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  • Mörner, Cecilia
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Olausson, Ulrika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Hunting the Beast on YouTube: the framing of nature in social media2017In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans’ perceived relationship to nature and non-human lifeforms is fundamental for sustainable development; different framings of nature – as commodity, as threat, as sacred etc. – imply different responses to future challenges. The body of research on nature repre-sentations in various symbolic contexts is growing, but the ways in which nature is framed by people in the everyday has received scant attention. This paper aims to contribute to our understanding of the framing of nature by studying how wild-boar hunting is depicted on YouTube. The qualitative frame analysis identified three interrelated frames depicting hunting as battle, as consumption, and as privilege, all of which constitute and are constituted by the underlying notion of human as superior to nature. It is suggested that these hegemonic nature frames suppress more constructive ways of framing the human-nature relationship, but also that the identification of such potential counter-hegemonic frames enables their discursive manifestation.

  • Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 2525-2539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.

  • Emery, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Baker, Louise
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Ansell, Brendan R. E.
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Mirzaei, Mehdi
    Macquarie Univ, Fac Sci, Chem & Biomol Sci, N Ryde, NSW, Australia;Macquarie Univ, Australian Proteome Anal Facil, N Ryde, NSW, Australia.
    Haynes, Paul A.
    Macquarie Univ, Fac Sci, Chem & Biomol Sci, N Ryde, NSW, Australia.
    McConville, Malcom J.
    Univ Melbourne, Mol Sci & Biotechnol Inst Bio21, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Jex, Aaron R.
    Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Differential protein expression and post-translational modifications in metronidazole-resistant Giardia duodenalis2018In: GigaScience, ISSN 2047-217X, E-ISSN 2047-217X, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Metronidazole (Mtz) is the frontline drug treatment for multiple anaerobic pathogens, including the gastrointestinal protist, Giardia duodenalis. However, treatment failure is common and linked to in vivo drug resistance. In Giardia, in vitro drug-resistant lines allow controlled experimental interrogation of resistance mechanisms in isogenic cultures. However, resistance-associated changes are inconsistent between lines, phenotypic data are incomplete, and resistance is rarely genetically fixed, highlighted by reversion to sensitivity after drug selection ceases or via passage through the life cycle. Comprehensive quantitative approaches are required to resolve isolate variability, fully define Mtz resistance phenotypes, and explore the role of post-translational modifications therein. Findings: We performed quantitative proteomics to describe differentially expressed proteins in 3 seminal Mtz-resistant lines compared to their isogenic, Mtz-susceptible, parental line. We also probed changes in post-translational modifications including protein acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation via immunoblotting. We quantified more than 1,000 proteins in each genotype, recording substantial genotypic variation in differentially expressed proteins between isotypes. Our data confirm substantial changes in the antioxidant network, glycolysis, and electron transport and indicate links between protein acetylation and Mtz resistance, including cross-resistance to deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A in Mtz-resistant lines. Finally, we performed the first controlled, longitudinal study of Mtz resistance stability, monitoring lines after cessation of drug selection, revealing isolate-dependent phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate understanding that Mtz resistance must be broadened to post-transcriptional and post-translational responses and that Mtz resistance is polygenic, driven by isolate-dependent variation, and is correlated with changes in protein acetylation networks.

  • Lindström, Stafva
    et al.
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Department of Microbiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Timonen, Sari
    Sundström, Liselotte
    Johansson, Helena
    Trends in bacterial and fungal communities in ant nests observed with Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques-validity and compatibility in ecological studies2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e5289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbes are ubiquitous and often occur in functionally and taxonomically complex communities. Unveiling these community dynamics is one of the main challenges of microbial research. Combining a robust, cost effective and widely used method such as Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) with a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) method (Illumina MiSeq), offers a solid alternative for comprehensive assessment of microbial communities. Here, these two methods were combined in a study of complex bacterial and fungal communities in the nest mounds of the ant Formica exsecta, with the aim to assess the degree to which these methods can be used to complement each other. The results show that these methodologies capture similar spatiotemporal variations, as well as corresponding functional and taxonomical detail, of the microbial communities in a challenging medium consisting of soil, decomposing plant litter and an insect inhabitant. Both methods are suitable for the analysis of complex environmental microbial communities, but when combined, they complement each other well and can provide even more robust results. T-RFLP can be trusted to show similar general community patterns as Illumina MiSeq and remains a good option if resources for NGS methods are lacking.

  • Thörnblad, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
    Zimmermann, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Counting Quasi-idempotent Irreducible Integral Matrices2018In: Journal of Integer Sequences, ISSN 1530-7638, E-ISSN 1530-7638, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 18.4.8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given any polynomial p in C[X], we show that the set of irreducible matrices satisfying p(A) = 0 is finite. In the specific case of the polynomial p(X) = X-2 - nX, we count the number of irreducible matrices in this set and analyze the resulting sequences and their asymptotics. Such matrices turn out to be related to generalized compositions and generalized partitions.

  • Alam, Athar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Golovliov, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Javed, Eram
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    ClpB mutants of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica and tularensis are defective for type VI secretion and intracellular replication2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious, intracellular bacterium possesses an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is essential for the virulence of the bacterium. Recent data suggest that the HSP100 family member, ClpB, is involved in T6SS disassembly in the subspecies Francisella novicida. Here, we investigated the role of ClpB for the function of the T6SS and for phenotypic characteristics of the human pathogenic subspecies holarctica and tularensis. The Delta clpB mutants of the human live vaccine strain, LVS, belonging to subspecies holarctica, and the highly virulent SCHU S4 strain, belonging to subspecies tularensis, both showed extreme susceptibility to heat shock and low pH, severely impaired type VI secretion (T6S), and significant, but impaired intracellular replication compared to the wild-type strains. Moreover, they showed essentially intact phagosomal escape. Infection of mice demonstrated that both Delta clpB mutants were highly attenuated, but the SCHU S4 mutant showed more effective replication than the LVS strain. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ClpB performs multiple functions in the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica and tularensis and its function is important for T6S, intracellular replication, and virulence.

  • Hoffman, Tove
    et al.
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Barboutis, Christos
    Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Figuerola, Jordi
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Kiat, Yosef
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Moutailler, Sara
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Olsen, Björn
    Salaneck, Erik
    Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor2018In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 879-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus RNA was detected in immature Hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the North Mediterranean Basin. This finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. Increased surveillance is warranted.

  • Orton, F.
    et al.
    Säfholm, M.
    Jansson, E.
    Carlsson, Y.
    Eriksson, A.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Webster, T. Uren
    McMillan, T.
    Leishman, M.
    Verbruggen, B.
    Economou, T.
    Tyler, C. R.
    Berg, C.
    Exposure to an anti-androgenic herbicide negatively impacts reproductive physiology and fertility in Xenopustropicalis2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amphibians are threatened on a global scale and pollutants may be contributing to population declines, but how chemicals impact on their reproduction is poorly understood. We conducted a life cycle analysis to investigate the impacts of early life exposure to two anti-androgens (exposure until completion of metamorphosis;stage 66): flutamide, (50 µg/L)/linuron (9 and 45 µg/L)) on sexual development and breeding competence in Xenopus tropicalis. Our analyses included: mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh, cyp19, foxl2 and ar (tadpoles/metamorphs), gonadal histomorphology (metamorphs/adults), mRNA levels of ar/gr (adult male brain/gonad/forelimb), testosterone/corticosterone levels (adult males), secondary sexual characteristics (forelimb width/nuptial pad: adult males) and breeding competence (amplexus/fertility: adult males). Compared to controls, feminised sex ratios and increased number of spermatogonia (adults) were observed after exposure to flutamide and the lower linuron concentration. Exposure to the lower linuron concentration also resulted in demasculinisation of secondary sexual characteristics and reduced male fertility. Flutamide exposure resulted in masculinisation of the nuptial pad and elevated mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh and foxl2 in brains (metamorphs). Testosterone levels were higher in all treatment groups, however, overall few effects were observed in response to the higher linuron concentration. Our findings advance understanding of reproductive biology of X. tropicalis and illustrate negative effects of linuron on reproductive processes at a concentration measured in freshwater environments.

  • Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå Energi AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Using carbonized low-cost materials for removal of chemicals of environmental concern from water2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15793-15801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption on low-cost biochars would increase the affordability and availability of water treatment in, for example, developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the precursor materials and hydrochar surface properties that yield efficient removal of compounds of environmental concern (CEC). We determined the adsorption kinetics of a mixture containing ten CECs (octhilinone, triclosan, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, fluconazole, and bisphenol A) to hydrochars prepared from agricultural waste (including tomato- and olive-press wastes, rice husks, and horse manure). The surface characteristics of the hydrochars were evaluated via diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2-adsorption. Kinetic adsorption tests revealed that removal efficiencies varied substantially among different materials. Similarly, surface analysis revealed differences among the studied hydrochars and the degree of changes that the materials undergo during carbonization. According to the DRIFTS data, compared with the least efficient adsorbent materials, the most efficient hydrochars underwent more substantial changes during carbonization.

  • Public defence: 2018-08-27 12:39 F3, Stockholm
    Toscani, Giulio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    UNDERSTANDING THE SPONSEE'S EXPERIENCE: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SPONSOR-SPONSEE RELATIONSHIP2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship is the fastest-growing marketing communication tool, both in terms of

    volume and complexity. The two central players in any sponsorship arrangement are

    the sponsor and the sponsored institutions’ (sponsee). Sponsors are gradually

    increasing the amounts that they invest in sponsorships and elevating outcome

    requirements for their investments, as reflected in the large body of research

    dedicated to sponsors’ needs in terms of brand awareness, consumer loyalty and

    evaluation of results. On the other hand, the sponsees needs are relatively

    neglected, especially in the arts sector, where there has been little research focused

    on what arts sponsees require from a sponsorship arrangement. This research fills

    this gap by investigating the sponsorship process that arts sponsees go through and

    provides the first theoretical model of this process. Because of the need to

    inductively explain the process, taking into account its causes and consequences,

    the grounded theory method is used to develop a substantive theoretical model. Indepth

    interviews with 31 arts sponsorship managers, globally dispersed and with

    demonstrated experience in sponsorship, were collected, and they indicate that the

    arts sponsee’s reciprocity with a sponsor in a sponsorship interaction is a highly

    complex experience that involves both the internal arts sponsee and external

    sponsor’s actors. Within the complexity of the experience, the relationship is

    arguably not a developmentally normal experience, given arts sponsees’

    professional situations. The conclusion is that the reciprocity that arts sponsees

    experience throughout the sponsorship interaction is often not acknowledged or

    understood and would benefit from further empirical research.

  • Chen, Xi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Chemical Genomics Centre of the Max Planck Society, Dortmund, Germany; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany.
    Wu, Yao-Wen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Chemical Genomics Centre of the Max Planck Society, Dortmund, Germany; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany.
    Tunable and Photoswitchable Chemically Induced Dimerization for Chemo-optogenetic Control of Protein and Organelle Positioning2018In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 57, no 23, p. 6796-6799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins and organelles play an important role in controlling diverse cellular processes. Optogenetic tools using photosensitive proteins and chemically induced dimerization (CID), which allow control of protein dimerization, have been used to elucidate the dynamics of biological systems and to dissect the complicated biological regulatory networks. However, the inherent limitations of current optogenetic and CID systems remain a significant challenge for the fine-tuning of cellular activity at precise times and locations. Herein, we present a novel chemo-optogenetic approach, photoswitchable chemically induced dimerization (psCID), for controlling cellular function by using blue light in a rapid and reversible manner. Moreover, psCID is tunable; that is, the dimerization and dedimerization degrees can be fine-tuned by applying different doses of illumination. Using this approach, we control the localization of proteins and positioning of organelles in live cells with high spatial (μm) and temporal (ms) precision.

  • Schmidt, Manuela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap. Lund University.
    Hansson, Erika
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Education, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Doctoral students' well-being: a literature review2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students.  Method: Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being.  Results: Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed.  Conclusions: The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and-just as importantly-for a balanced life of PhD students. Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being. Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed. The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students' needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics' well-being and productivity.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 FR4, Stockholm
    Larsson, Jakob C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory x-ray fluorescence tomography2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) tomography is an emerging bio-imaging modality with potential for high-resolution molecular imaging in 3D. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XRF tomographysystems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Other macroscopic biomedical imaging methods provide either structural information with high spatial resolution (e.g., CT) or functional/molecularinformation with lower resolution (e.g., PET).

    In this Thesis we present a laboratory XRF tomography system with high spatial resolution (sub-200 μm), low NP concentration and vastly reduced scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and two photon counting detectors. By using the source’s characteristic 24 keV line emission together with spectrally matched molybdenum NPs the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs, as well as the absorption of the object. An iterative method is used to get aquantitative reconstruction of the XRF image. The reconstructed absorption and XRF images are finally combined into a single 3D overlay image.

    Using this system we have demonstrated high-resolution dual CT and XRF imaging of both phantoms and mice at radiation doses compatible with in vivo small-animal imaging.

  • Schizas, Nikos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Andersson, Brittmarie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hoeber, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Hailer, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Neural crest stem cells protect spinal cord neurons from excitotoxic damage and inhibit glial activation by secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor2018In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 372, no 3, p. 493-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acute phase of spinal cord injury is characterized by excitotoxic and inflammatory events that mediate extensive neuronal loss in the gray matter. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that may be mediated by soluble factors. We therefore hypothesize that transplantation of NCSCs to acutely injured spinal cord slice cultures (SCSCs) can prevent neuronal loss after excitotoxic injury. NCSCs were applied onto SCSCs previously subjected to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced injury. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining were used to quantitatively study cell populations and apoptosis. Concentrations of neurotrophic factors were measured by ELISA. Migration and differentiation properties of NCSCs on SCSCs, laminin, or hyaluronic acid hydrogel were separately studied. NCSCs counteracted the loss of NeuN-positive neurons that was otherwise observed after NMDA-induced excitotoxicity, partly by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. They also reduced activation of both microglial cells and astrocytes. The concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was increased in supernatants from SCSCs cultured with NCSCs compared to SCSCs alone and BDNF alone mimicked the effects of NCSC application on SCSCs. NCSCs migrated superficially across the surface of SCSCs and showed no signs of neuronal or glial differentiation but preserved their expression of SOX2 and Krox20. In conclusion, NCSCs exert neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and glia-inhibitory effects on excitotoxically injured spinal cord tissue, some of these effects mediated by secretion of BDNF. However, the investigated NCSCs seem not to undergo neuronal or glial differentiation in the short term since markers indicative of an undifferentiated state were expressed during the entire observation period.

  • Liu, Wei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Loewenheim, Hubert
    Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Tubingen Hearing Res Ctr, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
    Santi, Peter A.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Otolaryngol, 121 Lions Res Bldg,2001 Sixth St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
    Glueckert, Rudolf
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Otolaryngol, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    Schrott-Fischer, Annelies
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Otolaryngol, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Expression of trans-membrane serine protease 3 (TMPRSS3) in the human organ of Corti2018In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 372, no 3, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TMPRSS3 (Trans-membrane Serine Protease 3) is a type II trans-membrane serine protease that has proteolytic activity essential for hearing. Mutations in the gene cause non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness (DFNB8/10) in humans. Knowledge about its cellular distribution in the human inner ear may increase our understanding of its physiological role and involvement in deafness, ultimately leading to therapeutic interventions. In this study, we used super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for the first time together with transmission electron microscopy to localize the TMPRSS3 protein in the human organ of Corti. Archival human cochleae were dissected out during petroclival meningioma surgery. Microscopy with Zeiss LSM710 microscope achieved a lateral resolution of approximately 80 nm. TMPRSS3 was found to be associated with actin in both inner and outer hair cells. TMPRSS3 was located in cell surface-associated cytoskeletal bodies (surfoskelosomes) in inner and outer pillar cells and Deiters cells and in subcuticular organelles in outer hair cells. Our results suggest that TMPRSS3 proteolysis is linked to hair cell sterociliary mechanics and to the actin/microtubule networks that support cell motility and integrity.

  • Sundman, Joar
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fehrm, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Friberg, Danielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Low inter-examiner agreement of the Friedman staging system indicating limited value in patient selection2018In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 275, no 6, p. 1541-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Friedman staging system is a clinical method for selecting patients with obstructive sleep apnoea who are likely to benefit from uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the system by determining its inter-examiner agreement. Twelve patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were examined by 14 doctors. The Friedman stage was derived from tonsil size and tongue position, and a Cohen's kappa analysis was performed to assess inter-examiner agreement. One hundred and sixty-eight ratings were performed. The median kappa for tongue position was 0.32 (first and third quartiles: 0.21 and 0.44) and was 0.62 (0.50 and 0.63) for tonsil size. The median kappa for the Friedman stage was 0.38 (0.24 and 0.55), which corresponds to only a slight or fair agreement. The Friedman staging system demonstrated a low inter-examiner agreement, indicating that the system is an uncertain method for selecting patients for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Level of evidence: 2B.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-06 09:15 Biomedicinskt centrum C4:301, Uppsala
    Pedersen, Julia E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Evolution of acetylcholine receptors and study of the anatomy of the mouse brain reward system2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is divided in two parts. In the first part, I make use of the transgenic TRPV1-Cre mouse line as a tool to investigate the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). By using a ChR2-EYFP construct, detailed mapping of connectivity shows that TRPV1-Cre VTA neurons innervate many brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral pallidum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral habenula. Interestingly, a mainly excitatory subcircuit from the VTA to PFC in the TRPV1-Cre mouse was identified which suggests a fast modulatory mechanism of the PFC by a VTA subpopulation. These results are discussed in the light of behavioral and neurophysiological literature. In the second part, the evolution of the vertebrate acetylcholine (ACh) receptor gene families in relation to the whole genome duplications (WGDs), also called 1R and 2R, was investigated. The nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) form a complex gene family, where the members have evolved with varying rates. Our analyses combined phylogeny, intron positions and chromosomal synteny in order to elucidate the nAChR evolution in relation to the vertebrate WGDs. We found that ten ancestral nAChR genes were present prior to the WGDs. 1R and 2R then expanded this set to 19 genes, of which 16 are present in mammals today. The teleost specific WGD, 3R, further expanded the repertoire into 31 genes, of which 27 genes are present in zebrafish. The muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) on the other hand form a smaller receptor family. Using the same approach, our analyses show that there were two ancestral genes present prior to the WGDs, expanding to five genes following 1R and 2R. In zebrafish, all genes retained duplicates in 3R resulting in ten mAChR genes present today. Our analyses also showed that four mAChR teleost genes have gained introns, some up to six introns. The evolutionary analyses of the receptor gene families show that all vertebrate duplication events in the AChR families, except for two among the nAChR genes, occurred through 1R, 2R and 3R, displaying the substantial impact of the WGDs on the evolution of the AChR genes.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-15 13:00 B41, Uppsala
    Knopp, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University.
    Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance Evolution2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria are a threat to various applications in modern medicine and impose a strong economic burden on health systems. The development of new antibiotics is slow and cannot counterbalance the dissemination of resistant bacteria. Thus, we need to find ways to reduce the rate of antibiotic resistance development. For this, we need to acquire a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    Here, we investigate the factors that govern how antibiotic resistance mechanisms affect bacterial fitness and the overall level of resistance. Using porin-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli, we show that upregulation of alternative porins provides compensatory mechanisms that can ameliorate the fitness costs associated with resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phenotypic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations are largely predictable, both in combination with each other as well as in different bacterial strains. However, outliers from this trend exemplify the limitations of solely relying on laboratory strains for the characterization of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In contrast, strong epistatic interactions were observed in mutants evolved at sub-lethal concentrations of streptomycin. Despite these low concentrations and weak selective pressure, strains of Salmonella Typhimurium evolved high-level resistance, which followed completely different mutational pathways compared to high-level selection. Finally, we show that aminoglycoside resistance genes can be selected de novo from the expression of completely randomized nucleotide sequences. This demonstrates that new genes can arise from pools of non-coding sequences and that this process is relatively common.

    The studies presented in this thesis provide insights into the mechanistic basis of resistance evolution, including the mutational spectrum causing antibiotic resistance, compensatory pathways for growth-restoration and the influence of epistatic interactions on the phenotypic expression of resistance mutations. Understanding these factors in detail will enable us to better predict and prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance development, through improvements in surveillance, treatment regimens and drug development.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-12 09:00 B22, Uppsala
    Liao, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    A small amoeba at the crossroads of the big RNAi world: MicroRNA biogenesis and Argonaute function in Dictyostelium discoideum2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated gene silencing, known as RNAi, is a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotes. MicroRNAs (miRNA), one major type of small ncRNAs, are about 21nt long and bound by Argonaute proteins. This RNA-protein complex, called RISC, silences post-transcriptionally target mRNAs containing partial or full complementary sequence to the miRNA.  

    MiRNAs are generated from step-wise endonucleolytic cleavages of long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) by RNase III nucleases. Biogenesis of miRNAs differs between uni- and multicellular eukaryotes, and also between plants and animals. In this thesis, I aimed to understand miRNA maturation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which stands at the crossroads between these phylogenetically distant groups. We showed that Dicer-like protein DrnB is essential for global maturation of D. discoideum miRNAs. The study of two pri-miRNAs revealed the conserved 5’ m7G-cap structures, but different 3’end formation from each other, and also from canonical miRNAs in plants and animals. In agreement with its evolutionary position, D. discoideum miRNA biogenesis showed unique and also shared features with both life groups.

    D. discoideum grows as a unicellular organism, but can switch to a multicellular development upon starvation. Most miRNAs, many other small ncRNAs, and Argonaute proteins, the core effectors of the RISC, are differentially expressed during development, indicative of a crucial role of RNAi mediated regulation throughout D. discoideum life cycle. Among the five Argonaute homologs in D. discoideum, I investigated the functions of three members, e.g. AgnB, C and E. Judging from their subcellular localization, the phenotypic consequences and transcriptional alteration resulting from single Argonaute gene deletion, our results suggested different roles of AgnB, C and E. Possibly AgnB associates with miRNAs and regulates gene expression post-transcriptionally; while AgnC seems to be involved in nuclear RNAi. Finally, the cytoplasmic AgnE inhibits D. discoideum cell growth and regulates developmental timing via an unknown mechanism.

    My thesis work expands our knowledge on D. discoideum RNAi with focuses on miRNA biogenesis and potential function of Argonaute proteins and, all together, sheds lights on the evolution of miRNA and RNAi.  

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 09:15 C4:301, Uppsala
    Cen, Jing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Free fatty acids and insulin hypersecretion studied in human islets2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free fatty acid (FFA) levels are increased in many obese subjects. High FFA levels stimulate the pancreatic beta-cells but have negative long-term effects. In obese children with high FFA levels circulating insulin concentration is high early in life but decline with age precipitating the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aims at preventing this development of T2DM by defining underlying mechanisms of insulin hypersecretion. Such mechanisms will be identified by studying regulation of insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets and human EndoC-βH1 cells exposed to elevated FFA levels.

    We found that elevated concentrations of FFAs acutely stimulate insulin from human pancreatic islets at fasting blood glucose level, with mono-unsatured being more potent than saturated fatty acids. Enhanced secretion was associated with increased glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration. Continued exposure to elevated palmitate levels for up to 2 days accentuated insulin secretion, whereas 7 days’ exposure caused secretory decline. Metformin prevented insulin hypersecretion from human islets treated with palmitate for 2 days by decreasing mitochondrial metabolism. In islets exposed to palmitate for 7 days metformin improved insulin secretion by enhancing calcium binding protein sorcin levels and thereby reducing ER stress and apoptosis. Downregulation of sorcin had negative effects on insulin secretion, mitochondrial metabolism and ER stress in human islets and EndoC-βH1 cells. Specific cellular pathways involved in insulin hypersecretion and secretory decline were identified by microarray expression analysis and subsequent bioinformatics in human islets cultured with palmitate for 0, 4, 12 hours, 1, 2, and 7 days.

    In conclusion, beta-cells respond to elevated levels of FFAs by initially augmenting insulin release followed by declining secretory levels after prolonged exposure. Metformin normalizes these secretory aberrations. Specific signaling pathways and proteins including sorcin contribute to the secretory alterations induced by palmitate. When developing strategies for prevention of T2DM in obese children with elevated FFA levels, metformin should be considered as well as novel strategies involving sorcin and the identified specific pathways.

     

  • Wieslander, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Marginalised voices in the inclusive recruitment discourse: a dilemma of inclusion/exclusion in the (Swedish) police2018In: European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, ISSN 2000-7426, E-ISSN 2000-7426, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 61-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment for diversity is part of a range of proactive strategies for overcoming occupational stereotyping in a number of professions, as well as addressing a history of discrimination against women and minority groups. One such campaign launched by the Swedish police involves 'inclusive recruitment'. By analysing the discourse of inclusive recruitment and its subject positions in police student talk, this article shows how borders between people who are assigned different social categories are constructed, challenged and reinforced. Positive intentions in agendas towards diversity are problematised when minorities are ascribed as admitted on quotation, which places them in a ubordinate and 'risky position' within an occupation and on less legitimate premises. A dilemma emerges between a call to represent minority groups and the risk of categorising them as 'others'. In particular, voices of resistance from ethnic minority police women show how practices of exclusion could jeopardise efforts to achieve inclusion.

  • Wieslander, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Learning the (hidden) silence policy within the police2018In: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisations declare that the ability for employees to speak out about organisational matters is important for organisational development. However, recent literature reports a widespread fear of retaliation among employees if they express themselves – especially within the police. The point of departure of the present article is the tension and discrepancy between official policy and officers’ accounts of the conversational climate within the police. Through empirical examples from data consisting of field studies and 33 interviews with police officers in subordinate ranks, this article describes how employees learn and reproduce informal norms that condition the conversational and working climate within the organisation. In contrast to official guidelines within the police, employees learn the informal cultural norms of keeping a low profile and remaining silent through everyday talk. Theories that stress how discourses, storytelling, and noisy silences accomplish social action are used to explain why these informal norms are given such power within an institutional setting.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Trafikverket.
    Kostnadsanalyser av upphandlade kontrakt: två studier av investerings- och reinvesteringsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Agency’s mission includes continuously improving the productivity of operations. The main purpose of the report is to lay the groundwork for following up and further developing the activities carried out. For this purpose, the results of two studies are reported. The one compares costs in contract with invoiced final cost while the other analyses the cost of contracted maintenance costs.

    Finally, several minimum requirements are identified that must be placed on the information required to carry out systematic follow-up.

  • Public defence: 2018-08-27 15:55 F3, stockholm
    Toscani, Giulio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    UNDERSTANDING THE SPONSEE'S EXPERIENCE: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SPONSOR-SPONSEE RELATIONSHIP2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship is the fastest-growing marketing communication tool, both in terms of volume and complexity. The two central players in any sponsorship arrangement are the sponsor and the sponsored institutions’ (sponsee). Sponsors are gradually increasing the amounts that they invest in sponsorships and elevating outcome requirements for their investments, as reflected in the large body of research dedicated to sponsors’ needs in terms of brand awareness, consumer loyalty and evaluation of results. On the other hand, the sponsees needs are relatively neglected, especially in the arts sector, where there has been little research focused on what arts sponsees require from a sponsorship arrangement. This research fills this gap by investigating the sponsorship process that arts sponsees go through and provides the first theoretical model of this process. Because of the need to inductively explain the process, taking into account its causes and consequences, the grounded theory method is used to develop a substantive theoretical model. In-depth interviews with 31 arts sponsorship managers, globally dispersed and with demonstrated experience in sponsorship, were collected, and they indicate that the arts sponsee’s reciprocity with a sponsor in a sponsorship interaction is a highly complex experience that involves both the internal arts sponsee and external sponsor’s actors. Within the complexity of the experience, the relationship is arguably not a developmentally normal experience, given arts sponsees’ professional situations. The conclusion is that the reciprocity that arts sponsees experience throughout the sponsorship interaction is often not acknowledged or understood and would benefit from further empirical research.

  • Soares, Rudi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH.
    Bessman, Alexander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Svens, Pontus
    Scania.
    An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells2018In: BatteriesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the majority of applications using lithium-ion batteries, batteries are exposed to some harmonic content apart from the main charging/discharging current. The understanding of the effects that alternating currents have on batteries requires specific characterization methods and accurate measurement equipment. The lack of commercial battery testers with high alternating current capability simultaneously to the ability of operating at frequencies above 200 Hz, led to the design of the presented experimental setup. Additionally, the experimental setup expands the state-of-the-art of lithium-ion batteries testers by incorporating relevant lithium-ion battery cell characterization routines, namely hybrid pulse power current, incremental capacity analysis and galvanic intermittent titration technique. In this paper the hardware and the measurement capabilities of the experimental setup are presented. Moreover, the measurements errors due to the setup’s instruments were analysed to ensure lithium-ion batteries cell characterization quality. Finally, this paper presents preliminary results of capacity fade tests where 28 Ah cells were cycled with and without the injection of 21 A alternating at 1 kHz. Up to 300 cycles, no significant fade in cell capacity may be measured, meaning that alternating currents may not be as harmful for lithium-ion batteries as considered so far.

  • Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Liang
    SINTEF Energy Research .
    Romar, Henrik
    University of Oulu, Research Unit of Applied Chemistry.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Skreiberg, Øyvind
    SINTEF Energy Research .
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Effects of pyrolysis oil recycling and reaction gas atmosphere on the physical properties and reactivity of charcoal from wood2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pitchot, Romain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Andefors, Alf
    Future Eco North Sweden AB.
    Norberg, Niclas
    Future Eco North Sweden AB.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Production of metallurgical charcoal from biomass pyrolysis: pilot-scale experiment2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Change in size and density of a biomass char during heterogeneous reactions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Möller, Cecilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Regional Development (from 2013).
    Alfredsson-Olsson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Birgitta
    Eastern Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Overvåg, Kjell
    Department of Travel and Tourism, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    The border as an engine for mobility and spatial integration: A study of commuting in a Swedish-Norwegian context2018In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to analyse how cross-border commuting differed from intranational commuting in Sweden, and how cross-border mobilities affected spatial integration. The authors analysed patterns and spatial flows of cross-border commuting by comparing them with characteristics of intranational commuting. In the article, they explore the assumption that the border constitutes an ‘engine’ for work-related mobility, which affects processes of spatial integration in cross-border areas. The empirical material comprised data from surveys of commuting from the Swedish county of Värmland to Norway and commuting within Värmland. The findings showed that cross-border commuting shared common features with intranational commuting, including how the frequency of commuting was dependent on distance. The motives for commuting differed, and the reasons for working in Norway were economic rather than professional. In terms of spatial integration, cross-border commuting was mainly one-directional, from Sweden to Norway, while leisure mobility and migration tended to be in the opposite direction. The authors conclude that the border region is characterised by integration through specialisation, which involves a permanent state of ‘transient’ mobility. Thus, a win-win situation can be distinguished, in which the border serves as a resource and an ‘engine’ for cross-border integration, mobility and economic activities.

  • Hjort, Rebecka
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, Box 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlqvist, Emma
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Clin Res Ctr, Malmo, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Grill, Valdemar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway;Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, St Olavs Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Clin Res Ctr, Malmo, Sweden;Univ Helsinki, Finnish Inst Mol Med, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martinell, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Rasouli, Bahareh
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, Box 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosengren, Anders
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Clin Res Ctr, Malmo, Sweden.
    Tuomi, Tiinamaija
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Univ Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Abdominal Ctr,Res Program Diabet & Obes, Helsinki, Finland;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Asvold, Bjorn Olav
    Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, St Olavs Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, KG Jebsen Ctr Genet Epidemiol, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Carlsson, Sofia
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, Box 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Overweight, obesity and the risk of LADA: results from a Swedish case-control study and the Norwegian HUNT Study2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 1333-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. Methods Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case-control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984-2008). We present adjusted ORs and HRs with 95% CI. Results In the Swedish data, obesity was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.97), which was even stronger for type 2 diabetes (OR 18.88, 95% CI 14.29, 24.94). The association was stronger in LADA with low GAD antibody (GADA; <median) (OR 4.25; 95% CI 2.76, 6.52) but present also in LADA with high GADA (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.42, 3.24). In the Swedish data, obese vs normal weight LADA patients had lower GADA levels, better beta cell function, and were more likely to have low-risk HLA-genotypes. The combination of overweight and family history of diabetes (FHD) conferred an OR of 4.57 (95% CI 3.27, 6.39) for LADA and 24.51 (95% CI 17.82, 33.71) for type 2 diabetes. Prospective data from HUNT indicated even stronger associations; HR for LADA was 6.07 (95% CI 3.76, 9.78) for obesity and 7.45 (95% CI 4.02, 13.82) for overweight and FHD. Conclusions/interpretation Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD. These findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.

  • Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna university, Sweden.
    Time for reflection and some comparisons through the eyes of a participant2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Chen, Joe P.
    et al.
    Colgate Univ, Hamilton, NY 13346 USA.
    Teplyaev, Alexander
    Univ Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 USA.
    Tsougkas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Regularized Laplacian determinants of self-similar fractals2018In: Letters in Mathematical Physics, ISSN 0377-9017, E-ISSN 1573-0530, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 1563-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the spectral zeta functions of the Laplacian on fractal sets which are locally self-similar fractafolds, in the sense of Strichartz. These functions are known to meromorphically extend to the entire complex plane, and the locations of their poles, sometimes referred to as complex dimensions, are of special interest. We give examples of locally self-similar sets such that their complex dimensions are not on the imaginary axis, which allows us to interpret their Laplacian determinant as the regularized product of their eigenvalues. We then investigate a connection between the logarithm of the determinant of the discrete graph Laplacian and the regularized one.

  • Samuelson, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Arbetsskador i byggverksamhet 2017: Privat och offentlig verksamhet: Bygg- och anläggning, Byggnadsplåtslageri, Elinstallation, Ventilation, VVS, Måleri, Glasmästeri, Maskinentreprenad2017Report (Other academic)
  • Price, Nicholas
    et al.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Moyers, Brook T.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Lopez, Lua
    Penn State Univ, Dept Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Lasky, Jesse R.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Biol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Monroe, J. Grey
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Mullen, Jack L.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Oakley, Christopher G.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Bot & Plant Pathol, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA;Purdue Univ, Ctr Plant Biol, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
    Lin, Junjiang
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Schrider, Daniel R.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA.
    Kern, Andrew D.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Genet, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA.
    McKay, John K.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Bioagr Sci & Pest Management, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.
    Combining population genomics and fitness QTLs to identify the genetics of local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 19, p. 5028-5033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence for adaptation to different climates in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana is seen in reciprocal transplant experiments, but the genetic basis of this adaptation remains poorly understood. Field-based quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies provide direct but low-resolution evidence for the genetic basis of local adaptation. Using high-resolution population genomic approaches, we examine local adaptation along previously identified genetic trade-off (GT) and conditionally neutral (CN) QTLs for fitness between locally adapted Italian and Swedish A. thaliana populations [angstrom gren J, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 21077-21082]. We find that genomic regions enriched in high F-ST SNPs colocalize with GT QTL peaks. Many of these high F-ST regions also colocalize with regions enriched for SNPs significantly correlated to climate in Eurasia and evidence of recent selective sweeps in Sweden. Examining unfolded site frequency spectra across genes containing high F-ST SNPs suggests GTs may be due to more recent adaptation in Sweden than Italy. Finally, we collapse a list of thousands of genes spanning GT QTLs to 42 genes that likely underlie the observed GTs and explore potential biological processes driving these trade-offs, from protein phosphorylation, to seed dormancy and longevity. Our analyses link population genomic analyses and field-based QTL studies of local adaptation, and emphasize that GTs play an important role in the process of local adaptation.

  • Blomgren, Eric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Schafer, Martina L.
    Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pest occurrence of Aedes rossicus close to the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden2018In: Journal of Vector Ecology, ISSN 1081-1710, E-ISSN 1948-7134, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major nuisance species are found among the floodwater mosquitoes and snow-pool mosquitoes, with the former being the main reason for mosquito control in most areas. Nuisance species vary with the area, and previous reports from northern areas conclude that the nuisance is most often caused by snow-pool mosquitoes. We investigated the mosquito fauna and abundances of host-seeking females using CDC traps baited with carbon dioxide, in overtornea city near the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden, after earlier complaints about massive mosquito nuisance. The abundance of host-seeking female mosquitoes was high in 2014, with a maximum of similar to 15,400 individuals per CDC trap night, of which 89% was the floodwater mosquito Aedes rossicus. Surprisingly, the main nuisance species was a floodwater mosquito, occurring at the northernmost location it has ever been recorded in Sweden. Our report is probably the first documentation of such large numbers of Aedes rossicus in any locality and probably the first documentation of a severe floodwater mosquito nuisance near the Arctic Circle. Given the historical data on river discharge in the area, the nuisance is recurrent. We conclude that in northern localities, as well as in more southern localities, production of floodwater mosquitoes is a natural component of the floodplain fauna of rivers with a fluctuating water flow regime. Also, the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans were found north of their formerly known distribution in Sweden.

  • Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna university, Falun.
    TEACHERS REFLECTIONS on USING the COMPUTER  for WORK and LEARNING: In Primary and Secondary school in Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Glimskär, Anders
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kinström, Merit
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundin, Assar
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkén, Anders
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Olle
    Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Inventering och utveckling för uppföljning av gräsmarks- och hällmarksnaturtyper 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Rapporten beskriver resultat från biogeografisk uppföljning av några naturtyper med sparsam förekomst i landskapet. För hällmarkstorrängar (naturtyp 8230) visas resultat från tredje året av uppföljningen, som bland annat visar att en stor andel av hällmarkstorrängarna ligger utanför skyddade områden. För alvar, basiska berghällar och karsthällmark är 2017 det första året för ett förtätat stickprov på Öland och Gotland. Förutom variabler för artförekomst och vegetations­struktur ingår också beskrivning av vittringsmaterial och karstsprickor samt en särskild metodik för karstlevande snäckor. Svämängar har karterats i sin helhet längs Vindelälven, med ett stickprov av fältbesökta ytor. De kommande fem åren är planen att svämängar vid samtliga större vattendrag från Dalälven och norrut karteras. Förutom uppföljningen av dessa naturtyper, så har även utvecklingsinsatser gjorts för andra naturtyper, som underlag för framtida uppföljning. Ett mindre antal objekt av höglänta slåtterängar och slåtterängar i låglandet har inventerats, för att ge underlag för hur artsammansättningen kan ge stöd för en tillförlitlig klassning av slåtter- och betespräglade naturtyper. Första tester har gjorts för hur högörtängar och svämängar kan följas vid mindre vattendrag, men fler år behövs för att slutsatserna ska bli tydliga. Tester har också gjorts för hur Remiils miljöövervakning i gräsmarker kan bidra för vanliga gräsmarks­naturtyper, men en bra lösning förutsätter kraftigt förbättrad samordning mellan olika inventeringar.

  • Afram, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perez Simon, Jose Antonio
    Univ Seville, CSIC, Hosp Univ Virgen del Rocio, Dept Hematol,Inst Biomed Sevilla IBIS, Seville, Spain.
    Remberger, Mats
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Ctr Allogene Stem Cell Transplantat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Caballero-Velazquez, Teresa
    Univ Seville, CSIC, Hosp Univ Virgen del Rocio, Dept Hematol,Inst Biomed Sevilla IBIS, Seville, Spain.
    Martino, Rodrigo
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Dept Hematol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Luis Pinana, Jose
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Dept Hematol, Barcelona, Spain;Hosp Clin Univ, Dept Hematol, Valencia, Spain.
    Ringden, Olle
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Ctr Allogene Stem Cell Transplantat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Esquirol, Albert
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Dept Hematol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lopez-Corral, Lucia
    Hosp Univ Salamanca IBSAL, Dept Hematol, Salamanca, Spain.
    Garcia, Irene
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Dept Hematol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lopez-Godino, Oriana
    Hosp Univ Salamanca IBSAL, Dept Hematol, Salamanca, Spain.
    Sierra, Jordi
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Dept Hematol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Caballero, Dolores
    Hosp Univ Salamanca IBSAL, Dept Hematol, Salamanca, Spain.
    Ljungman, Per
    Vazquez, Lourdes
    Hosp Univ Salamanca IBSAL, Dept Hematol, Salamanca, Spain.
    Hägglund, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Reduced intensity conditioning increases risk of severe cGVHD: identification of risk factors for cGVHD in a multicenter setting2018In: Medical Oncology, ISSN 1357-0560, E-ISSN 1559-131X, Vol. 35, no 6, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Aim is to identify risk factors for the development of cGVHD in a multicenter setting. Patients transplanted between 2000 and 2006 were analyzed (n = 820). Donors were HLA-identical siblings (57%), matched unrelated donors (30%), and HLA-A, B or DR antigen mismatched (13%). Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 65% of patients. Overall incidence of cGVHD was 46% for patients surviving more than 100 days after HSCT (n = 747). Older patient age [HR 1.15, p < 0.001], prior acute GVHD [1.30, p = 0.024], and RIC [1.36, p = 0.028] increased overall cGVHD. In addition, RIC [4.85, p < 0.001], prior aGVHD [2.14, p = 0.001] and female donor to male recipient [1.80, p = 0.008] increased the risk of severe cGVHD. ATG had a protective effect for both overall [0.41, p < 0.001] and severe cGVHD [0.20, p < 0.001]. Relapse-free survival (RFS) was impaired in patients with severe cGVHD. RIC, prior aGVHD, and female-to-male donation increase the risk of severe cGVHD. ATG reduces the risk of all grades of cGVHD without hampering RFS. GVHD prophylaxis may be tailored according to the risk profile of patients.

  • Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Research Methods in the Swedish project Education for Participation: Philosophizing back a ‘New’ Life After Acquired Brain Injury2018In: Parecidos de familia: Propuestas actuales en Filosofía para Niños / [ed] García, F; Duthie, E. & Robles, R., Madrid: Anaya , 2018, p. 482-490Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, more than ten million people in all age groups in the world experience an acquired brain injury (‘ABI’), which is a brain injury caused after birth by external forces (e.g. motor vehicle accidents) or certain internal factors (e.g. stroke). Brain injury survivors are often left with long-term impairments in cognitive, social, or emotional functioning. Despite a promising outset, research on the effectiveness of philosophical dialogues as an educational method for persons with ABI to increase their cognitive, social, and emotional functioning has, to our knowledge, been virtually non-existent. The present research project targets this and uses a pretest-posttest and mixed-method triangulation design and attempts to measure effects of two small-scale interventions carried out in the northern part of Sweden. In this text, the project’s research design, data production, and data processing are described. 

  • Ringholm, Toril
    et al.
    Norway Inland University of Applied Sciences.
    Nyseth, Torill
    University of Tromsø.
    Gro, Sandkjær Hanssen
    NIBRHiOA.
    Participation according to the law?: The research-based knowledge on citizen participation in Norwegian municipal planning2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 67, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Sopher, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Converting scanned images of seismic reflection data into SEG-Y format2018In: EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATICS, ISSN 1865-0473, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archives across the world contain vast amounts of old or "vintage" seismic reflection data, which are largely inaccessible for geo-scientific research, due to the out-dated media on which they are stored. Despite the age of these data, they often have great potential to be of use in modern day research. It is often the case that seismic reflection data within these archives are only available as a processed stacked section, printed on paper or film. In this study, a method for the conversion (vectorization) of scanned images of stacked reflection seismic data to standard SEG-Y format is presented. The method addresses data displayed with a line denoting the waveform, where areas on one side of the baseline are shaded (i.e. wiggle trace, variable fill). The method provides an improvement on other published methods utilized within currently available academic software. Unlike previous studies, the method used to detect trace baselines and to detect and remove timelines on the seismic image is described in detail. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the performance of the method is presented, showing that an average trace-to-trace correlation coefficient of between 0.8 and 0.95 can be achieved for typical plotting styles. Finally, a case study where the method is applied to vectorize over 1700 km of land seismic data from the island of Gotland (Sweden) is presented.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-21 10:00 Videoconferencing Sal C, Kista
    Apolonia, Nuno
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Barcelona, Spain.
    On Service Optimization in Community Network Micro-Clouds2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet coverage in the world is still weak and local communities are required to come together and build their own network infrastructures. People collaborate for the common goal of accessing the Internet and cloud services by building Community networks (CNs).The use of Internet cloud services has grown over the last decade. Community network cloud infrastructures (i.e. micro-clouds) have been introduced to run services inside the network, without the need to consume them from the Internet. CN micro-clouds aims for not only an improved service performance, but also an entry point for an alternative to Internet cloud services in CNs. However, the adaptation of the services to be used in CN micro-clouds have their own challenges since the use of low-capacity devices and wireless connections without a central management is predominant in CNs. Further, large and irregular topology of the network, high software and hardware diversity and different service requirements in CNs, makes the CN micro-clouds a challenging environment to run local services, and to achieve service performance and quality similar to Internet cloud services. In this thesis, our main objective is the optimization of services (performance, quality) in CN micro-clouds, facilitating entrance to other services and motivating members to make use of CN micro-cloud services as an alternative to Internet services. We present an approach to handle services in CN micro-cloud environments in order to improve service performance and quality that can be approximated to Internet services, while also giving to the community motivation to use CN micro-cloud services. Furthermore, we break the problem into different levels (resource, service and middleware), propose a model that provides improvements for each level and contribute with information that helps to support the improvements (in terms of service performance and quality) in the other levels.At the resource level, we facilitate the use of community devices by utilizing virtualization techniques that isolate and manage CN micro-cloud services in order to have a multi-purpose environment that fosters services in the CN micro-cloud environment.At the service level, we build a monitoring tool tailored for CN micro-clouds that helps us to analyze service behavior and performance in CN micro-clouds. Subsequently, the information gathered enables adaptation of the services to the environment in order to improve their quality and performance under CN environments. At the middleware level, we build overlay networks as the main communication system according to the social information in order to improve paths and routes of the nodes, and improve transmission of data across the network by utilizing the relationships already established in the social network or community of practices that are related to the CNs. Therefore, service performance in CN micro-clouds can become more stable with respect to resource usage, performance and user perceived quality.

  • Sundström, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    "I haven't fully understood - is shamanism religion or not?": Some reflections on the concepts of shamanism and religion in Soviet discourse2018In: Temenos, ISSN 0497-1817, E-ISSN 2342-7256, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 9-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay the Marxist-Leninist understanding of the concept ‘religion’ is analysed in relation to how it was applied to the so-called shamanism of the indigenous peoples of the Soviet North. The point of departure is the correspondence between the head of the Council for the Affairs of Religious Cults in the Soviet Far East and his superior in Moscow. Further, the legal consequences of the somewhat varying Soviet understandings of ‘religion’ for people adhering to indigenous worldviews and ritual traditions in the Far East is presented.The essay aims to exemplify how definitions of ‘religion’, as well as the categorising of something as ‘religion’ or not, rely on social and political circumstances, and whether one finds ‘religion’, as well as the entities classified as such, to be positive or negative for the individual and society.

  • Zhou, Ang
    et al.
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Taylor, Amy E.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Karhunen, Ville
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovio, Suvi P.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
    Lahti, Jari
    Helsinki Collegium Adv Studies, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Fac Med, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lyall, Donald M.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Auvinen, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland.
    Perala, Mia Maria
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth Solut, Helsinki, Finland.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Power, Chris
    UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, Helsinki, Finland;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland.
    Hagg, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Veijola, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Res Unit Clin Neurosci, Oulu, Finland;Univ Hosp Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland;Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Munafo, Marcus R.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford Univ, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Llewellyn, David J.
    Univ Exeter, Med Sch, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Hypponen, Elina
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia;UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in up to 415,530 participants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid-to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (beta = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; beta = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (P-heterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P >= 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.

  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Förstudie av isenergins användningsområden1989Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    Kunce, Warren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sub-lethal Effects of Anthropogenic Contaminants on Aquatic Invertebrates2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic contaminants are considered to play a substantial role in the decline of freshwater invertebrate diversity. Sub-lethal effects of many of these contaminants on behaviour and life-history traits of aquatic invertebrates may contribute to their decline. As contaminants are rarely present in the environment alone, the effects of mixture exposures are highly relevant in assessing the risk these substances pose to the biota. This thesis focuses on sub-lethal effects of exposure to aquatic pollutants, separately and in combination, on fresh-water invertebrates. To investigate the single and combined effects of pesticides, larvae of the midge, Chironomus riparius were exposed to a 1 hour pulse of two neonicotinoids and two pyrethroids.  This short exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides decreased the survival and delayed development in C. riparius.  The combination of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids did not produce synergistic effects; however, there was some indication of antagonism. Additionally, larvae of the damselfly, Coenagrion puella, were exposed for 14 hours to two environmentally relevant concentrations of pyrethroid pesticides, alone and in combination. Exposure to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin, reduced the larvae’s predatory ability. Combined exposure to both deltamethrin and esfenvalerate inhibited the Glutathione S-transferase detoxification pathway and may have additive toxic effects on the larvae’s predatory ability. Microplastics are increasingly gaining attention as an aquatic pollutant of major concern with respect to the toxicity of the microplastics themselves as well as their capacity to adsorb persistent organic pollutants like pesticides. To investigate the effects of microplastics and a pyrethroid, alone and in combination, C. riparius larvae were raised in sediment spiked with two sizes of polystyrene-based latex microbeads and an environmentally relevant concentration of esfenvalerate under normal and food-restricted conditions. Exposure to both sizes of microplastics and esfenvalerate lead to equally decreased emergence under food-restricted conditions. Additionally, exposure to esfenvalerate led to decreases in survival when food was scarce that did not occur when microplastics were co-present. Antishistamines are also an emerging aquatic contaminant of concern with very little known about their biological effects on aquatic wildlife. Antihistamines could potentially interfere with the histaminergic pathways and thus affect thermal tolerance and temperature preference in aquatic invertebrates. The freshwater snail, Planorbarius corneus, was exposed for 24 hours to the antihistamine, diphenhydramine. This exposure increased thermal tolerance and righting time, but did not affect temperature preference. The results of the investigation suggest that anthropogenic contaminates alone and/or in combination have sub-lethal effects on life history, behavior and physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Such sub-lethal effects have the potential to affect populations and community structure in the aquatic and terrestrial environment.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:25 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Yang, Jiaojiao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High surface-to-volume ratio materials, including nanoparticles and mesoporous materials, have a number of applications due to their large surface area and special structures. Traditional approaches for synthesizing high surface-to-volume ratio nanomaterials are often complicated, expensive or environmentally unfriendly. Considering aspects such as availability and safety in terms of environmental or biological contact, magnesium carbonate-based nanomaterials are an interesting and potentially valuable candidate for novel applications. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop novel high surface-to-volume ratio amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials and investigating their possible applications.

    Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanoparticles (AMN) were successfully synthesized via a simple and low-temperature pathway. The structure and resulting properties of the material can be tailored by changing the final steps in the synthesis process.

    The ability of AMN to stabilize ibuprofen (IBU) in the amorphous state was investigated. Nanocomposites with IBU:AMN mass ratios as high as to 5:1 were shown to enhance the release rate of IBU in vitro by as much as 83 times compared to IBU in crystalline form. A related nanostructured material, mesoporous magnesium carbonate (MMC), was evaluated as a drug carrier for stabilizing amorphous drugs through the incorporation of the drug within its pores. In this study, MMC was used to release and sustain two poorly soluble drugs (tolfenamic acid and rimonabant) in the supersaturated state with the assistance of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    AMN was also used to synthesize a novel adhesive together with IBU without the addition of a polymer. This adhesive was transparent, self-healing, shapeable, stretchable and reusable. In addition, the adhesive was able to glue a variety of materials, including metals, glass, paper and plastics (even Teflon).

    Finally, AMN was used to prepare flexible, transparent and UV-shielding films when incorporated into a PMMA matrix. These films exhibited both UV-shielding properties and moisture absorbance and retention abilities. In addition, the UV- and thermo-stability of these films were enhanced by the addition of AMN.

    The work presented in this thesis show that the nanomaterials AMN and MMC possess great potential for an extremely broad range of applications, from pharmaceutical applications dealing with poorly soluble drugs to structural applications such as adhesives to applications in optics or electronics such as UV-shielding or moisture barrier films.

  • Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Affärsmodeller för solcellsinstallation i flerbostadshus och kommersiella fastigheter – en handbok2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Priset på solceller har stadigt minskat under senare år, samtidigt som effektiviteten har ökat. Alltfler, både privatpersoner och företag, väljer att investera i solcellsanläggningar. Drivkrafterna för att genomföra en installation är många och varierande, men vägen mot beslut är inte alltid enkel. Denna handbok riktar sig främst mot fastighetsägare till bostadsfastigheter och lokalfastigheter samt bostadsrättsföreningar. Syftet är att stödja dessa aktörsgrupper inför beslut om en eventuell solcellsinstallation. Innehållet i handboken bygger på resultat från workshops och intervjuer med representanter från de olika grupperna.

    Handboken beskriver möjliga affärsmodeller för solel uppdelat på de olika aktörsgrupperna, men även såväl ekonomiska som icke-ekonomiska nyttor med att installera en solelanläggning. Tre huvudtyper av affärsmodell presenteras:

    - Fastighetsägaren investerar och äger solcellsanläggningen.

    - Anläggningen leasas från ett leasingbolag, med eller utan avbetalning.

    - Fastighetsägaren upplåter takytor till en annan aktör som investerar i solceller.

    Affärsmodellsbeskrivningarna inkluderar ägarförhållanden, lönsamhet, hur den producerade solelen kan användas samt för- och nackdelar med modellen. Styrmedel i form av regler, stöd och ersättningar kan dessutom påverka både anläggningens storlek och dess lönsamhet. Aktuella regler beskrivs i handboken. Eftersom solelmarknaden och regelverk är i ständig förändring bör man alltid kontrollera vad som gäller inför en installation. I slutet på

    handboken finns därför tips på vidare läsning och relevanta myndigheter.

  • Teknisk Und Informerar 2018:42018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:15 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Zimmermann, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Classification of simple transitive 2-representations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation theory of finitary 2-categories is a generalization of the classical representation theory of finite dimensional associative algebras. A key notion in classical representation theory is the notion of simple modules as those are in some sense the building blocks of all modules. A correct analogue of simple modules in the realm of 2-representations is the notion of simple transitive 2-representations since those also turn out to be building blocks of 2-representations.

    This thesis is concerned with the classification of simple transitive 2-representations for a number of different interesting 2-categories. In Paper I we study simple transitive 2-representations of Soergel bimodules in Coxeter type I2(4) and show that all simple transitive 2-representations in this case are equivalent to cell 2-representations. In Paper II we classify simple transitive 2-representations for the quotient of the 2-category of Soergel bimodules over the coinvariant algebra which is associated to the two-sided cell that is the closest to the two-sided cell containing the identity element, in all Coxeter types but I2(12), I2(18) and I2(30). It turns out that, in most of the cases, simple transitive 2-representations are exhausted by cell 2-representations. However, in Coxeter types I2(2k), where k ≥ 3, there exist simple transitive 2-representations which are not equivalent to cell 2-representations. In Paper III we show that for any complex polynomial p(X) the set of irreducible, integer matrices which are annihilated by p(X) is finite. Moreover, we study the set of irreducible, integral matrices satisfying X² = nX, for n ≥ 1, and count its elements. In Paper IV we show that every simple transitive 2-representations of the 2-category of projective functors for a certain quotient of the quadratic dual of the preprojective algebra associated with a tree is equivalent to a cell 2-representation. Finally, in Paper V we study simple transitive 2-representations of certain 2-subcategories of the 2-categories of projective functors over star algebras. In the simplest case, which is associated with Dynkin type A2, we show that simple transitive 2-representations are classified by cell 2-representations. However, in the general case we conjecture that there exist many more simple transitive 2-representations.