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  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 13:00 Weber, Växjö
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY). Linnéuniversitetet.
    Self-concepts and psychological health among children and adolescents with reading disabilities and the influence of assistive technology2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that have all aimed to increase the understanding of the interactions and connections between self-concepts, reading impairment, psychological health and Assistive Technology (AT). The use of applications in tablets as assistive technology to facilitate reading and compensate for reading impairment and its impact on the participants’ self-concepts and psychological health as well as on their reading abilities was also of interest.

    The first study included 67 pupils in school years 4-9. They were assessed by the Beck Youth Inventory (BYI) regarding self-image, anxiety and depression. The results showed no deviance from age-equivalent norm group scores. The second study included 35 pupils in school years 4-6. This study aimed at investigating the transfer effects on decoding and general reading ability after 20 intervention sessions where AT (applications in tablets) were used. Results showed that the decoding ability had progressed at the same rate as that of the norm group. The results also showed that using AT increased motivations to learn, as well as independence and improved family climate. The third study was a randomized control study (RCT) with 137 participants in school years 4, 8 and high school. The results showed that reading impaired children and adolescents to a great extent, but not completely unanimously, did not depict any different self-image or self-esteem than peers with an expected reading ability of the same age. Self-esteem was investigated by the Cultural Free Self Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-3). The CFSEI-3 scores showed no effect by interventions with AT. The results also showed that there were no signs of depression, assessed by BYI, in the investigated groups, but somewhat inconclusive results regarding anxiety where the school-year 4 group depicted higher levels of anxiety.

    The results generally showed a more positive depiction than what previous studies within the field have presented, which was interpreted as being due to the development of efficient pedagogical strategies and supportive attitudes in the school context, as well as among family members or peers. 

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 09:00 KB.E3.03 (stora hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Design strategies for new drugs targeting multicomponent systems: focusing on class II MHC proteins and acetylcholinesterase2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving. Aided by advances within techniques as well as knowledge of biological systems, increasingly complex targets and drugs can be considered. This thesis includes two projects focusing on the design of drugs targeting multicomponent systems, referring to systems for which multiple components must be considered during the drug design process.

    In the first project, the long-term goal is to develop a vaccine against the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cause of RA is unknown, but it is genetically linked to expression of class II MHC proteins that present antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs), responsible for initiating an immune response. A glycopeptide fragment, CII259–273, from type II collagen has shown promising results as a vaccine against arthritis resembling RA in mice. CII259–273 binds to the class II MHC protein followed by presentation to the TCR, forming a multicomponent system.

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect that modifications of CII259–273 have on the multicomponent system. Non-native amino acids and amide bond isosteres have been introduced. This has demonstrated the importance of retaining the backbone conformation of CII259–273, as well as the hydrogen bonds formed to the backbone. The ability to introduce such modifications would be of value to affect the potency towards the MHC protein, and prevent degradation of the glycopeptide. The studies have revealed a multicomponent system that is highly sensitive to even small modifications that can affect the dynamics of the entire complex.

    In the second project, the long-term goal is to develop a broad-spectrum antidote against nerve agents. Nerve agents are extremely toxic compounds that act by covalently inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is essential for termination of nerve signalling. A major limitation of current antidotes is that their efficiency is dependent on the type of nerve agent. A broad-spectrum antidote must be able to bind to the multicomponent system consisting of AChE covalently inhibited by different nerve agents. It will then act by performing a nucleophilic attack on the nerve agent adduct, thus breaking the covalent bond to AChE.

    We have used statistical molecular design (SMD) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling to identify a fragment with a potency for AChE inhibited by different nerve agents. A nucleophilic component able to restore the enzyme to the active form was thereafter introduced. This resulted in a functional reactivator, efficient for multiple nerve agents. Furthermore, the mechanism of reactivation has been investigated through structural studies, enabled by a combination of X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling. A high flexibility of the reactivator, as well as the ability to bind to AChE in multiple conformations, are defined as important properties for a broad-spectrum antidote.

  • Minici, Claudia
    et al.
    IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Immunol Transplantat & Infect Dis, Biocrystallog Unit, Via Olgettina 58, I-20132 Milan, Italy.;Univ Vita Salute San Raffaele, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Gounari, Maria
    IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Expt Oncol, Cell Neoplasia Unit B, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Uebelhart, Rudolf
    Univ Klin Ulm, D-89081 Ulm, Germany..
    Scarfo, Lydia
    Univ Vita Salute San Raffaele, I-20132 Milan, Italy.;IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Expt Oncol, Cell Neoplasia Unit B, I-20132 Milan, Italy.;IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Strateg Res Program CLL, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Duhren-von Minden, Marcus
    Univ Klin Ulm, D-89081 Ulm, Germany..
    Schneider, Dunja
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Fac Biol, Ctr Biol Signaling Studies, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany..
    Tasdogan, Alpaslan
    Univ Klin Ulm, D-89081 Ulm, Germany..
    Alkhatib, Alabbas
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Fac Biol, Ctr Biol Signaling Studies, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany..
    Agathangelidis, Andreas
    IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Expt Oncol, Cell Neoplasia Unit B, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Ntoufa, Stavroula
    Ctr Res & Technol, Inst Appl Biosci, Thessaloniki 57001, Greece..
    Chiorazzi, Nicholas
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, Manhasset, NY 11030 USA..
    Jumaa, Hassan
    Univ Klin Ulm, D-89081 Ulm, Germany..
    Stamatopoulos, Kostas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi. Ctr Res & Technol, Inst Appl Biosci, Thessaloniki 57001, Greece..
    Ghia, Paolo
    Univ Vita Salute San Raffaele, I-20132 Milan, Italy.;IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Expt Oncol, Cell Neoplasia Unit B, I-20132 Milan, Italy.;IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Strateg Res Program CLL, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Degano, Massimo
    IRCCS San Raffaele Sci Inst, Div Immunol Transplantat & Infect Dis, Biocrystallog Unit, Via Olgettina 58, I-20132 Milan, Italy..
    Distinct homotypic B-cell receptor interactions shape the outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-autonomous B-cell receptor (BcR)-mediated signalling is a hallmark feature of the neoplastic B lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Here we elucidate the structural basis of autonomous activation of CLL B cells, showing that BcR immunoglobulins initiate intracellular signalling through homotypic interactions between epitopes that are specific for each subgroup of patients with homogeneous clinicobiological profiles. The molecular details of the BcR-BcR interactions apparently dictate the clinical course of disease, with stronger affinities and longer half-lives in indolent cases, and weaker, short-lived contacts mediating the aggressive ones. The diversity of homotypic BcR contacts leading to cell-autonomous signalling reconciles the existence of a shared pathogenic mechanism with the biological and clinical heterogeneity of CLL and offers opportunities for innovative treatment strategies.

  • Cao, Yiming
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Saygili, Yasemin
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Ummadisingu, Amita
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Teuscher, Joel
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Photochem Dynam Grp, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Luo, Jingshan
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Pellet, Norman
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Giordano, Fabrizio
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Moser, Jacques-E.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Photochem Dynam Grp, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Freitag, Marina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Graetzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    11% efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with copper(II/I) hole transport materials2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells currently suffer from issues such as inadequate nanopore filling, low conductivity and crystallization of hole-transport materials infiltrated in the mesoscopic TiO2 scaffolds, leading to low performances. Here we report a record 11% stable solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under standard air mass 1.5 global using a hole-transport material composed of a blend of [Cu (4,4',6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide)2 and [Cu (4,4',6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2](bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). The amorphous Cu(II/I) conductors that conduct holes by rapid hopping infiltrated in a 6.5 mm-thick mesoscopic TiO2 scaffold are crucial for achieving such high efficiency. Using time-resolved laser photolysis, we determine the time constants for electron injection from the photoexcited sensitizers Y123 into the TiO2 and regeneration of the Y123 by Cu(I) to be 25 ps and 3.2 μs, respectively. Our work will foster the development of low-cost solid-state photovoltaic based on transition metal complexes as hole conductors.

  • Nygren, Karina
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Binge drinking and total alcohol consumption from 16 to 43 years of age are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose in women: results from the northern Swedish cohort study2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43.

    Methods: Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires.

    Results: Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43.

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 10:15 Desi, A-huset, Linköping
    Larsson, L. Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Control Aspects of ComplexHydromechanical Transmissions: with a Focus on Displacement Control2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with control aspects of complex hydromechanical transmissions. The overall purpose is to increase the knowledge of important aspects to consider during the development of hydromechanical transmissions to ensure transmission functionality. These include ways of evaluating control strategies in early design stages as well as dynamic properties and control aspects of displacement controllers, which are key components in these systems.

    Fuel prices and environmental concerns are factors that drive research on propulsion in heavy construction machinery. Hydromechanical transmissions are strong competitors to conventional torque-converter transmissions used in this application today. They offer high efficiency and wide speed/torque conversion ranges, and may easily be converted to hybrids that allow further fuel savings through energy recuperation. One challenge with hydromechanical transmissions is that they offer many different configurations, which in turn makes it important to enable evaluation of control aspects in early design stages. In this thesis, hardware-in-the-loop simulations, which blend hardware tests and standard software-based simulations, are considered to be a suitable method. A multiple-mode transmission applied to a mid-sized construction machine is modelled and evaluated in offline simulations as well as in hardware-in-the-loopsimulations.

    Hydromechanical transmissions rely on efficient variable pumps/motors with fast, accurate displacement controllers. This thesis studies the dynamic behaviour of the displacement controller in swash-plate axial-piston pumps/motors. A novel control approach in which the displacement is measured with an external sensor is proposed. Performance and limitations of the approach are tested in simulations and in experiments. The experiments showed a significantly improved performance with a controller that is slightly more advanced than a standard proportional controller. The implementation of the controller allows simple tuning and good predictability of the displacement response.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 13:15 Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Uppsala
    Larsson, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Treatment for childbirth fear with a focus on midwife-led counselling: A national overview, women’s birth preferences and experiences of counselling2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women experience childbirth fear to such an extent that it seriously interferes with the woman’s daily life and affects her mental well-being.

    Aim: The overall aim was to conduct an overview of the midwife-led counselling for childbirth fear in Sweden, to investigate women’s birth preferences and to describe their experiences of treatment on childbirth fear, with focus on midwife-led counselling.

    Methods: Study I is a cross-sectional study where 43 out of 45 maternity clinics responded to a questionnaire regarding midwife-led counselling. Study II is a longitudinal survey where 889 women participated of whom 70 received counselling. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy, two months and finally, one year after birth. Study III is a randomised controlled study with 258 participating women assessed with childbirth fear. It compares Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) with midwife-led counselling. Data were collected by questionnaires twice during pregnancy and two months after birth. Study IV is a qualitative interview study using thematic analysis, including 27 women who received midwife-led counselling during pregnancy.

    Results: Overall, midwife-led counselling was perceived as empowering by the women and increased their confidence when facing birth. The preference for a caesarean section decreased during pregnancy and the majority had a normal vaginal birth but an increase in preference for caesarean section appeared after birth. Half of the women who received treatment for childbirth fear experienced a less than positive birth. Women who had a positive birth experience voiced that the contributing factors were the self-confidence received from counselling and the support from the midwife during birth. Decreased or manageable fear was expressed by the women after counselling and birth, which in turn brought a strengthened confidence for a future pregnancy and birth. Furthermore, major differences exist in counselling for childbirth fear throughout the clinics in Sweden.

    Conclusion: Midwife-led counselling improved women’s confidence toward giving birth and fear was perceived as manageable. Continuous support is crucial to experience birth as positive. Although women’s preferences for caesarean section did not change over time, few women gave birth with a caesarean section without medial reason.  

  • Disputas: 2017-09-15 13:15 K1, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Martín-Bylund, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Towards a minor bilingualism: Exploring variations of language and literacy in early childhood education2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this compilation thesis is to explore variations in bilingualism with the help of everyday specific situations at a Spanish-Swedish early childhood institution in Sweden, and by means of a ‘material-semiotic theorizing’. This means that material and semiotic elements are treated equally and entwined. Through studying a bilingual preschool practice, theory and politics as three interwoven practices, the thesis produces knowledge on language and literacy as socially and materially divergent, transformative occurrences. The research process is a commitment with Deleuzio-Guattarian philosophy, theory and politics, and is defined as a becoming in and of the three practices (education, theory, politics). Ethical and methodological undertakings are described as results of the interaction of these practices. Processes of data production include a yearlong fieldwork with all year groups (1-5) at a bilingual preschool in Sweden with a Spanish-Swedish language policy. The materials of data (approx. 59 hours of video-recordings and additional field-notes of everyday activities) are extended and developed upon in interaction with theoretical concepts and political concerns in terms of an analytical process that ‘puts theory to work’. The results are phrased as three temporal suggestions: 1) Bilingualism is a plural, collectively produced, both transitory and specific phenomenon 2) Bilingualism emerges with different, simultaneous dimensions of language and literacy (language as both code and material intensities) 3) Bilingualism is shared and public but also private and inconclusive. The thesis also shows the interconnectedness and continuity between different constructions of bilingualism (i.e. separate – flexible, public - private) as well as the productivity of the unknown and of what is labelled as (il)literate expertise. The impact that these suggestions may have in working with bilingualism in early childhood education is discussed. At the same time the discussion inspires to thinking towards a minor bilingualism also in more general terms.

  • Sangfelt, Adrian
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    OV-ledföljd och huvudsats-bisatsasymmetri i svenskans historia2017Inngår i: Norsk lingvistisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0800-3076, E-ISSN 2387-6719, Vol. 35, nr 1, 109-128 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    1500-talet är en viktig brytpunkt i den svenska bisatsledföljdens historia. Detta är tiden då den moderna svenska ledföljden med satsadverbial före finit verb slår igenom, men även då objekt i högre grad börjar stå före finita verb. I denna artikel presenteras hypotesen att de två förändringarna har orsakats av samma bakomliggande mekanism, då bägge är avhängiga förlusten av V-till-I-flyttning i svenskans historia. Hypotesen prövas empiriskt genom en undersökning av OV-ledföljd i satser med infinit hjälpverb, en syntaktisk kontext där den predicerar en viss typ av diakront mönster. Den övergripande utvecklingen visar sig också följa prediktionen, även om det troligen finns andra tendenser i svenskans OV-historia som måste förstås och förklaras på ett annat sätt.

  • Djodjic, Faruk
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Hellgren, Stefan
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Futter, Martyn
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Brandt, Maja
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Suspenderat material –transporter och betydelsen för andra vattenkvalitetsparametrar2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erosion och transport av suspenderat material i vatten är i Sverige sällan av en sådan omfattning att det utgör ett allvarligt storskaligt miljöproblem. I vissa fall kan dock suspenderat material och ökad grumlighet ha direkta negativa effekter på akvatiska ekosystem genom t. ex. påverkan på fisklek, utslagning av filtrerare som t.ex. stormusslor och minskad primärproduktion och därmed minskad födotillgång. Sedimentering av partiklar kan också förändra livsförutsättningarna för bottenfauna vilket kan resultera i förändrad artsammansättning. Dessutom är suspenderat material som bärare av näringsämnen, främst fosfor, och även andra ämnen (som t. ex. metaller, bekämpningsmedel, organiska miljögifter mm) mycket betydelsefull för de totala transporterade mängderna av dessa ämnen. I SMED-kontexten är det intressant att vidare studera transport av suspenderat material eftersom både fosfor-och metalltransporter påverkas av dessa processer.

    Syftet med denna studie är att sammanställa och utvärdera befintlig litteratur och data över sedimenttransport i Sverige och kopplingar till fosfor och eventuellt andra ämnen samt att försöka fördjupa vår förståelse av transportdynamiken genom att modellera vatten och sedimenttransport.

    Statistiska signifikanta samband mellan halter och transport av suspenderat materi-al och dominerande jordarter i tillrinningsområden hittades både för små jord-bruksdominerade avrinningsområden och för större områden. Högre andel lerjordar resulterade i högre halter/transporter av suspenderat material vilket tyder på en högre erosionsbenägenhet av lerjordar jämfört med grövre sandjordar. För de större avrinningsområdena fanns även ett positivt och statistiskt signifikant samband med andel åkermark i tillrinningsområdet.

    Olika angreppssätt med modellering testades för Sävjaåns avrinningsområde. För det första visade en analys av olika delar av den hydrologiska cykeln med hjälp av FyrisQ-modellen på två intressanta samband. Högre halter av suspenderat material var kopplade till perioder då blötare förhållanden rådde i avrinningsområdet samt vid snösmältningsepisoder. För det andra, tillämpades INCA-Sed modellen för första gången i Sverige. Denna tillämpning visar att modellen kan vara användbar för att öka förståelsen av mobilisering och transport av sediment under svenska förhållanden, även om fler studier behövs för att öka tillförlitligheten och minska osäkerheterna

  • Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Cullhed, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Wachenfeldt, Mathias von
    Linköpings stadsbibliotek.
    Östlund, Krister
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    LUPP: Digitaliseringssamarbete mellan Stiftsbiblioteket vid Linköpings stadsbibliotek och Uppsala universitetsbibliotek2011Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Både Linköpings stadsbibliotek och Uppsala universitetsbibliotek digitaliserar delar av sina samlingar för att kunna erbjuda användarna ett utökat utbud av on-lineresurer. För många innebär digitalisering att ta bilder med en kamera eller skanner och visa bilderna på internet. Det låter enkelt men i själva verket är digitalisering en komplicerad process som kräver stora arbetsinsatser bland annat för att de digitala filerna skall kunna hittas och göras långsiktigt hållbara. LUPP-projektet syftar till att beskriva alla de delar av digitalisering som är nödvändiga för att få ett kvalitativt gott resultat, alltifrån vad man väljer att digitalisera till hur man bör förvara de digitala filerna samt hur man bör visa upp dem.

    Förutsättningarna att hantera digitalisering är olika för bibliotek av olika storlek och karaktär och för att även få med denna aspekt av digitalisering har ett samarbete inletts mellan de två biblioteken. Projektet presenterar en modell för hur bibliotek av skilda slag kan hantera, och samarbeta kring digitalisering. Syftet är naturligtvis att andra bibliotek med digitaliseringsambitioner, skall kunna dra nytta av modellen och själva tillämpa den för att kunna presentera sina samlingar digitalt.

  • Recensioner1998Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 35, nr 2, 103-138 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Lindberg, Odd
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Emotioner och identitetsutveckling: en analys av narkotikakarriärer1998Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 35, nr 2, 73-101 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyse individual careers towards, during and out of drug use, drawing on the sensitizing concepts of subjective and objective career as analytical tools. Two significant groups can be found, the marginalised and the integrated. The marginalised have experienced insecure relations with their parents. Their experiences of critical incidents have brought about feelings of a lack of continuity in their own narrative. These violations affect the individual’s self conception. Their interpretation of the incidents causes feelings of shame and not belonging. In interaction with others they feel that they lack the cultural capital that is needed, which often increases the feeling of shame. These emotions are also a threat to the individual’s social bonds in more conventional settings. In order to reduce these negative emotions they have to leave settings where those emotions appear. They have to find other settings where new social bonds can be built. The individuals in the second group, the integrated, do not use drugs because their own identity is constantly in question. They have not experienced feelings of shame and there are not any threats to their social bonds to conventional groups. Their drug habit is also often integrated with other more conventional activities. The individuals in this group have also acquired a cultural capital from previous interactional chains, such as the family and education, that is adequate in conventional contexts. They have a competence to display roles in other contexts outside the drug setting.

  • Korpi, Walter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Tro och vetande i debatten om Sveriges ekonomiska tillväxt: Samhällsvetenskapens objektivitetsproblem i åskådlig form1998Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 35, nr 2, 41-72 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faith and facts in the debate on Sweden's economic performance: the problem of objectivity in the social sciences illustrated

    When social scientists enter the public debate as policy experts, they are confronted with problems of objectivity discussed a generation ago by Gunnar Myrdal. Problems of objectivity are likely to be especially severe in areas related to distributive conflicts. Here the balance between politics and markets cannot be seen as only aquestion of economic efficiency but is also of relevance for distributive outcomes. In Sweden prominent economists have long argued that the ”Swedish Model” of high taxes and a large public sector has made Sweden lag behind other comparable countries in terms of GDP growth since 1970. Their arguments have been widely accepted by leading policy makers and the media. The empirical bases for this claim are examined and found seriously wanting, a situation illustrating problems of social science objectivity long ignored in the sociology of science.

  • Solvang, Per
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Velferdsstatens problemlogikk i lys av en debatt om dysleksi1998Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 35, nr 2, 21-40 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian welfare state represents a dilemma between problem identification and normalization. In the article, this dilemma is discussed through the case of learning disabilities in reading and writing. This issue is debated both internationally and in Scandinavia. A tradition based in biology makes the concept of dyslexia essential. As opposed to this, a tradition based in the humanities stresses social conditions as the cause of the problems. In Sweden, a highly visible controversy between these positions has emerged since the 1980s onwards. The debate in Sweden between 1975 and 1995 is analysed through documents produced by the debate and through interviews with people involved in it. During the first part of the period, normalization reforms were implemented on all levels of the educational system. Towards the end of the eighties, this process was challenged by the ”dyslexia movement” calling for a restoration of a special educational programme to which students are assigned on the basis of diagnoses. In analysing this development, a strong tendency to support the ”dyslexia movement” appears very clearly among both parents, grown-up clients, the educational system and the welfare state itself. The final conclusion identifies an inherent logic in the welfare state that structures the possibilities for developing permanent normalization practices.

  • Järvinen, Margaretha
    Köpenhamns universitet.
    Om Bordieus reflexiva sociologi1998Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 35, nr 2, 5-20 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to translate some of Bourdieu’s abstract reasoning on reflexive sociology into concrete recommendations of how such a sociology can be practised. The main focus is on the relationship between practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge. Firstly, Bourdieu’s “objectified objectification“, and the fundamental conflict between practice and discourse on practice, is discussed. Secondly, the construction of the object, and Bourdieu’s dissociation from bureaucratic, administrative research categories as well as spontaneous sociological preconstructions, is analyzed. Thirdly, some of Bourdieu’s own analyses of positions, dispositions and positionings, are presented as examples of his reflexive sociology. For Bourdieu, the social is history through and through, and the main task of sociology is to discover history where it is best hidden.

  • Ekström, Mats
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1998:21998Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Mobilitet och transportlösningar på landsbygd: en internationell litteraturstudie2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI har ett regeringsuppdrag att genomföra en studie om effektiva och innovativa lösningar som kan öka medborgarnas vilja och möjlighet att utnyttja kollektivtrafiken på landsbygd. Föreliggande litteraturstudie är en del i uppdraget som syftar till att beskriva kunskapsläget och att belysa vilken problematik som har fokuserats i forskningen om landsbygdstransporter under de senaste åren. Syftet är att få en fördjupad och samlad kunskap om forskning om kollektivtrafik på landsbygd, om mobilitet hos personer boende på landsbygd och om vilka lösningar som finns för framtidens mobilitet och tillgänglighet på landsbygden. De forskningsfrågor som belyses är:

    • Vilka frågor och problem har forskare inom detta fält intresserat sig för? Vilka samhällsgrupper har särskilt fokuserats?

    • Hur ser mobiliteten ut för olika samhällsgrupper på landsbygden? Hur löser de sina vardagliga transporter och vilka hinder för mobilitet och tillgänglighet finns?

    • Vilka transportlösningar har prövats på olika landsbygder? Vad har lösningarna visat för resultat?

    I studien används inte någon specifik definition av landsbygd, eftersom sökkriterierna skulle bli alldeles för snäva. Sökningarna har koncentrats till publikationer från år 2000 och framåt. Antalet artiklar som slutligen valdes ut som relevanta för att kunna besvara syftet och forskningsfrågorna var 27. De flesta (15 stycken) var genomförda i Storbritannien.

  • Josten, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, PGI, JARA FIT, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Inst Ion Beam Phys & Mat Res, D-01328 Dresden, Germany..
    Wetterskog, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Glavic, Artur
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, PGI, JARA FIT, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Neutron Scattering & Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Boesecke, Peter
    ESRF European Synchrotron, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Feoktystov, Artem
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, JCNS, D-85747 Garching, Germany..
    Brauweiler-Reuters, Elke
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Bioelect ICS 8, Inst Complex Syst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Ruecker, Ulrich
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, PGI, JARA FIT, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brueckel, Thomas
    Forschungszentrum Julich, JCNS, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, PGI, JARA FIT, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Bergstrom, Lennart
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Superlattice growth and rearrangement during evaporation-induced nanoparticle self-assembly2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 2802Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the assembly of nanoparticles into superlattices with well-defined morphology and structure is technologically important but challenging as it requires novel combinations of in-situ methods with suitable spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we have followed evaporation-induced assembly during drop casting of superparamagnetic, oleate-capped gamma-Fe2O3 nanospheres dispersed in toluene in real time with Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) in combination with droplet height measurements and direct observation of the dispersion. The scattering data was evaluated with a novel method that yielded time-dependent information of the relative ratio of ordered (coherent) and disordered particles (incoherent scattering intensities), superlattice tilt angles, lattice constants, and lattice constant distributions. We find that the onset of superlattice growth in the drying drop is associated with the movement of a drying front across the surface of the droplet. We couple the rapid formation of large, highly ordered superlattices to the capillary-induced fluid flow. Further evaporation of interstitital solvent results in a slow contraction of the superlattice. The distribution of lattice parameters and tilt angles was significantly larger for superlattices prepared by fast evaporation compared to slow evaporation of the solvent.

  • Hulme, Heather E.
    et al.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Meikle, Lynsey M.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Wessel, Hannah
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Strittmatter, Nicole
    AstraZeneca, Milton Sci Pk, Cambridge CB4 0WG, England..
    Swales, John
    AstraZeneca, Milton Sci Pk, Cambridge CB4 0WG, England..
    Thomson, Carolyn
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nibbs, Robert J. B.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Milling, Simon
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Mackay, C. Logan
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Chem, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dexter, Alex
    Natl Phys Lab, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middx, England..
    Bunch, Josephine
    Natl Phys Lab, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middx, England..
    Goodwin, Richard J. A.
    AstraZeneca, Milton Sci Pk, Cambridge CB4 0WG, England..
    Burchmore, Richard
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Wall, Daniel M.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Infect Immun & Inflammat, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Mass spectrometry imaging identifies palmitoylcarnitine as an immunological mediator during Salmonella Typhimurium infection2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 2786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonella Typhimurium causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis that may lead to systemic disease. Bacteria invade the small intestine, crossing the intestinal epithelium from where they are transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) within migrating immune cells. MLNs are an important site at which the innate and adaptive immune responses converge but their architecture and function is severely disrupted during S. Typhimurium infection. To further understand host-pathogen interactions at this site, we used mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to analyse MLN tissue from a murine model of S. Typhimurium infection. A molecule, identified as palmitoylcarnitine (PalC), was of particular interest due to its high abundance at loci of S. Typhimurium infection and MLN disruption. High levels of PalC localised to sites within the MLNs where B and T cells were absent and where the perimeter of CD169(+) sub capsular sinus macrophages was disrupted. MLN cells cultured ex vivo and treated with PalC had reduced CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells and an increased number of B220(+) CD19(+) B cells. The reduction in CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells was likely due to apoptosis driven by increased caspase-3/7 activity. These data indicate that PalC significantly alters the host response in the MLNs, acting as a decisive factor in infection outcome.

  • Wang, Tianheng
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ, Dept Phys, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Gang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik. Zhejiang Normal Univ, Dept Phys, Jinhua, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.
    Nanjing Univ, Dept Phys, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Feng
    Weavi Corp Ltd, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    A combinatoric shortcut to evaluate CHY-forms2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 6, 015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In our recent work, we proposed a differential operator for the evaluation of the multi-dimensional residues on isolated (zero-dimensional) poles. In this paper we discuss some new insight on evaluating the (generalized) Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) forms of the scattering amplitudes using this differential operator. We introduce a tableau representation for the coefficients appearing in the proposed differential operator. Combining the tableaux with the polynomial form of the scattering equations, the evaluation of the generalized CHY form becomes a simple combinatoric problem. It is thus possible to obtain the coefficients arising in the differential operator in a straightforward way. We present the procedure for a complete solution of the n-gon amplitudes at one-loop level in a generalized CHY form. We also apply our method to fully evaluate the one-loop five-point amplitude in the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory; the final result is identical to the one obtained by Q-Cut.

  • Djodjic, Faruk
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Widén-Nilsson, Elin
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Översyn av beräkningen av bakgrundsförlust av fosfor2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Pollution Load Compilation 5 (PLC5) -beräkningen beskrevs fosforhalten (P-halten) i marken genom att dela in jordbruksmarken geografiskt i tre klasser där den lägsta klassen (P-klass 1) motsvarade en medelhalt av 60,7 mg P/100 g jord. Denna lägsta klass användes därefter i bakgrundsberäkningar av fosforläckaget för att kunna utskilja den antropogena belastningen från jordbruksmark från den totala belastningen från jordbruksmark. Ett enda värde på P-bakgrundshalt tar inte hänsyn till de naturliga variationerna i P-bakgrundshalten i den svenska åkermarken. I detta projekt utvärderade vi en annan metod för att kvantifiera bakgrundsbelastningen där vi använde fosforhalter i svensk jordbruksmark (P-HCl) i alven (40-60 cm) vid beräkning av bakgrundsförlusterna. Först jämförde vi dessa data med motsvarande data för svensk skogsmark för att bedöma likheter och skillnader i den geografiska variationen av Phalter över Sverige. Dessa två oberoende dataset uppvisar stora likheter och samvarierar åtminstone i den skala som jämförelsen gjordes i, det vill säga mellan olika utlakningsregioner. För det andra jämfördes P-halter i alven med motsvarande P-halter i matjorden i svensk åkermark, och med hänsyn tagen till gödslingsintensitet. De erhållna resultaten visar ett starkt samband mellan P-halter i matjorden och gödslingsintensiteten, medan ett sådant samband saknas för P-halter i alven, vilket stärker antagandet att alven är opåverkad av gödsling och därmed representativ som P-bakgrundshalt. Därefter beräknade vi effekterna av ändringar i P-bakgrundshalt, i förhållande till PLC5-resultatet. Både den översiktliga beräkningen och en mer fördjupad beräkning med osäkerhetsanalys tyder på att bakgrundsbelastningen från svensk åkermark, beräknad utifrån de nya bakgrundshalterna, blir lägre (ca 100 ton brutto) jämfört med PLC5- resultatet. Det är viktigt att betona att denna minskning består även om man tar hänsyn till osäkerheten i jordartsfördelningen, som troligtvis är den viktigaste källan till osäkerhet. Detta behöver dock inte innebära att den framräknade skillnaden utgörs enbart av en högre antropogen jordbruksbelastning. Nyare studier visar också att belastningen från skogen kan vara större än vad som beräknades i PLC5. Mer detaljerade beräkningar krävs dock för att till fullo kvantifiera om, eller i hur stor omfattning förändringarna som visats i dessa nya rön kompenserar varandra

  • Elizabeth Marcheschi, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    von Koch, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Hélène Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène
    Lunds Universitet.
    Elf, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Development of a methodology for the investigation of stroke patients’ rehabilitation in home settings2017Inngår i: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 16 suppl 1, nr 32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Danielsson, Helena
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Fortsättning av riktad kvalitetskontrollstudie av utsläpp från industrin i Sveriges internationella rapportering: 2C5 –Övrig metallindustri inklusive gjuterier: Utsläpp rapporterade till UNFCCC, EU Monitoring Mechanism, CLRTAP och NEC2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har utsläpp av CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, partiklar, metaller, dioxin och PAH från ett urval av de industrier som ingår i Sve-riges internationella rapportering till EU Monitoring Mechanism, EU:s takdirektiv (NEC), UNFCCC och CLRTAP studerats. Syftet med studien har varit att under-söka om de rapporterade utsläppen är korrekta samt att utreda om rapporteringen är komplett. I studien har utsläpp från anläggningar hörande till NFR/CRF 2C5 – Övrig metallindustri samt gjuteriindustri inkluderats.

    Data som rapporteras internationellt av Sverige för denna sektor har jämförts med data på anläggnings- eller sektorsnivå med data från andra källor (miljörapporter) och skillnader har noterats. I de fall där brister påträffas i inventeringsdata som rapporterats internationellt, ges förslag på förbättringar. Detta innebär att kvalitén i internationellt rapporterade utsläpp kommer att höjas i framtiden, om förbättrings-förslagen genomförs.

  • Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Meyer, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    Tamás, Éva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Utvärdering av IPL-simulering på Clinicum: Simuleringsdag ”Akuta situationer” för sistaårsstudenter från sjuksköterske- och läkarprogrammen HT 20162017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gemensam simuleringsdag för sjuksköterske- och läkarstudenter har utvärderats och diskuteras här i relation till interprofessionellt lärande och simuleringsbaserat lärande.

    IPL-simuleringen kännetecknas av ett starkt studentengagemang och upplevs som mycket relevant och kliniskt autentisk. Den simuleringsbaserade satsningen är alltså fortsatt aktuell och har utvecklats till en hög nivå med relevans för lärande och klinisk förberedelse. Innehållet rör såväl kliniska som team­relaterade kunskaper och kompetenser. Simulering som undervisningsform uppskattas högt och simulerings­instruktörens bidrag till lärandet lyfts fram. Ambitionsnivån kan ytterligare höjas på några punkter. Kurskamraternas bidrag i lärandet kan ytterligare stärkas, likaså omvårdnads­innehållet i scenarierna.

    IPL-mål adresseras i aktiviteten, i synnerhet ökar teamsamverkan progressivt under dagen. Det inter­professionella lärandet kan stärkas ännu mer  genom att linjera tydligare med övriga IPL-moment samt knyta an till de uttalade IPL-curriculum-målen.

  • Shannon, Michelle
    et al.
    Florey Institute, Melbourne .
    Nordin, Susanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Anåker, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Bernhardt, Julie
    Florey Institute, Melbourne .
    Elf, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Theoretical frameworks used in built environment research – a scoping review2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Alexius, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Ekonomi och arbetsliv. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Governance, Regulation, Internationalization and Performance (GRIP).
    Decoupling in the age of market-embedded morality: responsible gambling in a hybrid organization2017Inngår i: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the understanding of hybrid organizations by refining the concept of decoupling as a strategic response to conflicting objectives and institutional expectations (Meyer and Rowan in Am J Soc 83:340–363, 1977). In today’s popular responsibility discourse one notes a hopeful “win–win” ideal that invites attempts, by companies in particular, to realize and balance conflicting values and to strive to fulfil both profit objectives and responsibility objectives. Although institutional theory has long acknowledged the strategic response of decoupling in organizational contexts, the potential of exploring and refining how this concept may be used to analyse strategic responses in the contemporary era of market-embedded morality has yet to be explored (Shamir in Econ Soc 37:1–19, 2008). There are good reasons to do so as the present-day discourse on the relation between the economy and morality offers a new set of options and challenges for legitimately responding to institutional demands. This paper draws on an explanatory, rich ethnographic and longitudinal case study of a Swedish fully state-owned company operating in the post 1990s gambling market. We suggest that contemporary hybrid organizations positioned at the crossroads of bureaucratic and market schemes of organizing, may find themselves in a particularly tight spot and seek legitimacy by decoupling—not only by adopting certain legitimizing structures, but also and increasingly with reference to market-embedded morality, a commoditizing of responsibility in their contested market setting. Based on the case findings, we suggest a distinction between organization-based decoupling and market-based decoupling and propose that market-based decoupling may be attractive to hybrid organizations owing to it being less sensitive to scrutiny and accountability claims. But at the same time, our findings indicate that market-based decoupling poses a risk to hybrid organizations, as it does not offer the same degree of legitimacy with key stakeholders/the general public as organization-based decoupling does.

  • Ho, Du
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Linder, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enqvist, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mass estimation of a quadcopter using IMU data2017Inngår i: 2017 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), June 13-16, 2017, Miami, FL, USA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 1260-1266 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to estimate the mass of a quadcopter using only inertial measurements and pilot commands is presented. For this purpose, a lateral dynamic model describing the relation between the roll rate and the lateral acceleration is formulated. Due to the quadcopter’s inherent instability, a controller is used to stabilize the system and the data is collected in closed loop. Under the effect of feedback and disturbances, the inertial measurements used as input and output are correlated with the disturbances, which complicates the parameter estimation. The parameters of the model are estimated using several methods. The simulation and experimental results show that the instrumental-variable method has the best potential to estimate the mass of the quadcopter in this setup.

  • Börjesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Bengtsson, Staffan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    “You have to have a certain feeling for this work”: Exploring tacit knowledge in elder care2014Inngår i: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 4, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased care worker knowledge has been emphasized for improving quality of care for older persons in organized elder care in Sweden. However, care workers and national policies are not always corresponding, with observations suggesting that care workers emphasize tacit knowledge. The aim of this article is to explore the nature of this kind of knowledge and how it can be identified and described. Field notes from participant observations at two elder care units in Sweden serve as the empirical material. Knowledge use for staff in elder care is part of a process of knowledge making and knowledge shaping. Analysis of the field notes identified the themes of “feeling for work” and “acting and artistry” as parts of a tacit knowledge in elder care. The processes of knowledge and job execution are closely intertwined, making them difficult to separate or even understand without a deeper insight.

  • Gustavsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Fischer, Stellan
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Kemikalieinspektionen.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Replacement substances for the brominated flame retardants PBDE, HBCDD, and TBBPA2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     

    A literature and database review was conducted with the aim of identifying new alternative flame retardants (FRs) used as replacement chemicals for the traditionally used polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and also for tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). Firstly, selected patents from the US patent database were studied and a number of alternative FRs could be identified, including, e.g., pentaerythritol, melamine, and bis-(t-butylphenyl) phenyl phosphate. Secondly, two databases, containing quantity information on usage from Sweden and the EU, were searched to obtain usage data. In Sweden, the FR that is used in the highest quantities is pentaerythritol, followed by e.g., short-chained chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and tetrabromobisphenol-A-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA-BDBPE). In the EU, pentaerythritol and melamine are used in the highest quantities, followed by e.g., SCCPs, MCCPs, 1,2-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenyl)ethane (DBDPE), and triethyl phosphate (TEP). From the Swedish database, exposure indices were obtained, indicating the potential of exposure for different environmental compartments to different FRs. The highest average potential of exposure was found for pentaerythritol, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), SCCPs, and tritolyl phosphate (TMPP). In addition, time trends in the potential of exposure were obtained from the database and showed increasing trends for TBBPA-BDBPE, tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate (TTBNPP), DBDPE, Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), TMPP, and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP). Thirdly, the open literature (including international peer-reviewed articles and reports from environmental authorities), was reviewed in search for previously reported environmental concentrations of emerging FRs in indoor dust, indoor and outdoor air, water, sediment, sludge, soil, atmospheric deposition, plants and animals including humans. In total, 66 different FRs were detected in at least one of the studied matrices. In addition, six prioritization lists were identified, which included about 50 different FRs that were suggested to be of high environmental relevance. Finally, to be able to prioritize between the identified FRs for future screenings, a multicriteria model was developed based on (i) usage, (ii) time trends in the potential of exposure, (iii) environmental detection, and (iv) previous publication lists. From this multicriteria model, the top ten FRs were: TBBPA-BDBPE, DBDPE, BTBPE, TTBNPP, bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), ethylene bis-tetrabromo phtalimide (EBTEBPI), PBDPP, para-TMPP, TPHP, and tri(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP). These FRs are suggested to be prioritized in future screenings.

  • Söderlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences2017Inngår i: The Scientist (Philadelphia, Pa.), ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 112, nr 2, 1093-1109 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers > 12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  • Fortner, Renee T.
    et al.
    Tolockiene, Egle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Schock, Helena
    Oda, Husam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Early pregnancy sex steroids during primiparous pregnancies and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort2017Inngår i: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 19, 82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy and parity are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for pregnancy sex steroid hormones.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (1975–2007). Eligible women had provided a blood sample in the first 20 weeks of gestation during a primiparous pregnancy leading to a term delivery. The current study includes 223 cases and 417 matched controls (matching factors: age at and date of blood collection). Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status was available for all cases; androgen receptor (AR) data were available for 41% of cases (n = 92). Sex steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Higher concentrations of circulating progesterone in early pregnancy were inversely associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk (ORlog2: 0.64 (0.41–1.00)). Higher testosterone was positively associated with ER+/PR+ disease risk (ORlog2: 1.57 (1.13–2.18)). Early pregnancy estrogens were not associated with risk, except for relatively high estradiol in the context of low progesterone (split at median, relative to low concentrations of both; OR: 1.87 (1.11–3.16)). None of the investigated hormones were associated with ER–/PR– disease, or with AR+ or AR+/ER+/PR+ disease.

    Conclusions: Consistent with experimental models, high progesterone in early pregnancy was associated with lower risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer in the mother. High circulating testosterone in early pregnancy, which likely reflects nonpregnant premenopausal exposure, was associated with higher risk of ER+/PR+ disease.

  • Skoglund, Martin A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    Sjanic, Zoran
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    Kok, Manon
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik.
    On orientation estimation using iterative methods in Euclidean space2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Fusion (Fusion), Xi'an, China, China, 10-13 July 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 1-8 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents three iterative methods for orientation estimation. The first two are based on iterated Extended Kalman filter (IEKF) formulations with different state representations. The first is using the well-known unit quaternion as state (q-IEKF) while the other is using orientation deviation which we call IMEKF. The third method is based on nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation of the angular velocity which is used to parametrise the orientation. The results are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations and the comparison is done with the non-iterative EKF and multiplicative EKF (MEKF) as baseline. The result clearly shows that the IMEKF and the NLS-based method are superior to q-IEKF and all three outperform the non-iterative methods.

  • Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Open Innovation and its definitions2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the introduction of Open Innovation as a concept over 13 years ago, it has been debated heavily. Most of the debate has been on the openness itself, such as Open Innovation versus Open Source. Other have discussed it as an old phenomena and that it is not new or changed enough to be able to call it a new paradigm, the aim in this paper is to lift the discussion to a more theoretical area. This literature review shows the different definitions used and is analyzed in how they all relate to the development of the field of Open Innovation, with the help of texts from Kuhn and Wittgenstein, amongst other philosophers. The results show that it is important to have a definition that can evolve by being challenged instead of being destroyed by competing definitions. It is also suggested to let the definition build upon the criteria that has been used and can be measured in empirical data. As an example a sliding scale is used instead of the common binary definitions

  • Nilsson, Tohr
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hand-arm vibration and the risk of vascular and neurological diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, e0180795Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Increased occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for "Raynaud's phenomenon" is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence. Objectives Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the association between Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure. Moreover the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis. Methods This systematic review covers the scientific literature up to January 2016. The databases used for the literature search were PubMed and Science Direct. We found a total of 4,335 abstracts, which were read and whose validity was assessed according to pre-established criteria. 294 articles were examined in their entirety to determine whether each article met the inclusion criteria. The possible risk of bias was assessed for each article. 52 articles finally met the pre-established criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Results The results show that workers who are exposed to HAV have an increased risk of vascular and neurological diseases compared to non-vibration exposed groups. The crude estimate of the risk increase is approximately 4-5 fold. The estimated effect size (odds ratio) is 6.9 for the studies of Raynaud's phenomenon when including only the studies judged to have a low risk of bias. The corresponding risk of neurosensory injury is 7.4 and the equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome is 2.9. Conclusion At equal exposures, neurosensory injury occurs with a 3-time factor shorter latency than Raynaud's phenomenon. Which is why preventive measures should address this vibration health hazard with greater attention.

  • Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Saliva and tooth biofilm bacterial microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 5861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.

  • Winbo, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stattin, Eva-Lena
    Westin, Ida Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Persson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Jensen, Steen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Sex is a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two long QT syndrome founder populations: a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis2017Inngår i: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 18, 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sequence variants in the NOS1AP gene have repeatedly been reported to influence QTc, albeit with moderate effect sizes. In the long QT syndrome (LQTS), this may contribute to the substantial QTc variance seen among carriers of identical pathogenic sequence variants. Here we assess three non-coding NOS1APsequence variants, chosen for their previously reported strong association with QTc in normal and LQTS populations, for association with QTc in two Swedish LQT1 founder populations.

    Methods: This study included 312 individuals (58% females) from two LQT1 founder populations, whereof 227 genotype positive segregating either Y111C (n = 148) or R518* (n = 79) pathogenic sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene, and 85 genotype negatives. All were genotyped for NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842, rs16847548 and rs4657139, and tested for association with QTc length (effect size presented as mean difference between derived and wildtype, in ms), using a pedigree-based measured genotype association analysis. Mean QTc was obtained by repeated manual measurement (preferably in lead II) by one observer using coded 50 mm/s standard 12-lead ECGs.

    Results: A substantial variance in mean QTc was seen in genotype positives 476 ± 36 ms (Y111C 483 ± 34 ms; R518* 462 ± 34 ms) and genotype negatives 433 ± 24 ms. Female sex was significantly associated with QTc prolongation in all genotype groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis including the entire study population and adjusted for KCNQ1 genotype, sex and age, NOS1AP sequence variants rs12143842 and rs16847548 (but not rs4657139) were significantly associated with QT prolongation, +18 ms (p = 0.0007) and +17 ms (p = 0.006), respectively. Significant sex-interactions were detected for both sequent variants (interaction term r = 0.892, p < 0.001 and r = 0.944, p < 0.001, respectively). Notably, across the genotype groups, when stratified by sex neither rs12143842 nor rs16847548 were significantly associated with QTc in females (both p = 0.16) while in males, a prolongation of +19 ms and +8 ms (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02) was seen in multivariable analysis, explaining up to 23% of QTc variance in all males.

    Conclusions: Sex was identified as a moderator of the association between NOS1AP sequence variants and QTc in two LQT1 founder populations. This finding may contribute to QTc sex differences and affect the usefulness of NOS1AP as a marker for clinical risk stratification in LQTS.

  • Rohr, Julia K.
    et al.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Rosenberg, Molly
    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer
    Geldsetzer, Pascal
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Houle, Brian
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa
    Baernighausen, Till
    Performance of self-reported HIV status in determining true HIV status among older adults in rural South Africa: a validation study2017Inngår i: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 20, 691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In South Africa, older adults make up a growing proportion of people living with HIV. HIV programmes are likely to reach older South Africans in home-based interventions where testing is not always feasible. We evaluate the accuracy of self-reported HIV status, which may provide useful information for targeting interventions or offer an alternative to biomarker testing.

    Methods: Data were taken from the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) baseline survey, which was conducted in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A total of 5059 participants aged ≥40 years were interviewed from 2014 to 2015. Self-reported HIV status and dried bloodspots for HIV biomarker testing were obtained during at-home interviews. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for self-reported status compared to “gold standard” biomarker results. Log-binomial regression explored associations between demographic characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and sensitivity of self-report.

    Results: Most participants (93%) consented to biomarker testing. Of those with biomarker results, 50.9% reported knowing their HIV status and accurately reported it. PPV of self-report was 94.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0–96.0), NPV was 87.2% (95% CI: 86.2–88.2), sensitivity was 51.2% (95% CI: 48.2–54.3) and specificity was 99.0% (95% CI: 98.7–99.4). Participants on ART were more likely to report their HIV-positive status, and participants reporting false-negatives were more likely to have older HIV tests.

    Conclusions: The majority of participants were willing to share their HIV status. False-negative reports were largely explained by lack of testing, suggesting HIV stigma is retreating in this setting, and that expansion of HIV testing and retesting is still needed in this population. In HIV interventions where testing is not possible, self-reported status should be considered as a routine first step to establish HIV status.

  • Salo, Marja
    et al.
    Mattinen, Maija K.
    Carbon footprint calculators for citizens: Recommendations and implications in the Nordic Context2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we look into Nordic carbon footprint calculators and selected benchmarks from other countries. We present data on 10 carbon footprint calculators for public use. The focus is on the features, recorded number of users, and experiences on using the calculators in campaigns and research projects. The purpose is to highlight good practices in the design and use of calculators for ordinary citizens which can be used to introduce the role of consumption choices in climate change mitigation. The report provides suggestions for the future development of existing or new calculator initiatives. The study was carried out by the Finnish Environment Institute, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, administrated by the Sustainable Consumption and Production Working Group and guided by a steering group consisting of representatives from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  • Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Bergström, Anna
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Uppsala universitet.
    Sustainability of knowledge implementation in a low- and middle- income context: Experiences from a facilitation project in Vietnam targeting maternal and neonatal health2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, e0182626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In a previous trial in Vietnam, a facilitation strategy to secure evidence-based practice in primary care resulted in reduced neonatal mortality over a period of three years. While little is known as to what ensures sustainability in the implementation of community-based strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate factors promoting or hindering implementation, and sustainability of knowledge implementation strategies, by means of the former Neonatal Knowledge Into Practice (NeoKIP) trial.

    METHODS: In 2014 we targeted all levels in the Vietnamese healthcare system: six individual interviews with representatives at national, provincial and district levels, and six focus group discussions with representatives at the commune level. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analysed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: To achieve successful implementation and sustained effect of community-based knowledge implementation strategies, engagement of leaders and key stakeholders at all levels of the healthcare system is vital-prior to, during and after a project. Implementation and sustainability require thorough needs assessment, tailoring of the intervention, and consideration of how to attain and manage funds. The NeoKIP trial was characterised by a high degree of engagement at the primary healthcare system level. Further, three years post trial, maternal and neonatal care was still high on the agenda for healthcare workers and leaders, even though primary aspects such as stakeholder engagement at all levels, and funding had been incomplete or lacking.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study illustrates factors to support successful implementation and sustain effects of community-based strategies in projects in low- and middle-income settings; some but not all factors were represented during the post-NeoKIP era. Most importantly, trials in this and similar contexts require deliberate management throughout and beyond the project lifetime, and engagement of key stakeholders, in order to promote and sustain knowledge implementation.

  • Džokić, Ana
    et al.
    Kungl. Konsthögskolan. STEALTH.unlimited.
    Neelen, Marc
    STEALTH.unlimited.
    van der Linden, Martijn Jeroen ()
    Méndez de Andés, Ana ()
    Marčetić, Iva ()
    Currion, Paul ()
    Upscaling, Training, Commoning2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When on September 15, 2008 the financial conglomerate Lehman Brothers files for bankruptcy – and with that ‘officially’ sparks the international financial crisis – still few would anticipate the invasive effect this crisis would come to have on the professional and personal life of many across the world. Today, it’s implosion remains a mere ‘blip’ in the universe of events that followed.

    On closer observation, this financial turmoil started out as a ‘mortgage crisis’, largely fuelled by unsustainable or speculative investments in real-estate in cities across the world. In the run-up to the boom-and-bust of 2008, some – among them architects, urban designers, spatial practitioners, artists, activists, but also economists and others – started preparing for what they understood as (the necessity) of a different world to come, beyond the broken neo-liberal dogma. Today, fragments of such a different reality are unfolding in front of us. Modest, but for real.

    STEALTH.unlimited (practice of Ana Džokić and Marc Neelen) is one of the protagonists in this field, pointing to the responsibilities and capacities of architecture in contemporary societies, and acts between the fields of architecture, art and activism. With “Upscaling, Training, Commoning”, in 2011 they set on an expedition of sorts, to transform their practice. Following a decade of research addressing urgent cultural and urban issues ahead (resulting in publications, exhibitions, spatial interventions), now they use questions, doubts or limitations of such a practice as a lead towards direct long-term engagements with specific spatial process and/or communities.

    The resulting practice based exploration has been far away from a distant or objective research condition. It is subject to volatile political and economic situations, to conflicting interests or the engagements with(in) local communities encountered in the work. In this, three lines of exploration have been followed; that of the practice assuming new responsibilities, of the economies of engagement and disengagement, and that of the urban commons.  

    The title “Upscaling, Training, Commoning” relates to the awareness that the relevant activities and approaches need to be nurtured, and that the imperfect contexts in which this take place can be seen as ‘training grounds’ to arrive to practices of commoning. Hence, upscaling, training, commoning describes a trajectory (to be) taken.

    The artistic research (PhD) “Upscaling, Training, Commoning” concludes with a set of six books, and includes comments on the trajectory taken since 2008 by: the writer Dougald Hine, the economist Martijn Jeroen van der Linden, architects Ana Méndez de Andés and Iva Marčetić. The concluding book, set to words by the writer Paul Currion, features a fictional narrative, looking what the future could possibly hold, in which collective action might enable citizens to navigate through difficult times to create a new political economy.

  • Brandtler, Johan
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Håkansson, David
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    V2 eller V3?: Om preverbal placering av adverbial i svenskan2017Inngår i: Norsk lingvistisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0800-3076, E-ISSN 2387-6719, Vol. 35, nr 1, 11-26 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rad adverbial kan i svenska placeras före det finita verbet i huvudsatser, vilket rent linjärt ger upphov till en ledföljd där det finita verbet förskjuts till tredje position i satsen (t.ex. hon bara skojade ; han nästan grät av glädje). Utgångspunkten för de resonemang som förs i denna artikel är att endast adverbial som har status som syntaktiska huvuden och inte som maximala projektioner kan förbindas med finita verb. Men även om syntaktisk status är avgörande för möjligheten till preverbal placering, kan den knappast vara orsaken eftersom adjungering inte är någon obligatorisk syntaktisk operation. Mot denna bakgrund lanseras hypotesen att preverbal placering av adverbial är strikt begränsad av det adverbiella uttryckets semantik:endast adverbial som uttrycker en motsättning mellan vad som hävdas och vad som presupponeras kan förbindas med det finita verbet.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 13:00 G-salen, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Reath Warren, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Developing multilingual literacies in Sweden and Australia: Opportunities and challenges in mother tongue instruction and multilingual study guidance in Sweden and community language education in Australia2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to learn about opportunities for and challenges to the development of multilingual literacies in three forms of education in Sweden and Australia that teach or draw on immigrant languages.  In Sweden mother tongue instruction and multilingual study guidance are in focus and in Australia, a community language school. Taking an ecological approach to the research sites, the thesis investigates how language ideologies, organization of the form of education and language practices impact on the development of multilingual literacies. A range of linguistic ethnographic data including 75 lesson observations, 48 interviews, field notes and photographs has been analyzed against the theoretical backdrop of the continua of biliteracy (Hornberger, 1989; Hornberger & Skilton-Sylvester, 2000), heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and emerging theories of translanguaging (García & Li, 2014) to investigate the questions. The thesis ties together the results of four interlocking case studies investigating the above-mentioned forms of education.

    Study I analyses the syllabus for mother tongue instruction in Sweden and finds that while aligning with the overall values of the curriculum for the compulsory school, a hidden curriculum constrains implementation. In Study II, multilingual practices during multilingual study guidance in Sweden are analysed, and demonstrate how translanguaging helps recently arrived students reach the learning goals of subjects in the Swedish curriculum. In study III, systematic analysis of indexicals reveals contrasting language narratives about language and language development in and around a Vietnamese community language school in Australia. Study IV focuses on mother tongue instruction in Sweden and through analysis of audio-recordings of lessons, interviews and field notes, finds three dimensions of linguistic diversity infuse the subject. 

    Opportunities for the development of multilingual literacies are created when there is equal access to spaces for developing literacies in different immigrant languages, within which language ideologies that recognize and build on the heteroglossic diversity of students’ linguistic repertoires dynamically inform the organization of education and classroom practices. Challenges are created when monoglossic ideologies restrict access to or ignore linguistic diversity and when there is a lack of dynamic engagement with implementation and organization. Basing organization, and classroom strategies around the linguistic reality of the students and the genres they need, benefits the development of multilingual literacies in both settings and can help students become resourceful language users (Pennycook, 2012b, 2014).

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hentati, Jannete
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    En lektion i gemenskap: Ordning och (o)reda bland lärare i Malmö och Marseille2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna etnografiska studie tar sin utgångspunkt i ett jämförande fältarbetebland lärare på högstadieskolor i två sydligt situerade storstäder i Europa:Malmö i Sverige och Marseille i Frankrike. Studiens fokus ligger på hur lärarebegripliggör och brottas med sitt uppdrag att forma och fostra ”goda”medborgare för en nationell gemenskap och sammanhållning. Genom att utforskalärarnas egna strävanden och stretanden i denna fråga belyses de idéer ochpraktiker som driver detta arbete framåt. Samtidigt synliggörs de vardagligaspänningar som emellanåt komplicerar lärarnas arbete. Encentral iakttagelse i denna studie är att lärare i både Sverige och Frankrikestundtals finner sig inneslutna i ett slags korstryck.Inpressade i detta kastas de mellan att å ena sidan eftersträva vissa påförhand fastslagna visioner och mål om gemensamt liv, å andra sidan kontinuerligtkonfronteras med en oregelbunden och inte alla gånger följsam verklighet. Avhandlingenvisar hur lärare handskas med detta korstryck; hur de i händelse avhinder och motstånd i sitt arbete försöker bringa ordning i vad de uppfattaroch upplever som ett tillstånd av stor oreda i förhållande till sittmedborgardanande uppdrag. Sammantaget bidrar avhandlingentill ökad kunskap om lärares både levda yrkeserfarenheter och situeradepraktiker i vardagen, liksom till en problematiserande diskussion om den rolloch betydelse som lärare förväntar sig spela för det gemensamma livet iSverige och Frankrike i stort

  • Disputas: 2017-09-05 14:00 De Geersalen, Stockholm
    Österling, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Housing Markets and Mortgage Finance2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with questions related to the housing market, and answers the questions: "Does it matter if housing markets are underpriced?" and "How do the legal system and the loan contract affect those who default on their mortgage payments?

    "When selling a home, a popular marketing strategy is to set the list price far below market value. The idea is that a low list price will attract loads of buyers, who will push up the sale price. This thesis finds that a voluntary reform can reduce underpricing in the short run. Further, underpriced housing markets do indeed require more attention from potential buyers during all stages — online, at open houses, and during the bidding. This extra search effort is costly to society. However, underpricing is found not to affect the sale price, the time to sell, who the buyers are, or how hard the real estate agent works.

    The household's choice to default on a mortgage depends on the cost of the default (the legal system) and the mortgage contract. By studying a heterogeneous agent consumption/savings lifecycle model, this thesis finds that households prefer "lender friendly" laws that are costly for the homeowners upon default. This is because costly defaults yield fewer defaulters and thus lower interest rates, and thus are cheaper for non-defaulters. Households always prefer non-amortizing mortgages except when defaults do not have any cost associated with them, and they prefer adjustable rates over fixed rates. The benefits of costly defaults are particularly large for non-amortizing mortgages.

    The thesis concludes with the development of a new mathematical method to solve a particular class of dynamic programming problems, using stochastic simulated grids and nearest-neighbour interpolation.​

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Reproductive physiology of the female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction in vertebrates, including fishes, is under control of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, produces egg clutches at intervals of a few days and spawns them in a nest built by male. Following ovulation, eggs are stored in the ovarian cavity surrounded by the ovarian fluid (OF). If spawning or spontaneous release do not occur, the eggs can undergo overripening, a phenomenon occurring both in nature and captivity.

    In this PhD thesis, the changes of reproductive hormones and vitellogenesis were studied at overripening of eggs and over the natural spawning cycle. OF properties were also examined at overripening of eggs and after treatment with sex steroids.

    Plasma levels of steroids: testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20β-P) and 17,20β,21-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20β,21-P) were measured by radioimmunoassay, and relative mRNA levels of the pituitary gonadotropins (fsh-β/lh-β), brain gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrh2/gnrh3) and kisspeptin and its receptor (kiss2/gpr54) by qPCR. Overripening of eggs was accompanied with a significant reduction in most of endocrine parameters of BPG axis (T, E2, 17,20β-P; lh-β; kiss2, gpr54). Low level of hormones could be advantageous for the overripe egg-bound females, since this would reduce further ovulations giving higher chances to survive and reproduce again. Over the 3-day spawning cycle, T and E2 were highly correlated, showed cyclicity with low levels at ovulation and increasing from 24 and 6 hours post-spawning (hps), respectively. Spawning may give rise to this increase as these rises did not occur if release of the eggs does not happen (overripe females). A peak at pituitary lh-β mRNA levels appeared 48 hps, a day before the next ovulation. No significant changes were found for the other studied hormones.

    Vitellogenesis was studied by measurement of the vitellogenin mRNA levels in the liver by qPCR. The levels were highest at 24 and 48 hps and were positively correlated to both E2 and T over the cycle. However, changes were small suggesting a rather continuous vitellogenesis over the stickleback spawning cycle which could be an advantage for a multiple spawner with a limited spawning season. Overripening reduced vitellogenin mRNA levels but did not abolish it.

    OF amount was diminished in overripe females and had a lower viscocity but higher dry weight and protein levels than in non-overripe ovulated females, suggesting that changes in OF properties are related to the egg overripening. The effects of steroids were studied using Silastic capsules. T and 17,20β-P induced an increase of OF amount, but protein levels were only increased in 17,20β-P-treated females, proposing a role of this steroid in the control of OF secretion. 1-D SDS-PAGE showed that OF contained several proteins, some of them came from eggs, but no consistent differences between groups.

    Concluding, the knowledge of the reproductive physiological changes is important for understanding their essential roles in the production of viable eggs in this species but also in the reproductive physiology of female fishes in general.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 15:00 hörsal 8, hus D, Stockholm
    Bukelskytė-Čepelė, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Nominal Compounds in Old Latvian Texts in the 16th and 17th Centuries2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the system of compounding attested in the earliest written Latvian texts of the 16th and 17th centuries. The philological analysis presented in this work is the first systematic attempt to extensively treat compounds in Old Latvian. The purpose of this thesis is to thoroughly describe the system of compounding of the earliest period of written Latvian. One of the main aims of the analysis provided in this work is to determine whether the Old Latvian compounds were distinguished in terms of their meaning and form. This is why another important aim of this study is to discern the most characteristic formal properties of each category of compounds in Old Latvian. This study also addresses the morphological variation of the components of compounds and seeks to explain why one finds different tendencies of compounding in the texts of this period.   

    Firstly, it is shown in this thesis that compounds in Old Latvian were clearly distinguished in terms of their meaning. The main semantic types of Old Latvian compounds, which were analyzed in this study, are the determinative compounds, the possessive compounds, the verbal governing compounds, and the copulative compounds. Secondly, it is argued that the aforementioned types of compounds were clearly differentiated in terms of the formal properties of their components. A large number of possessive compounds and verbal governing compounds had the compositional suffix -is (m.)/-e (f.). By contrast, only a handful of determinative compounds had this suffix. In view of the distribution of the suffix found in the Old Latvian compounds, it is suggested that the suffix was originally restricted to adjectival compounds. Furthermore, the different types of compounds in Old Latvian were also distinguished in terms of the first component. In the majority of cases, both the possessive compounds and the verbal governing compounds were coined without linking elements, while the determinative compounds had linking elements to a larger extent. Thirdly, it is proposed in this thesis that a part of linking elements used in the determinative compounds in Old Latvian originated from the original stem vowels of the first components. Thus, it is argued that stem compounds were still attested in the Old Latvian texts, although this Baltic model of coining compounds is no longer visible in Modern Latvian. Lastly, it is suggested that the tendencies of compounding found in the texts under discussion represent dialectal differences.

    Another contribution of this study is that the Old Latvian compounds are not treated in isolation, but analyzed in drawing parallels with compounds in the other Baltic languages, Lithuanian in particular. Hence, by analyzing common features and similarities between the compounding systems, the Old Latvian compounds are positioned within the context of the Baltic system of compounding.  

  • Olofsson, Jonatan
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Veibäck, Clas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sea Ice Tracking with a Spatially Indexed Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Filter2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2017 20th International Conference on Information Fusion, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 376-383 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In polar region operations, drift ice positioning and tracking is useful for both scientific and safety reasons. At its core is a Multi-Target Tracking (MTT) problem in which currents and winds make motion modeling difficult. One recent algorithm in the MTT field, employed in this paper, is the Labeled Multi-Bernoulli (LMB) filter. In particular, a proposed reformulation of the LMB equations exposes a structure which is exploited to propose a compact algorithm for the generation of the filter's posterior distribution. Further, spatial indexing is applied to the clustering process of the filter, allowing efficient separation of the filter into smaller, independent parts with lesser total complexity than that of an unclustered filter. Many types of sensors can be employed to generate detections of sea ice, and in this paper a recorded dataset from a Terrestrial Radar Interferometer (TRI) is used to demonstrate the application of the Spatially Indexed Labeled Multi-Bernoulli filter to estimate the currents of an observed area in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard.

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 10:00 Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Marcadores metadiscursivos, fluidez y participación conversacional en español L2: La evolución de la competencia comunicativa durante la estancia en una comunidad de la lengua meta2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acquisition and use of metadiscourse markers in learners/users of L2 Spanish and the role these markers play in the development of fluency and conversational participation during a five-month stay in Spain as exchange students of business administration.

    The study has been conducted in three steps. The first part focuses on the theory and categorization of metadiscourse markers, followed by an analysis of the use and development of these markers in learners of L2 Spanish. The second part deals with the categorization and operationalization of aspects of fluency and conversational participation that can be associated with the use of metadiscourse markers; followed by an analysis of these aspects in the performance of the learners. The third part of the study is a summary of the results obtained and a discussion of the relationship between the use of metadiscourse markers and the development of fluency and conversational participation.

    The data underlying the current study consists of a selection of 17 recorded conversations between learners of L2 Spanish and native speakers of Spanish taken from the AKSAM database. The conversations belong in two activity types: discussions and simulated negotiations. The selected sample has a duration of approx. 10 hours and comprises 87 683 words. The study focuses on nine learners who have been recorded at the beginning and at the end of their five month study-abroad stay.

    Results show that frequency of use of metadiscourse markers has increased considerably at the end of the stay in the majority of the learners under study. A qualitative development can also be found, through which the metadiscourse markers that characterize the learners’ L1 and/or interlanguage have been substituted by more target-like expressions. Furthermore, both their fluency and level of conversational participation have generally increased. Within this development, however, a notable individual variation can be found. The learners who show the strongest development as regards fluency and conversational participation are also found to exhibit the most salient development of metadiscourse markers. Since disfluency is reduced to a lesser degree in those participants who also exhibit a less developed use of metadiscourse markers, it is argued that the development of metadiscourse markers in the L2 learner runs parallel to the development of discourse skills, but also that acquiring an adequate use of metadiscourse markers helps developing these skills. 

  • Disputas: 2017-09-08 13:00 sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on research made by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF]. The focus is on stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) discovered by (i)PTF, and it is closely tied to the research on the SE SN iPTF13bvn, that occurred in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806. This SN was initially thought to have been the explosion of a very massive Wolf-Rayet star, but we have shown that this is very likely not the case. We suggest instead that iPTF13bvn originated from a binary system where the envelope was stripped off from the SN progenitor by tidal forces from a companion (Paper I). PTF12os exploded in the same galaxy as iPTF13bvn, and our analysis shows that PTF12os and  iPTF13bvn were very similar, and that both were also remarkably similar to the Type IIb SN 2011dh, in terms of their light-curves and spectra. In Paper II, hydrodynamical models were used to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF13bvn, PTF12os and SN 2011dh; finding 56Ni masses in the range 0.063-0.075 solar masses (Ms), ejecta masses in the range 1.85-1.91 Ms, and kinetic energies in the range 0.54-0.94 x 1051 erg. Furthermore, using nebular models and late-time spectroscopy we were able to constrain the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass to ~ 12 Ms, for iPTF13bvn and ≤ 15 Ms for PTF12os. In current stellar evolution models, stars with these masses on the ZAMS cannot lose their envelopes and become SE SNe without binary interactions. In Paper III we investigate a peculiar SE SN, iPTF15dtg; this SN lacks both hydrogen and helium and shows a double-peaked LC with a broad main LC peak. Using hydrodynamical modeling we show that iPTF15dtg had a very large ejecta mass (~ 10 Ms), resulting from an explosion of a very massive star (~ 35 Ms). The initial peak in the LC can be explained by the presence of extended material around the star, likely due to an episode of strong mass-loss experienced by the progenitor prior to the explosion. In Paper IV we perform a statistical study of the spectra of all 176 SE SNe (Type IIb, Ib and Ic) discovered by (i)PTF. The spectra of Type Ic SNe show O absorption features that are both stronger and broader (indicating faster expansion velocities) compared to Type IIb and Type Ib SNe. These findings along with very weak He absorption support the traditional picture with Type Ic SNe being heavily stripped of their He envelopes prior to the explosions, and argue against alternative explanations, such as differences in explosive mixing of 56Ni among the SE SN subtypes.