prevalence of gastric bypass before thyroidectomy and the risk of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy in patients with previous gastric bypass were investigated. Methods By cross-linking The Scandinavian Quality Registry for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery with the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry patients operated with total thyroidectomy without concurrent or previous surgery for hyperparathyroidism were identified and grouped according to previous gastric bypass. The risk of treatment with intravenous calcium during hospital stay, and with oral calcium and vitamin D at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively was calculated by using multiple logistic regression in the overall cohort and in a 1:1 nested case-control analysis. Results We identified 6115 patients treated with total thyroidectomy. Out of these, 25 (0.4 %) had undergone previous gastric bypass surgery. In logistic regression, previous gastric bypass was not associated with treatment with i.v. calcium (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 0.48-8.74), or calcium and/or vitamin D at 6 weeks (1.14 (0.39-3.35), 1.31 (0.39-4.42)) or 6 months after total thyroidectomy (1.71 (0.40-7.32), 2.28 (0.53-9.75)). In the nested case-control analysis, rates of treatment for hypocalcemia were similar in patients with and without previous gastric bypass. Conclusion Previous gastric bypass surgery was infrequent in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative hypocalcemia.

  • Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Latorre-Margalef, N.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.;Univ Georgia, Coll Vet Med, Dept Populat Hlth, Southeastern Cooperat Wildlife Dis Study, Athens, GA 30602 USA..
    Tolf, C.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Stallknecht, D. E.
    Univ Georgia, Coll Vet Med, Dept Populat Hlth, Southeastern Cooperat Wildlife Dis Study, Athens, GA 30602 USA..
    Waldenstrom, J.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    No evidence for homosubtypic immunity of influenza H3 in Mallards following vaccination in a natural experimental system2017Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 26, nr 5, 1420-1431 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is an important reservoir species for influenza A viruses (IAV), and in this host, prevalence and virus diversity are high. Studies have demonstrated the presence of homosubtypic immunity, where individuals are unlikely to be reinfected with the same subtype within an autumn season. Further, evidence for heterosubtypic immunity exists, whereby immune responses specific for one subtype offer partial or complete protection against related HA subtypes. We utilized a natural experimental system to determine whether homo- or heterospecific immunity could be induced following experimental vaccination. Thirty Mallards were vaccinated with an inactivated H3, H6 or a sham vaccine and after seroconversion were exposed to naturally infected wild conspecifics. All ducks were infected within 2days and had both primary and secondary infections. Overall, there was no observable difference between groups; all individuals were infected with H3 and H10 IAV. At the cessation of the experiment, most individuals had anti-NP antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against H10. Not all individuals had H3 neutralizing antibodies. The isolated H3 IAVs revealed genetic dissimilarity to the H3 vaccine strain, specifically substitutions in the vicinity of the receptor-binding site. There was no evidence of vaccine-induced homosubtypic immunity to H3, a likely result of both a poor H3 immune response in the ducks and H3 immune escape. Likewise, there was no observed heterosubtypic protection related to H6 vaccination. This study highlights the need for experimental approaches to assess how exposure to pathogens and resulting immune processes translates to individual and population disease dynamics.

  • Lindgren, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Ordförrådsutveckling hos förskolebarn med svenska som modersmål: En studie med Cross-linguistic Lexical Task (CLT)2017Inngår i: Svenskans beskrivning 35: Förhandlingar vid trettiofemte sammankomsten. Göteborg 11-13 maj 2016 / [ed] Emma Sköldberg, Maia Andréasson, Henrietta Adamsson Eryd, Filippa Lindahl, Julia Prentice, Sven Lindström, & Malin Sandberg, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2017, 161-174 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)