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  • Lithell, Ulla-Britt
    Childcare—A Mirror of Women’s Living Conditions. A Community Study Representing 18th and 19th Century Ostrobothnia in Finland1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, 91-108 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Mwinyi, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Boström, Adrian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fehrer, I.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Clin Chem, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Othman, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Clin Chem, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Waeber, G.
    Univ Lausanne, Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Med, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Marti-Soler, H.
    Univ Lausanne, Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Med, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Vollenweider, P.
    Univ Lausanne, Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Med, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Marques-Vidal, P.
    Univ Lausanne, Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Med, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    von Eckardstein, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Clin Chem, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hornemann, T.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Clin Chem, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Plasma 1-deoxysphingolipids are early predictors of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0175776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids, which are formed in a side reaction during sphingolipid de-novo synthesis. Recently, we demonstrated that 1-deoxySLs are biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM in obese, non-diabetic patients. Here we investigated the relevance of 1-deoxySLs as long-term predictive biomarkers for the incidence of T2DM in an asymptomatic population. Here, we analyzed the plasma sphingoid base profile in a nested group of non-diabetic individuals (N = 605) selected from a population- based study including 5 year follow-up data (CoLaus study). 1-DeoxySLs at baseline were significantly elevated in individuals who developed T2DM during the follow-up (p<0.001), together with increased glucose (p<5.11E-14), triglycerides (p<0.001)and HOMA-IR indices (p<0.001). 1-Deoxy-sphinganine (1-deoxySA) and 1-deoxy-sphingosine (1-deoxySO) were predictive for T2DM, even after adjusting for fasting glucose levels in the binary regression analyses. The predictive value of the combined markers 1-deoxySA+ glucose were superior to glucose alone in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001) but decreased substantially with increasing BMI. Instead, plasma adiponectin and waist-to-hip ratio appeared to be better risk predictors for obese individuals (BMI>30kg/m(2)). In conclusion, elevated plasma 1-deoxySL levels are strong and independent risk predictors of future T2DM, especially for non-obese individuals in the general population.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Probing the W tb vertex structure in t-channel single-top-quark production and decay in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 4, 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To probe the Wtb vertex structure, top-quark and W-boson polarisation observables are measured from t-channel single-top-quark events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb(-1), recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Selected events contain one isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two jets, with one of them identified as likely to contain a b-hadron. Stringent selection requirements are applied to discriminate t-channel single-top-quark events from background. The polarisation observables are extracted from asymmetries in angular distributions measured with respect to spin quantisation axes appropriately chosen for the top quark and the W boson. The asymmetry measurements are performed at parton level by correcting the observed angular distributions for detector effects and hadronisation after subtracting the background contributions. The measured top-quark and W-boson polarisation values are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Limits on the imaginary part of the anomalous coupling gR are also set from model-independent measurements.

  • Wilhsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ungdomars strävan mot att lyckas och nå framgång i livet – skolan som hälsofrämjande arena2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the dissertation was to gain greater knowledge about perspectives on adolescent´s health as a basis for developing actions to promote health in schools.

    Methods: Study I had a quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design, in which the data was collected from 948 adolescent (11-15 years old) and analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Study II had a qualitative, investigative design, in which the data was collected from 117 adolescent (14-17 years old) and analyzed with Grounded Theory methodology. Study III had a qualitative, descriptive design, in which the data was collected from 42 adolescent (14-16 years old) and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Study IV had a qualitative, descriptive design, in which the data was collected from 27 stakeholders and analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The adolescent aspire to make out and be successful both in the present and the future. This aspiration is experienced by the adolescent as a struggle about time, a struggle that they cope with by using various strategies to balance schoolwork and leisure. The girls’ aspiration is to achieve success in school in order to be independent in the future. Success, for the boys, entails being successful in one of their leisure activities such as sport, which demonstrates their physical strength. Success is of importance for the boys in the present, while on the other hand the girls view their success in a longer time perspective. The focus in health promotion should be aimed at supporting the adolescent´s sense of coherence, at strengthening their optimism early in their teenage years as well as making more visible the organizational and contextual structures and norms that affect the health and lifestyles of girls and boys.

    Conclusions: In summary, the dissertation shows that perspectives on adolescent’s health should be understood at different levels in society and include a gender perspective. Furthermore, factors that are important for adolescent’s lifestyle should be discussed from a salutogenic perspective and the health promotion performed in schools should develop actions that have contextual and gender-specific points of departure in order to enhance the health and lifestyles of girls and boys.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Methodology for calculating emissions from ships: 1. Update of emission factors2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMED (Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, a collaboration between the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Statistics Sweden and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) has derived emission factors for ships (> 100 Gross Register Tonnage) to be applied in Sweden’s international reporting duties. The basis for this type of reporting is that only emissions derived from Swedish sold marine fuels are accounted for.

    The study has focused on 28 different air pollutants, where the emission factors have been proposed as a function of engine and fuel type. For year 2002, the factors cover three operational modes (“at sea”, “manoeuvring” and “in port”) and thereby take into account main engine and auxiliary engine emissions. A set of “at sea “ emission factors has also been prepared from 1990 up to 2001 to allow an update of the marine emission time series.

    In order to obtain representative and up-to-date emission factors for this application, “in-house” emission data and also published literature emission factor databases have been assessed. Thus emission factors were derived from a database consisting of exhaust measurements from ca. 62 ships involving ca.180 marine engines. The emission factors have been weighted to account for the proportion of the fleet using exhaust gas cleaning measures, age factors for fuel consumption and increased use of low-sulphur fuels.

    Since the number of measurement data available for the different pollutant emission factors varies considerably, an attempt has been made to classify the factors after estimated uncertainty.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Methodology for calculating emissions from ships: 2. Emission factors for 2004 reporting2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an on-going project to improve the quality of Swedish marine emission reporting, SMED (Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, a collaboration between the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Statistics Sweden and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) has derived emission factors for ships (> 100 Gross Register Tonnage). The basis for this type of reporting is that only emissions derived from Swedish sold marine fuels are accounted for. This work presents the agglomerated emissions factors to suit available activity data (i.e. Swedish marine fuel sales) enabling total emissions for the period 1990 – 2002 to be calculated.

    When tentatively comparing the new emission totals with those reported earlier (using older emission factor data), a striking difference is that SO2 emissions have been previously underestimated (ca. 5 times too small for International sea traffic). The new HC and CO emissions are however approximately half of those calculated earlier. For NOx, the older estimates agree reasonably well with the new estimates.

  • Scelo, Ghislaine
    et al.
    Purdue, Mark P.
    Brown, Kevin M.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Wang, Zhaoming
    Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.
    Ye, Yuanqing
    Hofmann, Jonathan N.
    Choi, Jiyeon
    Foll, Matthieu
    Gaborieau, Valerie
    Machiela, Mitchell J.
    Colli, Leandro M.
    Li, Peng
    Sampson, Joshua N.
    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush
    Besse, Celine
    Blanche, Helene
    Boland, Anne
    Burdette, Laurie
    Chabrier, Amelie
    Durand, Geoffroy
    Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence
    Prokhortchouk, Egor
    Robinot, Nivonirina
    Skryabin, Konstantin G.
    Wozniak, Magdalena B.
    Yeager, Meredith
    Basta-Jovanovic, Gordana
    Dzamic, Zoran
    Foretova, Lenka
    Holcatova, Ivana
    Janout, Vladimir
    Mates, Dana
    Mukeriya, Anush
    Rascu, Stefan
    Zaridze, David
    Bencko, Vladimir
    Cybulski, Cezary
    Fabianova, Eleonora
    Jinga, Viorel
    Lissowska, Jolanta
    Lubinski, Jan
    Navratilova, Marie
    Rudnai, Peter
    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila
    Benhamou, Simone
    Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine
    Cussenot, Olivier
    Baglietto, Laura
    Boeing, Heiner
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Sitaram, Raviprakash T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Bruinsma, Fiona
    Jordan, Susan J.
    Severi, Gianluca
    Winship, Ingrid
    Hveem, Kristian
    Vatten, Lars J.
    Fletcher, Tony
    Koppova, Kvetoslava
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Banks, Rosamonde E.
    Selby, Peter J.
    Easton, Douglas F.
    Pharoah, Paul
    Andreotti, Gabriella
    Freeman, Laura E. Beane
    Koutros, Stella
    Albanes, Demetrius
    Mannisto, Satu
    Weinstein, Stephanie
    Clark, Peter E.
    Edwards, Todd L.
    Lipworth, Loren
    Gapstur, Susan M.
    Stevens, Victoria L.
    Carol, Hallie
    Freedman, Matthew L.
    Pomerantz, Mark M.
    Cho, Eunyoung
    Kraft, Peter
    Preston, Mark A.
    Wilson, Kathryn M.
    Gaziano, J. Michael
    Sesso, Howard D.
    Black, Amanda
    Freedman, Neal D.
    Huang, Wen-Yi
    Anema, John G.
    Kahnoski, Richard J.
    Lane, Brian R.
    Noyes, Sabrina L.
    Petillo, David
    Teh, Bin Tean
    Peters, Ulrike
    White, Emily
    Anderson, Garnet L.
    Johnson, Lisa
    Luo, Juhua
    Buring, Julie
    Lee, I-Min
    Chow, Wong-Ho
    Moore, Lee E.
    Wood, Christopher
    Eisen, Timothy
    Henrion, Marc
    Larkin, James
    Barman, Poulami
    Leibovich, Bradley C.
    Choueiri, Toni K.
    Lathrop, G. Mark
    Rothman, Nathaniel
    Deleuze, Jean-Francois
    Mckay, James D.
    Parker, Alexander S.
    Wu, Xifeng
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Brennan, Paul
    Chanock, Stephen J.
    Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for renal cell carcinoma2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P = 3.1 x 10(-10)), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P = 2.5 x 10(-8)), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P = 8.8 x 10(-9)), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P = 5.8 x 10(-9)), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P = 3.9 x 10(-8)), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P = 2.1 x 10(-10)) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P = 2.2 x 10(-24)). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.

  • Nygren, Karina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hammarstrom, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Binge drinking and total alcohol consumption from 16 to 43 years of age are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose in women: results from the northern Swedish cohort study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43. Methods: Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires. Results: Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.

  • Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Cyklisters interaktion med extrautrustning, infrastrukturen och andra trafikanter: En semi-kontrollerad fältstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How cyclists interact with the infrastructure, and how they integrate the handling of additional tasks, is dependent on the surrounding traffic situation and the cyclists’ characteristics. To study these relationships, a semi-controlled field study was conducted with 41 cyclists, who belonged to different cyclist groups with respect to their usual travel speed during transport trips. Speed, gaze direction and tactical behaviour like choice of path and the interaction with incoming text messages was logged, while the cyclists travelled along a six kilometre long route in the inner city of Linköping. Interviews and think aloud protocols, as well as video recordings from different perspectives were employed as well.

    It was common that the cyclists ignored incoming text messages, a third was answered directly while cycling. The texting while cycling did not lead to attentional decrements, because the cyclists adapted their interaction with the telephone to the prevailing traffic situation. The interaction with the phone did not differ substantially between cyclist groups. However, the design of the infrastructure affected the cyclist groups differently, where faster cyclists were delayed more in cases where the infrastructure necessitated stops regardless of the traffic situation, while comfort cyclists were the group delayed most in a roundabout that was difficult to interpret. Cycling on the pavement was common, and it mainly reflects the insecurity experienced in mixed traffic with cars. It is important to consider the different needs of different cyclist types when planning the road infrastructure, to avoid irritation, insecurity and conflicts.

  • Häggström Westerberg, Katrin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Wilhsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Antony, Morgan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Exploring the role of optimism as a protective factor for adolescent quality of lifeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote (and protect) adolescent health related quality of life (HRQOL).  Two hypotheses were formulated, a) there is an association between adolescents’ self-rated optimism and pessimism and their HRQOL, (b) age, gender and socio-demographic characteristics influence this association. We explore optimism and pessimism as a bi-dimensional construct and its impact on HRQOL among adolescents in two age groups (11-13 years and 14-16 years). Adolescents answered a self-report questionnaire consisting of two validated scales for measuring HRQOL and the concepts of optimism and pessimism. This study has shown that optimism is an important protective factor for HRQOL and low levels of pessimism were also seen to be protective of HRQOL in both age groups.  This infers the potential of an optimistic orientation about future goals might function as a health asset during adolescence that could be useful in the planning of health promotion strategies.

  • Cooper, David
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Flodström, Eje
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Statistics Sweden.
    Jernström, Mats
    Statistics Sweden.
    Emission factors, fuel consumtion and emission estimates for Sweden´s fishing fleet 1990-20042005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption for the Swedish fishing fleet 1990-2004 has been estimated using statistics from the Swedish National Board of Fisheries on installed engine power. An additional estimation method was also described. Data on installed power was available for the years 1995-2004, and estimates 1990-1994 have been calculated by extrapolation. Thermal values and emission factors are based on a study conducted by SMED on behalf of the Swedish EPA in 2004. In order to fit the national fuel sales statistics, the diesel oil consumption was adjusted according to the national allocation model for international reporting. The adjusted fuel consumption accounted for about 68 700 – 93 900 m3, corresponding to about 187 – 256 ktons CO2.

  • Silva, L. N.
    et al.
    Da Hora, G. C. A.
    Soares, T. A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Quim Fundamental, Recife, Brazil.
    Bojer, M. S.
    Ingmer, H.
    Macedo, A. J.
    Trentin, D. S.
    Myricetin protects Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus infection and inhibits multiple virulence factors2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 2823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus virulence factors, including adhesion, biofilm formation, hemolysis and staphyloxanthin production, without interfering with growth. Myricetin affects both surface proteins and secreted proteins which indicate that its action is unrelated to inhibition of the agr quorum sensing system. Analysis of virulence related gene expression and computational simulations of pivotal proteins involved in pathogenesis demonstrate that myricetin downregulates the saeR global regulator and interacts with sortase A and alpha-hemolysin. Furthermore, Myr confers a significant degree of protection against staphylococcal infection in the Galleria mellonella model. The present findings reveal the potential of Myr as an alternative multi-target antivirulence candidate to control S. aureus pathogenicity.

  • Wilhsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A stakeholder perspective on adolescents' needs for support to cope with school-related stressManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background; Adolescents’ experiences of stress have increased in recent decades and is associated with an increase of psychosomatic symptoms and poorer academic achievement. Identification of ways to support adolescents’ handling of school related stress is a major challenge to promote their health and academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to describe the stakeholder’s perspectives on services that are needed for supporting adolescents in secondary school when coping with school-related stress.

    Methods; Representatives from the school health service and school management organization (n=23) from five secondary schools and parents (n=4) were recruited by snowball sampling. Interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.  

    Results; The study highlight different aspects of stakeholders’ perceptions of what is needed to support adolescents who experience school-related stress. Described are actions such as highlighting and changing organizational and contextual structures and developing the dialogue between the school and the home. Other described actions are to support adolescents’ abilities to plan and visualizing how time is used and to strengthen their adolescents’ belief in their own abilities.

    Conclusions; Our findings could be used in schools for developing interventions from a salutogenic approach to promote adolescents’ health in the present and for the future.

  • Popova, Dina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Karlsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Jacobsson, Stig O. P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity2017In: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 18, 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells for their ability to detect toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), okadaic acid and acrylamide. Methods: Retinoic acid-treated P19 and SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells, allowed to differentiate for 6 days, were exposed to MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide for 48 h. Cell survival and neurite outgrowth were assessed with the calcein-AM assay and fluorescence detection of antibodies against the cytoskeletal neuron-specific protein beta III-tubulin, respectively. The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the potent inhibitor of GSH synthesis buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the MeHg induced-toxicity were assessed using the PrestoBlue (TM) cell viability assay and the TMRE mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Results: Differentiated P19 cells developed the most extensive neuronal network among the three cell models and were the most sensitive neuronal model to detect neurotoxic effects of the test compounds. MeHg produced a concentration-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, with statistically significant effects at concentrations from 0.1 mu M in the P19 neurons and 1 mu M in the SH-SY5Y cells. MeHg induced a decrease in the cellular metabolic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) in the differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, that were attenuated by GSH. Okadaic acid and acrylamide also showed statistically significant toxicity in the P19 neurons, but not in the SH-SY5Y cells or the P12 cells. Conclusions: P19 neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals.

  • Jin, Junchen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Konsonen, Iisakki
    A stochastic optimization framework for road traffic controls based on evolutionary algorithms and traffic simulationIn: Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN 0965-9978, E-ISSN 1873-5339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic flow is considered as a stochastic process in road traffic modelling. Computer simulation is a widely used tool to represent traffic system in engineering applications. The increased traffic congestion in urban areas and their impacts require more efficient controls and management. While the effectivenesses of control schemes highly depend on accurate traffic model and appropriate control settings, optimization techniques play a central role for determining the control parameters in the planning and management applications. However, there is still a lack of research effort on scientific computing frameworks for optimizing traffic control and operations and facilitating real planning and management applications. To this end, the present study proposes a model-based optimization framework to integrate essential components for solving road traffic control problems in general. In particular, the framework is based on traffic simulation models, while the solution needs extensive computation during the engineering optimization process. In this study, an advanced genetic algorithm, extended by an external archive for storing globally elite genes, governs the computing framework, and it shows superior performance than the ordinary genetic algorithm because of the reduced number of fitness function evaluations in engineering applications. To evaluate the optimization algorithm and validate the whole software framework, this paper also illustrates a detailed case study for optimization of traffic light controls. The study optimizes a simple road network of two intersections in Stockholm to demonstrate the modelbased optimization processes as well as evaluate algorithm and software performance.

  • Dragano, Nico
    et al.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Erbel, Raimund
    Fahlen, Goran
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Juergen
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Theorell, Tores
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Zins, Marie
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals2017In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, no 4, 619-626 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease.

    Methods: This multicohort study (the “IPD-Work” consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort–reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort–reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.35) was observed for effort–reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01–1.34) for having either effort–reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12–1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort–reward imbalance nor job strain.

    Conclusions: Individuals with effort–reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

  • Nummi, Tapio
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Nat Sci, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Leino-Arjas, Paivi
    Ctr Expertise Hlth & Work Abil, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Trajectories of a set of ten functional somatic symptoms from adolescence to middle age2017In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 75, 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), or symptoms without a clear medical explanation are a considerable challenge for health care systems. There is no general consensus as to which symptoms should be regarded functional. Few longitudinal studies on the development of FSS exist and these have mainly been based on the assumption that the factorial structure of a FSS scores variable remains invariant over time. When the analysis covers longer periods of the life course, this may be challenged. The aim of our study was to investigate how ten functional somatic symptoms (FSS) evolve when individuals are ageing. Methods: The data of the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) from questionnaire surveys at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42, were analysed. Participation rates remained very high over the five surveys. The list of symptoms included backache, breathlessness, dizziness, fatigue, headache or migraine, nausea, overstrain, palpitations, sleeplessness and stomach ache. We used multivariate trajectory analysis (TA) with logistic broken-stick regression models to describe sub-groups in the data. In multivariate TA the joint development of the set of item variables can be investigated. There is no need to construct a special FSS summary score variable. Results: Four well separated trajectories were identified. In two groups, healing symptoms (25.4% of the sample) and low symptom load (32.2% of the sample), the symptom level stayed relatively low in adulthood. In the third group of high symptom load (17.2%) the probability of having symptoms was high for all FSS variables. In the fourth group of increasing symptoms (25.3%) the level of symptoms was first intermediate, but increased markedly with age. Conclusions: Instead of a single FSS score we were able to assign each individual to one of four trajectories described jointly by 10 separate symptoms. The profile of development, but not the probability level, was rather similar over the symptoms within the trajectories, with few exceptions. The results provide better understanding of the longitudinal development of the symptoms from the adolescence to the middle age.

  • Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya.
    Tozan, Yesim
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Using remote sensing environmental data to forecast malaria incidence at a rural district hospital in Western Kenya2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 2589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria surveillance data provide opportunity to develop forecasting models. Seasonal variability in environmental factors correlate with malaria transmission, thus the identification of transmission patterns is useful in developing prediction models. However, with changing seasonal transmission patterns, either due to interventions or shifting weather seasons, traditional modelling approaches may not yield adequate predictive skill. Two statistical models, a general additive model (GAM) and GAMBOOST model with boosted regression were contrasted by assessing their predictive accuracy in forecasting malaria admissions at lead times of one to three months. Monthly admission data for children under five years with confirmed malaria at the Siaya district hospital in Western Kenya for the period 2003 to 2013 were used together with satellite derived data on rainfall, average temperature and evapotranspiration(ET). There was a total of 8,476 confirmed malaria admissions. The peak of malaria season changed and malaria admissions reduced overtime. The GAMBOOST model at 1-month lead time had the highest predictive skill during both the training and test periods and thus can be utilized in a malaria early warning system.

  • Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Malo, Kjell Arne
    NTNU, Norway.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Fortino, Stefania
    VTT, Finland.
    Salokangas, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wacker, James
    USDA, US.
    Durable Timber Bridges - Final Report and Guidelines2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges. The goal of the project was to contribute to the development of sustainable timber bridges by making guidelines for moisture design and developing new and improved bridge concepts and details in terms of durability and maintenance aspects.

    In this report the analyzes, surveys, results and guidelines are described. More detailed descriptions are referred to the many publications that the project has delivered.

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the WoddWisdom-Net Research Programme which is a transnational R&D programme jointly funded by national funding organisations within the framework of the ERA-NET WoodWisdom-Net 2.

  • Spalding, Kirsty L.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Metab Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, KI AZ Integrated Cardio Metab Ctr, Dept Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bernard, Samuel
    Univ Lyon, Inst Camille Jordan, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Näslund, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, SE-18288 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Salehpour, Mehran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Appelsved, Lena
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fu, Keng-Yeh
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alkass, Kanar
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Druid, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Med, SE-11120 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thorell, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, SE-18288 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ersta Hosp, Dept Surg, SE-11691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rydén, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arner, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Impact of fat mass and distribution on lipid turnover in human adipose tissue2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid turnover between the visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots may cause metabolic complications in obesity. Here we compare triglyceride age and, thereby, triglyceride turnover in vWAT and sWAT biopsies from 346 individuals and find that subcutaneous triglyceride age and storage capacity are increased in overweight or obese individuals. Visceral triglyceride age is only increased in excessively obese individuals and associated with a lower lipid removal capacity. Thus, although triglyceride storage capacity in sWAT is higher than in vWAT, the former plateaus at substantially lower levels of excess WAT mass than vWAT. In individuals with central or visceral obesity, lipid turnover is selectively increased in vWAT. Obese individuals classified as 'metabolically unhealthy' (according to ATPIII criteria) who have small subcutaneous adipocytes exhibit reduced triglyceride turnover. We conclude that excess WAT results in depot-specific differences in lipid turnover and increased turnover in vWAT and/or decreased turnover in sWAT may result in metabolic complications of overweight or obesity.

  • Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in the Mitigation of RF MIMO Transmitter Impairments2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of thecomplexity accuracy tradeoff in state-of-the-art RF MIMO transmittermitigation models. The complexity and accuracy of thecandidate models depends on the basis functions considered inthese models. Therefore, a brief description of the mitigationmodels is presented accompanied by derivations of the modelcomplexities in terms of the number of FLOPs. Consequently,the complexity accuracy tradeoff in the candidate models isevaluated for a 2 × 2 RF MIMO transmitter. Furthermore, themodel complexities are analyzed for increasing nonlinear ordersand number of antennas.

  • Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering. KTH, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Multitone Design for Third Order MIMO Volterra Kernels2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a technique for designing multitonesignals that can separate the third order multiple inputmultiple output (MIMO) Volterra kernels. Multitone signalsfed to a MIMO Volterra system yield a spectrum that is apermutation of the sums of the input signal tones. This a prioriknowledge is used to design multitone signals such that theoutput from the MIMO Volterra kernels does not overlap in thefrequency domain, hence making it possible to separate thesekernels from the output of the MIMO Volterra system. Theproposed technique is applied to a 2×2 RF MIMO transmitterto determine its dominant hardware impairments. For inputcrosstalk, the proposed method reveals the dominant self andcross kernels whereas for output crosstalk, the proposed methodreveals that only the self kernels are dominant.

  • Johansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hailer, Nils P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Rahme, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    High incidence of periprosthetic joint infection with propionibacterium acnes after the use of a stemless shoulder prosthesis with metaphyseal screw fixation: a retrospective cohort study of 241 patients propionibacter infections after eclipse TSA2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, 203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A stemless shoulder prosthesis with humeral metaphyseal screw fixation was introduced in order to save bone-stock and to facilitate reconstruction of biomechanics (Eclipse (R)). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of infection is different with this implant compared to conventional shoulder prosthesis.

    Methods: Two hundred and forty-one patients (54.8% females) were operated with a shoulder arthroplasty and followed for median 2.0 (0.1-5.7) years. One hundred and two (42.3%) had received an Eclipse (R) prosthesis, the remaining patients were operated with other implants. There was an overrepresentation of males in the Eclipse (R) group (63.7% males) when compared with the control group (31.7% males).

    Results: In the Eclipse (R) group 10 (9.8%) patients developed a periprosthetic joint infection, as opposed to 1 (0.7%) in the control group. The most common bacteria was Propionibacterium acnes. Unadjusted infection-free survival after 4 years was 88.8% (CI 82.5-95.7) for Eclipse (R) patients and 95.7% (CI 87.7-100.0) for controls (p = 0.002). After adjustment for age, gender, diagnosis, and type of shoulder prosthesis (total or hemi), the risk ratio for revision due to infection was 4.3 (CI 0.5-39.1) for patients with the Eclipse (R) prosthesis.

    Conclusions: Deep infections seem to be more common after the use of the metaphyseally fixed Eclipse (R) prosthesis than after conventional shoulder implants, but a predominance of male gender and younger age in the Eclipse group may have biased our findings. Future studies on larger cohorts and in vitro investigations on bacterial adherence and biofilm formation are needed.

  • Girovsky, Jan
    et al.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, Dept Quantum Nanosci, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft, Netherlands..
    Nowakowski, Jan
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Ali, Md. Ehesan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Inst Nano Sci & Technol, Phase 10,Sect 64, Mohali 160062, Punjab, India..
    Baljozovic, Milos
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Rossmann, Harald R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Nijs, Thomas
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Aeby, Elise A.
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Nowakowska, Sylwia
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Siewert, Dorota
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Srivastava, Gitika
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.;Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Nanoscale Mat Sci, Empa, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Wäckerlin, Christian
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys IPHYS, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Nanoscale Mat Sci, Empa, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Dreiser, Jan
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Decurtins, Silvio
    Univ Bern, Dept Chem & Biochem, Freiestr 3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Liu, Shi-Xia
    Univ Bern, Dept Chem & Biochem, Freiestr 3, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jung, Thomas A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Micro & Nanotechnol, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Ballav, Nirmalya
    IISER, Dept Chem, Pune 411008, Maharashtra, India..
    Long-range ferrimagnetic order in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realization of long-range magnetic order in surface-supported two-dimensional systems has been challenging, mainly due to the competition between fundamental magnetic interactions as the short-range Kondo effect and spin-stabilizing magnetic exchange interactions. Spin-bearing molecules on conducting substrates represent a rich platform to investigate the interplay of these fundamental magnetic interactions. Here we demonstrate the direct observation of long-range ferrimagnetic order emerging in a two-dimensional supramolecular Kondo lattice. The lattice consists of paramagnetic hexadeca-fluorinated iron phthalocyanine (FeFPc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules co-assembled into a checkerboard pattern on single-crystalline Au(111) substrates. Remarkably, the remanent magnetic moments are oriented in the out-of-plane direction with significant contribution from orbital moments. First-principles calculations reveal that the FeFPc-MnPc antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbour coupling is mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction via the Au substrate electronic states. Our findings suggest the use of molecular frameworks to engineer novel low-dimensional magnetically ordered materials and their application in molecular quantum devices.

  • Thombare, Ketan
    et al.
    Sodertalje Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Ntika, Stelia
    Sodertalje Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Wang, Xuan
    Sodertalje Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Krizhanovskii, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Sodertalje Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Sodertalje, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids exert opposing effects on viability and function of GLP-1-producing cells: Mechanisms of lipotoxicity2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0177605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Fatty acids acutely stimulate GLP-1 secretion from L-cells in vivo. However, a high fat diet has been shown to reduce the density of L-cells in the mouse intestine and a positive correlation has been indicated between L-cell number and GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the mechanism of fatty acid-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, potential effects of long-term exposure to elevated levels of different fatty acid species, and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to determine how long-term exposure to saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids, by direct effects on GLP-1-producing cells, alter function and viability, and the underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: GLP-1-secreting GLUTag cells were cultured in the presence/absence of saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids (0.125 mM for 48 h, followed by analyses of viability and apoptosis, as well as involvement of fatty acid oxidation, free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1) and ceramide synthesis. In addition, effects on the expression of proglucagon, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1, FFAR3), sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and subsequent secretory response were determined.

    Results: Saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids exerted opposing effects on the induction of apoptosis (1.4-fold increase in DNA fragmentation by palmitate and a 0.5-fold reduction by oleate; p<0.01). Palmitate-induced apoptosis was associated with increased ceramide content and co-incubation with Fumonisin B1 abolished this lipo apoptosis. Oleate, on the other hand, reduced ceramide content, and-unlike palmitate-upregulated FFAR1 and FFAR3, evoking a 2-fold increase in FFAR1-mediated GLP-1 secretion following acute exposure to 0.125 mmol/L palmitate; (p<0.05).

    Conclusion/Interpretation: Saturated (16:0), but not unsaturated (18:1), fatty acids induce ceramide-mediated apoptosis of GLP-1-producing cells. Further, unsaturated fatty acids confer lipoprotection, enhancing viability and function of GLP-1-secreting cells. These data provide potential mechanistic insight contributing to reduced L-cell mass following a high fat diet and differential effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on GLP-1 secretion in vivo.

  • Muola, Anne
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Environm & Marine Biol, Turku, Finland.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Weber, Daniela
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Malm, Lisa E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Egan, Paul A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Glinwood, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance2017In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, 823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB) Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar 'Rügen'), leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar 'Rugen' and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar 'Rugen' were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

  • Comparing Research at Nordic Higher Education Institutions Using Bibliometric Indicators: Covering the years 1999-20142017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report is both an update and an extension of two previous reports with the same title: “Comparing Research at Nordic Universities using Bibliometric Indicators” from 2011 and 2014. With the current report’s use of more years, more institutions and more subject fields, the figures are not directly comparable to the figures in the former two. Therefore, it should not be seen as an update of the former two reports; rather it replaces these.

    The main conclusion of the report is that we find relatively stable differences between the Nordic universities, university colleges and university hospitals. We find different research profiles and specialisations, and we find institutions with different volumes of research activity. By describing these differences, we want to bring attention to dimensions that one-dimensional global university rankings cannot capture.

    Some Nordic higher education institutions score on a very high international level with regard to citation impact and shares of highly cited papers, at least in some of the major areas of research, while most Nordic institutions do not, although the majority of them perform above the world average. “World class” research is being conducted at a few Nordic institutions, but not at most of them.

  • Calciano, Lucia
    et al.
    Univ Verona, Dept Diagnost & Publ Hlth, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy..
    Corsico, Angelo Guido
    Univ Pavia, IRCCS, Div Resp Dis, San Matteo & Hosp Fdn, Pavia, Italy..
    Pirina, Pietro
    Univ Sassari, Inst Resp Dis, Sassari, Italy..
    Trucco, Giulia
    Univ Turin, Dept Publ Hlth & Pediat, Turin, Italy..
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Imperial Coll, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, London, England..
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Accordini, Simone
    Univ Verona, Dept Diagnost & Publ Hlth, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy..
    Assessment of asthma severity in adults with ever asthma: A continuous score2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0177538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In epidemiological studies, continuous measures of asthma severity should be used to catch the heterogeneity of phenotypes. This study aimed at developing and validating continuous measures of asthma severity in adult patients with ever asthma from the general population, to be used in epidemiological studies.

    Methods: Respiratory symptoms, anti-asthmatic treatment and lung function were measured on 520 patients with ever asthma aged 20-64 years from the general Italian population (GEIRD study; 2007/2010). The variables that represent the same dimension of asthma severity were identified through an exploratory factor analysis and were summarized through a multiple factor analysis.

    Results: Only respiratory symptoms and anti-asthmatic treatment were summarized in a continuous score (STS). STS ranges from 0 (no symptoms/treatment) to 10 (maximum symptom frequency and treatment intensity). STS was positively correlated with the Global Initiative for Asthma classification of asthma severity computed on the 137 cases with a doctor's diagnosis (Spearman's coefficient = 0.61, p-value<0.0001) (concurrent validity). Furthermore, using a cohort of 1,097 European asthmatics (ECRHS II study; 1999/2002), increasing STS levels at baseline (1991/1993) were positively associated with long-term outcomes (hospitalization and lost workdays for breathing problems, asthma attack frequency and use of asthma controllers) (predictive validity). Finally, the STS scores computed from the GEIRD and ECRHS II data were comparable (Lin's coefficient = 0.95, p-value<0.0001) (replication analysis).

    Conclusions: STS is a valid and replicable measure of asthma severity in adults, which could be used in association studies.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Assuring quality in person-centred healthcare2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Falklöf, Lennart (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    LiU Magazin2017Other (Other academic)
  • Falklöf, Lennart (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    LiU Magasin2017Other (Other academic)
  • Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Åkerblom, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Farliga ord och vanliga oarter: Om språkbruk i företagsekonomiska rapporter och uppsatser på svenska2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företagsekonomiska uppsatser och promemorior är antagligen i genomsnitt varken bättre eller sämre än texter som skrivs av studenter i andra ekonomiska eller samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen. Men företagsekonomer skriver mycket, vilket ger möjlighet till mer övning i att uttrycka sig på god svenska än för många andra. Å andra sidan exponeras företagsekonomer också mycket för branschjargong, svengelska och så kallade grafiska hyss som ibland rentav framförs med anspråk på att vara normbildande. Vidare har den tekniska utvecklingen på ordbehandlingsområdet underlättat skrivarbetet mycket, men det har också gjort det möjligt att göra fel på många nya sätt. Vår avsikt här är att peka på en del fel som erfarenheten har visat att både företagsekonomer och andra kan förledas till att göra, men råden har en viss tonvikt på ekonomiskt språkbruk

  • Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Windows and blinds selection for enhancing subjective well-being2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies in the context of windows and blinds selection have mostly tried to increase the awareness regarding various effects of windows and blinds selection on subjective well-being, including their effect on visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. However, the main problem is the potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Increased awareness about the contradictory effect of windows and blinds selection on subjective well-being on one hand and lack of a feasible method in managing the conflicts on the other hand may bind individuals, as decision-makers, in a situation where they follow the immediate economic benefits rather than the long-term visual and thermal benefits. To solve the mentioned problem, this study analysed first the degree of the conflicts between average daylight illuminance and total energy consumption in Sweden. This decision was made due to large variation in solar elevation angle and solar intensity between summer and winter in Sweden, which has significant effects on daylight illuminance and total energy consumption. Analysing the conflicts was accomplished by developing two multivariate linear regression models for calculating average daylight illuminance and total energy consumption. Comparison and analysis of the multivariate linear regression models showed the existence of a high degree of conflicts, which makes window and blind selection a rather complex multidimensional problem. Specifying the degree of the conflicts formed a hypothesis as: “A multi criteria decision-making method increases the controllability and manages the conflicts in selecting windows and blinds”. The developed hypothesis was later tested by employing analytical hierarchy process, as widely used multi criteria decisionmaking method. The analytical hierarchy process prioritizes decision-maker’ preferences and introduces a desired trade-off solution. The results of employing analytical hierarchy process showed the capability of it in managing the conflicts among visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Finally, the application of the analytical hierarchy process was expanded by integrating it with nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, as an optimization algorithm. Through this integration, optimization algorithm combines windows’ and blinds’ design variables and analyses a large number of solutions, while analytical hierarchy process ranks the solutions based on decision-makers’ preferences and introduces a desired trade-off solution. The integration between analytical hierarchy process and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II was presented later as a conceptual framework. The developed conceptual framework can be used for selecting windows and blinds II in both residential and commercial buildings. In selecting windows and blinds, the conceptual framework is a novel solution to the lack of a feasible method for increasing the controllability for decision-makers and obtaining a desired trade-off solution.

  • Preventing Food Waste: - better use of resources2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” is the Nordic Prime Ministers’ green growth initiative under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. A number of projects have been launched as part of the prime ministers’ green growth initiative that deals with the circular economy.

    How to reduce food waste in the Nordic Region is one of the areas covered in the projects. The projects have mapped current shortcomings, proposed models for future solutions, and formulated policy recommendations for Nordic collaboration. The results are expected to make a significant contribution to Nordic co-operation in the coming years and have attracted considerable international interest.

  • Song, Dongsheng
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, Key Lab Adv Mat MOE, Natl Ctr Electron Microscopy Beijing, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab New Ceram & Fine Proc, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Tavabi, Amir H.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Li, Zi-An
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Kovács, András
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Rusz, Ján
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Huang, Wenting
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Appl Mat, Hermann von Helmholtz Pl 1, D-76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Intelligent Syst, Heisenbergstr 3, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Richter, Gunther
    Max Planck Inst Intelligent Syst, Heisenbergstr 3, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Zhu, Jing
    Tsinghua Univ, Key Lab Adv Mat MOE, Natl Ctr Electron Microscopy Beijing, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab New Ceram & Fine Proc, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    An in-plane magnetic chiral dichroism approach for measurement of intrinsic magnetic signals using transmitted electrons2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 15348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism is a powerful technique that allows the local magnetic properties of materials to be measured quantitatively with close-to-atomic spatial resolution and element specificity in the transmission electron microscope. Until now, the technique has been restricted to measurements of the magnetic circular dichroism signal in the electron beam direction. However, the intrinsic magnetization directions of thin samples are often oriented in the specimen plane, especially when they are examined in magnetic-field-free conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Here, we introduce an approach that allows in-plane magnetic signals to be measured using electron magnetic chiral dichroism by selecting a specific diffraction geometry. We compare experimental results recorded from a cobalt nanoplate with simulations to demonstrate that an electron magnetic chiral dichroism signal originating from in-plane magnetization can be detected successfully.

  • Strömvall, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Thysell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Aggressive rat prostate tumors reprogram the benign parts of the prostate and regional lymph nodes prior to metastasis2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, e0176679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to grow and spread tumors need to interact with adjacent tissues. We therefore hypothesized that small but aggressive prostate cancers influence the rest of the prostate and regional lymph nodes differently than tumors that are more indolent. Poorly metastatic (Dunning AT1) or highly metastatic (Dunning MLL) rat prostate tumor cells were injected into the ventral prostate lobe of immunocompetent rats. After 10 days-when the tumors occupied about 30% of the prostate lobe and lymph node metastases were undetectable- the global gene expression in tumors, benign parts of the prostate, and regional iliac lymph nodes were examined to define tumor-induced changes related to preparation for future metastasis. The tumors induced profound effects on the gene expression profiles in the benign parts of the prostate and these were strikingly different in the two tumor models. Gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested that tumors with high metastatic capacity were more successful than less metastatic tumors in inducing tumor-promoting changes and suppressing anti-tumor immune responses in the entire prostate. Some of these differences such as altered angiogenesis, nerve density, accumulation of T-cells and macrophages were verified by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression alterations in the regional lymph nodes suggested decreased quantity and activation of immune cells in MLL-lymph nodes that were also verified by immunostaining. In summary, even when small highly metastatic prostate tumors can affect the entire tumor-bearing organ and pre-metastatic lymph nodes differently than less metastatic tumors. When the kinetics of these extratumoral influences (by us named TINT = tumor instructed normal tissue) are more precisely defined they could potentially be used as markers of disease aggressiveness and become therapeutic targets.

  • Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Nilsson, Christer
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters: Policy Brief2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters – ecological solutions

    Every year, natural disasters cause loss of lives and significant damage in the Nordic countries. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural disasters. However, degradation of natural habitats has in many cases seriously damaged this ability. A recently concluded Nordic project ERMOND—Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters—aimed to facilitate new thinking and new solutions in disaster risk management in the Nordic countries.The main conclusion from the ERMOND project is that Nordic disaster risk reduction strategies should place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management. This may in the long run proof to be cheaper and more sustainable than traditional engineered solutions, such as building levees for preventing floods. Restoration of degraded ecosystem will furthermore provide a wide array of other environmental, economic and social benefits. The ERMOND project was launched in 2014 as a theme project of the Nordic Council of Ministers, appointed by the Icelandic Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources. In total, fifteen institutions participated in the ERMOND project, and another four were part of a wider network receiving information on project activities. Project partners came from all the Nordic countries. The project was financed through the following funding schemes of the Nordic Council of Ministers: NordBio - The Program for the Icelandic Presidency in NCM in 2014 and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Group (TEG). The Committee of Senior Officials for the Environment funded the project NordEcRes, which was linked to the ERMOND project. The results of the ERMOND project will soon be published in a TemaNord report, an ANP Policy brief and several scientific articles.

  • Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Appraising the Impact of Toward a Feminist Theory of the State: Consciousness-Raising, Hierarchy Theory, and Substantive Equality Laws2017In: Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, ISSN ISSN-L: 0737-089X, Vol. 35, no 2, 353-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The philosophical, political, and legal impact of Catharine MacKinnon's groundbreaking work Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (1989) is discussed, specifically the merging of consciousness-raising of subordinated groups with critically informed scholarship, producing a problem-driven approach engaging in informed policy-making. As a comprehensive political theory of the relationship between male dominance and the state, one of Toward's central features was to draw from consciousness-raising as a feminist research method to further ground its approach to equality, particularly in its prescription for substantive equality laws. The article illustrates how such central concepts have influenced real changes in the world, specifically using legal challenges to pornography and prostitution as examples.

    Parts I and II demonstrates how Toward departed from conventional epistemologies, in part explaining its revolutionary appeal to students, practitioners, and scholars. Part III continues the analysis by using real world applications of its approach to pornography and prostitution, beginning with the anti-pornography civil rights ordinances drafted by Catharine A. MacKinnon and writer Andrea Dworkin in 1983, six years before the publication of Toward. Part III illustrates how the ordinances mobilized MacKinnon’s same cutting-edge approach to advancing women’s legal substantive equality about which she later theorized. A similar approach was instrumental in grounding a substantive equality prostitution law, proposed by MacKinnon in a public speech in Stockholm, Sweden, November 2, 1990, situating that law within her broader approach to equality. The Swedish national umbrella organization for women’s shelters, ROKS, lobbied for the law and rallied other actors to support it, precipitating its passing in Parliament in 1998, with the law taking effect in 1999. Similar laws have now been adopted by many more countries (attesting to MacKinnon’s extraordinary influence as a legal and social theorist), although not until ten years or more after Sweden’s law, which makes Sweden’s unique data availability a “revelatory case.” Part III concludes by analyzing its comparative impact in terms of reducing sexual exploitation and abuse and offering an exit for people in prostitution, thus promoting substantive equality.

  • Panican, Alexandru
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ulmestig, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lokal Arbetsmarknadspolitik: Vem gör vad, hur och för vem?2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet i forskningsrapporten är att analysera om och i så fall hur statlig och kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik överlappar varandra samt om arbetslösa riskerar att varken aktualiseras inom kommunal eller statlig arbetsmarknadspolitik. Forskningsrapporten omfattar en kunskapsöversikt av forskning om kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik samt en intervjustudie med nyckelpersoner inom statlig och kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik i elva kommuner. Huvudresultatet i kunskapsöversikten är att kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik är heterogen; insatserna vänder sig till skilda målgrupper, är ofta av flyktig beskafenhet, bedrivs i projektform, har otydliga mål och leder till tämligen svårbedömda effekter. En viktigt slutsats i intervjustudien är att statens styrning av arbetsmarknadspolitiken är mycket vag och resulterar i stora lokala variationer. I intervjustudien lyfts fram flera exempel på att statlig och kommunal arbetsmarknadspolitik överlappar varandra samt att arbetslösa "faller mellan stolarna".  

  • Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Penaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The method’s influence on climate impact assessment of biofuels and other uses of forest biomass: Report from an f3 project2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards a bio-economy: the role of the forest

    Biomass has an increasingly important role in replacing fossil and mineral resources, and it is central in environmental impact-reduction strategies in companies and governments, locally, nationally and internationally. The European Union (EU) has recently taken action to strengthen the bio-economy, defined as “…the sustainable production and conversion of biomass into a range of food, health, fibre and industrial products and energy”.

    Two thirds of the land area in Sweden is covered by forests, and forestry has been an important industry for centuries. Increased and/or more efficient use of forest biomass thus has a great potential for replacing the use of fossil and mineral resources in Sweden.

    There are two main reasons for why forest- and other bio-based products are seen as environmentally beneficial. Biomass is (most often) a renewable resource, in contrast to finite fossil and mineral resources, and there is often a balance between CO2 captured when the biomass grows, and CO2 released when the bio-based product is incinerated.

    The challenge: calculate carbon footprints

    Moving towards a bio-economy means replacing non-renewable fuels and materials with bio-based fuels and materials. This is a transition on many levels: technology, business models, infrastructure, political priorities, etc. To guide such a grand transition, there is a need to understand the environmental implications of new bio-based products. This includes assessing their climate impact, so-called carbon footprinting.

    Carbon footprinting of forest products is not as simple as saying that forest products are carbon and climate neutral by definition. Fossil energy used for producing and transporting the products has a carbon footprint. Also, the carbon balance can differ between forest products, which can influence their carbon footprint. For example, carbon stored in products, while CO2 is captured in the re-growing forest, can mitigate climate change. The modelling of the carbon balance is influenced by the study’s geographical system boundaries – national, regional, landscape and single-stand perspectives often yield different results. Forestry can also lead to positive or negative changes in the levels of carbon stored in the soil, the levels of aerosols emitted by the trees (influencing cloud formation), and the albedo (surface reflectivity) of the forest land. An indirect effect of forestry can be increased competition for land, with expanding or intensified land use elsewhere, with positive or negative climate effects. All these factors are potentially important when calculating carbon footprints.

    There is limited knowledge about how and to which extent the aforementioned factors influence the carbon footprint of forest products. Also, there is a lack of methods for assessing some of these factors. In light of this, can the carbon footprints of today be trusted? And can we ensure that they provide relevant and robust decision support?

    Our approach: testing three different carbon footprint methods in five case studies

    In this study, we have:

    1. Identified different carbon footprint methods.
    2. Used the identified methods to calculate the carbon footprint of different forest products and non-forest benchmarks (using life cycle assessment, LCA).
    3. Compared the results to find out how and why they differ.

    We identified three main categories of carbon footprint methods: (i) the common practice in LCA, (ii) recommendations in standards and directives (we tested the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids and the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) guide), and (iii) more advanced methods proposed in the scientific literature (we tested dynamic LCA). For dynamic LCA, we tested different time horizons (20 and 100 years) and different geographical system boundaries, based on (a) the national level, assuming a net annual growth of biomass (which is the case in Sweden); (b) the landscape level, assuming a balance between the annual harvesting and growth (the level at which forests are often managed); and (c) the stand level, assuming regrowth during a time period of 80 years (a stand is the part of a landscape that is harvested in one year, a level often used by researchers developing new methods for modelling the dynamics of forest carbon flows).

    These methods were applied to five forest products: two automotive fuels (a lignin-based fuel produced from black liquor and butanol), a textile fibre (viscose), a timber structure building, and a chemical (methanol, used for different end products).

    Our findings

    We found that different carbon footprint methods can give different results. The common practice is close to the recommendation in the EU sustainability criteria and the PEF guide. Results from dynamic LCA differ considerably, as it accounts for the timing of (fossil and biogenic) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and CO2 capture, which is ignored by the other methods. The results of dynamic LCA depend primarily on the geographical system boundaries, but also on the time horizon.

    When applying dynamic LCA with a stand perspective, we assumed that the CO2 uptake occurs after harvest. Alternatively, one could assume that the CO2 uptake occurs before harvest, which would give different (lower) results.

    When comparing the carbon footprints of the forest products with products they could be expected to replace, we see that the results for the forest products could range from being definitely favourable to worse.

    More results can be found in the full report. Results were produced to answer the research questions of this study, and should not be used out of context.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    Because there is (still) limited knowledge about how forest products influence the climate, and as carbon footprints will always depend on value-based assumptions (e.g. regarding geographical system boundaries), it is not possible to recommend one specific method which is suitable regardless of context. As different carbon footprint methods can give very different results, our key message is that we need to increase consciousness on these matters. It is important to be aware of the assumptions made in the study, the effects of those assumptions on results, and how results can and cannot be used for decision support in a certain context. More specific recommendations for decision makers are listed below. Further details and results can be found in the main report, along with recommendations for LCA practitioners and researchers.

    • Decision makers must be aware that the main methodological choices influencing carbon footprints of Swedish forest products are the choice of geographical system boundaries (e.g. national-, landscape- or stand-level system boundaries) and whether the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions is accounted for. This is because Swedish forests are, in general, slow growing.
    • If the aim of the decision is to obtain short-term climate impact reduction – for example, the urgent reduction that is possibly needed for preventing the world average temperature to rise with more than 2°C – the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions should be taken into account. Decision makers must be aware that a particular method for capturing timing (such as dynamic LCA) can be combined with different system boundaries, which can yield different results.
    • When conclusions from existing LCA studies are synthesized for decision support, the decision maker must be aware that most existing studies do not account for the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions. This is particularly important when the decision concerns the prioritization of forest products with different service lives (e.g., fuels versus buildings).
    • When timing is considered, decision makers must be aware that there are different views on when the CO2 capture occurs, which will influence the carbon footprint. One could either consider the CO2 captured before the harvest (i.e., the capture of the carbon that goes into the product system), or the CO2 captured after the harvest (i.e., the consequence of the harvest operation). In this study, we tested the second alternative when we applied dynamic LCA with a stand perspective – this does not mean we advocate the use of the second alternative over the first alternative.
    • Decision makers must be aware that the location and management practices of the forestry influence the climate impact of a forest product. For example, growth rates, changes in soil carbon storages and fertilisers (a source of GHGs) differ between locations.
    • Based on our results, we cannot say that the carbon footprints of some product categories are more robust than for others, i.e. less influenced by choice of methodology. However, the more forest biomass use in the product system, the higher the influence of the choice of method.
    • As many interactions between the forest and the climate are still not fully understood, it is important to be open to new knowledge gained in methodology development work.
    • Regarding how to use Swedish forests for the most efficient climate impact reduction, it is impossible to draw a general conclusion on the basis of our results. Factors that influence the “optimal” use are:
      • Which fraction of forest biomass that is used. Various products use different fractions (as was the case in our case studies) and do not necessarily compete for the same biomass. However, a production system may be more or less optimised for a specific output. So there may be situations of competition also when feedstocks are not directly interchangeable.
      • Which non-forest product that is assumed to be replaced by the forest product (if any). The carbon footprint of the non-forest product matters, but also how large the substitution effect is (i.e., does the forest product actually replace the non-forest alternative, or merely add products to the market, and what are the rebound effects from increased production?).
      • If all other factors are identical: the longer the service life of the forest product the better, due to the climate benefit of storing carbon and thereby delaying CO2 emissions. This effect is particularly strong if the aim is to obtain short-term climate impact reduction. Moreover, the effect supports so-called cascade use of forest biomass, e.g. first using wood in a building structure, then reusing the wood in a commodity, and at end-of-life, as late as possible, recovering the energy content of the wood for heat or fuel production.
      • Traditional LCA practice and methods required by the EU sustainability criteria and PEF have limitations in the support they can provide for the transition to a bio-economy, as they cannot capture the variations of different forest products in terms of rotation periods and service lives. Thus, decision makers need to consider studies using more advanced methods to be able to distinguish better or worse uses of forest biomass. We have tested one such advanced method (dynamic LCA), that proved applicable in combination with several different geographical perspectives, but also other methods exist (e.g. GWPbio).
      • Climate change is not the only environmental impact category which is relevant in decision making concerned with how to use forests. Other environmental issues, such as loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are also important. There are also non-environmental sustainability issues of potential importance, e.g. related to indigenous rights and job creation.
  • Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

  • Ruggiu, Andrea A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Weinerfelt, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Aerospace.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A New Multigrid Formulation for High Order Finite Difference Methods on Summation-by-Parts Form2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multigrid schemes for high order finite difference methods on summation-by-parts form are studied by comparing the effect of different interpolation operators. By using the standard linear prolongation and restriction operators, the Galerkin condition leads to inaccurate coarse grid discretizations. In this paper, an alternative class of interpolation operators that bypass this issue and preserve the summation-by-parts property on each grid level is considered. Clear improvements of the convergence rate for relevant model problems are achieved.

  • Madsen, I. E. H.
    et al.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Hanson, L. L. Magnusson
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Ahola, K.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Batty, G. D.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Borritz, M.
    Burr, H.
    Chastang, J. -F
    de Graaf, R.
    Dragano, N.
    Hamer, M.
    Jokela, M.
    Knutsson, A.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Koskinen, A.
    Leineweber, C.
    Niedhammer, I.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Pentti, J.
    Plaisier, I.
    Salo, P.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Suominen, S.
    ten Have, M.
    Theorell, T.
    Toppinen-Tanner, S.
    Vahtera, J.
    Vaananen, A.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Westerlund, H.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Heikkila, K.
    Virtanen, M.
    Rugulies, R.
    Kivimaki, M.
    Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data2017In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 8, 1342-1356 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.

    We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.

    We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).

    Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.

  • Nilsson, Anna G.
    et al.
    Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur
    Burman, Pia
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ekman, Bertil
    Engstrom, Britt Eden
    Ragnarsson, Oskar
    Skrtic, Stanko
    Wahlberg, Jeanette
    Achenbach, Heinrich
    Uddin, Sharif
    Marelli, Claudio
    Johannsson, Gudmundur
    Long-term safety of once-daily, dual-release hydrocortisone in patients with adrenal insufficiency: a phase 3b, open-label, extension study2017In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 176, no 6, 715-725 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of a once-daily, dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) tablet as oral glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (AI).

    Design: Prospective, open-label, multicenter, 5-year extension study of DR-HC conducted at five university clinics in Sweden.

    Methods: Seventy-one adult patients diagnosed with primary AI who were receiving stable glucocorticoid replacement therapy were recruited. Safety and tolerability outcomes included adverse events (AEs), intercurrent illness episodes, laboratory parameters and vital signs. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using generic questionnaires.

    Results: Total DR-HC exposure was 328 patient-treatment years. Seventy patients reported 1060 AEs (323 per 100 patient-years); 85% were considered unrelated to DR-HC by the investigator. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis (70%), fatigue (52%) and gastroenteritis (48%). Of 65 serious AEs reported by 32 patients (20 per 100 patient-years), four were considered to be possibly related to DR-HC: acute AI (n = 2), gastritis (n = 1) and syncope (n = 1). Two deaths were reported (fall from height and subarachnoid hemorrhage), both considered to be unrelated to DR-HC. From baseline to 5 years, intercurrent illness episodes remained relatively stable (mean 2.6–5.4 episodes per patient per year), fasting plasma glucose (0.7 mmol/L; P < 0.0001) and HDL cholesterol (0.2 mmol/L; P < 0.0001) increased and patient-/investigator-assessed tolerability improved. QoL total scores were unchanged but worsening physical functioning was recorded (P = 0.008).

    Conclusions: In the first prospective study evaluating the long-term safety of glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with primary AI, DR-HC was well tolerated with no safety concerns observed during 5-year treatment.

  • Schumann, Tobias
    et al.
    Paul, Suman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Melzer, Michael
    Dörmann, Peter
    Jahns, Peter
    Plant Growth under Natural Light Conditions Provides Highly Flexible Short-Term Acclimation Properties toward High Light Stress2017In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, 681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25μmol photons m-2 s-1; NL: 100μmol photons m-2 s-1; HL: 500μmol photons m-2 s-1) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions. We performed a thorough characterization of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties focusing on photo-protective mechanisms. Our analyses corroborated the known properties of LL, NL, and HL plants. NatL plants, however, were found to combine characteristics of both LL and HL grown plants, leading to efficient and unique light utilization capacities. Strikingly, the high energy dissipation capacity of NatL plants correlated with increased dynamics of thylakoid membrane reorganization upon short-term acclimation to excess light. We conclude that the thylakoid membrane organization and particularly the light-dependent and reversible unstacking of grana membranes likely represent key factors that provide the basis for the high acclimation capacity of NatL grown plants to rapidly changing light intensities.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 15:37 ACAS, Hus A, Linköping
    Gustafsson, Mariana S.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reassembling Local E-Government: A study of actors’ translations of digitalisation in public administration2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of society decidedly affects public administration. Swedish public administration has long worked with information technologies for an effective and improved management of public services. But new and increased use of information technologies in society poses new challenges. New demands on information security are increasing, while accessibility and transparency are important priorities in policies on digitalisation in public services. However, the central government’s ambitions and expectations with regard to digitalisation face a slow and hesitant implementation in local governments. There are important differences between municipalities in priorities, local needs, and implementation mechanisms in connection with e-government. In this thesis, I argue there is a need to reconsider the role of governance mechanisms in e-government. There is a need to understand local translations of national policies and technological developments in relation to the goals of more effective and legitimate public administration. The main purpose of this thesis is to analyse tensions that emerge in the implementation of egovernment in local public administration. On the basis of a constructivist and interpretivist approach, I have undertaken two empirical studies. One focuses on municipal administration of education in Linköping. The other focuses on a governance network on digitalisation policy in Östergötland. The studies are presented in four papers. The issues addressed in the papers are further analysed with a focus on four fields of tension, using network governance theory and translation theory. This shows that the implementation of e-government in local public administration is a tension-laden process. The four fields of tension relate to: different logics and dilemmas for adoption and implementation; concerns and ambiguities in a context of unclear organisational and institutional arrangements; concerns and resistance from professional users; and a reassessment of the meaning of security as a reference for the interpretation of information security. I contend that established managerial and evolutionary models of e-government leave important process-related aspects out of the analysis of change in public administration. The contribution of this thesis lies in its description and analysis of the four identified fields of tension. One significant implication of my analysis is that reassembling current  governance mechanisms in local public administration is crucial.

  • Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Trafiksimulering av E20 Ribbingsberg–Vara: En simuleringsstudie av framkomlighet för en mötesfri utformning av E202017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The part of road E20 between Ribbingsberg and Vara in Sweden will be converted from a two-lane rural road with speed limit 80 kilometers per hour into an oncoming separated highway with speed limit 100 kilometer per hour. The suggested design of the oncoming separated highway includes sections of 1+1 and 2+2 lanes with varying lengths between 1.6 and 3.2 kilometers. Due to the current high level of traffic demand in combination with high levels of trucks, the traffic performance at the suggested design could be questioned. In order to evaluate traffic performance, a traffic simulation study has been performed for the peak hour during a typical weekday. The study includes three different scenarios of traffic demand, representing levels of year 2015, 2025 and 2045. Simulations are performed using the microscopic simulation model RuTSim (Rural road Traffic Simulator), developed by VTI and customized for rural traffic. The model is calibrated using measurements from the actual road stretch in combination with data from the adjacent oncoming separated highway with speed limit 100 kilometers per hour between Vara and Skara. Simulation of year 2045 generates average speed for cars of 94 kilometers per hour. Sensitivity analysis of limited overtaking willingness results in average speed as minimum 92 kilometers per hour.

    This means that the traffic performance fulfills the condition according to Trafikverkets former requirement that the average speed for cars should not be less than 10 kilometers per hour below the speed limit (100 kilometer per hour). The share of constrained vehicles also supports the conclusion of a design with satisfying traffic performance. It should though be mentioned that the lengths of the twolane segments within the suggested design exceeds the recommendations according to Trafikverket

  • Angerbrandt, Henrik
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region beyond Boko Haram2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of a recent UN Security Council resolution on the Lake Chad region, this policy note identifies major challenges that need to be addressed to create conditions for actors in the region to build a lasting peace. The issues include demobilising local vigilantes and resolving land-related conflicts.

  • McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Juudas, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Kazior, Zuzanna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology. Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Ström, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Lund University.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology.
    Hansson, Ola
    Lund University.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, 413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6±1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3±1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5x4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, VO2max or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P=0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly altered post-training (P<0.05). The current study shows that well-trained junior cross-country skiers are able to complete 9 HIT sessions within one week without compromising total work done and without experiencing greater stress or reduced recovery over a 3-week polarized microcycle. However, the findings do not support block-distributed HIT as a superior method to a more even distribution of HIT in terms of enhancing physiological or performance adaptions.