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  • Gehandler,, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gehandler,, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Risker med nya energibärare i vägtunnlar ochunderjordiska garage2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to environmental concern, policy goals for transportation aim at using renewable fuels. These include gaseous fuels such as motor gas, methane or hydrogen and electric vehicles. This research project focuses on a literature review to understand the emerging risks with alternative propellants in road tunnels and underground garages. Gaseous fuels and electric vehicles pose new risks compared to the liquid fuels that we are more used to. In particular this concerns gaseous fuels and the risk for pressure vessel explosion, and the release of toxic substances such as hydrogen fluoride from Li-ion batteries undergoing thermal runaway. Two workshops were organized to get feedback from stakeholders and to initiate discussions. Future research, risk reducing measures, rescue service guidance and changes of regulation and guidelines are discussed and proposed.

  • Willstrand,, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Willstrand,, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems inheavy vehicles2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the work that has been conducted in a large project about fire detection and fire alarm systems in heavy vehicles. The main goal of the project has been to develop an international test standard for fire detection systems installed in engine compartments of heavy vehicles. For the purpose of defining a test method background information has been compiled regarding fire detection technologies, relevant standards and guidelines, research in the field, durability factors associated with the environment, typical fire scenarios and fire causes. In addition, numerous experiments have been performed in order to provide data to develop the test standard. A separate goal in the project has also been to provide recommendations on fire detection in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments. Some of the conducted work has been published in three previous SP reports and the work not covered in these is presented in more detail in this report. However, this report summarises all work done in the project. 

  • Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Uppdatering EVA-kalkylen: nya emissionsfaktorer beräknade med PHEM2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current European emission model, HBEFA, specifies emission factors for different driving patterns and vehicle types. This model does not study the example of individual intersections. This study utilizes the same microscopic model, PHEM (www.tugraz.at), as HBEFA to calculate also intersection emissions and emissions of links without intersections. With PHEM the release of four vehicle types (cars fueled by diesel or petrol and trucks with and without trailers) calculated for several different road classes according to the division still used in the models EVA and CAPCAL. To illustrate the emissions of intersections calculations for emissions for a quick stop to rest and then the withdrawal of the original speed is also presented.

    In addition to a description of the method of how the new emissions have been calculated in the new tables also include suggestions of future updating of the model. In addition, reported the conclusion of tests and comparisons to facilitate the transition from the current basic model VETO to PHEM. The calculations show that previous assumptions about the significantly lower emissions of vehicles have not been met, and that the vehicle speed impact on emissions has changed., We suggest that more vehicle types will be included in the model at the next update.

    The model simulates the CO2, SO2, fuel consumption, HC / VOC, CO, NOx, NO2 and exhaust particles, but the report only presents fuel consumption. However, all other parameters can be obtained directly from the authors. The report first provides a brief description of the different emission models, how the calculations are done up to now and then how adaptations and updates led to the resulting emission factors.

  • Jannasch, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jannasch, Anna-Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    ANALYSIS OF P2G/P2L SYSTEMS IN PITEÅ/NORRBOTTEN FOR COMBINED PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND GASEOUS BIOFUELS: Report from an f3 project2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a collaborative project within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3). f3 is a networking organization, which focuses on development of environmentally, economically and socially sustainable renewable fuels, and

     Provides a broad, scientifically based and trustworthy source of knowledge for industry, governments and public authorities,

     Carries through system oriented research related to the entire renewable fuels value chain,

     Acts as national platform stimulating interaction nationally and internationally.

    f3 partners include Sweden’s most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a broad range of industry companies with high relevance. f3 has no political agenda and does not conduct lobbying activities for specific fuels or systems, nor for the f3 partners’ respective areas of interest.

    The f3 centre is financed jointly by the centre partners, the Swedish Energy Agency and the region of Västra Götaland. f3 also receives funding from Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency) as a Swedish advocacy platform towards Horizon 2020. Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) functions as the host of the f3 organization (see www.f3centre.se).

  • Lagvik, Christer
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Lagvik, Christer
    Uppsala University, University Library.
    Uppföljning av Riksbankens Jubileumsfonds riktlinjer för öppen tillgång2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Volodina, Elena
    University of Gothenburg.
    Megyesi, Beata
    Uppsala University.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Granstedt, Lena
    Umeå University.
    Prentice, Julia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholm University.
    A Friend in Need?: Research agenda for electronic Second Language infrastructure2016In: SLTC 2016: The Sixth Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), SLTC , 2016, Vol. 6, 2016, Vol. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we describe the research and societal needs as well as ongoing efforts to shape Swedish as a Second Language (L2) infrastructure. Our aim is to develop an electronic research infrastructure that would stimulate empiric research into learners' language development by preparing data and developing language technology methods and algorithms that can successfully deal with deviations in the learner language.

  • Program for uddannelse og forskning: – Norges formannskap 2017 i Nordisk ministerråd2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Program for uddannelse og forskning

    – Norges formannskap 2017 i Nordisk ministerråd

  • Sørensen, Michael Munk
    et al.
    Sørensen, Michael Munk
    Feng, Mattias Carlsson
    Bahr, Jenny von
    Sletten, Thea Marcelia
    Kiiski, Johanna
    Krarup, Signe
    Valuation Literature on Chemicals: A Description of an Inventory of Valuation Literature on Chemicals2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project has been to create an easily accessible inventory of studies that cover the full impact pathway from chemical exposure (or emission) to socio-economic valuation of the related health impacts. The main outcome is an excel-based database of 45 identified studies covering 15 substances or substance groups. For the vast majority of chemicals in use there are no studies with monetary valuations.

    The identified studies can support policy assessment by providing possible reference values and support to value transfer. The database includes information on region and health impact analysed as well as on the valuation method used. A brief guidance note describes how each study might be used for value transfer.The report describes the search strategy, summarises the findings, identifies knowledge gaps and provides suggestions for future updates of the database.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-14 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Molla, Kiflu Gedefe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Molla, Kiflu Gedefe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays in International trade, exchange rates and prices2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays in International Trade, Exchange Rates and Prices. Although independent, these essays share some common themes. The first two papers can be related to the vast literature on exchange rate pass-through to prices. While the first paper uses firm-product level data from Sweden to study firms’ export price response to movements in exchange rate, the second paper employs aggregate level data from Ethiopia and looks at the issue from the importers’ perspective. The third paper, like the first paper, uses Swedish firm-level data and investigates firms’ exporting behavior. The third paper, however, specifically focuses on export margins of multi-product firms and studies their response when exporting to destinations of different size and distance from the home country.

  • Westin Tikkanen, Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Dept. of Languages and Literatures.
    Westin Tikkanen, Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Dept. of Languages and Literatures.
    On the Building of a Narrative: The Ver Sacrum Ritual2016In: Mnemosyne (Lugduni Batavorum. Print), ISSN 0026-7074, E-ISSN 1568-525X, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ver sacrum ritual remains a riddle in the early history of the Apennine peninsula. Several ancient Roman as well as Greek sources use the ritual in explaining Samnite movements across the peninsula, as ritual group expulsion of settlers sent out to colonize new lands. In short, this becomes the narrative ‘plot’ of archaic colonization.The ritual is however described very differently in the different sources, with regard to detail and to the plot elements involved in the tale. This article explores the various layers in the rendering of the ritual, and the different voices that take part in forming the ver sacrum narrative. With this perspective the ver sacrum becomes an expanded testimony of a tradition, used by different authors to stress various elements of their own historical reports.

  • Wanduru, Phillip
    et al.
    Wanduru, Phillip
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Tuhebwe, Doreen
    Ediau, Michael
    Okuga, Monica
    Nalwadda, Christine
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Waiswa, Peter
    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus
    The performance of community health workers in the management of multiple childhood infectious diseases in Lira, northern Uganda: a mixed methods cross-sectional study2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, 33194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. Designs: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda. Case scenarios were conducted with a medical officer observing CHWs in their management of children suspected of having malaria, pneumonia, or diarrhea. Performance data were collected using a pretested questionnaire with a checklist used by the medical officer to score the CHWs. The primary outcome, CHW performance, is defined as the ability to diagnose and treat malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia appropriately. Participants were described using a three group performance score (good vs. moderate vs. poor). A binary measure of performance (good vs. poor) was used in multivariable logistic regression to show an association between good performance and a range of independent variables. The qualitative component comprised seven key informant interviews with experts who had informed knowledge with regard to the functionality of CHWs in Lira district. Results: Overall, 347 CHWs (88.3%) had poor scores in managing malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia, 26 (6.6%) had moderate scores, and 20 (5.1%) had good scores. The factors that were positively associated with performance were secondary-level education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-4.92) and meeting with supervisors in the previous month (AOR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12-5.70). Those factors negatively associated with CHW performance included: serving 100-200 households (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.12-0.50), serving more than 200 households (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.10-0.48), and an initial training duration lasting 2-3 days (AOR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.41). The qualitative findings reinforced the quantitative results by indicating that refresher training, workload, and in-kind incentives were important determinants of performance. Conclusions: The performance of CHWs in Lira was inadequate. There is a need to consider pre-qualification testing before CHWs are appointed. Providing ongoing support and supervision, and ensuring that CHWs have at least secondary education can be helpful in improving their performance. Health system managers also need to ensure that the CHWs' workload is moderated as work overload will reduce performance. Finally, although short training programs are beneficial to some degree, they are not sufficient and should be followed up with regular refresher training.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 09:00 Sal 135, Byggnad 9A, Umeå
    Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Towards Climate Based Early Warning and Response Systems for Malaria2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Great strides have been made in combating malaria, however, the indicators in sub Saharan Africa still do not show promise for elimination in the near future as malaria infections still result in high morbidity and mortality among children. The abundance of the malaria-transmitting mosquito vectors in these regions are driven by climate suitability. In order to achieve malaria elimination by 2030, strengthening of surveillance systems have been advocated. Based on malaria surveillance and climate monitoring, forecasting models may be developed for early warnings. Therefore, in this thesis, we strived to illustrate the use malaria surveillance and climate data for policy and decision making by assessing the association between weather variability (from ground and remote sensing sources) and malaria mortality, and by building malaria admission forecasting models. We further propose an economic framework for integrating forecasts into operational surveillance system for evidence based decisionmaking and resource allocation. 

    Methods: The studies were based in Asembo, Gem and Karemo areas of the KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Western Kenya. Lagged association of rainfall and temperature with malaria mortality was modeled using general additive models, while distributed lag non-linear models were used to explore relationship between remote sensing variables, land surface temperature(LST), normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) and rainfall on weekly malaria mortality. General additive models, with and without boosting, were used to develop malaria admissions forecasting models for lead times one to three months. We developed a framework for incorporating forecast output into economic evaluation of response strategies at different lead times including uncertainties. The forecast output could either be an alert based on a threshold, or absolute predicted cases. In both situations, interventions at each lead time could be evaluated by the derived net benefit function and uncertainty incorporated by simulation. 

    Results: We found that the environmental factors correlated with malaria mortality with varying latencies. In the first paper, where we used ground weather data, the effect of mean temperature was significant from lag of 9 weeks, with risks higher for mean temperatures above 250C. The effect of cumulative precipitation was delayed and began from 5 weeks. Weekly total rainfall of more than 120 mm resulted in increased risk for mortality. In the second paper, using remotely sensed data, the effect of precipitation was consistent in the three areas, with increasing effect with weekly total rainfall of over 40 mm, and then declined at 80 mm of weekly rainfall. NDVI below 0.4 increased the risk of malaria mortality, while day LST above 350C increased the risk of malaria mortality with shorter lags for high LST weeks. The lag effect of precipitation was more delayed for precipitation values below 20 mm starting at week 5 while shorter lag effect for higher precipitation weeks. The effect of higher NDVI values above 0.4 were more delayed and protective while shorter lag effect for NDVI below 0.4. For all the lead times, in the malaria admissions forecasting modelling in the third paper, the boosted regression models provided better prediction accuracy. The economic framework in the fourth paper presented a probability function of the net benefit of response measures, where the best response at particular lead time corresponded to the one with the highest probability, and absolute value, of a net benefit surplus. 

    Conclusion: We have shown that lagged relationship between environmental variables and malaria health outcomes follow the expected biological mechanism, where presentation of cases follow the onset of specific weather conditions and climate variability. This relationship guided the development of predictive models showcased with the malaria admissions model. Further, we developed an economic framework connecting the forecasts to response measures in situations with considerable uncertainties. Thus, the thesis work has contributed to several important components of early warning systems including risk assessment; utilizing surveillance data for prediction; and a method to identifying cost-effective response strategies. We recommend economic evaluation becomes standard in implementation of early warning system to guide long-term sustainability of such health protection programs.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:00 Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Environmental intolerance: psychological risk and health factors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental intolerance (EI) is an embracing term for a number of conditions characterized by a wide range of non-specific symptoms attributed to certain environmental exposures (e.g. pungent/odorous chemicals, residing in a certain building, electromagnetic fields and everyday sounds). EI often leads to lifestyle alterations (e.g. not taking part of activities formerly engaged in) and functional impairment (e.g. not being able to work, social deprivation). The etiology of the conditions is largely unknown, though there is growing empirical evidence for associations between mental ill-health and EI. However, mainly cross-sectional studies have been conducted which cannot demonstrate temporality. Further on, the prognosis for EI is not well-known.

    This thesis includes four studies based on cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2-4) data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (VEHS). The VEHS contains data from three data collections performed on the same set of respondents in 2010 (T1; n=3406), 2013 (T2; n=2336) and 2016 (T3; n=1837). In Study 1 the co-prevalence between EI attributed to chemicals, certain buildings, EMFs and sounds was investigated. The co-prevalence between all types of self-reported EI was greater than predictions based on coincidence, indicating that the different types of EI are associated, possibly sharing the same pathogenesis or that the afflicted individuals share some common predisposition to acquire the conditions. In Study 2 coping strategies and social support in EI were investigated and particularly whether certain combinations of different types of coping and social support may be important in recovering from EI. The participants who recovered from EI showed different combinations of coping strategies and social support than those who did not recover. In Study 3 the temporality between EI (attributed to chemicals, buildings and sounds) and psychological factors was investigated. The results showed that stress, anxiety, depression and burnout are risk factors for EI attributed to chemicals and sounds, but not for EI attributed to buildings. Changing perspective, EI attributed to buildings was a significant predictor of burnout, whereas EI attributed to sounds and chemicals were not. In Study 4 the prognosis of EI during a six-year period was studied. The probability of recovering from a state of specific EI was 44.3%, the probability of a specific EI to spread to other types of EI was 12.8%, and the probability of relapse was 3.9%. The participants who recovered showed lower levels of emotional and behavioral disruption than those who did not recover. The participants who showed spreading from one to several EIs perceived more stress than those who remained in a state of a specific EI, but had lower levels of burnout.

    Based on the findings of the studies in the thesis it is suggested that psychotherapy focusing on reducing the emotional and behavioral reactions of exposure might be helpful. Even though the causation of EI is unknown, negative expectations about exposure might accumulate symptoms, setting a vicious circle into motion. The task of the psychologist might be to break this circle.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:00 KB3B1, Stora Hörsalen, KBC huset, Umeå
    Oanh, Ho Ngoc Hoang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Oanh, Ho Ngoc Hoang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Regulation of the multi-functional protein YscU in assembly of the Yersinia type III secretion injectisome2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative zoonotic pathogenic bacterium causing gastroenteritis in human and animals. It shares a conserved virulence plasmid encoding for a needle-like secretion machinery, or type III secretion system, which can be found in other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a macromolecular assembly that enables pathogenic effector proteins (or Yersinia outer proteins, Yops) to be transported into eukaryotic host cells. This export machinery is assembled in a highly ordered stepwise mechanism. The activation of T3SS is also dependent on calcium concentration, temperature, and pH of the growth media as mimic factors for host cell’s contact. The T3SS-associated inner-membrane protein, YscU, of Yersinia is proposed to function as a substrate specificity switch protein and forms basal structure of T3SS. YscU has four α helical transmembrane domain and a soluble cytoplasmic domain YscUC which undergoes auto-proteolysis at a conserved N↑PTH motif. The auto-proteolysis process, which is required for the assembly of the injectisome and secretion of Yops, results in a 10-kDa C-terminal polypeptide fragment, denoted YscUCC and 6-kDa N-terminal fragment YscUCN. In this thesis, we showed that YscUC dissociation was important for Yops secretion and resulted in unfolded YscUCN and oligomeric YscUCC. By combination in vivo and in vitro methods, growth media conditions as calcium, temperature, and pH were indicated to control secretion by regulation of YscUC dissociation. The calcium-binding isotherm to YscUC was fit best with a one-site binding model resulting in Kd 800 µM, which is identical to calcium level that blocks secretion in vivo. YscU is also the key protein for the T3SS pH dependence, demonstrated by thermal unfolding profile and secondary structure of protein were altered between pH 7.4 and 6.0. In addition, bacterial inner membrane was proposed to assist the YscUCN folding, monitored by using lipid bilayer as a mimic environment in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. This binding is important for Yops secretion and YscUC is anchored to bacterial membrane upon dissociation. The other substrate specificity switch protein YscP has function as a “molecular ruler” controlling length of the secretion needle. Previous genetic experiments have suggested that YscP and YscU interact physically, when mutation at defined residues on yscU (suppressor mutants) rescued Yops secretion in null-yscP mutant. In this research, direct binding of YscU and YscP was proved as weak but important interaction with Kd 430 mM by application of NMR and the binding interface of YscP was centred on the last helix of YscUC. Furthermore, we found that the YscP interaction could inhibit YscU auto-proteolysis. Studying the dissociation kinetic of suppressor YscUC variants at temperature 30 and 37oC provides strong support to a model where YscU is a temperature sensor for T3SS and YscUC dissociation is required for Yops secretion. Interestingly, the NPTH motif is conserved through most of YscU family members, meaning that role of dissociation may be conserved also in other bacterial injectisomes. To this end, the dissociation of YscU can be used as a therapeutic target in drug discovery. We attempted to identify the small-molecules that can hinder YscU dissociation. The small compound methyl(5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-yl)acetate was found to be able to inhibit dissociation and to crystalize full YscUC, which has never been successfully done before. Finally, we found that the inner-rod protein YscI is binding to YscUC with a 1:1 stoichiometry as shown with pull-down assays and isothermal titration calorimetry. Taken together we have made several discoveries that expand the functional palette of YscU and all these functions were shown to have biological relevance with Yops secretion levels. In light of the strong sequence conservation between T3SS utilizing pathogenic bacteria the findings are likely to be general characters.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Högström, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Högström, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: influence of fitness, fatness and genetic factors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Low aerobic fitness and obesity are associated with atherosclerosis, and thereforegreatly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and early death. It has long been known that atherosclerosis my begin early in life. Despite this fact, it remains unknown how obesity and aerobic fitness early in life influence the risks of atherosclerosis, CVD and death. Furthermore, it is unknown whether high aerobic fitness can compensate for the risks associated with obesity, and how genetic confounding affects the relationshipsof aerobic fitness with CVD and all-cause mortality. Thus, the main aims of this thesis were to investigate the associations of aerobic fitness in late adolescence with myocardial infarction (Study I), stroke (Study II) and all-cause mortality (Study III), and how genetic confounding influences the relationshipsof aerobic fitness with CVD, diabetes and death (Study IV).

    Methods

    The study population comprised up to1.3 million men who participated in mandatory Swedish military conscription. During conscription, all conscripts underwent highly standardized tests to assess aerobic fitness, body mass index, blood pressure and cognitive function. A physician also examined all conscripts. Data on subjects’ diagnoses, death and socioeconomic status during follow-up were retrieved using record linkage. Subjects were subsequently followed until the study endpoint, date of death or date of any outcome of interest. Associations between baseline variables and the risks of adverse outcomes were assessed using Cox’s proportional hazard models. Genetic confounding of the relationships between aerobic fitness and diabetes, CVD and death was assessed using a twin population and a paired logistic regression model.

    Results

    In Study I, low aerobic fitness at conscription was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.82 per standard deviation increase). Similarly, in Study II, high aerobic fitness reduced the risk of stroke (HR 0.84 for ischemic stroke, HR 0.82 for hemorrhagic stroke; P < 0.001 for all), and obesity was associated with an increased risk of stroke (HR 1.15 for ischemic stroke, HR 1.18 for hemorrhagic stroke; P < 0.001 for all). In Study III, high aerobic fitness was also associated with reduced all-cause mortality later in life (HR 0.49, P < 0.001). High aerobic fitness exerted the strongest protection against death from substance and alcohol abuse, suicide and trauma (HRs 0.20, 0.41 and 0.52, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). Obese individuals with aerobic fitness were at higher risk of MI and all-cause mortality than were normal-weight individuals with low fitness (Studies I and III). In Study IV, fit twins had no reduced risk of CVD or death during follow-up compared with their unfit twin siblings (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.88–1.40), regardless of how large the difference in fitness was. However, the fitter twins were protected against diabetes during follow-up.

    Conclusions

    Already early in life, aerobic fitness is a strong predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality later in life. In contrast to the “fat but fit” hypothesis, it seems that high aerobic fitness cannot fully compensate for the risks associated with obesity. The associationsof aerobic fitness with CVD and all-cause mortality appear to be mediated by genetic factors. Together, these findings have implications for the view of aerobic fitness as a causal risk factor for CVD and early death.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 09:30 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Disability in individual life and past society: life-course perspectives of people with disabilities in the Sundsvall region of Sweden in the nineteenth century2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What did a life with disability imply for individuals in a past society? Since disabled men and women have long been hidden in history, the aim with this thesis is to uncover them and their living conditions in nineteenth-century Sweden, represented by the Sundsvall region. The data consist of parish registers, which help to trace people’s life courses and the consequences if disabilities interfered with their lives. These records are digitized and stored by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden. The dataset under analysis comprises a population of some 36,000 observations from non-disabled and disabled individuals. Life-course perspectives and labeling theories are applied in all four studies in this thesis, even if different methods and events in life are taken into account. Studies II and IV examine the marriage propensities and the spouses, and show that disabled people did marry, and usually with a non-disabled partner in similar age and from similar socio-economic origin. However their marital chances were significantly smaller compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Study I reveals that disabilities implied significantly higher death risks, in particular among the men and those with mental disabilities of both genders. In Study III, the three events of getting a job, marrying and giving birth to a child were explored in parallel. The results reveal that even if some disabled people experienced all these events, they did so to a lower extent than non-disabled persons. Variations were found between men and women and different disabilities. The major conclusion of the thesis is that disabled people constituted a most heterogeneous group of individuals with different obstacles and opportunities in life in a past society, where gender and type of disability seem to have played a part in their level of labeling beyond the impairment itself. 

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 09:30 Älgsalen, Uminova Science Park, Umeå
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of inorganic nitrogen and organic carbon on pelagic food webs in boreal lakes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) loadings to lakes in the northern hemisphere. In many boreal lakes phytoplankton are N limited, wherefore enhanced N input may affect the productivity of pelagic food webs. Simultaneously, global change causes increased inflows of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to boreal lakes. Between clear and humic lakes, whole lake primary and consumer production naturally differs. However, research is inconclusive as to what controls pelagic production in these lakes. Further, it is unclear how DOC affects the response of the pelagic food web to enhanced inorganic N availability. The overarching goal of this thesis was to study the effects of inorganic N and organic C for pelagic food webs in boreal lakes. In the thesis, I first identified the main drivers of pelagic production during summer in eight non-manipulated Swedish boreal lakes with naturally low or high DOC. Then I investigated how increased N availability affects the pelagic food chain, and how the response differs with DOC. Therefore, whole lake inorganic N fertilization experiments were conducted in six Swedish boreal lakes across a DOC gradient (low, medium, high) divided into three lake pairs (control, N enriched) with one reference and two impact years. In each lake, I also investigated the response of zooplankton growth using in situ mesocosm experiments excluding planktivores. I found that humic boreal lakes had lower phytoplankton production and biomass than clear water lakes. Further, phytoplankton community composition and food quality differed with DOC. However, high DOC did not reduce pelagic energy mobilization or zooplankton biomass, but promoted a higher dominance of cladoceran relative to copepod species. N addition clearly enhanced phytoplankton biomass and production in the experimental lakes. However, this stimulating N effect decreased with DOC as caused by light limitation. Further, the newly available phytoplankton energy derived from N addition was not efficiently transferred to zooplankton, which indicates a mismatch between producer energy supply and consumer energy use. Indeed, the mesocosm experiment revealed that decreased food quality of phytoplankton in response to N addition resulted in reduced food web performance, especially in clearer lakes. In humic lakes, zooplankton production and food web efficiency were clearly more resilient to N addition. In summary, my thesis suggests that any change in the landscape that enhances inorganic N availability will especially affect pelagic food webs in clear water lakes. In contrast, brownification will result in more lakes being resilient to eutrophication caused by enhanced N deposition.

  • Zasciurinskiene, Egle
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Orthodontics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Zasciurinskiene, Egle
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Orthodontics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Orthodontics, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Slotte, Christer
    Department of Periodontology, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bjerklin, Krister
    Department of Orthodontics, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Orthodontic treatment in periodontitis-susceptible subjects: a systematic literature review2016In: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research, ISSN 2057-4347Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to evaluate the literature for clinical scientific data on possible effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal status in periodontitis-susceptible subjects. A systematic literature review was performed on studies in English using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library central databases (1965-2014). By manually searching reference lists of selected studies, we identified additional articles; then we searched these publications: Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, and European Journal of Orthodontics. Search terms included randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, case series >5 patients, periodontitis, orthodontics, alveolar bone loss, tooth migration, tooth movement, orthodontic extrusion, and orthodontic intrusion. Only studies on orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised dentitions were included. One randomized controlled clinical trial, one controlled clinical trial, and 12 clinical studies were included. No evidence currently exists from controlled studies and randomized controlled clinical trials, which shows that orthodontic treatment improves or aggravates the status of periodontally compromised dentitions.

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tillståndet i skogsmiljön i Kronobergs län Resultat från Krondroppsnätet t.o.m. september 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Kronobergs län görs mätningar av krondropp och markvattenkemi på två granytor (Angelstad

    och Tagel) och en tallyta (Attsjö). I Tagel mäts även nedfall på öppet fält. Provytorna i Tagel och

    Angelstad har flyttats en kort bit under mätperioden, 2007 respektive 2013, till följd av

    stormskador efter stormarna Gudrun och Per. Trendanalyser för markvatten innefattar inte båda

    mätserierna, före och efter flytt, på dessa ytor, då markvattenkemin kan variera kraftigt på korta

    avstånd och resultaten därmed inte är direkt jämförbara.

    Svavelnedfallet har minskat signifikant på samtliga skogsytor i länet, och även på öppet fält i

    Tagel. Det minskade svavelnedfallet återspeglas i signifikant minskade halter av svavel i

    markvattnet i Angelstad och Attsjö. I Tagel är de båda mätserierna för korta för statistisk analys,

    men det finns tydliga tendenser till minskning av halterna under den första mätperioden (1996-

    2007). Tolkningen av trenderna för de försurningsrelaterade parametrarna i Angelstad och Tagel

    försvåras av att ytorna drabbats av stormar som påverkat markvattenkemin mycket. I Angelstad

    fanns dock tydliga tecken på återhämtning, med ökat pH och ANC samt minskade halter

    oorganiskt aluminium, innan stormen Gudrun 2005. Efter flytten av ytan i Angelstad har

    markvattnet varit avsevärt surare, och ytan tillhör nu de mest försurade i landet. Markvattnet från

    ytan innehåller mycket salt, och försurningen skulle därmed kunna vara orsakad av jonbyte till

    följd av salttillförsel. Källan till saltet är dock ännu okänd. Tagel är den yta som är minst försurad,

    med pH, ANC och halter av oorganiskt aluminium som är i nivå med mer nordostliga ytor. I Tagel

    är tidsserierna för korta för att dra några slutsatser om eventuella trender. I Attsjö finns inga

    tendenser till återhämtning.

    Kvävenedfallet med nederbörden på öppet fält i Tagel har varierat sedan mätstart, och det finns

    inga signifikanta trender. Under det senaste hydrologiska året har nedfallet på öppet fält varit ca 7

    kg/ha. Det totala nedfallet till skog (inkl. våt- och torrdeposition) för de två senaste åren har

    beräknats till mellan knappt 10 kg per hektar och år i nordost till över 15 kg i de västra delarna av

    länet. Detta innebär att den kritiska belastningsgränsen för kväve med avseende på övergödning

    till skog, som har satts till 5 kg per hektar och år, har överskridits. Kvävehalterna i markvattnet

    har generellt varit mycket låga, men i Angelstad ökade halten nitratkväve betydligt efter stormen

    Gudrun 2005, och var fortfarande förhöjd 2013 när mätutrustningen flyttades.

    Den 13-14 oktober 2015 firade Krondroppsnätet 30 år. Under två dagars seminarium

    presenterades bl.a. hur Krondroppsnätet startade, hur det framtida skogsbruket kan se ut samt

    vilket behov det finns av miljöövervakning i skogen framöver. Dessutom presenterades

    Krondroppsnätets frågeställningar i ett internationellt perspektiv samt utifrån tre myndigheters

    olika ansvarsområden (Naturvårdsverket, Havs- och vattenmyndigheten och Skogsstyrelsen).

    Under firandet skedde även en uppskattad exkursion till Krondroppsytan Timrilt. I samband med

    30-årsjubileet presenterades en nyproducerad populärvetenskaplig temarapport,

    ”Krondroppsnätet 1985-2015 – tre decenniers övervakning av luftföroreningar och dess effekter

    på skogsmark”, som kan beställas från IVL.

    Gränsvärdena för hur mycket svavel som fartygsbränsle får innehålla skärptes den 1 januari 2015,

    från tidigare 1 procent till 0,1 procent svavel. Mätresultaten indikerar att beslutet att skärpa

    gränsvärdet för hur mycket svavel som fartygsbränsle får innehålla har gett resultat. Mätningar av

    lufthalter inom Krondroppsnätet och Luft- och Nederbördskemiska nätet (LNKN)1 visar att

    halterna av svaveldioxid vid två kustnära platser i Östersjön som medelvärde för 2015 (jan-dec)

    var cirka 30 % lägre jämfört med motsvarande medelvärde för de tre närmast föregående åren.

    Under 2015 initierades ett nytt sexårigt samarbetsprojekt som finns att läsa om på

    Krondroppsnätets webbplats: www.krondroppsnatet.ivl.se. Grundtanken är att utifrån

    depositions-, markvatten- samt lufthaltsmätningar ge kunskap om belastning av luftföroreningar

    och dess effekter på växtlighet, mark och vatten.

    Konferensen Acid Rain hålls vart 5:e år och utgör ett forum för forskare och beslutsfattare att

    diskutera forskningsfrågor och policies relaterade till försurning och återhämtning. Vid

    konferensen 2015 presenterades resultat avseende återhämtning från försurning och

    kväveutlakning vid tre krondroppsytor som drabbats av klimatrelaterade händelser:

    havssaltepisoder, storm och insektsangrepp.

    Under 2015 utförde IVL tillsammans med Lunds universitet, på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i

    Norrbottens län, kartläggningar av kritisk belastning för aciditet och kväve för olika

    ekosystemtyper i Norrbottens län. Tre olika modeller användes: PROFILE, ForSAFE och MAGIC.

    Dessutom beräknades kritisk belastning för kväve baserat på empiriskt framtagna gränsvärden.

  • Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Strategic lead-times and their implications on financial performance2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal for manufacturing companies is to earn profit and increase shareholders’ value. To ensure that companies in fact are profitable, managers usually evaluate the company’s resources based on both financial and operational performance, to analyse if the resources are contributing with a financial return. One of the most critical resources and competitive advantages that manufacturing companies have is time. Time, however, is an intangible resource and challenging to measure financially. There are, therefore, few practical instruments available to support managers’ decisions when it comes to linking lead-time with financial performance, assisting managers to prioritize the lead-times that are of strategic value (i.e. strategic lead-times). The purpose of this research was, therefore, to analyse strategic lead-times within new product development, purchasing, and production, as well as the implications that strategic lead-times have on manufacturing companies’ financial performance. To fulfil this purpose, the following two research objectives were formulated: (1) to analyse strategic lead-times within new product development, purchasing, and production, and (2) to analyse the implications of strategic lead-times on manufacturing companies’ financial performance.

    The research presented in this thesis has been conducted within a research project (KOPtimera). To fulfil the research objectives and the research purpose, a combination of conceptual analytical research and case study research was used, utilizing a number of data collection techniques: literature reviews, interviews, focus groups, workshops, document studies, and observations.

    In general, it is concluded that strategic lead-times, as defined in the research, have high implications for manufacturing companies’ financial performance and that the length of the strategic lead-times will impact who owns the risk in the manufacturing system, who controls the system and where variants are possible to create. The research further presents the implications that strategic lead-times have on financial performance, as well as indicates that it is possible to evaluate lead-time performance through financial performance, using readily available and accepted financial performance measures. Based on the implications identified, also a framework (the FinaSt framework) was developed. This FinaSt framework takes into consideration that not only the extension, but also the existence of strategic lead-times has implications for manufacturing companies’ financial performance, and that these implications can be either direct or indirect.

    The results contribute to the literature focused on valuing lead-times and provide useful knowledge for managers, allowing them to gain a better understanding for strategic lead-times’ implications on manufacturing companies’ financial performance, thus allowing for better decision support when evaluating supply chain designs and prioritizing alternatives based on profitability (i.e. return on investment).

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency . Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tillståndet i skogsmiljön i Kronobergs län Resultat från Krondroppsnätet t.o.m. september 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Kronobergs län görs mätningar i krondropp och markvatten på två granytor (Angelstad

    och Tagel) samt en tallyta (Attsjö). Alla mätningar startade 1996, men mätningarna vid

    två av ytorna har flyttats en kort sträcka sedan dess på grund av stormskador, Tagel

    (2007) och Angelstad (2013). För nedfall antas data före och efter flytt vara jämförbara

    Detta gäller dock inte för markvattenkemi, vilket innebär att inga trendanalyser för

    markvattenkemi har gjorts för Tagel. Nedfall på öppet fält mäts inom länet endast i

    Tagel.

    Svavelnedfallet (exklusive havssalt) på provytorna i länet har minskat från mellan 5 och 7

    kg per hektar och år 1996/97 till under 2 kg per hektar och år 2013/14. Kvävenedfallet,

    som följs främst på öppet fält på grund av interncirkulation i kronorna i skogsytorna, har

    varierat mellan 6 och 14 kg per hektar och år på länets enda yta på öppet fält, Tagel.

    Ingen tidstrend kan påvisas. Det totala nedfallet till skog kan antas vara något högre på

    grund av torrdepositionen till skogen. Den kritiska belastningen för kväve med avseende

    på övergödning till skog har satts till 5 kg per hektar och år och överskrids därmed.

    Det minskade svavelnedfallet återspeglas i minskande halter av svavel i markvattnet.

    Kvävehalterna i markvattnet har generellt varit mycket låga. Undantaget är i Angelstad

    där nitrathalterna, efter stormarna Gudrun 2005 och Per 2007, varit förhöjda. Angelstad

    är den enda yta i länet som visar på minskad försurning, med ökande pH och

    syraneutraliserande förmåga (ANC) och minskande halter oorganiskt aluminium.

    Förändringarna innan 2005 kan tillskrivas återhämtningen, medan förändringarna efter

    2005 är mer komplicerade att tolka, då stormeffekterna påverkat markvattenkemin i stor

    utsträckning. Surhetsgraden på ytorna har varierat mycket, med lägst pH i Angelstad,

    där pH efter flytten 2013 uppmätts till 4,4 - 4,5, och högst i Tagel, där pH oftast varit

    över 5.

    Nedfall av svavel och kväve samt markvattenkemi från Krondroppsnätet har använts till

    de fördjupade utvärderingarna av Bara naturlig försurning och Ingen övergödning som

    slutförs under 2015.

    Under 2014 utvärderades av Skogsstyrelsens obsyte-program, då programmet avslutades

    under 2013. Inom obsyte-programmet, som startade 1984, har mätningar i träd och

    mark gjorts på hundratals ytor i Sverige. Merparten av Krondroppsnätets ytor utgör en

    delmängd av obsytorna. En slutsats från utvärderingen var att obsyte-programmets

    mätningar bör fortsätta på Krondroppsnätets ytor, då de två mätprogrammen ger unika

    möjligheter till studier av orsakssamband för hela kedjan från atmosfäriskt nedfall till

    tillstånd i träd och mark.

    31 juli 2014 startade i Västmanland den största skogsbranden i modern tid i Sverige.

    Röken spreds över ett stort område, och vissa indikationer tyder på att NO2-halten i

    närområdet skulle kunna påverkats av branden.

    Mellan 31 augusti 2014 och 27 februari 2015 inträffade det största vulkanutbrottet på

    Island sedan 1783, vilket påverkat luftföroreningssituationen i Sverige. Vulkanutbrottet

    producerade svavelemissioner i nivå med hela Europas samlade svavelutsläpp.

    Mätningarna inom Krondroppsnätet visade att SO2-halterna, framförallt i norra Sverige,

    var kraftigt förhöjda under september 2014. Ytterligare utredning om påverkan från

    vulkanen i nedfallet i olika delar av Sverige kommer under 2015.

  • Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bhutta, Zulfiriar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Coates, Matthew M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Coggeshall, Megan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Diallo, Khassoum
    WHO Reg Off Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Franca, Elisabeth Barboza
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Fraser, Maya
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gething, Peter W.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kita, Maaya
    Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Global Hlth Policy, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kulikoff, Xie Rachel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Liang, Juan
    Sichuan Univ, West China Univ Hosp 2, Natl Off Maternal & Child Hlth Surveillance, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lind, Margaret
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, NIH, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mikesell, Joseph B.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mooney, Meghan D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Rakovac, Ivo
    WHO Reg Off Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Silpakit, Naris
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sligar, Amber
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zhu, Jun
    Natl Off MCH Surveillance China, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Herston, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte AwlaeloHealth & Demog Surveillance Site, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Hohenheim, Food Secur, Stuttgart, Germany.;Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Aboyans, Victor
    Dupuytren Univ Hosp, Limoges, France..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    UCL, Inst Global Hlth, London, England..
    Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
    Weill Cornell Med Coll Qatar, Infect Dis Epidemiol Grp, Doha, Qatar..
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Ramallah, Israel..
    Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Achoki, Tom
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Univ Coll Hosp, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
    Olabisi Onabanjo Univ, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria..
    Adelekan, Ademola Lukman
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Publ Hlth Promot Alliance, Osogbo, Nigeria..
    Adou, Arsene Kouablan
    Assoc Ivoirienne Bien Etre Familial, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Ajala, Oluremi N.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Med Ctr, Mckeesport, PA USA..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Alam, Noore K. M.
    Queensland Hlth, Herston, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Herston, Qld, Australia..
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Minist Hlth, Al Khuwair, Oman..
    Aldridge, Robert William
    UCL, Ctr Publ Hlth Data Sci, Inst Hlth Informat, London, England..
    Alegretti, Miguel Angel
    Univ Republica, Fac Med, Dept Prevent & Social Med, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Martin, Elena Alvarez
    Minist Hlth Social Policy & Equal, Spanish Observ Drugs, Govt Delegat Natl Plan Drugs, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Ameh, Emmanuel A.
    Natl Hosp, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amrock, Stephen Marc
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Andersen, Hjalte H.
    Anderson, Gregory M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Aalborg Univ, Fac Med, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    South Asian Publ Hlth Forum, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Assadi, Reza
    Atique, Suleman
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    Bacha, Umar
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Dept Nutr Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Banigbe, Bolanle F.
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Barber, Ryan M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Barnighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Bayou, Tigist Assefa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Beardsley, Justin
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Bekele, Tolesa
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Betsu, Balem Demtsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Bhatt, Samir
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Bikbov, Boris
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Blore, Jed D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bourne, Rupert R. A.
    Brainin, Michael
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Brown, Alexandria
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Buckle, Geoffrey Colin
    Burch, Michael
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Campuzano, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Carpenter, David
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Carter, Austin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Casey, Daniel C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.
    Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
    Castro, Ruben Estanislao
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Chang, Hsing-Yi
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Colquhoun, Samantha M.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Oxford, NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Damtew, Solomon Abrha
    Danawi, Hadi
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    das Neves, Jose
    Davis, Adrian C.
    de Jager, Pieter
    De Leo, Diego
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Deribe, Kebede
    Deribew, Amare
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    deVeber, Gabrielle A.
    Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Dhillon, Preet K.
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Doshi, Pratik Pinal
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    Duan, Leilei
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Ellingsen, Christian Lycke
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
    Faro, Andre
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Fischer, Florian
    Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Franklin, Richard C.
    Friedman, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Furst, Thomas
    Gambashidze, Ketevan
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Ganguly, Parthasarathi
    Gebre, Teshome
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gelefinse, Johanna M.
    Gessner, Bradford D.
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Gomez-Dantes, Hector
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Gona, Philimon
    Goodridge, Amador
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Goto, Atsushi
    Gouda, Hebe N.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    Guo, Yuming
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Vipin
    Gyawali, Bishal
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Haile, Demewoz
    Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Hancock, Jamie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Handal, Alexis J.
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Harun, Kimani M.
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Horino, Masako
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Hotez, Peter J.
    Hoy, Damian G.
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Hu, Guoqing
    Huang, Cheng
    Huang, John J.
    Huang, Hsiang
    Huiart, Laetitia
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Idrisov, Bulat T.
    Innos, Kaire
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Jee, Sun Ha
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Jiang, Guohong
    Jiang, Ying
    Jibat, Tariku
    Jin, Ye
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kabir, Zubair
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Karnak, Ritul
    Kan, Haidong
    Kang, Gagandeep
    Karch, Andre
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kaul, Anil
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Publ Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Keren, Andre
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young -Ho
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Cho-il
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Herston, Qld, Australia..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kudom, Andreas A.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Herston, Qld, Australia..
    Lam, Hilton
    Lam, Jennifer O.
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    Li, Yichong
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yongmei
    Lindsay, M. Patrice
    Univ Toronto, Inst Hlth Policy Management & Evaluat, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Liu, Patrick Y.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lloyd, Belinda K.
    Lo, Warren D.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Low, Nicola
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Ma, Stefan
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy
    Mandavi, Mandi
    Majdan, Marek
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Marcenes, Wagner
    -Raga, Jose Martinez
    Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
    Masiye, Felix
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Mehari, Alem
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Melaku, Yohannes Adama
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Memiah, Peter
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mills, Edward J.
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Mohammadi, Alireza
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Montico, Marcella
    Moore, Ami R.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Mori, Rintaro
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Murphy, Georgina A. V.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naidoo, Kovin S.
    Naldi, Luigi
    Nand, Devina
    Nangia, Vinay
    Neupane, Subas
    Newton, Charles R.
    Newton, John N.
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Nguhiu, Peter
    Nguyen, Quyen Le
    Nisar, Muhammad Imran
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Norman, Rosana E.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Oren, Eyal
    Ota, Erika
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Park, Hye-Youn
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina
    Patten, Scott B.
    Pedro, Joao Mario
    Pereira, David M.
    Perico, Norberto
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Petzold, Max
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Pillay, Julian David
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Pope, Daniel
    Popova, Svetlana
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Ur Rahman, Mohammad Hifz
    Ur Rahman, Sajjad
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Raju, Murugesan
    Ram, Usha
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Rao, Puja
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Refaat, Amany H.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Reynolds, Alex
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Ronfani, Luca
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roy, Ambuj
    Ruhago, George Mugambage
    Sagar, Rajesh
    Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Santos, Joao Vasco
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Sartorius, Benn
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Savic, Miloje
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Schottker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Setegn, Tesfaye
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
    Sharma, Rajesh
    She, Jun
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shen, Jiabin
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Global Hlth Policy, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shin, Hwashin Hyun
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shuie, Ivy
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Silverberg, Jonathan
    Simard, Edgar P.
    Sindi, Shireen
    Singh, Abhishek
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Om Prakash
    Singh, Prashant Kumar
    Singh, Virendra
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Soshnikov, Sergey
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Steel, Nicholas
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Sturua, Lela
    Sunguya, Bruno F.
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Taye, Bineyam
    Tedla, Bemnet Amare
    Tefera, Worku Mekonnen
    Tekle, Tesfaye
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Shifa, Girma Temam
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Tesfay, Fisaha Haile
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Thapa, Kiran
    Thomson, Alan J.
    -Lyman, Andrew L. Thorne
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Troeger, Christopher
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Verma, Raj Kumar
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wang, Linhong
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yanping
    Weichenthal, Scott
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Weiss, Daniel J.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Westerman, Ronny
    Widdowson, Marc -Alain
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Williams, Thomas Neil
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Won, Sungho
    Wubshet, Mamo
    Xiao, Qingyang
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Yakob, Bereket
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Zeeb, Hajo
    Zhang, Hao
    Zhao, Yong
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, 1725-1774 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time. Methods Drawing from analytical approaches developed and refined in previous iterations of the GBD study, we generated updated estimates of child mortality by age group (neonatal, post-neonatal, ages 1-4 years, and under 5) for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational geographies, from 1980-2015. We also estimated numbers and rates of stillbirths for these geographies and years. Gaussian process regression with data source adjustments for sampling and non-sampling bias was applied to synthesise input data for under-5 mortality for each geography. Age-specific mortality estimates were generated through a two-stage age-sex splitting process, and stillbirth estimates were produced with a mixed-effects model, which accounted for variable stillbirth definitions and data source-specific biases. For GBD 2015, we did a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in child mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and annualised rates of decrease for under-5 mortality and stillbirths as they related to the Soci-demographic Index (SDI). Second, we examined the ratio of recorded and expected levels of child mortality, on the basis of SDI, across geographies, as well as differences in recorded and expected annualised rates of change for under-5 mortality. Third, we analysed levels and cause compositions of under-5 mortality, across time and geographies, as they related to rising SDI. Finally, we decomposed the changes in under-5 mortality to changes in SDI at the global level, as well as changes in leading causes of under-5 deaths for countries and territories. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 child mortality estimation process, as well as data sources, in accordance with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, 5.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 5.7-6.0) children younger than 5 years died in 2015, representing a 52.0% (95% UI 50.7-53.3) decrease in the number of under-5 deaths since 1990. Neonatal deaths and stillbirths fell at a slower pace since 1990, decreasing by 42.4% (41.3-43.6) to 2.6 million (2.6-2.7) neonatal deaths and 47.0% (35.1-57.0) to 2.1 million (1.8-2.5) stillbirths in 2015. Between 1990 and 2015, global under-5 mortality decreased at an annualised rate of decrease of 3.0% (2.6-3.3), falling short of the 4.4% annualised rate of decrease required to achieve MDG4. During this time, 58 countries met or exceeded the pace of progress required to meet MDG4. Between 2000, the year MDG4 was formally enacted, and 2015, 28 additional countries that did not achieve the 4.4% rate of decrease from 1990 met the MDG4 pace of decrease. However, absolute levels of under-5 mortality remained high in many countries, with 11 countries still recording rates exceeding 100 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. Marked decreases in under-5 deaths due to a number of communicable diseases, including lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, measles, and malaria, accounted for much of the progress in lowering overall under-5 mortality in low-income countries. Compared with gains achieved for infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies, the persisting toll of neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies on child survival became evident, especially in low-income and low-middle-income countries. We found sizeable heterogeneities in comparing observed and expected rates of under-5 mortality, as well as differences in observed and expected rates of change for under-5 mortality. At the global level, we recorded a divergence in observed and expected levels of under-5 mortality starting in 2000, with the observed trend falling much faster than what was expected based on SDI through 2015. Between 2000 and 2015, the world recorded 10.3 million fewer under-5 deaths than expected on the basis of improving SDI alone. Interpretation Gains in child survival have been large, widespread, and in many places in the world, faster than what was anticipated based on improving levels of development. Yet some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, still had high rates of under-5 mortality in 2015. Unless these countries are able to accelerate reductions in child deaths at an extraordinary pace, their achievement of proposed SDG targets is unlikely. Improving the evidence base on drivers that might hasten the pace of progress for child survival, ranging from cost-effective intervention packages to innovative financing mechanisms, is vital to charting the pathways for ultimately ending preventable child deaths by 2030.

  • Lim, Stephen S.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Allen, Kate
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bhutta, Zulficiar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gething, Peter W.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Goldberg, Ellen M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Holmberg, Mollie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kutz, Michael J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    McNellan, Claire R.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mooney, Meghan D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Pigott, David M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    UCL, Inst Global Hlth, London, England..
    Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
    Weill Cornell Med Coll Qatar, Infect Dis Epidemiol Grp, Doha, Qatar..
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Ramallah, Israel..
    Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Achoki, Tom
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Univ Coll Hosp, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
    Olabisi Onabanjo Univ, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria..
    Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko
    Direct Dist Sanitaire Haho, Notse, Togo.;Univ Lome, Fac Sci Sante, Lome, Togo..
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Agrawal, Anurag
    CSIR Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, Delhi, India.;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Internal Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Ahmadieh, Hamid
    Ahmed, Kedir Yimam
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Akanda, Ali Shafqat
    Univ Rhode Isl, Kingston, RI 02881 USA..
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Newcastle Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Akseer, Nadia
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Alam, Uzma
    Int Ctr Humanitarian Affairs, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Alasfoor, Deena
    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.
    Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Dge, Robert William Aldr.
    UCL, Inst Global Hlth, London, England.;UCL, Ctr Publ Hlth Data Sci, Inst Hlth Informat, London, England.;UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alkhateeb, Mohammad A. B.
    King Saud Univ, King Khalid Univ Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Allen, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Martin, Elena Alvarez
    Govt Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amini, Heresh
    Kurdistan Univ Med Sci, Environm Hlth Res Ctr, Sanandaj, Iran.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland..
    Ammar, Walid
    Amrock, Stephen Marc
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Andersen, Hjalte H.
    Aalborg Univ, Fac Med, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Anderson, Benjamin O.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Anderson, Gregory M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    South Asian Publ Hlth Forum, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin, Cotonou, Benin.;LERAS Afrique, Parakou, Benin..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Sri Ramachandra Univ, Dept Environm Hlth Engn, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barber, Ryan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barnighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Basu, Sanjay
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Bayou, Tigist Assefa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Beardsley, Justin
    Univ Oxford, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Burgundy, Univ Hosp & Med Sch Dijon, Dijon, France..
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, New Haven, CT USA..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Benzian, Habib
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;NYU, Coll Dent, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, New York, NY USA..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhane Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Bernal, Oscar Alberto
    Univ Andes, Bogota, Colombia. Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Betsu, Balem Demtsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp Birmingham, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Otago, Sch Med, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Bhatt, Samir
    Imperial Coll, London, England..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Bienhoff, Kelly A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bikbov, Boris
    Academician VI Shumakov Fed Res Ctr Transplantol, Issues Transplanted Kidney, Dept Nephrol, Moscow, Russia..
    Binagwaho, Agnes
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Social Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Dartmouth Coll, Dept Pediat, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.;Dartmouth Coll, Dartmouth Inst Hlth Policy & Clin Practice, Geisel Sch Med, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.;Univ Global Hlth Equ, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Dept Community Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Blore, Jed
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bourne, Rupert R. A.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, Vis Eye Res Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Broday, David M.
    Technion, Haifa, Israel..
    Brugha, Traolach S.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Buchbinder, Rachelle
    Cabrini Inst, Monash Dept Clin Epidemiol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cahill, Leah E.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Campuzano, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Carabin, Helene
    Univ Oklahoma, Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Oklahoma City, OK USA..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Carter, Austin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Casey, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Caso, Valeria
    Univ Perugia, Stroke Unit, Perugia, Italy..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cavalleri, Fiorella
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Chang, Hsing-Yi
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Che, Xuan
    Chen, Alan Zian
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Chibalabala, Mirriam
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christensen, Hanne
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Coates, Matthew M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Coggeshall, Megan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Cohen, Aaron J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Cooke, Graham S.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Oxford, NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
    Cowie, Benjamin C.
    Univ Melbourne, Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Crump, John A.
    Damtew, Solomon Abrha
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    das Neves, Jose
    Davis, Adrian C.
    Davletov, Kairat
    de Castro, E. Filipa
    De Leo, Diego
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Deribe, Kebede
    Derrett, Sarah
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    Deshpande, Aniruddha
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    deVeber, Gabrielle A.
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Dhillon, Preet K.
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    Driscoll, Tim R.
    Duan, Leilei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Fahimi, Saman
    Farid, Talha A.
    Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
    Faro, Andre
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Felicio, Manuela Mendonca
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Fischer, Florian
    Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Foreman, Kyle
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fowkes, F. Gerry R.
    Franca, Elisabeth Barboza
    Franklin, Richard C.
    Fraser, Maya
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Friedman, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Frostad, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Furst, Thomas
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland..
    Gabbe, Belinda
    Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
    Gebre, Teshome
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gessner, Bradford D.
    Gillum, Richard F.
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    Giroud, Maurice
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Godwin, William
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gona, Philimon
    Goodridge, Amador
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Gouda, Hebe N.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Greenwell, Karen Fern
    Griswold, Max
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Guo, Yuming
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Vipin
    Gutierrez, Reyna A.
    Gyawali, Bishal
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Haakenstad, Annie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Haile, Demewoz
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Halasa, Yara A.
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Horino, Masako
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Hoy, Damian G.
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Huang, Hsiang
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Idrisov, Bulat T.
    Inoue, Manami
    Islami, Farhad
    Jacobs, Troy A.
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    James, Peter
    Harvard Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Univ, Channing Div Network Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Jansen, Henrica A. F. M.
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Jee, Sun Ha
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Jiang, Ying
    Jibat, Tariku
    Jin, Ye
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kabir, Zubair
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Kamal, Ritul
    Kan, Haidong
    Kandel, Amit
    Karch, Andre
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland..
    KarimIchani, Chante
    Karunapema, Palitha
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kaul, Anil
    Kawakami, Norito
    Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Keren, Andre
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer
    Khosravi, Ardeshir
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kieling, Christian
    Kim, Cho-il
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Sungroul
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Kotsakis, Georgios A.
    Univ Washington, Sch Dent, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
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    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
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    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
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    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
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    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
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    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
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    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
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    Univ Ibadan, Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria..
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    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Global Mental Hlth, London, England..
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    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia..
    Patil, Snehal T.
    Patten, Scott B.
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    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    Pedro, Joao Mario
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Poulton, Richie G.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
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    Rahman, Mahfuzar
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Rolm, Hirbo Shore
    Roberts, Bayard
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Rodriguez, Mina
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Ronfani, Luca
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Sartorius, Benn
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Savic, Miloje
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    Sawyer, Susan M.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Pediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
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    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
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    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Steiner, Caitlyn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Stockl, Heidi
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Strong, Mark
    Sun, Jiandong
    Sunguya, Bruno F.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tabb, Karen M.
    Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
    Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Taye, Bineyam
    Taylor, Hugh R.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tedla, Bemnet Amare
    Tefera, Worku
    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tekle, Dejen Yemane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Shifa, Girma Temam
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    Thomson, Alan J.
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    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
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    Monash Univ, Dept Med, Sch Clin Sci, Monash Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
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    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
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    Tonelli, Marcelo
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    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Phys & Atmospher Sci, Halifax, NS, Canada..
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    Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales
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    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
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    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Weiderpass, Elisabete
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    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
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    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
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    Westerman, Ronny
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
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    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England..
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    Kings Coll London, London, England..
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    Woolf, Anthony D.
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    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
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    Yano, Yuichiro
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    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
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    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
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    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
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    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
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    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos
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    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Zonies, David
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, 1813-1850 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59.3 (95% uncertainty interval 56.8-61.8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85.5 (84.2-86.5) in Iceland to 20.4 (15.4-24.9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r(2) = 0.88) and the MDG index (r(2) = 0.2), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r(2) = 0.79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7.9 (IQR 5.0-10.4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10.0 [6.7-13.1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5.5 [2.1-8.9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened. Interpretation GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs.

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency .
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency .
    KRONDROPPSNÄTET (SWETHRO) Nedfall och effekter av luftföroreningar – för regional och nationell övervakning. (version för Kronobergs län): Förslag till Program 2015-20202014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1 Krondroppsnätet – en sammanfattande beskrivning

    Krondroppsnätet startade 1985 i Blekinge, som ett svar på den oro som rådde kring frågan om skogsdöd i Europa, och med syfte att övervaka miljötillståndet i brukad skog. Verksamheten samordnades med Skogsstyrelsens s.k. observationsytor. Krondroppsnätet omfattade som mest flera hundra provytor, men i dagsläget finns ca 65 provytor fördelade över hela landet.

    Krondroppsnätet innefattar mätningar av nedfall till skog (krondropp), nedfall på närliggande yta på öppet fält, torrdeposition med strängprovtagare, markvattenkemi och lufthalter. Krondropp och markvattenkemi mäts på de flesta av ytorna, medan övriga mätningar sker på ett urval av ytorna. Resultaten från insamlade data analyseras i relation till effekter främst på tillstånd i mark, ytvatten, vegetation samt den brukade skogens långsiktiga näringstillstånd och hälsa. En del av resultaten används i arbetet med de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen, framför allt underlag "Bara Naturlig Försurning", "Ingen Övergödning" och Frisk Luft". Vidare relateras resultaten på regional nivå till modellresultat från det nationella miljömålsarbetet, bland annat med avseende på kritisk belastning, antropogent försurade sjöar och kväve-upplagring i skogmarken, för att ytterligare fördjupa underlaget för miljömålsuppföljningen.

    Krondroppsnätet har en länsvis förankring och drivs främst med regional finansiering från luftvårdsförbund, länsstyrelser och kommuner, men även enskilda företag. Naturvårdsverket bidrar även med viss finansiering, främst vad gäller mätningar av nederbörd och torrdeposition över öppet fält. Krondroppsnätet publicerar årliga rapporter, länsvis, regionalt eller nationellt samordnade. Rapporterna, mätdata och kartor finns tillgängliga på Krondroppsnätets webbplats, www.krondroppsnatet.ivl.se. Mätdata lämnas också till nationell datavärd (för närvarande IVL). Resultat från Krondroppsnätet används i stor utsträckning inom den länsvisa och den regionala miljöövervakningen, samt som underlag i åtgärdsplaner för kalkning.

    En styrka med Krondroppsnätets är att mätningar gjorts i många år och med god täckning över hela Sverige, vilket gör att detaljerade studier av variation i tid och rum kan göras. Krondroppsnätet har en stark koppling till den regionala och nationella miljöövervakningen, men är även starkt förankrad i forskningen. Genom att mätningarna inom Krondroppsnätet är nationellt samordnade och bedrivs med samma metoder överallt, kan mätningarna användas för att beskriva tidsutvecklingen vad gäller olika miljöindikatorer såväl regionalt som nationellt.

    Krondroppsnätets verksamhet spänner över stora tidsrymder, och har bland de längsta mät-serierna i hela Europa, vilket möjliggör studier av långsiktiga trender. Krondroppsnätets omfattande mätningar med en stor geografisk spridning i landet ger en bra överblick av nuläget och olika problemställningar i olika delar av landet. Data från Krondroppsnätet bidrar till modellutveckling, med målet att kunna prediktera den framtida utvecklingen, inte minst i perspektivet av pågående klimatförändringar som kan medföra stora förändringar vad gäller försurnings- och övergödningsproblematiken.

    2 Bakgrund

    Sveriges skogar täcker 56 % av Sveriges landareal, och mycket av avrinningen till sjöar och vattendrag härstammar från skogsmark. Nedfallet av försurande och övergödande ämnen från luften till skogsekosystemen i Sverige måste bedömas utifrån vad mark och vatten långsiktigt tål, samt utifrån orsakerna bakom nedfallet och de åtgärder som krävs för att motverka detta nedfall. Därför är det viktigt att följa upp effekter av luftföroreningar i skogslandskapet.

    Sedan 1990 har lufthalterna och nedfallet av svavel till den svenska skogen minskat kraftigt, i takt med minskningen av de samlade svavelutsläppen från Europa. Kväveemissionerna har däremot inte minskat i samma utsträckning, och på de flesta mätplatser har nedfallet av kväve inte minskat signifikant, varken i den svenska skogen eller i övriga Europa. Det pågår en återhämtning från försurning i markvattnet, men det går långsamt och effekterna på pH och den syraneutraliserande förmågan är i många fall ännu små eller obefintliga. Växtligheten i Sverige är påverkad av rådande kvävenedfall och halterna av nitratkväve i markvattnet har ibland varit förhöjda, framför allt i sydvästra Sverige. Problematiken med nedfall av för-surande och övergödande ämnen är därför långt ifrån löst.

    Krondroppsnätet driver en samordnad, länsvis miljöövervakning i brukad skog i hela Sverige, med målsättningen att resultaten skall vara direkt användbara inom den regionala miljö-övervakningen. Övervakningen är inriktad mot lufthalter, nedfall av försurande och över-gödande ämnen samt deras inverkan på markvattnets kvalitet. Resultaten från insamlade data analyseras i relation till påverkan främst på tillstånd i mark, ytvatten, vegetation samt den brukade skogens långsiktiga näringstillgång och hälsa. Samordning görs med skogliga observationer från bl.a. Skogsstyrelsens observationsytor. Mätmetoder utvecklas och förbättras kontinuerligt. Mätresultaten från Krondroppsnätet kan användas för att beskriva historiska förändringar och nuläge. Resultaten relateras även till modellresultat från det nationella miljömålsarbetet, bland annat med avseende på kritisk belastning, antropogent försurade sjöar och kväveupplagring i skogmarken, för att ytterligare fördjupa underlaget för miljömålsuppföljningen. Krondroppsnätet genererar regionala och nationella underlag till indikatorer för långsiktiga bedömningar inom den regionala miljömålsuppföljningen, främst med inriktning på miljömålet Bara Naturlig Försurning och indikatorerna nedfall av svavel och kväve. Resultaten från Krondroppsnätet skall vara direkt användbara inom den regionala miljöövervakningen.

    Krondroppsnätet avser att löpande producera långsiktiga regionala bedömningar av tillstånden hos skogsekosystemen i Sverige, främst med avseende på försurning, näringstillstånd samt övergödning. Dessa bedömningar kan användas för att motivera fortsatta höga krav på utsläppsminskningar från lokala och regionala verksamheter, såsom trafik och industri, men även för påtryckningar mot regering och riksdag att öka aktiviteterna vad gäller internatio-nella förhandlingar om begränsningar av långdistanstransporterade luftföroreningar. Resultaten kan även användas för att driva på utvecklingen när det gäller att få ner utsläppen från fartygstrafiken, såväl i hamnar som ute på öppet vatten.

    Krondroppsnätet är idag ett s.k. gemensamt delprogram. Genom de gemensamma del-programmen önskar Naturvårdsverket öka samverkan och samordning mellan nationell och regional miljöövervakning samt öka samverkan mellan olika aktörer. Inom programområde Luft finns hittills endast två gemensamma delprogram, varav Krondroppsnätet är det ena. Detta har medfört att i de prioriteringar som Naturvårdsverket gett ut inför framtagandet av de regionala miljöövervakningsplanerna för 2015-2020 är Krondroppsnätet högt prioriterat.

    Krondroppsnätet (http://www.krondroppsnatet.ivl.se) startade i Blekinge 1985. Genom åren har olika programperioder med olika fokus avlöst varandra. Inför Program 2007 (2007-2010) gjordes en omfattande revision av programmet med hjälp av representanter från länsstyrelser och luftvårdsförbund, Skogsstyrelsen, Naturvårdsverket samt IVL. Sedan 2007 har Krondroppsnätet främst finansierats av

    olika luftvårdsförbund och länsstyrelser, men även till viss del av Naturvårdsverket. Även olika företag och enskilda kommuner är med och finansierar.

    Inför den nu föreslagna programperioden 2015-2020 ger vi med detta förslag återigen alla medverkande luftvårdsförbund, länsstyrelser och Naturvårdsverket möjlighet att ge syn-punkter och kommentarer. Dessa synpunkter kommer att utgöra underlag för den slutliga utformningen av Program 2015.

    Krondroppsnätets styrgrupps förslag inför Program 2015 syftar till att optimera programmet utifrån aktuella frågeställningar och de rådande ekonomiska ramarna. I sin helhet anses antalet mätplatser inom programmet vara i underkant, så en besparing på bekostnad av antalet stationer är inte önskvärd, utan hellre då i form av något färre analysparametrar.

    En ambition inför Program 2015 är att ytterligare samordna resultaten mellan olika mätplatser oavsett länstillhörighet. Detta för att bäst beskriva olika områden i länen. Det finns även möjligheter att andra mätningar som bedrivs inom länet/regionen kan samredovisas med resultat från Krondroppsnätet, i de fall det är relevant.

    8 Förslag till Program 2015 (2015-2020)

    Förslaget till Program 2015 utgör en fortsättning på Program 2011 med några förändringar, främst motiverade utifrån ambitioner att hålla nere kostnaderna. Det nya programmet omfattar sammanfattningsvis främst följande förändringar:

     Under Program 2015 föreslås att analyser av alkalinitet (buffertkapacitet) i nederbörden över öppet fält, krondropp samt markvatten utgår. Vidare föreslås att analyser av TOC i krondropp och öppet fält utgår. I dagsläget är det de analyser som vi anser är minst viktiga. För många forskare har våra mätningar av TOC i öppet fält och krondropp varit mycket intressanta då det nästan inte mäts alls i Sverige, men inom Krondroppsnätet känner vi att vi kan avstå från att mäta dessa under en programperiod, då analyskostnaden för dem är relativt hög. Analyserna av TOC i markvatten föreslås däremot vara kvar. Brunifiering av sjöar och vattendrag, genom ökande halter av organiska ämnen, är ett problem som uppmärksammats mycket på senare tid, och orsakssambanden är inte helt klarlagda. Tidsserier av TOC i markvatten kan vara en viktig pusselbit när orsaks-sambanden studeras.

     Under programperioden 2011-2014 beräknades kommunvis deposition för svavel och kväve från SMHI:s "MATCH-Sverige"-modellsystem. Depositionsredovisning på lokal nivå hämtad från MATCH är förenligt med stora osäkerheter. Dessutom finns det en eftersläpning i modelldata som gör att det vissa år inte har varit möjligt att jämföra det senaste årets mätningar med de modellerade värdena för verifiering. På grund av kostnadsskäl, samt att vi bedömer att en modellberäknad kommundeposition är förenlig med stora osäkerheter, har vi valt att plocka bort den kommunvisa depositionen i detta förslag. Om osäkerheterna i modelleringen minskar framöver kan detta komma att ingå igen i nästa programperiod efter 2020. Vår ambition är att fortsätta samarbetet med SMHI för att försöka utreda detta vidare.

     I några län föreslås en flytt av lokaler men för de flesta länen föreslås inga större förändringar, varken vad gäller antal stationer eller val av plats. I bilaga 1-18 finns en detaljerad beskrivning av förslaget samt en kostnadsuppskattning för varje län.

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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    Karch, Andre
    Karletsos, Dimitris
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kaul, Anil
    Kawakami, Norito
    Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Kazi, Dhruv S.
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Keren, Andre
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Khosravi, Ardeshir
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kudom, Andreas A.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Kulikoff, Xie Rachel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kulkarni, Chanda
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Kutz, Michael J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Lam, Hilton
    Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector
    Lan, Qing
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Laryea, Dennis Odai
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    Li, Yichong
    Li, Yongmei
    Lipshultz, Steven E.
    Liu, Patrick Y.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Yang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommun Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lloyd, Belinda K.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Ma, Stefan
    El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd
    El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd
    Majdan, Marek
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Margolis, David Joel
    Marquez, Neal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Masiye, Felix
    Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.
    Mazorodze, Tasara T.
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Mehari, Alem
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Melaku, Yohannes Adama
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Univ Melbourne, Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mills, Edward J.
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Mohammadi, Alireza
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Monis, Jonathan De la Cruz
    Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montanez
    Montero, Pablo
    Montico, Marcella
    Mooney, Meghan D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Moore, Ami R.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Mori, Rintaro
    Mueller, Ulrich
    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naldi, Luigi
    Nand, Devina
    Nangia, Vinay
    Nash, Denis
    Neupane, Subas
    Newton, John N.
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Nguhiu, Peter
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Le Nguyen, Quyen
    Nisar, Muhammad Imran
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Nomura, Marika
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Norman, Rosana E.
    Nyakarahuka, Luke
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Opio, John Nelson
    Oren, Eyal
    Ota, Erika
    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
    Pa, Mahesh
    Pain, Amanda
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Papantoniou, Nikolaos
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Park, Hye-Youn
    Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina
    Patten, Scott B.
    Paul, Vinod K.
    Pereira, David M.
    Perico, Norberto
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Petzold, Max
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Pillay, Julian David
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Pope, Daniel
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Ram, Usha
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Rangaswamy, Thara
    Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya
    Refaat, Amany H.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, 1775-1812 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Findings Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and/or miscarriage. Historical patterns suggest achievement of SDG 3.1 will require 91% coverage of one antenatal care visit, 78% of four antenatal care visits, 81% of in-facility delivery, and 87% of skilled birth attendance. Interpretation Several challenges to improving reproductive health lie ahead in the SDG era. Countries should establish or renew systems for collection and timely dissemination of health data; expand coverage and improve quality of family planning services, including access to contraception and safe abortion to address high adolescent fertility; invest in improving health system capacity, including coverage of routine reproductive health care and of more advanced obstetric care-including EmOC; adapt health systems and data collection systems to monitor and reverse the increase in indirect, other direct, and late maternal deaths, especially in high SDI locations; and examine their own performance with respect to their SDI level, using that information to formulate strategies to improve performance and ensure optimum reproductive health of their population.

  • Guarnieri, Pierpaolo
    et al.
    Guarnieri, Pierpaolo
    Brethes, Anaïs
    Rasmussen, Thorkild M.
    Blischke, Anett
    Erlendsson, Ögmundur
    Bauer, Tobias
    CRUSMID-3D: Crustal Structure and Mineral Deposit Systems: 3D-modelling of base metal mineralization in Jameson Land (East Greenland)2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing research and education at a high international level is a prerequisite for the raw material sector to develop competitive and cost effective exploration methods. The NordMin project CRUSDMID-3D is a consortium between research institutes, academia and SME supporting a PhD project to study some of the geological processes in Greenland that are related to ore deposits, to understand the relationships between structures and mineralization. The new geological and structural data together with aeromagnetic/electromagnetic surveys and the drill-core data added new values to the regional knowledge of East Greenland. The exploration tools developed within the PhD-project are expected to be useful in planning and executing future exploration campaigns in similar but also other geological environments.

  • Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Intragenerational social mobility and functional somatic symptoms in a northern Swedish context: analyses of diagonal reference models.2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research indicate that social class mobility could be potentially important for health, but whether this is due to the movement itself or a result of people having been integrated in different class contexts is, to date, difficult to infer. In addition, although several theories suggest that transitions between classes in the social hierarchy can be stressful experiences, few studies have empirically examined whether such movements may have health effects, over and above the implications of "being" in these classes. In an attempt to investigate whether intragenerational social mobility is associated with functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood, the current study tests three partially contrasting theories.

    METHOD: The dissociative theory suggests that mobility in general and upward mobility in particular may be linked to psychological distress, while the falling from grace theory indicates that downward mobility is especially stressful. In contrast, the acculturation theory holds that the health implications of social mobility is not due to the movement itself but attributed to the class contexts in which people find themselves. Diagonal Reference Models were used on a sample of 924 individuals who in 1981 graduated from 9(th) grade in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden. Social mobility was operationalized as change in occupational class between age 30 and 42 (measured in 1995 and 2007). The health outcome was functional somatic symptoms at age 42, defined as a clustering self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties during the last 12 months.

    RESULTS: Overall mobility was not associated with higher levels of functional somatic symptoms compared to being immobile (p = 0.653). After controlling for prior and current class, sex, parental social position, general health, civil status, education and unemployment, the association between downward mobility was borderline significant (p = 0.055) while upward mobility was associated with lower levels of functional somatic symptoms (p = 0.03).

    CONCLUSION: The current study did not find unanimous support for any of the theories. Nevertheless, it sheds light on the possibility that upward mobility may be beneficial to reduce stress-related health problems in mid-life over and above the exposure to prior and current class, while downward mobility can be of less importance for middle-age health complaints.

  • Johannesson, Birgir
    et al.
    Johannesson, Birgir
    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn Ingi
    Franzson, Hjalti
    Erlendsson, Ögmundur
    Harðarson, Björn S.
    Thorhallsson, Eythor Rafn
    Arnason, Arni B.
    Azrague, Kamal
    Wiik, Marianne Rose Kjendseth
    Vares, Sirje
    Kronlöf, Anna
    Koskinen, Pertti
    Vehmas, Tapio
    GREENBAS: Sustainable Fibres from Basalt Mining2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The GREENBAS project is about the feasibility of producing continuous basalt fibres from Icelandic basalt. The project was made possible with support from NordMin, with the aim to develop the Nordic mining and mineral industry.Geological investigations by Iceland Geosurvey have resulted in insight into locations of the most ideal materials. Work at Innovation Centre Iceland (ICI) led to the definition of the basalt properties required. ICI also analysed the business conditions for a start-up factory. The involvement of JEI has ensured industrial relevance in tandem with the contribution of the University of Reykjavik team in gaining an understanding of the importance of applications in building materials.The involvement of SINTEF Norway and VTT Finland was crucial. They provided their expertise to analyse the life-cycle of basalt fibres and the feasibility and need of artificial external components. On basis of this project, a new phase can be started: the preparations for establishing a continuous basal fibre factory in Iceland.

  • ten Berge, Josianne C.
    et al.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    ten Berge, Josianne C.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van Rosmalen, Joost
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biostat, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Vermeer, Jacolien
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Immunol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hellström, Cecilia
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, SciLifeLab, Affin Prote, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, SciLifeLab, Affin Prote, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Qundos, Ulrika
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, SciLifeLab, Affin Prote, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rothova, Aniki
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Schreurs, Marco W. J.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Immunol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Serum Autoantibody Profiling of Patients with Paraneoplastic and Non-Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Retinopathy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, e0167909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Although multiple serum antiretinal autoantibodies (ARAs) have been reported in patients with paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy ((n)pAIR), not all retinal antigens involved in (n)pAIR are specified. This study aims to serologically identify patients with presumed (n)pAIR through determination of both known and unknown ARAs by autoantibody profiling.

    Methods: An antigen suspension bead array using 188 different antigens representing 97 ocular proteins was performed to detect ARAs in serum samples of patients with presumed (n)pAIR (n = 24), uveitis (n = 151) and cataract (n = 21). Logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations between ocular antigens and diagnosis. Validation of interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2 (IMPG2) and recoverin antigens was performed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot, respectively.

    Results: Samples of patients with presumed (n)pAIR exhibited a broad spectrum of ARAs. We identified retinal antigens that have already been described previously (e.g. recoverin), but also identified novel ARA targets. Most ARAs were not specific for (n)pAIR since their presence was also observed in patients with cataract or uveitis. High titers of autoantibodies directed against photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor and retinol-binding protein 3 were more common in patients with presumed (n)pAIR compared to uveitis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.018, respectively). The presence of all other ARAs did not significantly differ between groups. In patients with presumed (n)pAIR, anti-recoverin autoantibodies were the most prevalent ARAs. Validation of bead array results by immunohistochemistry (anti-IMPG2) and immunoblot (anti-recoverin) showed concordant results in (n)pAIR patients.

    Conclusions: Patients with (n)pAIR are characterized by the presence of a broad spectrum of ARAs. The diagnosis of (n)pAIR cannot be based on the mere presence of serum ARAs, as these are also commonly present in uveitis as well as in age-related cataract patients.

  • Mehmood, Abu Bakr
    et al.
    Mehmood, Abu Bakr
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shabbir, Ghulam
    Closed Form Approximation Solutions for the Restricted Circular Three Body Problem.2005In: APPS. Applied Sciences, ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 7, no 1, 112-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is developed to find approximate solutions to the restricted circular three body problem. The solution is useful in approximately describing the position vectors of three spherically symmetric masses, one of which has a much smaller mass than the other two. These masses perform free motion under each others’ gravitational influence. The set of solutions is found using the Lambert’s wave function.

  • Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Lindman, Åsa
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Towards Sustainability in Nordic Mining: A path towards sustainability for the Nordic mining industry2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry has a major impact on society – from an economic, environmental and social perspective and due to a vast number of criteria. Which criteria should be given priority depends on where the mining operations take place. The purpose is to examine the Nordic mining industry´s sustainability practice and to develop a guideline for its sustainability efforts. The research methods used in the study include a literature review, a content analysis of sustainability reports, a review of existing sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools, a stakeholder survey and interviews with mining company officials. Based on the findings, a sustainability criteria guideline is suggested in the areas of corporate governance, fair operating practices, economic aspects, human rights, labour practices, society and the environment.

  • Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Eneroth, Hanna
    Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand
    Poulsen, Morten
    Rönnqvist, Maria
    Risk-benefit assessment of food: Report from a Nordic workshop September 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this workshop held in Uppsala, Sweden 22-23 September 2016 was to initiate Nordic collaboration on risk-benefit assessment of foods.

    The importance of assessing both risks and benefits with foods to improve public health through appropriate dietary habits was emphasized. Risk-benefit assessments are resource demanding, and the methodological challenges extensive. Workshop participants decided to jointly develop this area further within the Nordic region and a Nordic risk-benefit group was formed.

    This report summarizes the presentations from invited speakers (Hans Verhagen, EFSA, Géraldine Boué, ONIRIS-INRA, France and Maarten Nauta, Denmark Technical University), the reports of ongoing risk-benefit activities in the Nordic countries and the discussions on topics and modes of future collaboration.

  • Fryknäs, Mårten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Zhang, Xiaonan
    Linkping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Canc Ctr Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bremberg, Ulf
    Beactica, SE-75450 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Senkowski, Wojciech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Olofsson, Maria Hägg
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Canc Ctr Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brandt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, POB 7015, SE-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    D'Arcy, Padraig
    Linkping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Schughart, Leoni Kunz
    Tech Univ Dresden, OncoRay Natl Ctr Radiat Res Oncol, D-01307 Dresden, Germany..
    Linder, Stig
    Linkping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Canc Ctr Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Iron chelators target both proliferating and quiescent cancer cells2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 38343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poorly vascularized areas of solid tumors contain quiescent cell populations that are resistant to cell cycle-active cancer drugs. The compound VLX600 was recently identified to target quiescent tumor cells and to inhibit mitochondrial respiration. We here performed gene expression analysis in order to characterize the cellular response to VLX600. The compound-specific signature of VLX600 revealed a striking similarity to signatures generated by compounds known to chelate iron. Validation experiments including addition of ferrous and ferric iron in excess, EXAFS measurements, and structure activity relationship analyses showed that VLX600 chelates iron and supported the hypothesis that the biological effects of this compound is due to iron chelation. Compounds that chelate iron possess anti-cancer activity, an effect largely attributed to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase in proliferating cells. Here we show that iron chelators decrease mitochondrial energy production, an effect poorly tolerated by metabolically stressed tumor cells. These pleiotropic features make iron chelators an attractive option for the treatment of solid tumors containing heterogeneous populations of proliferating and quiescent cells.

  • Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Stockholms universitet / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Stockholms universitet / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Hjälp till självhjälp inom äldreomsorgen2015In: Ä : en tidning för Riksföreningen sjuksköterskan inom äldrevård, ISSN 2001-1164, , 5 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:15 Room 2446, Uppsala
    Almquist, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Almquist, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Efficient Simulation of Wave Phenomena2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave phenomena appear in many fields of science such as acoustics, geophysics, and quantum mechanics. They can often be described by partial differential equations (PDEs). As PDEs typically are too difficult to solve by hand, the only option is to compute approximate solutions by implementing numerical methods on computers. Ideally, the numerical methods should produce accurate solutions at low computational cost. For wave propagation problems, high-order finite difference methods are known to be computationally cheap, but historically it has been difficult to construct stable methods. Thus, they have not been guaranteed to produce reasonable results.

    In this thesis we consider finite difference methods on summation-by-parts (SBP) form. To impose boundary and interface conditions we use the simultaneous approximation term (SAT) method. The SBP-SAT technique is designed such that the numerical solution mimics the energy estimates satisfied by the true solution. Hence, SBP-SAT schemes are energy-stable by construction and guaranteed to converge to the true solution of well-posed linear PDE. The SBP-SAT framework provides a means to derive high-order methods without jeopardizing stability. Thus, they overcome most of the drawbacks historically associated with finite difference methods.

    This thesis consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to improving existing SBP-SAT methods. In Papers I and II, we derive schemes with improved accuracy compared to standard schemes. In Paper III, we present an embedded boundary method that makes it easier to cope with complex geometries. The second part of the thesis shows how to apply the SBP-SAT method to wave propagation problems in acoustics (Paper IV) and quantum mechanics (Papers V and VI). The third part of the thesis, consisting of Paper VII, presents an efficient, fully explicit time-integration scheme well suited for locally refined meshes.

  • Balode, Ineta
    et al.
    Lettlands Universitet.
    Balode, Ineta
    Lettlands Universitet.
    Ekström, Kristin
    Fedosova, Jekaterina
    Velichko, Olena
    Hennius, Samira
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Krakopolskaja, Natalia
    Lingvistiska universitetet i Moskva (MGLU).
    Mamchur, Hanna
    Ivan Frankouniversitetet i Lviv.
    Orehovs, Ivar
    Lettlands Universitet.
    Ryzmakova, Olga
    Centret för svenska studier i Minsk.
    Vanjashkin, Sergej
    Lingvistiska universitetet i Moskva (MGLU).
    Svenska som främmande språk i olika klassrum: En projektrapport2012Report (Other academic)
  • Pontoppidan, Ole
    et al.
    Pontoppidan, Ole
    Miseljic, Mirko
    Slaughterhouses and producers of Animal By-products in the Nordic Countries: – a questionnaire approach2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Council of Ministers, the BAT-group under Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production, has awarded Danish Meat Research Institute (DMRI) to deliver a review report on Best Available Techniques (BAT) for slaughterhouses and producers of animal by-products in relation to the Nordic industry. The intention with the report is to use it in the first step of the upcoming EU revision of a new slaughterhouse and animal by-products BAT-reference document (BREF). The project is based on questionnaires in which slaughterhouses and animal by-products industries from Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland were asked about their current production patterns, emissions and resource accounting, and relation to potentially dubious BATs (BATs that may be difficult to follow).

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:00 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Speciation and Metabolic rate: Insights from an avian hybrid zone2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of divergent climate adaptation in speciation has received surprisingly little scientific attention. My dissertation research focused on how resting metabolic rate (RMR) relates to the build up of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation in a natural Ficedula flycatcher hybrid zone. RMR is the amount of energy an organism needs to run its internal organs. Since RMR is related to life history traits and thermoregulation in other systems, it is likely to affect speciation processes at secondary contact. I found that adult collared flycatchers displace pied flycatchers into increasingly poor habitats (Paper I). Pied nestlings exhibit lower RMR in poor environments (Paper II), which may promote regional coexistence and habitat isolation by making it possible for pied flycatchers to escape competition from collared flycatchers and reduce the risk of hybridization by breeding in the poorer habitats. Further, I found that while collared flycatcher nestling RMR was not environmentally-dependent (Paper II, Paper III), those collared flycatcher nestlings that had a lower RMR in poor environments tended to have higher condition (Paper III). Further, RMR was genetically linked to a sexual ornament in collared males that has previously been shown to be beneficial in poor environments. Lastly, I found that by seven days old, nestlings increase their metabolic rate when listening to song, indicating that they are listening, and by 9 days they can discriminate between songs (Paper IV). Taken together, RMR could affect pre-zygotic isolation via correlations with life history strategies, song and sexual ornaments. RMR is also related to post zygotic isolation in Ficedula flycatchers. I found that flycatcher hybrids tended to have a higher RMR than the parental species (Paper V), and that there were many differentially expressed genes in energetically expensive organs in hybrids that were related to metabolic function (Paper VI). Thus, metabolic dysfunction, possibly caused by genetic incompatibilities, in Ficedula flycatcher hybrids could be a factor leading to infertility and postzygotic isolation between the parental species. Overall, I find that RMR could be a general physiological trait that affects both pre- and postzygotic isolation in hybridizing species at secondary contact, and ought to be more thoroughly considered in speciation research. 

  • Public defence: 2017-02-17 10:00 Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Kista
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Radiation Hardness of 4H-SiC Devices and Circuits2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in space and nuclear technologies are limited by the capabilities of the conventional silicon (Si) electronics. Hence, there is a need to explore materials beyond Si with enhanced properties to operate in extreme environments. In this regards, silicon carbide (4H-SiC), a wide bandgap semiconductor, provides suitable solutions. In this thesis, radiation effects of 4H-SiC bipolar devices, circuits and dielectrics for SiC are investigated under various radiation types. We have demonstrated for the first time the radiation hardness of 4H-SiC logic circuits exposed to extremely high doses (332 Mrad) of gamma radiation and protons. Comparisons with previously available literature show that our 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is 2 orders of magnitude more tolerant under gamma radiation to existing Si-technology. 4H-SiC devices and circuits irradiated with 3 MeV protons show about one order of magnitude higher tolerance in comparison to Si.

    Numerical simulations of the device showed that the ionization is most influential in the degradation process by introducing interface states and oxide charges that lower the current gain. Due to the gain reduction of the BJT, the voltage reference of the logic circuit has been affected and this, in turn, degrades the voltage transfer characteristics of the OR-NOR gates.

    One of the key advantages of 4H-SiC over other wide bandgap materials is the possibility to thermally grow silicon oxide (SiO2) and process device in line with advanced silicon technology. However, there are still questions about the reliability of SiC/SiO2 interface under high power, high temperature and radiation rich environments. In this regard, aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a chemically and thermally stable dielectric, has been investigated. It has been shown that the surface cleaning treatment prior to deposition of a dielectric layer together with the post dielectric annealing has a crucial effect on interface and oxide quality. We have demonstrated a new method to evaluate the interface between dielectric/4H-SiC utilizing an optical free carrier absorption technique to quantitative measure the charge carrier trapping dynamics. The radiation hardness of Al2O3/4H-SiC is demonstrated and the data suggests that Al2O3 is better choice of dielectric for devices in radiation rich applications.

  • Jobs, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Wedberg, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Gajewski, Konrad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    DB Science 400 kW RF Station Site Acceptance Test2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The manufactured and delivered DB-Science 400 kW RF station was tested on site at FREIA during 2016. The station can successfully deliver continuous pulse-trains with a power-level up to 400 kW, however during most of the on-site measurements and testing the total combiner output power was limited to 360 kW due to unusually high G2 currents measured in one of the spare TH595 tetrode tubes used in the station. Each of the stations 200 kW tetrode based amplifier sections were mounted with TH595 tetrode tubes from Thales and tuned for optimal performance. The gain of the tetrode amplifiers were roughly 15 dB with some variation between the two amplifier sections and the overall gain was approximately 74 dB maximum. Amplitude and phase pulse variations were within the specified levels.

  • Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motion planning for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using Closed-Loop RRT2016In: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 3690-3697 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversing with a dolly steered trailer configura- tion is a hard task for any driver without extensive training. In this work we present a motion planning and control framework that can be used to automatically plan and execute complicated manoeuvres. The unstable dynamics of the reversing general 2- trailer configuration with off-axle hitching is first stabilised by an LQ-controller and then a pure pursuit path tracker is used on a higher level giving a cascaded controller that can track piecewise linear reference paths. This controller together with a kinematic model of the trailer configuration is then used for forward simulations within a Closed-Loop Rapidly Exploring Random Tree framework to generate motion plans that are not only kinematically feasible but also include the limitations of the controller’s tracking performance when reversing. The approach is evaluated over a series of Monte Carlo simulations on three different scenarios and impressive success rates are achieved. Finally the approach is successfully tested on a small scale test platform where the motion plan is calculated and then sent to the platform for execution. 

  • Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ward, Erik
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folkesson, John
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interaction aware trajectory planning for merge scenarios in congested traffic situations2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 465-472 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many traffic situations there are times where interaction with other drivers is necessary and unavoidable in order to safely progress towards an intended destination. This is especially true for merge manoeuvres into dense traffic, where drivers sometimes must be somewhat aggressive and show the intention of merging in order to interact with the other driver and make the driver open the gap needed to execute the manoeuvre safely. Many motion planning frameworks for autonomous vehicles adopt a reactive approach where simple models of other traffic participants are used and therefore need to adhere to large margins in order to behave safely. However, the large margins needed can sometimes get the system stuck in congested traffic where time gaps between vehicles are too small. In other situations, such as a highway merge, it can be significantly more dangerous to stop on the entrance ramp if the gaps are found to be too small than to make a slightly more aggressive manoeuvre and let the driver behind open the gap needed. To remedy this problem, this work uses the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) to explicitly model the interaction of other drivers and evaluates the risk by their required deceleration in a similar manner as the Minimum Overall Breaking Induced by Lane change (MOBIL) model that has been used in large scale traffic simulations before. This allows the algorithm to evaluate the effect on other drivers depending on our own trajectory plans by simulating the nearby traffic situation. Finding a globally optimal solution is often intractable in these situations so instead a large set of candidate trajectories are generated that are evaluated against the traffic scene by forward simulations of other traffic participants. By discretization and using an efficient trajectory generator together with efficient modelling of the traffic scene real-time demands can be met.

  • Sten, Sabine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Loven, Christian
    Riksarkivet,Box 12541, SE-10229 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellstrom, Anna
    Stockholms Univ, Inst Arkeologi Antikens kultur, Osteologiska Skningslab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liden, Kerstin
    Stockholms Univ, Inst Arkeologi Antikens kultur, Arkeologiska Skningslabo, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vretemark, Maria
    Vastergotlands Museum, SE-53232 Skara, Sweden..
    Vala, Cecilie Hongslo
    Univ Goteborgs, Enheten Geriatrik Inst Medicin, Sahlgrenska Akademin, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ljunggren, Östen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology and mineral metabolism.
    Fjällstrom, Markus
    Uppsala Univ, Arkeol Forskningslab, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Shalabi, Adel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Duvernoy, Olov
    Akad sjukhuset, Bild Fnnktionsmedicinskt Centrum, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Segelsjo, Monica
    Akad sjukhuset, Bild Fnnktionsmedicinskt Centrum, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Malmstrom, Helena Jankovic
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Erik den heliges skelett2016In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 111, no 1, 27-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saint Erik was King of Sweden for a few years up to 1160, when he was killed. A skeleton attributed to him is kept in Uppsala Cathedral. It underwent scientific reappraisal in 2014. The analyses included computer tomography, Xray absorptiometry, isotope analysis and DNA sampling. Radiocarbon confirms the alleged age of the bones. They belong to a 35-40-year-old man in excellent physical shape. The many wounds that he received in connection with his death fit surprisingly well with the saint's legend, whose preserved version was written 130 years after the event.

  • Brooks, S. J.
    et al.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Brooks, S. J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Burch, K. H.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa.;Univ Nottingham, Dept Neurosci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Maiorana, S. A.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychol, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Cocolas, E.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kamaloodien, K.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Psychol, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Stein, D. J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Psychological intervention with working memory training increases basal ganglia volume: A VBM study of inpatient treatment for methamphetamine use2016In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 12, 478-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Protracted methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with decreased control over drug craving and altered brain volume in the frontostriatal network. However, the nature of volumetric changes following a course of psychological intervention for MA use is not yet known. Methods: 66 males (41 MA patients, 25 healthy controls, HC) between the ages of 18-50 were recruited, the MA patients from new admissions to an in-patient drug rehabilitation centre and the HC via public advertisement, both in Cape Town, South Africa. 17 MA patients received 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU), and 24 MA patients completed TAU plus daily 30-minute cognitive training (CT) using an N-back working memory task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 4-week follow-up was acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for analysis. Results: TAU was associated with larger bilateral striatum (caudate/putamen) volume, whereas CT was associated with more widespread increases of the bilateral basal ganglia (incorporating the amygdala and hippocampus) and reduced bilateral cerebellum volume coinciding with improvements in impulsivity scores. Conclusions: While psychological intervention is associated with larger volume in mesolimbic reward regions, the utilisation of additional working memory training as an adjunct to treatment may further normalize frontostriatal structure and function.

  • Lee, Kian Keat
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lee, Kian Keat
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hao, Wenming
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Mikaela
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Morin, Daniel
    ABB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, Eva
    Biokol Lilliestrale & Co KB, Sibyllegatan 53, SE-11443 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lilliestrale, Malte
    Biokol Lilliestrale & Co KB, Sibyllegatan 53, SE-11443 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Andersson, Anna M.
    ABB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tailored activated carbons for supercapacitors derived from hydrothermally carbonized sugars by chemical activation2016In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 112, 110629-110641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbons (ACs) are actively researched as electrode materials for supercapacitors and there is a significant interest to produce ACs from sustainable and low cost precursors. In this study, various ACs were prepared from hydrothermally carbonized sugars by KOH activation. Both the hydrothermal carbonization and activation processes were optimized to tailor the properties (e.g. textural properties, chemical composition, N-doping, electrical conductivity) of the ACs. For instance, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas (S-BET) were tuned in the range of 800-3000 m(2) g(-1) with associated variation in the extent of microporosity and pore size distributions (PSDs). The ACs were evaluated electrochemically as materials for supercapacitor electrodes in a symmetrical two-electrode cell using an aqueous electrolyte. The relationship between the electrochemical, textural, electrical, and physicochemical properties were analyzed systematically to understand the key factors determining the electrochemical performance. A high specific capacitance (C-m) of similar to 260 F g(-1) was achieved at a moderately high S-BET of similar to 1300 m(2) g(-1), which was equivalent to a C-m/S-BET of 20 mu F cm(-2), for an optimal AC prepared from hydrothermally carbonized glucose. The very high surface-specific capacitance highlights that the specific surface area is certainly not the sole limiting parameter for effective electrode materials.

  • Husu, Liisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Husu, Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Tainio, Liisa
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Representations of women researchers in Finnish print media: top researchers, multi-talents and experts: top researchers, multi-talents and experts [Representaciones de mujeres investigadoras En la prensa escrita finlandesa: investigadoras de élite, multi-talentos y expertas]2016In: Investigaciones Feministas, ISSN 2171-6080, Vol. 7, no 2, 203-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s underrepresentation in the scientific community is currently on the agenda of science policy, both in Europe and internationally. The significance of media as a provider of female role models, on the one hand, and in reproducing stereotypical images of scientists, on the other hand, is often mentioned in this context. However, there is relative lack of research on how women researchers are depicted in the media, especially outside US and UK contexts. Finland provides an interesting context to study media representations of women in research, as a relatively gender equal and research intensive setting seen from a global perspective.The media representations of women researchers in Finland were explored by analyzing person interviews in Finnish printed media: newspapers, women’s magazines and magazines aimed for general public. The data consists of 107 interviews of women researchers from all fields of research, published in 1997-2014. Overwhelming majority of the interviews was written by female journalists. The analysis focuses on both social and linguistic aspects of the interviews from a gender perspective. Women researchers were found to be represented by a variation of frames, the most common of which were the Expert and the Top Researcher. Their family context was frequently mentioned, and the interviews frequently commented their appearance(e.g. hair, physique, way of moving).The fact that the interviewees’ family context was often highlighted in the interviews may serve to convey a message that it is possible and common to combine a career in research and family.One main result of the study was the diversity of representations of female researchers,compared to US and UK studies. The diversity of the media images of female researchers suggests that the media may provide important role models for young women, encouraging women to choose research as a profession.

  • Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Idrottsnytt – Smålands första idrottstidning2016In: Småländska idrottsminnen, no 1, 9-14 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Ett barn av tryckfriheten: Götheborgske Spionen2016In: Parnass, ISSN 1104-0548, no 1, 10-12 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Engblom, Lars-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Minnesord på Island: Användarskapat innehåll som intäktskälla2016In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 1, 97-100 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alltmer av mediernas innehåll produceras av användarna och på Island har det blivit tidningen Morgunblaðiðs främsta tillgång i kampen om prenumeranterna. Cirka en fjärdedel av tidningens textinnehåll består idag av insänt materiel, främst nekrologer. Traditionen har funnits i flera decennier, men har på senare tid vuxit starkt i omfång. Islands mediemiljö har också andra särpräglade inslag. Gratistidningen Frettablaðið har nästan dubbelt så många läsare som den traditionella morgontidningen Morgunblaðið. Men Morgunblaðið är ensam om minnesartiklarna. Utan dem skulle hälften sluta prenumerera enligt en undersökning.

  • Norgren, Robert
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Norgren, Robert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Morgan, Fröling
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Pulp mill bio-sludge - sludge properties and recycling2016In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Industrial & Hazardous Waste Management, September 27th-30th, 2016, Chania, Kreta., 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio sludge is a waste that is produced in large amounts at the waste water treatment plants at the pulp and paper industry. It is wet and has no obvious economic advantages, therefore present industrial focus is not on recycling methods but on disposal. Common disposal methods are incineration and composting. In Sweden and Norway about half of the sludge is incinerated, the other half is composted in Finland almost all is incinerated whereas landfilling of the sludge is common in Chile where half the sludge is landfilled and the other half is incinerated.

    Biomass waste in general could be recycled for its energy content or as a resource for chemical products or solid materials. Different forces like legislation, market demand and scientific innovations will exert push or pull towards different potential paths of recycling. To choose a recycling method for a sludge from a specific pulp mill one must consider the properties of the sludge. These properties depends on the type of tree species used (hard wood or soft wood), amount of extractive substances, type of process the pulp mills use (mechanical pulp or Kraft), reject handling and the configuration of the water treatment plant. It could be that one single recycling method is not the optimal one for all pulp mills.

    In this study, a comparison of bio-sludge properties between different Swedish pulp mills was investigated and its impact on the recyclability assessed. Ten mills were chosen that were expected to represent the extremes or unique combinations of raw material, type of cooking process, bleaching etc., and at the same time were easy to distinguish from each other. The samples were analysed for their content of possible useful substrates like lignin, fat or protein. Also the content of heavy metals were analysed, they could be problematic when handling rejects from the recycling process. Totally 21 parameters were analysed.

    The potential relationship between types of processes, raw material, chemicals used etc. and sludge properties and its recyclability were assessed. Potential recycling methods found in the scientific literature was screened and evaluated for technology readiness level, environmental aspects, the potential market value and profitability for production of sludge derived benefits was estimated.

    The two complementing perspectives mentioned above, sludge properties and appropriateness of technology were combined with the goal to suggest suitable recycling methods for the different sludge qualities that are produced today.