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  • Freij, Lennart
    et al.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Exploring child health and its ecology: the Kirkos study in Addis Ababa. An evaluation of community utilization of a mother and child health clinic1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Samuelson, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county1971Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a summary of the following original papers:

    I. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. I. Food consumption survey. Acta Paediat Scand, 60: Suppl. 214, 1971.

    II. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. II. Methodological study of the recall technique. Nutr Metabol, 12: 321, 1970.

    III. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. III. Medical and anthropometrical examinations. Acta Paediat Scand, 60, 1971. In press.

    IV. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. IV. Haematological investigations, especially in regard to iron deficiency anaemia. Acta Paediat Scand, 60, 1971. In press. In collaboration with S. Sjölin.

    V. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. V. Oral health studies. Odont. Rev, 22, 1971. In press. In collaboration with H. Grahnén and G. Lindström.

    VI. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. VI. Relationship between general and oral health, food habits and socio-economic conditions. In collaboration with H. Grahnén and E. Arvidsson. To be published, 1971.

  • Maaroufi, Nadia I.
    et al.
    Nordin, Annika
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Nitrogen enrichment impacts on boreal litter decomposition are driven by changes in soil microbiota rather than litter quality2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 4083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nitrogen (N) limited boreal forests, N enrichment can impact litter decomposition by affecting litter quality and by changing the soil environment where litter decomposes. We investigated the importance of litter quality and soil factors on litter decomposition using a 2-year reciprocal transplant experiment for Picea abies needle litter, derived from plots subjected to 17 years of N addition, including control, low and high N treatments (ambient, 12.5 and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Our data show that changes in soil factors were the main pathway through which N impacted litter decomposition, with rates reduced by approximate to 15% when placed in high N relative to control plots, regardless of litter origin. Litter decomposition was correlated to soil microbiota, with Picea abies litter decomposition positively correlated with gram negative and fungal functional groups. Our results suggest that previous findings of increase soil C accumulation in response to N deposition is likely to occur as a result of changes in soil microbiota rather than altered litter quality.

  • Roos, Anna
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Fiskgjuse - Miljögiftsbelastning i ägg insamlade i Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för Projekt fiskgjuse har ägg från Sverige, framför allt södra Sverige, analyserats med avseende på klorerade, bromerade och fluorerade ämnen samt tungmetaller, metylkvicksilver och selen. Dessutom har äldre analysdata avseende kvicksilver datalags och inkorporerats i denna rapport.

    Resultat:

    Sju ägg som tidigare analyserats för Hg analyserades på nytt för att se om analysresultaten är jämförbara, vilket de var. Därmed kunde gamla och nya resultat avseende kvicksilver läggas ihop i en trendanalys. Halterna av kvicksilver i de analyserade äggen (n=211) har minskat med ca 2,1% årligen sedan 1960-talet. Halter överstigande 500 ng/g våtvikt (v.v.) i ägg kan förknippas med negativa effekter på reproduktionen hos vissa rovfåglar. Elva procent av äggen år 1964-1986 hade halter överskridande 500 ng/g v.v., men inget av de 20 ägg som analyserats från 2008-2013 överskred detta värde.

    Halterna av selen vs kvicksilver (n=29) på molviktsbasis visar på ett överskott av selen. En jämförelse mellan metylkvicksilver och totalkvicksilver visade att så gott som allt kvicksilver i äggen är av formen metylkvicksilver. Även halterna av koppar, zink och mangan har minskat i de analyserade äggen (mellan 0,9-2,2% årligen, n=29). Selen visade på en tendens till minskning, dock inte statistiskt signifikant.

    Samtliga analyserade pesticider har också minskat över tid, med ca 6-10% årligen (HCB, transnonaklordan, transklordan, cis-klordan, p,p´-DDE, p,p´-DDE och p,p´-DDD, n=60). Även 22 analyserade CB-kongener minskade i halt över tid, med mellan 3-8% årligen (n=60).

    De sex BDEs som fanns i mätbara halter i samtliga ägg (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, och -154) ökade i halt fram till 2001 och därefter sågs en minskning för tre av dem (BDE-47, -99 och -100). BDE-28, -153 och -154 har inte minskat i halt sedan 2001 (n=60). Trots en minskning av tre kongener sedan 2001 så är medelhalten ΣBDE i äggen från 2013 högre än de från början av tidsserien (1960-talet).

    Trettio ägg från 1997-2013 har analyserats för 16 perfluorerade/högfluorerade ämnen (PFAS) inom projektet: de perfluorerade karboxylsyrorna (PFCA) PFBA, PFPePA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFHxDA och PFOcDA samt de perfluorerade sulfonsyrorna (PFSA) PFHxS, PFOS och PFDS Nio föregångarämnen (s.k. prekursorer) analyserats, 5:3 FTCA, 6:2 FTUCA, 7:3 FTCA, 8:2 FTUCA, 10:2 FTUCA, N-MeFOSA, N-EtFOSA, N-MeFOSE och N-EtFOSE. Nästan alla ägg hade halter under detektionsgränsen avseende de kortkedjiga karboxylaterna PFBA, PFPePA, PFHxA, PFHpA, samt PFOA liksom samtliga prekursorer förutom 7:3 FTCA. PFOS var det mest dominerande ämnet, andelen PFOS vs PFAS var i snitt 72% (43-95%). Halterna PFOS låg mellan 12-632 ng/g v.v. Det finns rapport om att 100 ng PFOS/g ägg är den lägsta halt (LOEL) som ger negativ påverkan på häckningsresultatet hos höns. I denna studie hade 40% av fiskgjuseäggen från 2013 halter över 100 ng/g v.v. och fortsatt övervakning av dessa ämnen är önskvärt.

    Halterna av ΣPFCA visade på en tendens till ökning, dock inte statistiskt signifikant (p<0,08) medan ΣPFSA låg stabilt över tidsperioden 1997-2013 och fortsatt övervakning av dessa ämnen är önskvärt liksom PBDEs mf

  • Janunger, Karl-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Benign and malignant gastric mucosal changes after partial gastrectomy1978Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    anunger, Karl-Gunnar. Benign and malignant gastric mucosal changes after partial gastrectomy.

    The development of benign and malignant mucosal changes in the gastric remnant were studied early (1-3 years) postoperatively in 55 patients and late (10-24 years) postoperatively in 336 of 676 patients subjected to partial gastrectomy for ulcer disease.

    Chronic gastritis with atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastric glands was found early postoperatively with the same prevalence in gastric and duodenal ulcer patients. Wiereas the prevalence of atrophy, and of acute and chronic gastritis was the same both early and late postoperatively, the prevalence of intestinal metaplasia, cystic dilatation and lipid islands increased with time. The prevalence of inflammatory changes late postoperatively was not correlated to sex, age or type of anastomotic procedure.

    A significantly increased risk for stump carcinoma was found in male patients more than 12 years postoperatively. No difference correlated to type of ulcer disease or anastomotic procedure could be demonstrated. In duodenal ulcer patients the time interval between operation and diagnosis of carcinoma was independent of age at operation, while in gastric ulcer patients the interval was shorter with increasing age at operation.

    Gastric stump carcinomas were found in 12 of the 336 (3.6?£) patients examined gastroscopically; four of these were early carcinomas. In four patients with stump carcinoma the correct diagnosis could not be established at the first examination.

    Gastric polyps and precancerous mucosal changes were the only macro- or microscopical findings in some cases with already existing non-visible carcinoma.

    The CEA immunohistochemical study of the gastric mucosa showed a positive reaction in 10 of 49 patients; 6 of the 10 had carcinoma, precancerous changes or adenomatous polyp. Three patients with diagnosed or later discovered carcinoma had CEA negative reactions. However, the results indicate that there is a correlation between demonstrated CEA content and increased risk for development of stump carcinoma. To evaluate whether this method can be used to identify patients at special risk for development of gastric carcinoma requires further study.

    Because of increased risk for stump carcinoma, gastric ulcer patients ought to be examined with gastroscopy from about 10 years after partial gastrectomy, and duodenal ulcer patients from about 15 years, irrespective of the type of anastomotic procedure. Rç-examinations ought to be performed every two to four years. In patients with gastric polyps or precancerous mucosal changes re-examinations should be performed earlier, within 6-12 months.

  • Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Amnesia and emotional arousal1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis was twofold. First, to study the role of emotional arousal in memory processes, and secondly, to relate this concept to empirical findings of amnesia. In both clinical and experimental settings it has been observed that remembering is impaired for events occurring prior to, and after a traumatic critical event. This memory impairment is also demonstrated for the traumatic event per se. In relation to these phenomena an interaction is commonly observed such that remembering of events aquired in a state of high emotionality, or arousal, is inferior to events aquired in neutral low arousal conditions at short test intervals, but superior at delayed test intervals. The general notion to be tested was how and to what extent these phenomena are mediated by an increase in emotional arousal. In order to test this hypothesis a series of experiments was designed so that retrograde and anterograde amnesia, and amnesia for the traumatic event, could be studied so as to evaluate the locus of the emotional arousal and amnesia effects with respect to encoding (attention), storage (consolidation), and retrieval (reconstruction). Emotional arousal was induced by sources associated with the to-be-remembered (TBR) material (traumatic pictures), and by sources not associated with the TBR-material (injections of adrenalin). Memory performance was measured by recall and recognition techniques. Amnesia was obtained only when the source of arousal was associated with the TBR-items. It was concluded that amnesia in connection to hightened emotional arousal depends on attention demanding characteristics of the traumatic event, rather than physiological properties of hightened arousal per se. An interaction between factors at encoding and retrieval was proposed as an explanation for the amnesia effects obtained. An interpretation in terms of consolidation has, throughout this thesis, been shown to be invalid in explaining the memory phenomena referred to.

  • Holmlund, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Ureteral stones: an experimental and clinical study of the mechanism of the passage and arrest of ureteral stones1968Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-11-15 13:00 Visualization Studio VIC, Stockholm
    Saikia, Himangshu
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Comparison and Tracking Methods for Interactive Visualization of Topological Structures in Scalar Fields2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scalar fields occur quite commonly in several application areas in both static and time-dependent forms. Hence a proper visualization of scalar fieldsneeds to be equipped with tools to extract and focus on important features of the data. Similarity detection and pattern search techniques in scalar fields present a useful way of visualizing important features in the data. This is done by isolating these features and visualizing them independently or show all similar patterns that arise from a given search pattern. Topological features are ideal for this purpose of isolating meaningful patterns in the data set and creating intuitive feature descriptors. The Merge Tree is one such topological feature which has characteristics ideally suited for this purpose. Subtrees of merge trees segment the data into hierarchical regions which are topologically defined. This kind of feature-based segmentation is more intelligent than pure data based segmentations involving windows or bounding volumes. In this thesis, we explore several different techniques using subtrees of merge trees as features in scalar field data. Firstly, we begin with a discussion on static scalar fields and devise techniques to compare features - topologically segmented regions given by the subtrees of the merge tree - against each other. Second, we delve into time-dependent scalar fields and extend the idea of feature comparison to spatio-temporal features. In this process, we also come up with a novel approach to track features in time-dependent data considering the entire global network of likely feature associations between consecutive time steps.The highlight of this thesis is the interactivity that is enabled using these feature-based techniques by the real-time computation speed of our algorithms. Our techniques are implemented in an open-source visualization framework Inviwo and are published in several peer-reviewed conferences and journals.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-14 10:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Neuner, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    On Supersingular Perturbations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers and deals with supersingular rank one perturbations of self-adjoint operators and their models in Hilbert or Pontryagin spaces. Here, the term supersingular describes perturbation elements that are outside the underlying space but still obey a certain regularity conditions.

    The first two papers study certain Sturm-Liouville differential expressions that can be realised as Schrödinger operators. In Paper I we show that for the potential consisting of the inverse square plus a comparatively well-behaved term we can employ an existing model due to Kurasov to describe these operators in a Hilbert space. In particular, this approach is in good agreement with ODE techniques.

    In Paper II we study the inverse fourth power potential.While it is known that the ODE techniques still work, we show that the above model fails and thus that there are limits to the above operator theoretic approach.

    In Paper III we concentrate on generalising Kurasov's model. The original formulation assumes that the self-adjoint operator is semi-bounded, whereas we drop this requirement. We give two models with a Hilbert and Pontryagin space structure, respectively, and study the connections between the resulting constructions.

    Finally, in Paper IV, we consider the concrete case of the operator of multiplication by the independent variable, a self-adjoint operator whose spectrum covers the real line, and study its perturbations. This illustrates some of the formalism that was developed in the previous paper, and a number of more explicit results are obtained, especially regarding the spectra of the appearing perturbed operators.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 09:00 Sal A, byggnad 23, Umeå
    Löfgren, Hans O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those studies suggest that the programmes are cost effective in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years.

    Aim Four sub-studies were performed, and their aims were to investigate the effect of parental training programmes (PTPs) in a naturalistic setting on parents’ mental health in the general population, to investigate how PTPs affect parents’ sense of parental competence, to investigate how PTPs affect parental stress and analyse the parents open questions about the PTPs, and to investigate the feasibility and to measure the effect on depression, anxiety, and social problems of two preventive school programmes for pupils in grade 7.

    Method In a longitudinal quantitative study in a real-world setting, 279 parents from the general population in northern Sweden participated in five PTPs. A comparison group of 702 parents without intervention was included. Simultaneously, a community sample of 59 pupils in grade 7 participated in two preventive school programmes. Both studies were conducted from 2010 to 2013. Parents were assigned to professionally supported interventions that included 5-10 two-hour sessions. Respondents filled in a web-based questionnaire with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Parents Sense of Competence (PSOC) for parents who had children aged 0-17 years, and the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) for parents who had children aged 0-10 years. The intervention groups’ results were compared to comparison group of 702 parents from northern Sweden that had not participated in any parental training programme. In the school study, one of the preventive programmes was an ongoing programme called “Life-Skills”, and the other was an implemented Canadian programme called “Choosing Healthy Actions and Thoughts” (CHAT). The pupils completed a test battery including the Sense of Coherence (SOC), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) instruments. Follow up of the parental programme study was done six months after the post-intervention measure, and follow up of the school study was at one year.

    Results The improvements in GHQ were statistically significant for the mean of the 279 parents in the intervention group compared to the mean of a comparison group of the 702 parents who did not receive any intervention. This suggests that evidence-based PTPs enhance parental well-being even for parents without problems. The intervention group showed a statistically significant improvement in parental competence compared to the comparison group over time. The intervention itself had a significant effect on parental satisfaction, but the efficacy effect was not sustained when taking into account potential confounders. In the SPSQ, the intervention group was smaller due to the fact that the instrument was not validated for children over the age of 10 and one of the parental training groups was only for parents of teenagers. A reduction of stress in the sub-scale of health problems was detected, but no other subscale showed the intervention to have a significant effect when controlling for confounding variables. In the school study, both programmes had good feasibility according to the stake- holders and had several positive mental health outcomes over time. Compared to Life-Skills, CHAT had more significant positive effects on reducing anxious/depressive symptoms and girls experienced significant positive effects on reduced anxious/depressive behaviour, while boys reduced their aggressive behaviours.

    Conclusions Earlier studies indicate that PTPs enhance perceived parental competence among referred parents. The present study shows that PTPs applied in the general population might also enhance perceived parental benefits such as improved health and satisfaction, suggesting that PTPs can be an important preventive strategy to enhance parenthood. The results suggest that parents who feel a need to increase their parenting competence might participate in PTPs based on lower scores than the comparison control group both before and after the intervention. The school-based programme shows that schools may be a suitable arena for preventive programmes because there was a significant short-term improvement in depression symptoms. Further studies need to explore how parents’ participation in PTPs affects children’s mental health in the general population in quantitative longitudinal studies in real-word settings. There is also a need for bigger studies and RCTs on school preventions and on how children’s health develops naturally in the population.

  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 31954Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Davoine, Celine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Khajeh, Khalil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kidd, Brendan N.
    Kazan, Kemal
    Schenk, Peer M.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Nilsson, Ove
    Moritz, Thomas
    Björklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Functional metabolomics as a tool to analyze Mediator function and structure in plants2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, e0179640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator is a multiprotein transcriptional co-regulator complex composed of four modules; Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase. It conveys signals from promoter-bound transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II and thus plays an essential role in eukaryotic gene regulation. We describe subunit localization and activities of Mediator in Arabidopsis through metabolome and transcriptome analyses from a set of Mediator mutants. Functional metabolomic analysis based on the metabolite profiles of Mediator mutants using multivariate statistical analysis and heat-map visualization shows that different subunit mutants display distinct metabolite profiles, which cluster according to the reported localization of the corresponding subunits in yeast. Based on these results, we suggest localization of previously unassigned plant Mediator subunits to specific modules. We also describe novel roles for individual subunits in development, and demonstrate changes in gene expression patterns and specific metabolite levels in med18 and med25, which can explain their phenotypes. We find that med18 displays levels of phytoalexins normally found in wild type plants only after exposure to pathogens. Our results indicate that different Mediator subunits are involved in specific signaling pathways that control developmental processes and tolerance to pathogen infections.

  • Karlsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Inventering av grön flodtrollslända Ophiogomphus cecilia 2015 – metodiktest, förstudie och första provtillfälle inom biogeografisk uppföljning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The member countries in the European Union is obliged to report the conservation status for species listed in Habitat directive every 6th year. To gather information about population sizes and trends for the species in Sweden, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency funds a monitoring namned "Biogeographical monitoring". The County Adminstrative Board of Östergötland has been assigned to coordinate the biogeographical monitoring of dragonflies (Odonata) and diving beetles (Dytiscidae) listed in the Habitat directive in Sweden. As a first step for establishing a monitoring programme for Ophiogomphus cecilia, a survey and method test was performed during the summer 2015. This report presents the result from the survey and suggests a strategy for monitoring the species.

    Ophiogomphus cecilia is restricted to the rivers (with tributaries) Råneälven, Kalixälven and Torneälven in the Sweden. These rivers are situated in the northeastern part of Sweden and are large rivers (often >100 meters width), unregulated and mainly surrounded by woodland, but near the coast to some extent also by cultivated land. The species is redlisted as "Near threatened" (NT) in Sweden due to small distribution area.

    The aim of this study was to test exuviae-search as a survey method and act as a pilot study to receive more information about timescale, costs and practical considerations. If the survey turned out well, it could also serve as a first sample in the monitoring programme. The survey was performed by Tommy Karlsson, the County Administrative Board of Östergötland and Ulf Bjelke, the Species Species Information Centre during the period 20-24 July 2015. A large number of previously known localities for the species were surveyed as well as new, potential localities. The latter category also includes rivers from which the species not was known.

    In total, 57 localities were surveyed och O. cecilia was found at 13 of these (Tab. 1 and Fig. 2). Exuviae were found at all localities, in total 50 exuviae. They were mainly found up to 30 cm height at straws of Carex sp. and within 50 cm from the shoreline. However, 15 exuviae were found 100-400 cm from the shoreline. This was probably due to a higher water level when the dragonflies emerged. Adults were found at three localities, in total four individuals, all newly emerged and close to the exuvia. In addition, an adult was found on the roadside during car driving and wings from an individual, probably predated by a bird, was found at one locality. All visited localities are shortly described and showed in a map in annex 1 (Bilaga 1). Localities where O. cecilia were found is also presented with a picture of the habitat.

    We assess searching for exuviae as the most appropriate method for monitoring O. cecilia in Sweden. It is a quick method since the exuviae are easy to find and the risk of mixing up with other dragonflies species is very low. No other species of the family Gomphidae coexist with O. cecilia in Sweden, and the other species that you could find exuviae of at localities for O. cecilia (Aeshna sp. Somatochlora metallica, Cordulegaster boltonii) are easy to distinguish (Fig. 3-5). Furthermore, big advantages with surveying exuviae compared to adults is that it is not dependent of the weather and that records of exuviae gives information about the reproduction habitat for the species.

    Searching for exuviae is a common survey method for O. cecilia in several other European countries, and the number of observed exuviae during a certain length of a river (e.g. 50 or 100 meters) is often used to estimate status and trend for a population. However, the trend for the Swedish population is assumed to be stable and annual variation, when the surveyed is performed in relation to emergence and variation between surveyors would probably influence the result more than possible trends with the economic resources available for monitoring today. An appropriate strategy for monitoring O. cecilia in Sweden is instead to recurring detect occurrence of the species at a selected number of localities. In table 2 and figure 6, 20 localities for monitoring are suggested. 3

  • Sveriges friluftskommun 2017 enkätsvar2017Data set
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätdata med underlag till rapport Sveriges friluftskommun 2017

  • Chatzittofis, Andreas
    et al.
    Savard, Josephine
    Arver, Stefan
    Görts Öberg, Katarina
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Nordström, Peter
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Interpersonal violence, early life adversity, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual men2017In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, no 2, 187-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the role of childhood adversity, interpersonal violence, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual disorder (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal violence in hypersexual men compared with healthy volunteers and the experience of violence in relation to suicidal behavior. Methods: This case-control study includes 67 male patients with HD and 40 healthy male volunteers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used for assessing early life adversity and interpersonal violence in childhood and in adult life. Suicidal behavior (attempts and ideation) was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (version 6.0) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale - Self-rating. Results: Hypersexual men reported more exposure to violence in childhood and more violent behavior as adults compared with healthy volunteers. Suicide attempters (n = 8, 12%) reported higher KIVS total score, more used violence as a child, more exposure to violence as an adult as well as higher score on CTQ-SF subscale measuring sexual abuse (SA) compared with hypersexual men without suicide attempt. Discussion: Hypersexuality was associated with interpersonal violence with higher total scores in patients with a history of suicide attempt. The KIVS subscale exposure to interpersonal violence as a child was validated using the CTQ-SF but can be complemented with questions focusing on SA for full assessment of early life adversity. Conclusion: Childhood adversity is an important factor in HD and interpersonal violence might be related to suicidal behavior in hypersexual men.

  • Li, Zhen
    et al.
    De La Torre, Amanda R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.
    Sterck, Lieven
    Cánovas, Francisco M.
    Avila, Concepción
    Merino, Irene
    Antonio Cabezas, Jose
    Teresa Cervera, Maria
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Van de Peer, Yves
    Single-Copy Genes as Molecular Markers for Phylogenomic Studies in Seed Plants2017In: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, no 5, 1130-1147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic relationships among seed plant taxa, especially within the gymnosperms, remain contested. In contrast to angio-sperms, for which several genomic, transcriptomic and phylogenetic resources are available, there are few, if any, molecular markers that allow broad comparisons among gymnosperm species. With few gymnosperm genomes available, recently obtained transcriptomes in gymnosperms are a great addition to identifying single-copy gene families as molecular markers for phylogenomic analysis in seed plants. Taking advantage of an increasing number of available genomes and transcriptomes, we identified single-copy genes in a broad collection of seed plants and used these to infer phylogenetic relationships between major seed plant taxa. This study aims at extending the current phylogenetic toolkit for seed plants, assessing its ability for resolving seed plant phylogeny, and discussing potential factors affecting phylogenetic reconstruction. In total, we identified 3,072 single-copy genes in 31 gymnosperms and 2,156 single-copy genes in 34 angiosperms. All studied seed plants shared 1,469 single-copy genes, which are generally involved in functions like DNA metabolism, cell cycle, and photosynthesis. A selected set of 106 single-copy genes provided good resolution for the seed plant phylogeny except for gnetophytes. Although some of our analyses support a sister relationship between gnetophytes and other gymnosperms, phylogenetic trees from concatenated alignments without 3rd codon positions and amino acid alignments under the CAT + GTR model, support gnetophytes as a sister group to Pinaceae. Our phylogenomic analyses demonstrate that, in general, single-copy genes can uncover both recent and deep divergences of seed plant phylogeny.

  • Sahu, Sanjaya Kumar
    et al.
    Kumar, Manish
    Chakraborty, Sohini
    Banerjee, Srijon Kaushik
    Kumar, Ranjeet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.
    Gupta, Pushpa
    Jana, Kuladip
    Gupta, Umesh D.
    Ghosh, Zhumur
    Kundu, Manikuntala
    Basu, Joyoti
    MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a)/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBP beta regulate innate immune signaling, the polarization of macrophages and the trafficking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to lysosomes during infection2017In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 13, no 5, e1006410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages tilt towards M1 polarization leading to the activation of transcription factors associated with the production of antibacterial effector molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At the same time, resolution of inflammation is associated with M2 polarization with increased production of arginase and cytokines such as IL-10. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that govern the balance between M1 and M2 polarization, and bacteria-containing processes such as autophagy and trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes, are incompletely understood. Here we report for the first time, that the transcription factor KLF4 is targeted by microRNA-26a (miR-26a). During Mtb infection, downregulation of miR-26a (observed both ex vivo and in vivo) facilitates upregulation of KLF4 which in turn favors increased arginase and decreased iNOS activity. We further demonstrate that KLF4 prevents trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes. The CREB-C/EBP beta signaling axis also favors M2 polarization. Downregulation of miR-26a and upregulation of C/ebpbeta were observed both in infected macrophages as well as in infected mice. Knockdown of C/ebpbeta repressed the expression of selected M2 markers such as Il10 and Irf4 in infected macrophages. The importance of these pathways is substantiated by observations that expression of miR-26a mimic or knockdown of Klf4 or Creb or C/ebpbeta, attenuated the survival of Mtb in macrophages. Taken together, our results attribute crucial roles for the miR-26a/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBP beta signaling pathways in regulating the survival of Mtb in macrophages. These studies expand our understanding of how Mtb hijacks host signaling pathways to survive in macrophages, and open up new exploratory avenues for host-targeted interventions.

  • Billqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Odonata, Media
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Genomgång och digitalisering av trollsländor och dykarskalbaggar på Lunds Zoologiska museum2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samlingarna av ej tidigare registrerade och i många fall ej artbestämda trollsländor och dykare på Biologiska Museet, Lunds universitet, har gåtts igenom, och ur materialet har arter förekommande i art- och habitatdirektivet sorterats ut.

    Fem av de sex i Sverige påträffade arterna trollsländor listade i direktivet påträffades: grön mosaikslända Aeshna viridis (18 fynd registrerades), grön flodtrollslända Ophiogomphus cecilia (9), pudrad kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia albifrons (69), bred kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia caudalis (21) och citronfläckad kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia pectoralis (39). (Den sjätte arten, sibirisk vinterflickslända Sympecma paedisca, är i Sverige endast påträffad tillfälligt och saknas därför i samlingarna.)

    Båda de eftersökta arterna dykarskalbaggar påträffades: bredkantad dykare Dytiscus latissimus (39) och bred paljettdykare Graphoderus bilineatus (33).

    Det finns ett mycket stort material så uppdraget har fokuserats på att registrera de fynd av de berörda arterna som härrör från olika lokaler och landskap, och de som ej tidigare registrerades av ArtDatabanken 1998 (Ragnar Hall 1998). Kollekterna bestod i olika typer av material; monterade trollsländor och dykare, trollsländor i konvolut, djur i sprit, larver och larvhudar. Den här studien begränsades till monterat material och material i konvolut. Djur i sprit, larver och larvhudar kan vid behov ses över. Samtliga kollekter som registrerats har också individmärkts med museets etiketter.

  • Ding, Ming
    et al.
    Huang, Tao
    Bergholdt, Helle K. M.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Ellervik, Christina
    Qi, Lu
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    North, Kari E.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Smith, Caren E.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Varbo, Anette
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    de Jonge, Ester A. L.
    Fumeron, Frederic
    Corella, Dolores
    Wang, Carol A.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Hernandez, Dena
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Linneberg, Allan
    Sandholt, Camilla Helene
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Schulz, Christina-Alexandra
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Chen, Tzu-An
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Allison, Mathew A.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Sorli, Jose V.
    Coltell, Oscar
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Eastwood, Peter R.
    Hofman, Albert
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Zillikens, MCarola
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Raitakari, Olli
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Mikkila, Vera
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wang, Yujie
    Tucker, Katherine L.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Province, Michael A.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Toft, Ulla
    Ericso, Ulrika
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study2017In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 356, j1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. DESIGN Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable. SETTING CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. PARTICIPANTS Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized. RESULTS Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P<0.001) and was not associated with systolic blood pressure (0.31, 95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.68 mm Hg; P=0.09) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.27). Using LCT-13910 rs4988235 as the instrumental variable, genetically determined dairy consumption was not associated with systolic blood pressure (beta=1.35, 95% confidence interval -0.28 to 2.97 mm Hg for each serving/day) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.24). Moreover, meta-analysis of the published clinical trials showed that higher dairy intake has no significant effect on change in systolic blood pressure for interventions over one month to 12 months (intervention compared with control groups: beta=-0.21, 95% confidence interval -0.98 to 0.57 mm Hg). In observational analysis, each serving/day increase in dairy consumption was associated with -0.11 (95% confidence interval -0.20 to -0.02 mm Hg; P=0.02) lower systolic blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11). CONCLUSION The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.

  • Leino, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Popova, Svetlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Transactive DNA Binding Protein 43 Rather Than Other Misfolded Proteins in the Brain is Associated with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide in Pancreas in Aged Subjects with Diabetes Mellitus2017In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 59, no 1, 43-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A link between diabetes mellitus (DM) related islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related amyloid-beta (A beta) has been suggested in epidemiological and clinical studies. In 2017, proof for existing interaction between type 2 DM and AD on a molecular level was provided based on research carried out in experimental animal models. We assessed aging-related neurodegenerative lesions, i.e., misfolded proteins, associated with dementia such as hyperphosphorylated tau (HP tau), A beta, alpha-synuclein (alpha S), and phosphorylated transactive DNA binding protein 43 (pTDP43) seen in the brain and IAPP seen in the pancreas in subjects with and without DM applying immunohistochemical techniques. HP tau in the brain and IAPP in the pancreas were observed in most subjects. The prevalence and the extent of all misfolded proteins increased with age but this increase was not influenced by DM. Interestingly the extent of misfolded proteins in the brain was higher in non-diabetics when compared with diabetics in demented. A significant correlation was observed between HP tau, A beta, alpha S, and pTDP43, whereas IAPP showed no association with HP tau, A beta, and alpha S. In subjects with DM, the extent of pTDP43 in brain correlated with the extent of IAPP in pancreas. Thus, there is no evidence of a link between AD-related pathology and DM in humans, whereas an association was found between pTDP43 and IAPP in DM. TDP43 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs but whether TDP43 is phosphorylated in other organs in DM or whether the phosphorylation of TDP43 is influenced by glucose metabolism is yet unknown.

  • Löfstrand, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Determination of gestational age and lung maturity: phospholipids, creatinine and phosphatase in amniotic fluid1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Boquist, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    The endocrine pancreas in the Chinese hamster: studies on non-diabetic, alloxan-treated, zinc-deficient, and spontaneously diabetic animals1969Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Zgela, Denis
    et al.
    CMA Research.
    Nilsson, Josefine
    CMA Research.
    Sveriges friluftskommun 20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunerna har en nyckelroll i att utveckla friluftslivet och många kommuner arbetar aktivt med friluftslivet till nytta och nöje för befolkningens välbefinnande och naturkontakt. Detta arbete vill Naturvårdsverket stimulera och genomför därför en undersökning av kommunernas friluftslivsarbete och delar ut priset till Sveriges friluftskommun. Priset delas ut av Naturvårdsverket i samarbete med Svenskt Friluftsliv och Sveriges Kultur- och Fritidschefers förening. I rapporten kan du läsa om hur de svenska kommunerna arbetar med friluftsliv i dag. Frågorna är fokuserade på planer för friluftsliv, information och samarbete kring friluftsliv samt aktiviteter inom friluftsliv. I år har vi en öppen fråga om vad som är kommunens tre bästa/viktigaste åtgärderna för att främja barn och ungas utevistelse i naturen i olika åldersgrupper. Undersökningen är genomförd de senaste sju åren och vi har jämfört resultaten mellan åren för att kunna se utvecklingen i arbetet. Det är många kommuner som visar stora förbättringar och många hamnar högt upp i poänglistan och det är väldigt glädjande. Vår förhoppning är att arbetet med Sveriges friluftskommun ska stimulera än fler att arbeta aktivt och planerat med friluftsliv.

  • Perris, Hjördis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    A multifactorial study of life events in depressed patients1982Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was an attempted elucidation of the possible pathogenic role of life events in the onset and development of depression. Although several authors seem to agree that the impact of life events should be seen in relation to the person experiencing them, no comprehensive studies have been published so far where life events have been analysed in relation to the vulnerability of the individual who becomes depressed. The present study was inspired by Freud’s concept of ”Ergänzungsreihe”, and was based on the general assumption that biological as well as psychological and social factors contribute greatly to modifying an individual’s vulnerability to external events.

    To test this hypothesis the occurrence of life events was studied by means of a semistructured interview in a consecutive series of 206 depressed patients of both sexes treated as in- or outpatients* and the results have been analysed in relation to a series of variables which could be assumed to be of importance in modifying the vulnerability of the patients. The main hypothesis was that the more vulnerable the individual was in relation to each of the investigated factors, the fewer events would be necessary to produce a depressive breakdown and the more negative would be the experience of such events. Biological, psychological and clinical variables were taken into account in different parts of the present study.

    The results support the view that the impact of life events should be seen idiosyncratically and in relation to the specific vulnerability of each individual. Furthermore the study illustrates a fruitful approach for further studies aimed at a closer understanding of the role of external events in the development of a depressive illness.

  • Näsman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    The limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Alzheimer's disease1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunction of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis is a common finding in advanced dementia. In this study, the function of the LHPA axis at different levels was investigated in patients with dementia and in healthy elderly.

    A subtle disturbance in the feedback regulation of the LHPA axis was found in patients with early (i.e., mild to moderate) Alzheimer’s disease (AD). After 0.5 mg dexamethasone, serum cortisol levels were less suppressed in AD patients and plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels were lower as compared with healthy elderly. After stimulation with human corticotropin-releasing hormone a blunted ACTH response was found in AD patients while relative serum cortisol, déhydroépiandrostérone, and androstenedione responses were increased. Significant correlations were found between low plasma ACTH levels and temporal lobe atrophy and between low peak plasma ACTH levels and hippocampal atrophy measured with computer tomography. Patients with advanced AD and multi-infarct dementia had lower basal levels of déhydroépiandrostérone sulphate in combination with no difference in cortisol levels, resulting in a high cortisol/DHAS ratio. The difference persisted after adjustments for age and sex in a multivariate analysis. In patients with early AD, basal serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione were increased, and this increase was accentuated after stimulation with ACTH. Peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity was examined by skin vasoconstrictor blanching tests. Patients with AD and patients treated with glucocorticoids showed skin blanching at higher clobetasol concentrations than healthy elderly.

    These findings justify further investigations on the role of LHPA axis dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease and its possible importance for the pathophysiology of the disease.

  • Korsman, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Acidification trends in Swedish lakes: an assessment of past water chemistry conditions using lake sediments1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents temporal perspectives of lake acidification in Sweden. Sediment records have been used to study timing, trends and causes of acidification, and two different techniques for assessing past lake-water acidity are presented.

    A new technique for pH prediction, based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of surface sediments, is developed. This study shows that there is a pH related fraction of lake sediments that can be recorded by NIR analysis. Relationships between NIR spectra of surface sediment samples and measured lake-water pH values, and between NIR spectra of sediment cores and historical pH values inferred by diatom analysis, are modelled by partial least squares regression. The prediction errors of the models are comparable to those obtained by modelling of diatom and lake-water pH data. By further development NIR spectroscopy can become useful for inferring past pH, as well as several other lake-water parameters, from sediment cores.

    Diatom-based predictive models, using multivariate calibration methods, are developed for inferences of lake-water pH, alkalinity and colour. These models are used to provide a regional assessment of recent lake acidification in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, northern Sweden. The study shows that a pH decline has occurred in some southeastern lakes, but that most of the lakes have not faced significant changes in lake-water pH, alkalinity and colour. The inferred water chemistiy changes are discussed in relation to atmospheric deposition and land-use.

    In a study of eight acid-sensitive Swedish boreal-forest lakes a past-analogue approach is used to test whether contemporary expansion of conifers could cause lake acidification. Water chemistry changes associated with the natural pre-historic colonization and expansion of spruce in Sweden (—3000 years B.P.), at times of background atmospheric acidity, are inferred to evaluate the acidification ability of spruce per se on surface waters. This study shows that under natural, unpolluted conditions spruce colonization and expansion did not cause lake acidification.

    In a synthesis of palaeolimnological acidification research in Sweden a general model for pH- development for acid clear-water lakes in southern Sweden is presented. The pH-development from the last déglaciation to present time can be divided into four different periods; (i) a natural long-term acidification period (12000 B.P. - 2300 B.P., or later), with a gradual decrease in pH resulting from declining fluxes of base cations from catchment soils; (ii) a human induced alkalization period (2300 B.P. - 1900 A.D.), with a pH increase due to human activities in the catchments; (iii) the recent acidification period (about 1900 A.D. - present), when pH decreased towards 4.5 due to acid deposition and possibly ceased land-use; and (iv) the liming period (1970s - present), when pH often increases to values above 7 following lime treatment to counteract acidification. The implications of these past pH changes for the concept of contemporary lake acidification and for liming policy are outlined.

  • Bergman, Maud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chemical and thermodynamic studies of dental gold alloys with special reference to homogenization, electrochemical corrosion and cluster formation1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Distribution of puumala virus in Sweden1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Puumala virus, belonging to the genus hantavirus, is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Puumala virus occurs endemically in Central and Northern Europe and Western Russia. In Sweden, NE is reported from the northern and central parts but virtually not at all from the southern part of the country. The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) is the main reservoir of Puumala virus and humans are infected by inhalation of aerosolized animal secreta. In northern Sweden, the density of the bank vole population varies cyclically in intervals of 3-4 years and the incidence of NE shows a covariation.

    The prevalence of serum antibodies to hantaviruses in northern Sweden was studied in a stratified and randomly selected adult population sample comprising 1538 subjects. As expected, the prevalence increased with age. There was no difference between men and women, which was unexpected based on a male:female ratio of > 2:1 in clinical reports. By use of an immunofiuorescent assay, a seroprevalence of 5.4% and by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein as antigen, a prevalence of 8.9% was recorded. This is about or more than ten times higher than what would be calculated from clinical reports.

    By use of the ELISA, an occupational risk of acquisition of Puumala virus infection was demonstrated. Serum samples from 910 farmers and 663 referent subjects living in various rural parts of Sweden were tested. Among farmers from the Puumala virus-endemic northern and central parts of the country, the seroprevalence (12.9%) was higher (p=0.01) than in referents (6.8%). In the southern part of Sweden, only 2/459 persons had antibodies. Only a limited number of children with NE had been previously reported. In a separate study, 32 children with Puumala virus infection were identified and the clinical picture of NE in children was found to be similar to that of adult cases.

    Variations in the prevalence of Puumala virus in the bank vole population within an endemic region are not well known. Here, a higher mean rodent density and a higher prevalence of Puumala virus-specific serum antibodies were recorded in the vicinity of households afflicted with NE than in rural control areas. The data indicated that the risk of exposure locally within an endemic region may vary widely and tentatively suggested that a threshold density of bank voles might be necessary to achieve before effective spread of Puumala virus within the rodent population may occur.

    There is no firm evidence of the occurrence of Puumala virus among wild living animals other than rodents. A study of Swedish moose, an animal which is ecologically well characterized, was performed. Convincing evidence of past Puumala virus infection was found in 5/260 moose originating from Puumala virus-endemic areas but in none of 167 animals from nonendemic areas. Based on the low seroprevalence recorded, moose seemed to serve as endstage hosts rather than being active parts of the enzootic circle of transmission.

    In conclusion, the present investigations confirmed that the exposure to Puumala virus is geographically well restricted in Sweden. Seroprevalence studies indicated that only a minor proportion of individuals infected with Puumala virus are clinically reported, with a bias in favour of men. NE was confirmed to occur in children, with a clinical picture similar to that of adults. An occupational risk was defined for acquisition of Puumala virus infection. Studies in rodents suggested that there may be wide local variations within a limited area in the risk of exposure to Puumala virus. The studies validated the usefulness of a newly developed ELISA based on recombinant nucleocapsid peptides of hantaviruses and finally, methodological progress was reached when Puumala virus was, for the first time, successfully isolated from a Scandinavian patient.

  • Edenborg, Emil
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sörberg, Anna-Maria, 2017. Homo­nationalism. Stockholm: Leopard förlag.2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 2, 338-341 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Dialysis Procedures Alter Metabolic Conditions2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 6, 548Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A progressive chronic kidney disease results in retention of various substances that more or less contribute to dysfunction of various metabolic systems. The accumulated substances are denominated uremic toxins. Although many toxins remain undetected, numerous newly defined toxins participate in the disturbance of food breakdown. In addition, toxic effects may downregulate other pathways, resulting in a reduced ability of free fatty acid breakdown by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL). Dialysis may even worsen metabolic functions. For LPL and HL, the use of heparin and low molecular weight heparin as anticoagulation during hemodialysis (HD) initiate a loss of these enzymes from their binding sites and degradation, causing a temporary dysregulation in triglyceride breakdown. This lack of function will cause retention of the triglyceride containing lipids for at least 8 h. In parallel, the breakdown into free fatty acids is limited, as is the energy supply by them. This is repeated thrice a week for a normal HD patient. In addition, dialysis will cause a loss of amino acids and disturb glucose metabolism depending on the dialysates used. The addition of glucose in the dialysate may support oxidation of carbohydrate and the retention of Amadori products and subsequent tissue alterations. To avoid these effects, it seems necessary to further study the effects of anticoagulation in HD, the extent of use of glucose in the dialysate, and the supplementation of amino acids.

  • Wilson, Max, L.
    et al.
    Tony, Russell-Rose,Birger, Larsen,Hansen, PrebenStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.Kristian, Norling,
    Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval2013Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Competing Claims to Computing as a Discipline (Invited talk)2015In: 15th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Helsinki , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Capability Driven Development of Context-aware Enterprise Applications – Challenges, Approach and Experiences2015In: 5th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, CIAO! Network , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprises are facing the need to adapt their businesses according to various situations in which their applications need to be used. To answer this challenge an EU FP7 project “Capability as a Service in digital enterprises” (CaaS) has been initiated. The aim of CaaS is to support the capture and analysis of changing business context in the design of information systems (IS) using the capability notion. Capability is seen as the ability and capacity that enables an enterprise to achieve a business goal in a certain context. The key rationale behind a capability driven approach is to capture the dependence of organizational and IS designs on application context and to provide explicit support for run-time adjustments according to changes in the application situation. The CaaS project is developing a methodology and a tool environment for capability driven development. We envision to further advance the service oriented paradigm and to develop context aware business capabilities by using Enterprise Modelling techniques as a starting point of the development process, capability design patterns for reuse of best practices, as well as composition of required capabilities and algorithms for run-time adjustment. This talk will address the main principles of the capability driven development methodology, as well as present the current experiences of capability design in three use case companies of the CaaS project – SIV AG (Germany) for business process outsourcing, Fresh T Limited (UK) for compliance management, and Everis (Spain) for capability management in e-government platforms.

  • Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of selective and combined activation of estrogen receptor α and β on reproductive organ development and sexual behaviour in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, e0180548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess estrogen exposure of avian embryos perturbs reproductive organ development in both sexes and demasculinizes the reproductive behaviors of adult males. We have previously shown that these characteristic effects on the reproductive organs also can be induced by exposure of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos to selective agonists of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha). In contrast, the male copulatory behavior is only weakly affected by developmental exposure to an ERa agonist. To further elucidate the respective roles of ER alpha and ER beta in estrogen-induced disruption of sexual differentiation, we exposed Japanese quail embryos in ovo to the selective ER alpha agonist 16 alpha-lactone-estradiol (16 alpha LE2), the selective ER beta agonist WAY-200070, or both substances in combination. The ERa agonist feminized the testes in male embryos and reduced cloacal gland size in adult males. Furthermore, anomalous retention and malformations of the Mullerian ducts/oviducts were seen in embryos and juveniles of both sexes. The ER beta agonist did not induce any of these effects and did not influence the action of the ERa agonist. Male copulatory behavior was not affected by embryonic exposure to either the ER alpha-or the ER beta-selective agonist but was slightly suppressed by treatment with the two compounds combined. Our results suggest that the reproductive organs become sexually differentiated consequent to activation of ER alpha by endogenous estrogens; excessive activation of ER alpha, but not ER beta, during embryonic development may disrupt this process. Our results also suggest that the demasculinizing effect of estrogens on male copulatory behavior is only partly mediated by ER alpha and ER beta, and may rather involve other estrogen-responsive pathways.

  • Jalali, Amin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Aspect-Oriented Business Process Management (Extended Abstract)2017In: Business Process Management, Robert Clarisó, Henrik Leopold , Jan Mendling , Wil van der Aalst , Akhil Kumar , Brian Pentland , Mathias Weske , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Separation of concerns has long been considered an effective and efficient strategy to deal with complexity in information systems. One sort of concern crosses over other concerns, which makes their management difficult. Aspect Orientation is a paradigm in information systems which aims to encapsulate cross-cutting concerns to overcome this problem. In the Business Process Management (BPM) area, Aspect Oriented Business Process Modeling aims to specify how this technique can support encapsulating cross-cutting concerns in process models. However, it is not clear how these models should be supported in the whole BPM lifecycle. Therefore, this thesis investigates how aspect orientation can be supported over the whole BPM lifecycle. This thesis has been carried out following the design science framework, and the result is presented as a set of artifacts (in the form of constructs, models, methods, and instantiations) and empirical findings. The artifacts support modeling, analysis, implementation/configuration, enactment, monitoring, adjustment, and mining cross-cutting concerns while supporting business processes using Business Process Management Systems. The use of these artifacts and their application shows that they can reduce the complexity of process models by separating different concerns.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 10:00 sal C (Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Electrum, kista
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Investigation of corrosion properties of metals for degradable implant applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradable metallic implants are a new class of biomaterials with potentialto replace permanent materials in temporary applications to reduce therisk of long term adverse effects.This thesis focuses on in vitro testing of zinc and magnesium based metals.As new degradable metals are developed screening of new materials within vitro test methods is an attractive option to avoid unnecessary, time consumingand expensive animal studies. The influence of factors such as ioniccomposition of the test solution, buffer system, strain and alloy compositionwas investigated. By employing electrochemical in situ techniques such asimpedance spectroscopy it is possible to study the metal-solution interfaceand determine the properties of the corroding surface. Ex situ surface characterizationtechniques such as scanning electron microscopy and infraredspectroscopy were then used to complement the results of the electrochemicalmeasurements.The importance of appropriate selection of the test solution is highlightedin this work. Zinc was found to corrode in Ringer’s solution by a mechanismcloser to in vivo corrosion than in a phosphate buffered saline solution(PBS).Ringer’s solution is therefore the more appropriate test environment for longterm evaluation of zinc based metals.When evaluating the corrosion of Zn-Mg and Zn-Ag alloys in Ringer’ssolution selective dissolution was found to occur for both types of alloys. Localprecipitation and formation of a porous, less protective, layer of corrosionproducts was found for Zn-Mg alloys. The selective dissolution of Zn-Agalloy caused an enrichment of AgZn3 on the surface which may affect thebiocompatibility of the alloy.The use of HEPES to maintain the pH of the test solution increasedthe corrosion rate of magnesium due to formation of a less protective layerof corrosion products. Magnesium corrosion should therefore preferably bestudied in solutions where the pH is maintained by the biological buffer systemCO2/H2CO3.In addition to saline solutions human whole blood and plasma were evaluatedas more clinically relevant in vitro environments. They were found toproduce reproducible results and to be suitable for short term experiments.Formation of a corrosion product layer comprised of both organic and inorganicmaterial was detected on zinc in both plasma and whole blood.During anodic polarization the adsorption of organic species on the zincsurface was found to increase the surface coverage of Zn ions in whole blood.The increased surface coverage then allowed for precipitation of a protectivelayer of Zn5(PO4)3 and a subsequent decrease in corrosion rate at higherpotentials.When subjecting zinc samples to strain the organic/inorganic corrosionproduct formed in whole blood was observed by impedance spectroscopy toprevent micro cracking and premature failure.The cracking of magnesium alloy samples under applied strain was alsocharacterized by impedance. Changes in surface properties due to crack initiation

  • Pittino, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Visintin, Francesca
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Lenger, Tamara
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Sternad, Dietmar
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Are high performance work practices really necessary in family SMEs?: An analysis of the impact on employee retention2016In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, no 2, 75-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the adoption of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in family versus non-family firms, and evaluates the effect of such practices on the retention of valuable employees in light of different family contingencies. The analysis is carried out on a sample of 232 companies with more than 10 and less than 250 employees, operating in Austria and Hungary. The results indicate that the relational mechanisms originating from the family social capital may act as substitutes of formal practices aimed at fostering employee involvement and commitment and that those mechanisms depend on the extent family involvement in the governance of the business.

  • Stackelberg, Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Soder Sjukhuset, Dept Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eliasson, Ken
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Surg, Sect Vasc Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Hellberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bersztel, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wanhainen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Lifestyle and Risk of Screening-Detected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 5, e004725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Modifiable lifestyle-related factors associated with risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rarely investigated with a prospective design. We aimed to study possible associations among such factors and comorbidities with mean abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) and with risk of AAA among men screened for the disease. Methods and Results-Self-reported lifestyle-related exposures were assessed at baseline (January 1, 1998) among 14 249 men from the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men, screened for AAA between 65 and 75 years of age (mean 13 years after baseline). Multivariable prediction of mean AAD was estimated with linear regression, and hazard ratios (HRs) of AAA (AAD >= 30 mm) with Cox proportional hazard regression. The AAA prevalence was 1.2% (n=168). Smoking, body mass index, and cardiovascular disease were associated with a larger mean AAD, whereas consumption of alcohol and diabetes mellitus were associated with a smaller mean AAD. The HR of AAA was increased among participants who were current smokers with >= 25 pack-years smoked compared with never smokers (HR 15.59, 95% CI 8.96-27.15), those with a body mass index >= 25 versus <25 ( HR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.22-2.93), and those with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.13-2.77), and hypercholesterolemia (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.34). Walking or bicycling for >40 minutes/day (versus almost never) was associated with lower AAA hazard (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.97) compared with almost never walking or bicycling. Conclusions-This prospective study confirms that modifiable lifestyle-related factors are associated with AAD and with AAA disease.

  • Mutie, Pascal M.
    et al.
    Giordano, Giuseppe N.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Univ Oxford, Radcliff Dept Med.
    Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?2017In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, 171Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  • Mohammadi, Soheila
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmo Univ, Fac Hlth & Soc, Malmo, Sweden..
    Taheripanah, Robabeh
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Experiences of inequitable care among Afghan mothers surviving near-miss morbidity in Tehran, Iran: a qualitative interview study2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing equitable maternal care to migrants is a seriously challenging task for hosting countries. Iran, the second-most accessed country for refugees from Afghanistan, has achieved maternal health improvement. However, Afghan women with near-miss morbidity faced pre-hospital delays and disparity in maternal care at hospitals. This study explores experiences of maternal care among Afghan women surviving near-miss morbidity to increase insight into healthcare improvements for migrants.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted at university hospitals in Tehran, from April 2013 to May 2014. A total of 11 Afghan women and 4 husbands were interviewed when women recovered from near-miss morbidity that occurred around the childbirth period. Mothers were identified prospectively using the WHO maternal near-miss approach. Thematic analysis was used along with a data-driven approach to organize data guided by the 'three delays model' theoretical framework.

    Results: Mistreatment in the form of discrimination and insufficient medical attention were key experiences. Participants commonly perceived poor women-professional communication and delays in recognizing obstetric complications despite repeated care-seeking. Financial constraints, costly care, lack of health insurance, and low literacy were experienced barriers to accessing care to a lesser extent. Non-somatic consequences of near-miss morbidity affected mothers and families for extended periods.

    Conclusions: Near-miss survivors' experiences provided remarkable insights into maternal care of Afghans in Iran. The challenge for the health system and professionals is to provide equitable care with dignity and improve communication skills with caring attitudes toward ethnic minorities. Antenatal visits provide the best and most appropriate opportunities to tackle health illiteracy in Afghan women.

  • Public defence: 2017-12-01 10:00 T1 Emmy Rappesalen, Huddinge
    Schmidt, Lisa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Samarbete mellan kund och företagshälsovård: Mekanismer av betydelse för förebyggande arbetsmiljöarbete2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Work Environment Act, employers should, when there is lack of knowledge and competence regarding the occupational health and safety management (OHSM, employ an occupational health service (OHS) provider or comparable resource. This is based on a program theory where OHS provider is expected to be the external resource needed for employers and workplaces in the OHSM. Collaboration and support from the OHS provider is expected to generate good working environment and health at their customers. Research on how this collaboration works is however limited.

     

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether the OHS provider serves as support in the customer's preventive OHSM and to identify which mechanisms are important for the collaboration between the OHS provider and customer. More precisely, the aims of the thesis are to increase understanding and knowledge of how the intention of the law is met.

     

    The data collection in the four qualitative case studies was conducted using semi-structured and thematic interviews, telephone interviews and group interviews. Data material was gathered for small and large companies as well as the public sector and also focused on how the contract affected for the collaboration. Interviews have been conducted with top management, managers and safety representatives, HR personnel as well as OHS professions at the OHS provider. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and the overall result has been analyzed using realistic evaluation.

     

    The results show that collaboration and support from OHS providers in preventative OHSM is lacking. Contextual conditions affected collaboration, such as New Public Management and HR transformation. In the realistic evaluation, mechanisms were identified that positively or negatively affect collaboration between OHS provider and client customer. 

     

    Mechanisms that affect the collaboration positively are; a cooperative relationship between the employers and safety representatives in OHSM at the client customer, OHS providers also need information and access to the client customer's internal processes. Other mechanisms affecting collaboration positively are that the OHS provider has contacts at several levels in the business and that the OHS provider has an independent position. The fact that top management is committed to collaboration with the OHS provider and that the agreements support the collaboration are other mechanisms for a successful collaboration. Further mechanisms that positively affect collaboration are that the collaboration includes continuous follow-ups where services can be continually tuned and adapted to client customer needs. HR personnel supporting the client customers´ OHSM is an important mechanism that positively affects collaboration between OHS provider and client customer. 

     

    Identified mechanisms that affect the collaboration negatively are; that cooperation in the workplace between employers and employees is lacking, the OHSM does not work. Other mechanisms that negatively affect are when top management not is involved in the collaboration with the OHS provider and when the OHS provider does not get information of the client customer's OHSM. The collaboration is also adversely affected when HR stands for the contract and is the only contact with the OHS provider. An additional mechanism that negatively affects collaboration is that the client customer feels that FHV lacks competence.

     

    For the collaboration between FHV and small companies, a number of mechanisms that negatively affect collaboration have been identified. These mechanisms were the lack of cooperation between employers and employees about the working environment in small companies and that small companies do not work systematic with their working environment. In small companies the collaboration with OHS providers mainly consists of health surveys.

     

    In the public sector, almost the same result appears; collaboration and support from OHS providers in preventive OHSM is lacking and the OHS providers are primarily used for individual health promotion and rehabilitation. Other negative mechanisms identified in the public sector are a lack of knowledge about how collaboration in OHSM works.

     

    The conclusion from the thesis is that OHS providers do not largely support the client customer's preventive OHSM. The analysis identified mechanisms that positively and negatively influenced the collaboration between OHS provider and client customer, in which, in particular, knowledge of working environment and OHSM are identified as most important mechanisms for achieving successful collaboration with the OHS provider.

     

  • Loeb, Stacy
    et al.
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Division of Experimental Oncology, Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Salonia, Andrea
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (PDE5Is) and Risk of Melanoma2017In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 109, no 8, djx086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the need to evaluate the association between PDE5is and melanoma. We performed a meta-analysis on the association between PDE5i and melanoma using random effects models and examined whether it met Hill's criteria for causality. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 to 2016 identified three case-control studies and two cohort studies, including a total of 866 049 men, of whom 41 874 were diagnosed with melanoma. We found a summary estimate indicating an increased risk of melanoma in PDE5i users (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.23). However, there was no difference in risk between men with low and high exposure to PDE5i, and risk was higher for in situ melanoma than localized and high-risk melanoma, suggesting a lack of dose response and biological gradient. PDE5i use was also associated with basal cell cancer, suggesting a lack of specificity and likely confounding by ultraviolet exposure. Thus, although this meta-analysis found a statistically significant association between PDE5i and melanoma, it did not satisfy Hill's criteria for causality.

  • Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Digitaliseringen och näringslivet2017Report (Other academic)
  • Skjelvik, John Magne
    et al.
    Erlandsen, Anne Maren
    Haavardsholm, Oscar
    Environmental impacts and potential of the sharing economy2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The various sharing initiatives seen in the Nordic countries over the last years within transportation, housing/accommodation, sharing/renting of smaller capital goods and personal services could yield considerable benefits for consumers due to better quality and/or lower prices of the services. They also have a potential for emissions reductions of CO2 and local pollutants. However, savings from lower prices could lead to increased emissions from increased demand of the services (particularly transport) and increased spending on other goods and services. Depending on how consumers spend their savings, these changes could partly, wholly or more than offset the initial emission reductions. The impacts on overall CO2 emissions depend on whether the emissions are taxed, part of the emissions trading system EU ETS or not regulated at all.

  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 11952Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Ferrando, Carlos
    et al.
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Carolina
    Consorci Hosp Gen Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar De Plata, Argentina..
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain..
    Canet, Jaume
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Badalona, Spain..
    Dosda, Rosa
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Valls, Paola
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villena, Abigail
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Serralta, Ferran
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Jurado, Ana
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Carrizo, Juan
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Navarro, Jose
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Parrilla, Cristina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Jose E.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, ITACA Inst, Grp IBIME, Valencia, Spain..
    Pozo, Natividad
    INCLIVA Clin Res Inst, Valencia, Spain..
    Soro, Marina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villar, Jesus
    Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain.;Hosp Univ Dr Negrin, Res Unit, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Belda, Francisco Javier
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    The accuracy of postoperative, non-invasive Air-Test to diagnose atelectasis in healthy patients after surgery: a prospective, diagnostic pilot study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e015560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) while breathing room air for 5 min (the 'Air-Test') in detecting postoperative atelectasis. Design Prospective cohort study. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring the agreement between the index test and the reference standard CT scan images. Setting Postanaesthetic care unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Participants Three hundred and fifty patients from 12 January to 7 February 2015; 170 patients scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia who were admitted into the postsurgical unit were included. Intervention The Air-Test was performed in conscious extubated patients after a 30 min stabilisation period during which they received supplemental oxygen therapy via a venturi mask. The Air-Test was defined as positive when SpO(2) was >= 96% and negative when SpO(2) was >= 97%. Arterial blood gases were measured in all patients at the end of the Air-Test. In the subsequent 25 min, the presence of atelectasis was evaluated by performing a CT scan in 59 randomly selected patients. Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was assessment of the accuracy of the Air-Test for detecting postoperative atelectasis compared with the reference standard. The secondary outcome was the incidence of positive Air-Test results. Results The Air-Test diagnosed postoperative atelectasis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.98) with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 87.8%. The presence of atelectasis was confirmed by CT scans in all patients (30/30) with positive and in 5 patients (17%) with negative Air-Test results. Based on the Air-Test, postoperative atelectasis was present in 36% of the patients (62 out of 170). Conclusion The Air-Test may represent an accurate, simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method for diagnosing postoperative atelectasis.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografisk uppföljning 2015 av dagfjärilar inom habitatdirektivet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pettersson, L. B. & Sjöström C. 2017. Nationwide monitoring of butterflies of the EU habitats Directive 2014. Department of Biology. Lund University, Sweden. 22 pp.

    This report summarizes the monitoring of butterflies during 2015 within the Biogeographical Monitoring operated by Naturvårdsverket, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. This project includes the monitoring of nine butterfly species listed in the EU habitats Directive. Three of these species can be found in the northern parts of Sweden and a total of 24 areas could be included in this year’s survey. The Arctic Blue (Agriades aquilo) was found in 6 areas with a total of 12 individuals. The Dusky-winged Fritillary, Boloria improba, was found in 3 areas with a total of 4 individuals. No individuals of the Hesperia comma catena could be found this year. The Large Blue (Phengaris arion) was observed with 180 individuals in 26 areas and combined with the data from the Swedish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme the distribution area of this species can be considered well covered. The Scarce Heath (Coenonympha hero) was monitored in 33 areas in Dalarna, Värmland and Västra Götaland counties with a total of 392 individuals. Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) and Scarce Fritillary (Euphydryas maturna) are both surveyed by counting larval colonies during August- September. 2602 larvae colonies of the Marsh Fritillary were observed in 55 areas, and the Scarce Fritillary was monitored in 1 area in Uppsala, 11 areas in Örebro and 21 areas in Stockholm county with a total of 912 colonies. The Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) was surveyed in 36 areas in Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala and Västernorrland counties with a total of 366 individuals. The monitoring scheme was expanded to cover the Violet Copper (Lycaena helle) in 2015 and this species was found with 57 individuals in 11 areas in Jämtland county.

  • Lenhard, Fabian
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Serlachius, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomised controlled trial2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e015246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. Design Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnosis of OCD. Interventions Either a 12-week, therapist-guided ICBT intervention or a wait list condition of equal duration. Primary outcome measures Cost data were collected at baseline and after treatment, including healthcare use, supportive resources, prescription drugs, prescription-free drugs, school absence and productivity loss, as well as the cost of ICBT. Health outcomes were defined as treatment responder rate and quality-adjusted life years gain. Bootstrapped mixed model analyses were conducted comparing incremental costs and health outcomes between the groups from the societal and healthcare perspectives. Results Compared with waitlist control, ICBT generated substantial societal cost savings averaging US$-144.98 (95% CI -159.79 to -130.16) per patient. The cost reductions were mainly driven by reduced healthcare use in the ICBT group. From the societal perspective, the probability of ICBT being cost saving compared with waitlist control was approximately 60%. From the healthcare perspective, the cost per additional responder to ICBT compared with waitlist control was approximately US$78. Conclusions The results suggest that therapist-guided ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and results in societal cost savings, compared with patients who do not receive evidence-based treatment. Since, at present, most patients with OCD do not have access to evidence-based treatments, the results have important implications for the increasingly strained national and healthcare budgets. Future studies should compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with regular face-to-face CBT.

  • Persson, Emilia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Christian
    Nordström, Fredrik
    Sohlin, Maja
    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn
    Petruson, Karin
    Rintelä, Niina
    Hed, Kristoffer
    Blomqvist, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Siversson, Carl
    Jonsson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    MR-OPERA: a multicenter/multivendor validation of magnetic resonance imaging–only prostate treatment planning using synthetic computed tomography images2017In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 99, no 3, 692-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy and clinical robustness of a commercially available software for magnetic resonance (MR) to synthetic computed tomography (sCT) conversion, in an MR imaging–only workflow for 170 prostate cancer patients.

    Methods and Materials: The 4 participating centers had MriPlanner (Spectronic Medical), an atlas-based sCT generation software, installed as a cloud-based service. A T2-weighted MR sequence, covering the body contour, was added to the clinical protocol. The MR images were sent from the MR scanner workstation to the MriPlanner platform. The sCT was automatically returned to the treatment planning system. Four MR scanners and 2 magnetic field strengths were included in the study. For each patient, a CT-treatment plan was created and approved according to clinical practice. The sCT was rigidly registered to the CT, and the clinical treatment plan was recalculated on the sCT. The dose distributions from the CT plan and the sCT plan were compared according to a set of dose-volume histogram parameters and gamma evaluation. Treatment techniques included volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and conventional treatment using 2 treatment planning systems and different dose calculation algorithms.

    Results: The overall (multicenter/multivendor) mean dose differences between sCT and CT dose distributions were below 0.3% for all evaluated organs and targets. Gamma evaluation showed a mean pass rate of 99.12% (0.63%, 1 SD) in the complete body volume and 99.97% (0.13%, 1 SD) in the planning target volume using a 2%/2-mm global gamma criteria.

    Conclusions: Results of the study show that the sCT conversion method can be used clinically, with minimal differences between sCT and CT dose distributions for target and relevant organs at risk. The small differences seen are consistent between centers, indicating that an MR imaging–only workflow using MriPlanner is robust for a variety of field strengths, vendors, and treatment techniques.

  • Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    The shared-memory interferences of Erlang/OTP built-ins2017In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Erlang, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erlang is a concurrent functional language based on the actor modelof concurrency. In the purest form of this model, actors are realizedby processes that do not share memory and communicate witheach other exclusively via message passing. Erlang comes quiteclose to this model, as message passing is the primary form of interprocesscommunication and each process has its own memoryarea that is managed by the process itself. For this reason, Erlangis often referred to as implementing “shared nothing” concurrency.Although this is a convenient abstraction, in reality Erlang’s mainimplementation, the Erlang/OTP system, comes with a large numberof built-in operations that access memory which is shared byprocesses. In this paper, we categorize these built-ins, and characterizethe interferences between them that can result in observabledifferences of program behaviour when these built-ins are usedin a concurrent setting. The paper is complemented by a publiclyavailable suite of more than one hundred small Erlang programsthat demonstrate the racing behaviour of these built-ins.