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  • Public defence: 2018-01-12 09:00 Betula, Umeå
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Physiological- and Socio-Cultural Conditions for Performance in Women's Ice Hockey2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ice hockey community is founded on masculine norms and values, and the hockey rink is often described as “the home of men’s ice hockey”. Despite a growing popularity, women’s ice hockey has low priority in comparison to the men’s game. On top of that, the women’s game does not allow body checking, which makes it deviant from what some see as “the real game of ice hockey”. The checking prohibition causes physiological requirements to differ from the men’s game, and since women are underrepresented in ice hockey research, not much is known regarding the physiological- and socio-cultural conditions of women’s ice hockey. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate physiological- and socio-cultural conditions important for performance in women’s ice hockey.

    Methods: This thesis is unique in terms of the interdisciplinary approach between physiology and gender science, and the inclusion of studies based on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative thematic interviews with ice hockey coaches from Sweden, Canada, and the United States were used to explore socio-cultural conditions in relation to performance and sport development (Paper I). Relative age effect (RAE) in relation to maturity status was examined through anthropometric measurements and a player questionnaire (Paper II). Physiological field- and laboratory assessments were used to investigate physiological conditions and performance in female competitive ice hockey players from Sweden (Paper III-IV), and players from Canada (Paper IV).

    Results: The findings from Paper I suggest that coaches need to maintain a holistic approach to coaching to be able to coordinate and optimize the effects based on available conditions. Socio-cultural conditions, such as structural and financial support, are mentioned as important to support opportunities in women’s ice hockey. Furthermore, the results (Paper I) show that female players in Canada and the United States have superior opportunities compared to female players in Sweden. These advantages are mainly attributed to the support provided by the North American education systems. The findings from Paper II suggest that the relative age effect (RAEs) in women’s hockey are also influenced by socio-cultural conditions. Significant RAE (p<.05) was found for Swedish players born in the third quartile (Q3) and for Canadian player born in the second quartile (Q2). Players born in the fourth quartile (Q4) are significantly (p<.05) underrepresentated in both countries. Players tend to be average or late maturers, but no differences can be found by country or position. The findings from Paper III show that field-based assessments are comparable to laboratory assessments with the purpose of predicting skating performance. The Prediction models accounted for 13.6 % to 42 % (laboratory-based models) and 24.4 to 66.3 % (field-based models) of the variance in skating time. Regardless of assessment method, uni-lateral assessments are superior to bi-lateral assessments. The results support the use of field-based assessments in Paper IV. The findings from Paper IV show various physiological profiles for female Swedish and Canadian players. Swedish players had less body fat (p=.007), more lean mass (p=.005), and greater aerobic fitness measured with the20-meter shuttle run beep test (p=<.001). Canadian players had greater maximal isometric leg strength (p=.026), exhibit a greater running acceleration (p=<.001), performed better in single leg standing long jumps (right leg p=.002, left leg p=.030), and showed better anaerobic endurance (p=.029) on- ice. No significant differences can be found between forwards and defenders.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study show that physiological- and socio-cultural conditions should both be considered in relation to performance in women’s ice hockey. For example, the various physiological profiles are probably an effect of the different socio-cultural conditions in Sweden and Canada. The Canadian profile may be better adapted to performance in ice hockey, but further research is needed to establish a relationship. Since women’s ice hockey often has somewhat limited resources, this knowledge may help optimize the effect of the available resources, and thus improve performance. Improved performance may have a positive long-term effect on the symbolic view of women’s ice hockey. Women can probably further optimize their physical performance in relation to their current conditions. But for permanent changes to occur, power structures in sport must also change. Women themselves have limited opportunities to affect the dominating gender norms and values in ice hockey.

  • Bäckström, D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Domellöf, M. Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Granåsen, G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Linder, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Mayans, S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Elgh, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zetterberg, H.
    Blennow, K.
    Forsgren, L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Polymorphisms in dopamine-associated genes and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease2018In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 137, no 1, 91-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanisms for this complication are incompletely understood. Genotypes affecting dopamine transmission may be of importance. This study investigates whether genotypes associated with reduced prefrontal dopaminergic tone and/or reduced dopamine D2-receptor availability (Catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] Val(158)Met genotype and DRD2 (CT)-T-957 genotype) affect the development of cognitive deficits in PD.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and 34 patients with idiopathic PD, participating in a regional, population-based study of incident parkinsonism, underwent genotyping. After extensive baseline investigations (including imaging and biomarker analyses), the patients were followed prospectively during 6-10 years with neuropsychological evaluations, covering six cognitive domains. Cognitive decline (defined as the incidence of either Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment [PD-MCI] or dementia [PDD], diagnosed according to published criteria and blinded to genotype) was studied as the primary outcome.

    Results: Both genotypes affected cognition, as shown by Cox proportional hazards models. While the COMT(158)Val/Val genotype conferred an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment in patients with normal cognition at baseline (hazard ratio: 2.13, P=.023), the DRD2(957)T/T genotype conferred an overall increased risk of PD dementia (hazard ratio: 3.22, P<.001). The poorer cognitive performance in DRD2(957)T/T carriers with PD occurred mainly in episodic memory and attention.

    Conclusions: The results favor the hypothesis that dopamine deficiency in PD not only relate to mild cognitive deficits in frontostriatal functions, but also to a decline in memory and attention. This could indicate that dopamine deficiency impairs a wide network of brain areas.

  • Krefl, Daniel
    et al.
    CERN, Theoret Phys Dept, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    Seong, Rak-Kyeong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Machine learning of Calabi-Yau volumes2017In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 96, no 6, 066014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ machine learning techniques to investigate the volume minimum of Sasaki-Einstein base manifolds of noncompact toric Calabi-Yau three-folds. We find that the minimum volume can be approximated via a second-order multiple linear regression on standard topological quantities obtained from the corresponding toric diagram. The approximation improves further after invoking a convolutional neural network with the full toric diagram of the Calabi-Yau three-folds as the input. We are thereby able to circumvent any minimization procedure that was previously necessary and find an explicit mapping between the minimum volume and the topological quantities of the toric diagram. Under the AdS/CFT correspondence, the minimum volumes of Sasaki-Einstein manifolds correspond to central charges of a class of 4d N = 1 superconformal field theories. We therefore find empirical evidence for a function that gives values of central charges without the usual extremization procedure.

  • Blom Västberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Five papers on large scale dynamic discrete choice models of transportation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel demand models have long been used as tools by decision makers and researchers to analyse the effects of policies and infrastructure investments. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a travel demand model which is: sensitive to policies affecting timing of trips and time-space constraints; is consistent with microeconomics; and consistently treats the joint choice of the number of trips to perform during day as well as departure time, destination and mode for all trips. This is achieved using a dynamic discrete choice model (DDCM) of travel demand. The model further allows for a joint treatment of within-day travelling and between-day activity scheduling assuming that individuals are influenced by the past and considers the future when deciding what to do on a certain day.

    Paper I develops and provides estimation techniques for the daily component of the proposed travel demand model and present simulation results provides within sample validation of the model. Paper II extends the model to allow for correlation in preferences over the course of a day using a mixed-logit specification. Paper III introduces a day-to-day connection by using an infinite horizon DDCM. To allow for estimation of the combined model, Paper III develops conditions under which sequential estimation can be used to estimate very large scale DDCM models in situations where: the discrete state variable is partly latent but transitions are observed; the model repeatedly returns to a small set of states; and between these states there is no discounting, random error terms are i.i.d Gumble and transitions in the discrete state variable is deterministic given a decision.

    Paper IV develops a dynamic discrete continuous choice model for a household deciding on the number of cars to own, their fuel type and the yearly mileage for each car. It thus contributes to bridging the gap between discrete continuous choice models and DDCMs of car ownership.

    Infinite horizon DDCMs are commonly found in the literature and are used in, e.g., Paper III and IV in this thesis. It has been well established that the discount factor must be strictly less than one for such models to be well defined.Paper V show that it is possible to extend the framework to discount factors greater than one, allowing DDCM's to describe agents that: maximize the average utility per stage (when there is no discounting); value the future greater than the present and thus prefers improving sequences of outcomes implying that they take high costs early and reach a potential terminal state sooner than optimal.

  • Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Propaganda of Hatred and the Great Terror: A Nordic Approach2017In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research / [ed] Andrej Kotljarchuk; Olle Sundström, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, 91-121 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Sundström, Olle
    Umeå University.
    Introduction: The Problem of Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union2017In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research / [ed] Andrej Kotljarchuk; Olle Sundström, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, 15-30 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Arevalo, Liliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Ludvika ULHC, ABB Power Grids Grid Integrat HVDC, Dept Res & Dev, Lyviksvagen 3, S-77180 Lyviksvagen, Sweden..
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Unstable Leader Inception Criteria of Atmospheric Discharges2017In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 8, no 9, 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature, there are different criteria to represent the formation of a leader channel in short and long gap discharges. Due to the complexity of the physics of the heating phenomena, and the limitations of the computational resources, a simplified criterion for the minimum amount of electrical charge required to incept an unstable leader has recently been used for modeling long gap discharges and lightning attachments. The criterion is based on the assumption that the total energy of the streamer is used to heat up the gas, among other principles. However, from a physics point of view, energy can also be transferred to other molecular processes, such as rotation, translation, and vibrational excitation. In this paper, the leader inception mechanism was studied based on fundamental particle physics and the energy balance of the gas media. The heating process of the plasma is evaluated with a detailed two-dimensional self-consistent model. The model is able to represent the streamer propagation, dark period, and unsuccessful leaders that may occur prior to the heating of the channel. The main processes that participate in heating the gas are identified within the model, indicating that impact ionization and detachment are the leading sources of energy injection, and that recombination is responsible for loss of electrons and limiting the energy. The model was applied to a well-known experiment for long air gaps under positive switching impulses reported in the literature, and used to validate models for lightning attachments and long gap discharges. Results indicate that the streamer-leader transition depends on the amount of energy transferred to the heating process. The minimum electric charge required for leader inception varies with the gap geometry, the background electric field, the reduction of electric field due to the space charge, the energy expended on the vibrational relation, and the environmental conditions, among others.

  • Tamburini, Fabrizio
    et al.
    ZKM, Lorentzstr 19, D-76135 Karlsruhe, Germany.;MSC BW, Nobelstr 19, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany..
    De laurentis, Mariafelicia
    Goethe Univ, Inst Theoret Phys, Max von Laue Str 1, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany.;Tomsk State Pedag Univ, Ul Kievskaya 60, Tomsk 634061, Russia.;Tomsk State Univ Control Syst & Radioelectron TUS, Lab Theoret Cosmol, Tomsk 634050, Russia.;INFN, Sez Napoli, Compl Univ Monte S Angelo,Edificio G,Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Licata, Ignazio
    Inst Sci Methodol ISEM, I-90146 Palermo, Italy.;Sch Adv Int Studies Theoret & Nonlinear Methodol, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;BM Birla Sci Ctr, IIAMIS, Hyderabad 500463, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Thide, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Twisted Soft Photon Hair Implants on Black Holes2017In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, no 9, 458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Hawking-Perry-Strominger (HPS) work states a new controversial idea about the black hole (BH) information paradox, where BHs maximally entropize and encode information in their event horizon area, with no "hair" thought to reveal information outside but angular momentum, mass, and electric charge only in a unique quantum gravity (QG) vacuum state. New conservation laws of gravitation and electromagnetism, appear to generate different QG vacua, preserving more information in soft photon/graviton hair implants. We find that BH photon hair implants can encode orbital angular momentum (OAM) and vorticity of the electromagnetic (EM) field. Methods: Numerical simulations are used to plot an EM field with OAM emitted by a set of dipolar currents together with the soft photon field they induce. The analytical results confirm that the soft photon hair implant carries OAM and vorticity. Results: a set of charges and currents generating real EM fields with precise values of OAM induce a "curly", twisted, soft-hair implant on the BH with vorticity and OAM increased by one unit with respect to the initial real field. Conclusions: Soft photon implants can be spatially shaped ad hoc, encoding structured and densely organized information on the event horizon.

  • Smedberg Bondesson, Anna
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humaniora.
    Grannspråksdidaktik och grannspråkskommunikationi lärarutbildningarna2017In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 2, 21-28 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Lannegren, Olivia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ito, Hiroshi
    Nagoya Univ Commerce & Business, Fac Econ, Nisshin, Japan..
    The End of the ANC Era: An Analysis of Corruption and Inequality in South Africa2017In: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, no 4, 55-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2016 municipality election of South Africa was received as a shocking event. Despite a strong belief that the ANC would always rule in South Africa, the African National Congress (ANC), which has been governing the country since the end of apartheid in 1994, received the worst results ever recorded. The ANC with president Jacob Zuma received 54 percent of the votes, which is a considerable decrease from 62 percent in 2011. This election was a clear sign that the ANC is in trouble towards the 2019 elections. The party seriously needs to rethink its strategies and investigates why the votes are decreasing. Given South Africa being a key player in global governance and in particular a strong leader among the African countries, it is significant to understand this political turmoil, as it may influence the political directions of other countries in that area. With reviews of relevant literature, therefore, this paper analyzes the current political situation in South Africa, focusing on corruption and inequality. The paper suggests connections between corruption, Jacob Zuma, and the potential end of the ANC era. The issues of inequality describes more the difficult situation that South Africans are facing and can be connected to the desire for change. It would be interesting to further analyze whether South Africa would be ready for a multiparty democracy with a peaceful transition of power after the national elections in 2019.

  • Johanna, Grönroos
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Digitaliserade kursintroduktioner2017In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 2, 18-20 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, Gothenburg.
    Huvudsats, bisats eller någonting annat?: Om relativsatsliknande sekvenser i äldre svenska2007In: Studier i svensk språkhistoria 9: Det moderna genombrottet - också en språkfråga? / [ed] Lars Wollin, Anna, Saarukka & Ulla Stroh-Wollin, Åbo: Åbo Akademi , 2007, 166-173 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, Gothenburg.
    Läromedel i svenska2008In: Internationell nationalism / [ed] Lennart Limberg, Göteborg: Riksföreningen Sverigekontakt , 2008, 141-161 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-01-22 13:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Lochan Winton, Ruth Alicia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Talk through IT: Using Common Ground to build Bridges with Weak Ties in the Design of Online Psychosocial Support2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing interest in applying information and communication technology (ICT) in healthcare. The attention to ICT stems from several factors: costs of healthcare, high prevalence of somatic diseases, longer life expectancy and technological advancements. The quest to meet the growing healthcare needs has led authorities to allocate resources to develop technological solutions. Although this research investment is helpful for the information technology sector, these projects face challenges in working with multidisciplinary teams, recruiting participants and moving research to practice. This dissertation investigates the potential of ICT use in psychosocial support communication designed for people with emotional distress associated with a somatic disease (PEDASDs). The research aims to deliver design principles (DPs) for these ICTs, for three stakeholder groups: nurses, therapists and PEDASDs. The DPs focus on communication between these stakeholder groups and not on the overall ICT design. An interpretative approach was adopted to investigate the stakeholders’ unique ICT requirements. This method allows insights into the stakeholder’s world. Three studies, using semi-structured interviews, at oncology facilities in two healthcare system models (Trinidad & Tobago and Sweden), provide the empirical data. The stakeholders revealed not only their communication support needs but also other issues including the practical distresses of living with a chronic disease, limited support, lack of information, unwillingness to associate with other PEDASDs, professionalism between healthcare providers and disconnected healthcare services. Common ground, bridges and weak ties provide the theoretical framework to explore the findings. Eight DPs emerged from the studies: the healthcare system model, need to educate the stakeholders, ICT customisation, support of stakeholders’ information needs, allow access to external resources, support multidisciplinary team communication, support for self-care and support for significant others. The findings could potentially serve as a guide for ICT projects that develop artefacts for psychosocial support and provide a theoretically grounded understanding of stakeholder communication and relationships. The potential for future work includes investigating the issues of legislation and ethics, studying the needs of significant others, exploring the potential for ICTs in other healthcare system models (particularly the out-of-pocket health system) and examining the impact of social media on psychosocial support. 

  • Waller Lidström, Mattias
    et al.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Forssén, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Waller, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Time trends of comparative self-rated health in adults aged 25–34 in the Northern Sweden MONICA study, 1990–20142017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, e0187896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated health (SRH) accounts comprehensively for many health domains. The aim of this paper was to investigate time trends and associations between age-comparative self-rated health and some known determinants in a general population aged 24-34 years. Population- based cross-sectional surveys were performed in 1990, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014 in Northern Sweden. Out of 3500 invited persons, 1811 responded. Comparative SRH was measured on a three-grade ordinal scale by the question: "How would you assess your general health condition compared to persons of your own age?" with the alternatives-better/worse/similar". Over the period 1990 to 2014, the percentage of women rating comparative SRH as "worse" increased steadily, from 8.5% in 1990 reaching 20% in 2014 (p for trend 0.007). Among men, this pattern was almost the opposite, with increasing proportions rating "better" (p for trend <0.000). Time trends for physical activity in leisure time; length of education; Body Mass Index; anxiety; depressive emotions and satisfaction with economy showed a similar pattern for men and women. Factors that might contribute to the development of time trends for comparative SRH are discussed.

  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, Gothenburg.
    Svensk-tysk kontakt och svensk och tysk OV-ordföljd2014In: Svenska språkets historia 12: Variation och förändring / [ed] Maria Bylin, Cecilia Falk, Tomas Riad, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2014, 133-142 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Baldassarre, Maurizio
    et al.
    Baronio, Cesare M.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Barth, Andreas
    Amyloid beta-peptides 1-40 and 1-42 form oligomers with mixed beta-sheets2017In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 8, no 12, 8247-8254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two main amyloid-beta peptides of different length (A beta(40) and A beta(42)) are involved in Alzheimer's disease. Their relative abundance is decisive for the severity of the disease and mixed oligomers may contribute to the toxic species. However, little is know about the extent of mixing. To study whether A beta(40) and A beta(42) co-aggregate, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with C-13-labeling and spectrum calculation and focused on the amide I vibration, which is sensitive to backbone structure. Mixtures of monomeric labeled A beta(40) and unlabeled A beta(42) (and vice versa) were co-incubated for similar to 20 min and their infrared spectrum recorded. The position of the main C-13-amide I' band shifted to higher wavenumbers with increasing admixture of C-12-peptide due to the presence of C-12-amides in the vicinity of C-13-amides. The results indicate that A beta(40) and A beta(42) form mixed oligomers with a largely random distribution of A beta(40) and A beta(42) strands in their beta-sheets. The structures of the mixed oligomers are intermediate between those of the pure oligomers. There is no indication that one of the peptides forces the backbone structure of its oligomers on the other peptide when they are mixed as monomers. We also demonstrate that isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy can distinguish aggregation modulators that integrate into the backbone structure of their interaction partner from those that do not. As an example for the latter case, the pro-inflammatory calcium binding protein S100A9 is shown not to incorporate into the b-sheets of A beta(42).

  • Smedje, Greta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wang, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Hakan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Architecture & Built Environm, Div Bldg Serv & Energy, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engvall, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden2017In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 90, no 7, 703-711 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.

  • Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Math & Nat Sci, S-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Bimodules in Group Graded Rings2017In: Algebras and Representation Theory, ISSN 1386-923X, E-ISSN 1572-9079, Vol. 20, no 6, 1483-1494 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we introduce the notion of a controlled group graded ring. Let G be a group, with identity element e, and let R = aS center dot (gaG) R (g) be a unital G-graded ring. We say that R is G-controlled if there is a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the group G and (mutually non-isomorphic) R (e) -sub-bimodules of R, given by G aSc Ha dagger broken vertical bar aS center dot (haH) R (h) . For strongly G-graded rings, the property of being G-controlled is stronger than that of being simple. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a general G-graded ring to be G-controlled. We also give a characterization of strongly G-graded rings which are G-controlled. As an application of our main results we give a description of all intermediate subrings T with R (e) aS dagger T aS dagger R of a G-controlled strongly G-graded ring R. Our results generalize results for artinian skew group rings which were shown by Azumaya 70 years ago. In the special case of skew group rings we obtain an algebraic analogue of a recent result by Cameron and Smith on bimodules in crossed products of von Neumann algebras.

  • Zhang, Sicai
    et al.
    Berntsson, Ronnie P. A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tepp, William H.
    Tao, Liang
    Johnson, Eric A.
    Stenmark, Pal
    Dong, Min
    Structural basis for the unique ganglioside and cell membrane recognition mechanism of botulinum neurotoxin DC2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, 1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most potent toxins known, are potential bioterrorism agents. It is well established that all seven serotypes of BoNTs (BoNT/A-G) require complex gangliosides as co-receptors. Here, we report that BoNT/DC, a presumed mosaic toxin between BoNT/D and BoNT/C1, binds and enters efficiently into neurons lacking complex gangliosides and shows no reduction in toxicity in mice deficient in complex gangliosides. The co-crystal structure of BoNT/DC with sialyl-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Sialyl-T) suggests that BoNT/DC recognizes only the sialic acid, but not other moieties in gangliosides. Using liposome flotation assays, we demonstrate that an extended loop in BoNT/DC directly interacts with lipid membranes, and the co-occurring sialic acid binding and loop-membrane interactions mediate the recognition of gangliosides in membranes by BoNT/DC. These findings reveal a unique mechanism for cell membrane recognition and demonstrate that BoNT/DC can use a broad range of sialic acid-containing moieties as co-receptors.

  • Loderer, Christoph
    et al.
    Jonna, Venkateswara Rao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Crona, Mikael
    Grinberg, Inna Rozman
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie
    A unique cysteine-rich zinc finger domain present in a majority of class II ribonucleotide reductases mediates catalytic turnover2017In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, no 46, 19044-19054 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, used in DNA synthesis and repair. Two different mechanisms help deliver the required electrons to the RNR active site. Formate can be used as reductant directly in the active site, or glutaredoxins or thioredoxins reduce a C-terminal cysteine pair, which then delivers the electrons to the active site. Here, we characterized a novel cysteine-rich C-terminal domain (CRD), which is present in most class II RNRs found in microbes. The NrdJd-type RNR from the bacterium Stackebrandtia nassauensis was used as a model enzyme. We show that the CRD is involved in both higher oligomeric state formation and electron transfer to the active site. The CRD-dependent formation of high oligomers, such as tetramers and hexamers, was induced by addition of dATP or dGTP, but not of dTTP or dCTP. The electron transfer was mediated by an array of six cysteine residues at the very C-terminal end, which also coordinated a zinc atom. The electron transfer can also occur between subunits, depending on the enzyme's oligomeric state. An investigation of the native reductant of the system revealed no interaction with glutaredoxins or thioredoxins, indicating that this class II RNR uses a different electron source. Our results indicate that the CRD has a crucial role in catalytic turnover and a potentially new terminal reduction mechanism and suggest that the CRD is important for the activities of many class II RNRs.

  • El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;Menoufia Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm, Egypt..
    Azeem, Muhammad
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Chem, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan..
    Khalil, Nasr S.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.;Agr Res Ctr, Cairo, Egypt..
    Sakr, Hanem H.
    Menoufia Univ, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Shibin Al Kawm 32512, Egypt..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Wenner Gren Inst, Dept Mol Biosci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Awang, Khalijah
    Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Saeed, Aamer
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan..
    Farag, Mohamed A.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Coll Pharm, Kasr El Aini St,PB 11562, Cairo, Egypt..
    AlAjmi, Mohamed F.
    King Saud Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Coll Pharm, POB 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    Palsson, Katinka
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp,KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2017In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 73, no 1, 139-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 A mu g/cm(2) and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. alpha-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, alpha-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  • Lindelöf, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Experiences of older people with dementia participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program in nursing homes: "While it's tough, it's useful"2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, e0188225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to describe the views and experiences of participation in a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) program among older people with dementia in nursing homes. The study design was a qualitative interview study with 21 participants (15 women), aged 74-96, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10-23 at study start. The HIFE-program comprises exercises performed in functional weight-bearing positions and including movements used in everyday tasks. The exercise was individually designed, supervised in small groups in the nursing homes and performed during four months. Interviews were performed directly after exercise sessions and field notes about the sessions were recorded. Qualitative content analysis was used for analyses. The analysis revealed four themes: Exercise is challenging but achievable; Exercise gives pleasure and strength; Exercise evokes body memories; and Togetherness gives comfort, joy, and encouragement. The intense and tailored exercise, adapted to each participant, was perceived as challenging but achievable, and gave pleasure and improvements in mental and bodily strength. Memories of previous physical activities aroused and participants rediscovered bodily capabilities. Importance of individualized and supervised exercise in small groups was emphasized and created feelings of encouragement, safety, and coherence. The findings from the interviews reinforces the positive meaning of intense exercise to older people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. The participants were able to safely adhere to and understand the necessity of the exercise. Providers of exercise should consider the aspects valued by participants, e.g. supervision, individualization, small groups, encouragement, and that exercise involved joy and rediscovery of body competencies.

  • Senn, Pascal
    et al.
    Univ Bern, Inselspital, Univ Dept ORL Head & Neck Surg, Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Dept Clin Res, Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Clin Neurosci, Serv ORL & HNS, HUG, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Roccio, Marta
    Univ Bern, Inselspital, Univ Dept ORL Head & Neck Surg, Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Dept Clin Res, Bern, Switzerland..
    Hahnewald, Stefan
    Univ Bern, Inselspital, Univ Dept ORL Head & Neck Surg, Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Dept Clin Res, Bern, Switzerland..
    Frick, Claudia
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    Kwiatkowska, Monika
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    Ishikawa, Masaaki
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    Bako, Peter
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Edin, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Liu, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Pyykko, Ilmari
    Univ Tampere, Hearing & Balance Res Unit, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Finnish Ctr Alternat Methods, Tampere, Finland..
    Zou, Jing
    Univ Tampere, Hearing & Balance Res Unit, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Finnish Ctr Alternat Methods, Tampere, Finland..
    Mannerstrom, Marika
    Univ Tampere, Hearing & Balance Res Unit, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Finnish Ctr Alternat Methods, Tampere, Finland..
    Keppner, Herbert
    HES SO Univ Appl Sci Western Switzerland, Haute Ecole Arc Ingn, La Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland..
    Homsy, Alexandra
    HES SO Univ Appl Sci Western Switzerland, Haute Ecole Arc Ingn, La Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland..
    Laux, Edith
    HES SO Univ Appl Sci Western Switzerland, Haute Ecole Arc Ingn, La Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland..
    Llera, Miguel
    HES SO Univ Appl Sci Western Switzerland, Haute Ecole Arc Ingn, La Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland..
    Lellouche, Jean-Paul
    Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Adv Mat & Nanotechnol, Ramat Gan, Israel.;Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Mina & Everard Goodman Fac Life Sci, Ramat Gan, Israel..
    Ostrovsky, Stella
    Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Adv Mat & Nanotechnol, Ramat Gan, Israel.;Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Mina & Everard Goodman Fac Life Sci, Ramat Gan, Israel..
    Banin, Ehud
    Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Adv Mat & Nanotechnol, Ramat Gan, Israel.;Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Mina & Everard Goodman Fac Life Sci, Ramat Gan, Israel..
    Gedanken, Aharon
    Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Adv Mat & Nanotechnol, Ramat Gan, Israel.;Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Mina & Everard Goodman Fac Life Sci, Ramat Gan, Israel..
    Perkas, Nina
    Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Adv Mat & Nanotechnol, Ramat Gan, Israel.;Bar Ilan Univ, Dept Chem, Mina & Everard Goodman Fac Life Sci, Ramat Gan, Israel..
    Wank, Ute
    EMC Microcollect GmbH, Tubingen, Germany..
    Wiesmueller, Karl-Heinz
    EMC Microcollect GmbH, Tubingen, Germany..
    Mistrik, Pavel
    MED EL GmbH, Worldwide Headquarters, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Benav, Heval
    MED EL GmbH, Worldwide Headquarters, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Garnham, Carolyn
    MED EL GmbH, Worldwide Headquarters, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Jolly, Claude
    MED EL GmbH, Worldwide Headquarters, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Gander, Filippo
    SCIPROM Sarl, Rue Ctr 70, St Sulpice, Switzerland..
    Ulrich, Peter
    SCIPROM Sarl, Rue Ctr 70, St Sulpice, Switzerland..
    Mueller, Marcus
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    Loewenheim, Hubert
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Otorhinolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Tubingen, Germany..
    NANOCI-Nanotechnology Based Cochlear Implant With Gapless Interface to Auditory Neurons2017In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 38, no 8, E224-E231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cochlear implants (CI) restore functional hearing in the majority of deaf patients. Despite the tremendous success of these devices, some limitations remain. The bottleneck for optimal electrical stimulation with CI is caused by the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the auditory neurons in the inner ear. As a consequence, current devices are limited through 1) low frequency resolution, hence suboptimal sound quality and 2), large stimulation currents, hence high energy consumption (responsible for significant battery costs and for impeding the development of fully implantable systems). A recently completed, multinational and interdisciplinary project called NANOCI aimed at overcoming current limitations by creating a gapless interface between auditory nerve fibers and the cochlear implant electrode array. This ambitious goal was achieved in vivo by neurotrophin-induced attraction of neurites through an intra-cochlear gel-nanomatrix onto a modified nanoCI electrode array located in the scala tympani of deafened guinea pigs. Functionally, the gapless interface led to lower stimulation thresholds and a larger dynamic range in vivo, and to reduced stimulation energy requirement (up to fivefold) in an in vitro model using auditory neurons cultured on multi-electrode arrays. In conclusion, the NANOCI project yielded proof of concept that a gapless interface between auditory neurons and cochlear implant electrode arrays is feasible. These findings may be of relevance for the development of future CI systems with better sound quality and performance and lower energy consumption. The present overview/review paper summarizes the NANOCI project history and highlights achievements of the individual work packages.

  • Stankovic, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Cable Impact on Integration of Wind and Solar Power2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2018-01-19 10:15 ITC 2446, Uppsala
    Shcherbakov, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Localised Radial Basis Function Methods for Partial Differential Equations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radial basis function methods exhibit several very attractive properties such as a high order convergence of the approximated solution and flexibility to the domain geometry. However the method in its classical formulation becomes impractical for problems with relatively large numbers of degrees of freedom due to the ill-conditioning and dense structure of coefficient matrix. To overcome the latter issue we employ a localisation technique, namely a partition of unity method, while the former issue was previously addressed by several authors and was of less concern in this thesis.

    In this thesis we develop radial basis function partition of unity methods for partial differential equations arising in financial mathematics and glaciology. In the applications of financial mathematics we focus on pricing multi-asset equity and credit derivatives whose models involve several stochastic factors. We demonstrate that localised radial basis function methods are very effective and well-suited for financial applications thanks to the high order approximation properties that allow for the reduction of storage and computational requirements, which is crucial in multi-dimensional problems to cope with the curse of dimensionality. In the glaciology application we in the first place make use of the meshfree nature of the methods and their flexibility with respect to the irregular geometries of ice sheets and glaciers. Also, we exploit the fact that radial basis function methods are stated in strong form, which is advantageous for approximating velocity fields of non-Newtonian viscous liquids such as ice, since it allows to avoid a full coefficient matrix reassembly within the nonlinear iteration.

    In addition to the applied problems we develop a least squares radial basis function partition of unity method that is robust with respect to the node layout. The method allows for scaling to problem sizes of a few hundred thousand nodes without encountering the issue of large condition numbers of the coefficient matrix. This property is enabled by the possibility to control the coefficient matrix condition number by the rate of oversampling and the mode of refinement.

  • Public defence: 2018-01-25 13:00 Stockholm
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Flow behavior of asphalt mixtures under compaction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt compaction is one of the most important phases of road construction, being the decisive phase when the structure of the asphalt pavement layer is formed. In spite of its importance, the knowledge about this construction phase is still based on empirical and technological background and therefore surprisingly limited. This lack of knowledge is also due to the fact that the existing laboratory scale compaction devices for mix design are not fully capable of simulating the field compaction. The simulation of asphalt compaction in the laboratory is normally focused on the vertical rearrangements of asphalt particles whereas the flow behavior of these particles in other directions is mostly neglected. However, existing literature suggests that the neglected flow is one of the most important factors for the quality of the road construction, particularly in special cases such as asphalt joints. Therefore, building up a better understanding of the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures subjected to compaction loads is needed for improving the quality of the pavements.

    In this study, a new test setup, the so called Compaction Flow Test (CFT), was developed to simulate the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures at early stages of compaction. In the first step, feasibility tests were performed, substituting asphalt mixtures by model materials with simple geometries and less complex properties. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was utilized for capturing 2D radiography images of the flow patterns in the model material during the test. Results of the CFT showed the capability of the new test setup to clearly distinguish between model mixtures with different characteristics. Hence, in the next step, the CFT was applied to real asphalt mixtures and the obtained results were found to support the findings of the feasibility tests with the model materials.

    The results from the feasibility tests encouraged examining the possible use of an ultrasonic sensor as alternative to the complex and costly X-ray imaging for flow measurements during the CFT. Hence, the CFT was used along with a distance measuring ultrasonic sensor for testing asphalt mixtures with different characteristics. The test results confirmed that an ultrasonic sensor could be effective for capturing the differences of the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures tested by the CFT. 

    In addition, a parametric study with the X-ray setup was carried out to examine the capability of the CFT in reflecting the possible changes of the flow behavior in asphalt mixtures due to the change of construction parameters such as lift thickness, bottom roughness and compaction modes. The results obtained also confirmed the capability of the CFT in showing the possible differences in the flow behavior of the mixtures under the chosen conditions.

    The encouraging results suggested that the CFT may have potential to become a simple but effective tool for assessing compactability of the mixtures on-site, right after production in an asphalt plant or before placing the mixture on the road. Hence, discrete element method (DEM) was utilized to understand both the influence of selected boundaries of the CFT and the effect of its design on the results.

    As one specific example of application, an investigation was carried out using the CFT to find the most suitable tracking method for flow measurements in the field. Based on the literature review and feasibility tests, a tracking method with the highest potential for conducting flow measurements during field compaction was introduced. X-ray radiography confirmed the validity of the results obtained with the suggested method.

    The overall results obtained from this study suggest that the recommended CFT along with the suggested field tracking method may be helpful in building up a comprehensive basis of knowledge on the flow and compaction behavior of asphalt mixtures thus helping to close the gap between the field and laboratory.

  • Lind, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Certifieringsprotokoll User Certified 2006 TakeCare Journalsystem: Användarnas certifiering 20062009Other (Other academic)
  • Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Selander, John
    Sjödin, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sellström, Eva
    Self-rated health among young Europeans not in employment, education or training - with a focus on the conventionally unemployed and the disengaged2015In: Society, health & vulnerability, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 6, no 1, 25824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NEET is an acronym for Not in Employment, Education or Training. For the year 2010, it is estimated that 12.5% of all young people aged 15-24 in the OECD countries could be categorised as NEETs. Within this group, various subgroups of NEET are identified. Our study, which was conducted using cross-sectional data collected through the European Social Survey, focuses on the category of people who are assumed to be most marginalised and inactive: "the disengaged.'' Participants in the study were men and women aged 18-30, originating from 33 European countries. The results show that disengaged NEETs reported poorer health than both young people who were conventionally unemployed and those in employment or studying. It is also shown that "the disengaged'' scored worse on other social and welfare variables, for example, trust and social activity. Being disengaged is discussed in relation to the gross domestic products of the different countries.

  • Montefusco, Maria
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Funktionshindersperspektiv ochtillgänglighet inom Nordiskaministerrådets verksamhet: - Uppföljning av förbättrande åtgärder 2017 ochrekommendationer för framtiden2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla nordbor ska på lika villkor kunna ta del av det officiella nordiska samarbetet och den politik som samarbetet genererar. Detta gäller oavsett individernas funktionsförmåga och handlar om demokratiska rättigheter likväl som delaktighet som dimension av social och ekonomisk hållbarhet.

    Nordiska ministerrådet vill vara ett gott exempel i fråga om jämlikhet, jämställdhet och tillgänglighet. Genom projektet Integrering av funktionshindersperspektiv och förbättrad tillgänglighet i Nordiska ministerrådets verksamhet ska den mer universellt utformade verksamheten fungerabättre för alla.

    Detta projekt ska bidra till bättre förutsättningar för ett tillgängligt Norden och syftar till en ökad medvetenhet om funktionshindersfrågor i samband med utveckling och utformning av nordisk politik som ska främja delaktighet för hela befolkningen.

    Projektet är en aktivitet inom Nordiska ministerrådets handlingsplan för nordiskt samarbete om funktionshinder som pågår under perioden 2015-17. Handlingsplanen har tre fokusområden: mänskliga rättigheter, mångfald och fri rörlighet. Detta projekt finns under området mångfald. Projektet finansieras med medel från ministerrådets strategi för hållbar utveckling Ett gott liv i ett hållbart Norden. Koordinator för projektet är sekretariatet för Rådet för nordiskt samarbeteom funktionshinder vid Nordens välfärdscenter.

    Projektet har kopplats ihop med ministerrådets integrering av andra hållbarhetsperspektiv, bland annat jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Nationella experter från hela Norden har utsetts för att bistå med expertis om universell utformningoch tillgänglighet. Expertgruppen har bidragit med råd och övervakning av implementeringen av de förbättrande åtgärderna i detta projekt.

  • Gjertsen, Hege
    et al.
    Avdeling vernepleie, UiT Norges Arktiske Universitet.
    Melbøe, Line
    Avdeling vernepleie, UiT Norges Arktiske Universitet.
    Fedreheim, Gunn Elin
    Avdeling vernepleie, UiT Norges Arktiske Universitet.
    Kartlegging av levekårene til personer med utviklingshemming i samiske områder2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Avdeling vernepleie ved UiT gjennomførte våren 2017 en undersøkelse av levekårene til personer med utviklingshemming i de samiske forvaltningskommunene, samt enkelte andre kommuner i Nord-Norge. Undersøkelsen er gjennomført på oppdrag fra Barne-, ungdoms- og familiedirektoratet (Bufdir) og Nordens velferdssenter (NVC). 93 personer mellom 16 og 76 år svarte på undersøkelsen. En tredjedel av utvalget har samisk bakgrunn. Utvalget er skjevt i forhold til gruppen utviklingshemmede generelt da en høyere andel av deltakerne har lett til moderat grad av utviklingshemming enn for personer med utviklingshemming generelt i landet.

    Vi har undersøkt om det er forskjeller i levekårene til personer i samiske områder med og uten samiske bakgrunn, samt at vi har sammenlignet deres levekår med levekårene til personer med utviklingshemming generelt her til lands og med levekårene til befolkningen for øvrig. Fokus har vært på levekårs- og livskvalitetsdimensjonene skole/utdanning, aktivitet på dagtid, boforhold, sosialt nettverk, helse og hjelpebehov, fritid, demokratisk deltakelse, tilfredshet, selvbestemmelse og mobbing. Studien er den første i Norge som undersøker betydningen av samisk bakgrunn for levekårene til personer med utviklingshemming, samt et det er den første levekårsundersøkelsen personer med utviklingshemming selv har fått mulighet til å besvare. 

    Undersøkelsen viser de samme tendenser som tidligere levekårsstudier. Personer med utviklingshemming i samiske områder har i likhet med personer med utviklingshemming generelt, dårligere levekår enn befolkningen ellers på områder som boforhold, utdanning, arbeid, helse, sosialt nettverk, fritid og selvbestemmelse. De er i tillegg mer utsatt for mobbing og vold enn andre. På enkelte områder er det i tillegg store forskjeller mellom levekårene til personer med utviklingshemming med og uten samisk bakgrunn, ikke minst når det gjelder psykisk helse og mobbing. Vi finner også kjønnsmessige forskjeller når det gjelder mobbing, hvor kvinner er mer utsatte enn menn. 

  • Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Review of Speak English or what? Codeswitching and interpreter use in New York City courts, by Philipp Sebastian Angermeyer.2016In: Interpreting: International Journal of Research & Practice in Interpreting, ISSN 1384-6647, Vol. 18, no 2, 290-293 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Rottem Krangnes, Lars
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    Fra like rettigheter til likemuligheter: Rapport fra Det andre nordiskeekspertseminaret om arbeidsliv ogfunksjonshinder (Oslo, 19. april 2017)2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av Nordens velferdssenter (NVC) på grunnlag av Det andre nordiske ekspertseminaret om arbeidsliv og funksjonshinder (Oslo 19. april 2017). Ekspertseminaret var finansiert av Nordisk ministerråds embetsmannskomite for arbeidsliv (EK-A), og ble arrangert av NVC i samarbeid med Kompetansesenter for arbeidsinkludering på Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus.

    Hovedmålet med seminaret var bidra med et faglig fundert funksjonshinderperspektiv til arbeidet med Nordisk ministerråds samarbeidsprogram for arbeidslivssektoren 2018-2021. Samarbeidsprogrammet skal beskrive de nordiske landenes hovedutfordringer på arbeidslivsfeltet, og stille opp målsetninger innenfor delområdene arbeidsmarked, arbeidsmiljø og arbeidsrett. Programmet er planlagt vedtatt høsten 2017.

    Denne rapporten presenterer anbefalinger om prioriteringer i programmet, og anbefalinger om konkrete tiltak innenfor rammen av programmet. Tiltakene vil også kunne inngå i en eventuell ny handlingsplan for nordisk samarbeid om funksjonshinder.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    De Bruin, Pedro Sales
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC2017In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 13, no 9, 852-858 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-by-light scattering (gamma gamma -> gamma gamma) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead ions. Using 480 mu b(-1) of lead-lead collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, here we report evidence for light-by-light scattering. A total of 13 candidate events were observed with an expected background of 2.6 +/- 0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross-section of the process Pb + Pb (gamma gamma) -> Pb-(center dot) + Pb-(center dot) gamma gamma, for photon transverse energy E-T > 3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 +/- 24 (stat.) +/- 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with the standard model predictions.

  • Bäckström, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Textile Studies.
    'An Amusing and Useful Pastime': Knitting as a Performance of Femininity2017In: Performing Herself: Everyday Practices and the Making of Gender in Early Modern Sweden / [ed] Mikael Alm, Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2017, 1, 89-129 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Rottem Krangnes, Lars
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Centre for Welfare and Social Issues.
    From Equal Rights to Equal Possibilities: Report from the Second Nordic Expert Seminar on Employment and Disability (Oslo, 19 April 2017)2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been prepared by the Nordic Welfare Centre (NVC), based on the Second Nordic Expert Seminar on Employment and Disability (Oslo, 19 April 2017). The seminar was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers Committee of Senior Officials’ for Labour (EK-A), and was organised by NVC in cooperation with the Competence Centre for Work Inclusion (KAI) at the Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.

    The primary objective of the seminar was to contribute with a professionally andscientifically-based perspective on disability issues to the work of the Nordic Council of Ministers Programme for Cooperation on Labour and Employment Issues 2018-2021. The programme for cooperation is to describe the Nordic countries’ principal challenges in the field of employment, and establish goals in the sub-areas: the labour market, working environment and labour law. The programme is scheduled to be adopted in the autumn of 2017.

    This report presents recommendations concerning priorities within the programme, and recommendations concerning specific concrete measures within the framework of the programme. The measures will also be able to be includedas part of a possible new Action Plan for Nordic Co-operation on Disability.

  • Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Wallin, Stina
    Leander, Karin
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 12, E1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B₁, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55-79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B₁ exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B₁/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B₁ exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B₁ exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential.

  • Public defence: 2018-01-26 10:00 Södertörns högskola, rum MA 624, Flemingsberg
    Petrusenko, Nadezda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Södertörns högskola.
    Creating the Revolutionary Heroines: The Case of Female Terrorists of the PSR (Russia, Beginning of the 20th Century)2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Representing revolutionary terrorists as heroes and martyrs was a typical feature of the mythology of the Russian revolutionary underground at the beginning of the 20th century. This mythology described Underground Russia, the world of the revolutionaries, as an ideal country inhabited by ideal people. The purpose of that epos was to represent the revolutionary struggle, and individual revolutionaries in such a way that they would gain sympathy from the wider public and become role models for other revolutionary fighters. Sympathetic representations of women who committed political violence seem to be especially shocking in the context of Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, since female violent behavior contradicted the existing gender order.

    Employing theoretical perspectives of Critical Discourse Analysis, gender history and intersectionality, the dissertation analyzes the way narratives about the individual life paths of female terrorists of the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (the PSR), the biggest socialist party in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, were constructed in their revolutionary auto/biographies. It analyzes how the lives of women from different social and ethnic origins, of different ages, with different life paths, who happened to be united only by their participation in the political terrorism of the PSR, were recounted with the help of narratives used in the Russian revolutionary underground.

    The research findings demonstrate that the accounts of the lives of female PSR terrorists were constructed with the help of the dominant narrative that was formed as a conversion story. Within the framework of that narrative, the lives of individual women were adapted to the dominant discourse of heroism and martyrdom, and at the same time were contextualized within the dominant discourse on “good” femininity that existed in the Russian society, and even within the discourse on Jews as perpetual “Others” in the Russian empire in case of Jewish women. Social and ethnic backgrounds as well as individual circumstances of the terrorist women, however, transformed the dominant narrative, and thus created diversity of representations. The discursive practice of writing a revolutionary life accepted by Bolsheviks influenced the discursive practice employed in revolutionary auto/biographies of female terrorists written during the early Soviet period.

  • Yates, Thomas
    et al.
    Zaccardi, Francesco
    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N.
    Davies, Melanie J.
    Bakrania, Kishan
    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.
    Gill, Jason M. R.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Khunti, Kamlesh
    Association of walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: a UK Biobank observational study2017In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, no 43, 3232-3240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer. Cox-proportional hazard models were adjusted for social deprivation, ethnicity, employment, medications, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and television viewing time. Interaction terms investigated whether age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status modified associations. Over 6.3 years, there were 8598 deaths, 1654 from cardiovascular disease and 4850 from cancer. Associations of walking pace with mortality were modified by BMI. In women, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in slow compared with fast walkers were 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-2.77] and 1.31 (1.08-1.60) in the bottom and top BMI tertiles, respectively; corresponding HRs for men were 2.01 (1.68-2.41) and 1.41 (1.20-1.66). Hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality remained above 1.7 across all categories of BMI in men and women, with modest heterogeneity in men. Handgrip strength was associated with cardiovascular mortality in men only (HR tertile 1 vs. tertile 3 = 1.38; 1.18-1.62), without differences across BMI categories, while associations with all-cause mortality were only seen in men with low BMI. Associations for walking pace and handgrip strength with cancer mortality were less consistent. A simple self-reported measure of slow walking pace could aid risk stratification for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality within the general population.

  • Nordic Programme for Co-operation on Energy Policy 2018–20202017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic energy ministers present a new Nordic energy policy co-operation programme for the period 2018–2021.

    The vision for Nordic energy co-operation is to develop Nordic energy systems through strong, trust-based, adaptable co-operation in order to secure the world’s most integrated and intelligent low-emission green economy, characterised by security of supply and a high level of competitiveness.

    Nordic energy co-operation in the period 2018–2021 will specifically address the following areas:

    • Further development of the Nordic electricity market

    • Renewable energy

    • Energy efficiency

    • Exchange of information and dialogue on the Nordic countries’ energy policies and strategies

    • Energy research and innovation, via Nordic Energy Research

    • The Nordic Region in Europe, including implementation of the EU Energy Union

    • Neighbouring countries, particularly the Baltic states

    • Energy-related transport issues

    • The energy sector in the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland

    • Other horizontal programmes and projects, as well as international co-operation.

  • Det nordiske energipolitiske samarbeidsprogrammet 2018–20212017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    De nordiske energiministrene presenterer herved et nytt nordisk energipolitisk samarbeidsprogram for perioden 2018–2021.

    Visjonen for det nordiske energisamarbeidet er å utvikle de nordiske energisystemene gjennom et sterkt, tillitsbasert og tilpasningsdyktig samarbeid på en måte som sikrer verdens mest integrerte og intelligente grønne lavutslippsøkonomi med høy konkurranseevne og forsyningssikkerhet.

    Det nordiske energisamarbeidet vil i perioden 2018–2021 særlig handle om disse områdene:

    • Videreutvikling av det nordiske kraftmarkedet

    • Fornybar energi

    • Energieffektivisering

    • Informasjonsutveksling og dialog om de enkelte nordiske landenes energipolitikk og strategier

    • Energiforskning og innovasjon gjennom Nordisk Energiforskning

    • Norden i Europa, herunder gjennomføring av EUs energiunion

    • Nordens nærområder, særlig de baltiske landene

    • Energirelaterte transportaspekter

    • Energisektoren på Grønland, Færøyene og Åland

    • Andre tverrgående programmer og prosjekter og internasjonalt samarbeid

  • Norræn samstarfsáætlun á sviði orkumála 2018–20212017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Norrænu orkumálaráðherrarnir kynna hér með nýja norræna samstarfsáætlun á sviði orkumála fyrir tímabilið 2018–2021.

    Framtíðarsýnin fyrir norrænt orkumálasamstarf felur í sér öflugt, aðlögunarhæft samstarf sem byggir á trausti og og er til þess fallið að þróa norræn orkukerfi í þá átt að tryggja samþættasta og snjallasta græna hagkerfi heims með lágri kolefnislosun, mikilli samkeppnishæfni og afhendingaröryggi.

    Á tímabilinu 2018–2021 verða eftirtalin svið í brennidepli í samstarfinu:

    • Framþróun hins norræna raforkumarkaðar

    • Endurnýjanlegir orkugjafar

    • Aukin orkunýtni

    • Upplýsingaskipti og samráð um stefnu norrænu landanna í orkumálum

    • Orkurannsóknir og nýsköpun á vettvangi Norrænna orkurannsókna• Norðurlönd í Evrópu, þ.m.t. framkvæmd Orkubandalags ESB

    • Grannsvæði Norðurlanda, einkum Eystrasaltsríkin

    • Orkutengd samgöngusjónarmið• Orkugeirinn á Álandseyjum, í Færeyjum og á Grænlandi

    • Aðrar þverlægar áætlanir og verkefni og alþjóðlegt samstarf

  • Public defence: 2018-01-19 09:00 A5_R0, Umeå
    Kurhade, Chaitanya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Interplay between tick-borne encephalitis virus and the host innate immunity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flaviviruses are important emerging and re-emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. It consists of globally distributed human pathogens such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Depending on type, flaviviruses can cause a variety of symptoms ranging from haemorrhage to neurological disorders.

    Virus infection is detected by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and through downstream signalling it leads to the production of interferons (IFNs). These IFNs then act in an autocrine or paracrine manner on the cells to induce various IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which have antiviral roles. However, the amount of IFN produced depends on the nature of the PRRs used by host cells to detect a particular virus. Although there are many PRRs present in the host cells, their relative contribution in different cell types and against a specific virus may vary. In the first study, we determined the importance of IPS-1 signalling in immunity and pathogenicity of tick-borne flaviviruses. This is an adaptor protein for cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors. Using IPS-1-deficient mice, we showed its importance against TBEV and Langat virus (LGTV) infection (the LGTV model virus belongs to the TBEV serogroup). Absence of IPS-1 leads to uncontrolled virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS), but it has only a minor role in shaping the humoral immune response at the periphery. LGTV-infected IPS-1-deficient mice showed apoptosis, activation of microglia and astrocytes, an elevated proinflammatory response, and recruitment of immune cells to the CNS. Interestingly, we also found that IFN-b upregulation after viral infection was dependent on IPS-1 in the olfactory bulb of the brain.  Thus, our results suggest that local immune microenvironment of distinct brain regions is critical for determination of virus permissiveness.

    Interferons can upregulate several ISGs. Viperin is one such ISG that has a broad-spectrum antiviral action against many viruses. However, the importance of cell type and the significance of viperin in controlling many flavivirus infections in vivo is not known. Using viperin-deficient mice, we found that viperin was necessary for restriction of LGTV replication in the olfactory bulb and cerebrum, but not in the cerebellum. This finding was also confirmed with primary neurons derived from these brain regions. Furthermore, we could also show the particular importance of viperin in cortical neurons against TBEV, WNV, and ZIKV infection. The results suggested that a single ISG can shape the susceptibility and immune response to a flavivirus in different regions of the brain.

    Although viperin is such an important ISG against flaviviruses, the exact molecular mechanism of action is not known. To understand the mechanism, we performed co-immunoprecipitation screening to identify TBEV proteins that could interact with viperin. While viperin interacted with the prM, E, NS2A, NS2B, and NS3 proteins of TBEV, its interaction with NS3 led to its degradation through the proteosomal pathway. Furthermore, viperin could reduce the stability of other viperin-binding TBEV proteins in an NS3-dependent manner. We screened for viperin activity regarding interaction with NS3 proteins of other flaviviruses. Viperin interacted with NS3 of JEV, ZIKV, and YFV, but selectively degraded NS3 proteins of TBEV and ZIKV, and this activity correlated with its antiviral activity against these viruses.

    The last study was based on in vivo characterization of the newly isolated MucAr HB 171/11 strain of TBEV which caused unusual gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms. This strain was compared with another strain, Torö-2003, of the same European subtype of TBEV but isolated from the different focus. Here we found unique differences in their neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence, and in the immune response to these two strains.

    In summary, my work shed some light on the interplay between tick-borne flavivirus and the innate immune system. I have shown two examples of CNS region-specific differences in innate immune response regarding both in IFN induction pathways and antiviral effectors. Furthermore, we have investigated the in vivo pathogenesis of a strain of TBEV that caused unusual gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms.

  • Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergman, Sixten
    Consultant, Rönnvägen 1 A, 507 71 Gånghester, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Christian
    Baur Gmbh, 6832 Sulz, Austria.
    Paulus, Eberhard
    Baur Gmbh, 6832 Sulz, Austria.
    Elg, Alf-Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Traceable measurement of dielectric dissipation factor at Very Low Frequency2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) tests are often used for after-laying tests of power cables since the reactive power demand is much lower at VLF than at 50 Hz. In order to augment the usefulness of the test, it is often complemented by a measurement of dielectric dissipation factor (tan ), where the acceptance of the tested object is based on this measurement. A traceability chain for dissipation factor at high voltage and very low frequency has as yet not been recognized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which results in difficulties to prove the quality of the measurement. The measurement is complicated by the limited range of the current in the test object that can be resolved by available high voltage test equipment, thus limiting the possible choices of reference systems. A novel reference measuring system that can fulfil these needs has been developed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in the capacity as National Measurement Institute. The traceability of the system to National Standards of Measurement is ensured by careful scientific work and analyses. This measuring system has the ability to measure dissipation factor at 0.1 Hz in the voltage range from 0.5 kV up to 50 kV with an uncertainty better than 0.004 %.

  • Manzoor, Saira
    et al.
    Department of Computer Sci, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad. Pakistan.
    Manzoor, Mirfa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Hussain, Walayat
    Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    An Analysis of Energy-Efficient Approaches Used for Virtual Machines and Data Centres2017In: 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE), IEEE, 2017, 91-96 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For online business markets with a large customer base, the use of market-platforms is leading to a rapid generation of a huge amount of data. Such businesses face challenges to satisfy their users. A quantitative research approach has been used to examine big data in online markets, but there is also a need for qualitative research in this area, so as to understand the relationship between big data, online markets. The present research presents an analysis of the various case study approaches that are employed by researchers in this area. We also analyze trends in case study techniques in this area. The research problem is taken on as a research case for the present study. The results of the study should contribute the implementation of big-data in online markets research.

  • Manzoor, Mirfa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    A Review of Case Study Approaches and Techniques in Studies on Big Data in Online Markets2017In: 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For online business markets with a large customer base, the use of market-platforms is leading to a rapid generation of a huge amount of data. Such businesses face challenges to satisfy their users. A quantitative research approach has been used to examine big data in online markets, but there is also a need for qualitative research in this area, so as to understand the relationship between big data, online markets. The present research presents an analysis of the various case study approaches that are employed by researchers in this area. We also analyze trends in case study techniques in this area. The research problem is taken on as a research case for the present study. The results of the study should contribute the implementation of big-data in online markets research.

  • Siddiqui, Afzal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Takashima, Ryuta
    Chiba Institute of Technology, , .
    Bouncing Back: Assessing the Resilience of Infrastructure Projects and the Use of Average Outage Factors2017In: Annual International Real Options Conference, Annual International Real Options Conference , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Winberg, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Strinnholm, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Perzanowski, Matthew S.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    High incidence and remission of reported food hypersensitivity in Swedish children followed from 8 to 12 years of age: a population based cohort study2014In: Clinical and Translational Allergy, ISSN 2045-7022, E-ISSN 2045-7022, Vol. 4, 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few population-based cohort studies have examined reported food hypersensitivity longitudinally. We investigated prevalence, incidence and remission of perceived food hypersensitivity among schoolchildren from 8 to 12 years of age, and risk factors associated with incidence and remission. Methods: A population-based cohort including all 7-8 year-old children in three Swedish towns was recruited in 2006. A total of 2,585 (96% of invited) children participated in a parental questionnaire. The children in two of the towns, n = 1,700 (90% of invited) also participated in skin-prick-testing with airborne allergens. The cohort was followed using the same methods at 11-12 years of age. At study follow up, specific IgE to foods was analyzed in a randomized subset of children (n = 652). Results: The prevalence of perceived food hypersensitivity increased from 21% at 8 years to 26% at 12 years of age. During this four-year-period, the cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity was high (15%), as was remission (33%). This pattern was particularly evident for hypersensitivity to cow's milk, while the incidence of hypersensitivity to other foods was lower. Female sex, allergic heredity, current rhinitis and allergic sensitization were associated with the incidence of food hypersensitivity and allergic sensitization was negatively associated with remission. Risk-factor-patterns for both incidence and remission were different for hypersensitivity to milk compared with hypersensitivity to other foods. Generally, the agreement between reported food hypersensitivity and IgE-sensitization to the implicated food was poor. Conclusions: In this longitudinal, population-based cohort-study perceived food hypersensitivity was common among children between ages 8 and 12, often transient and not well correlated with food-specific IgE. While these findings suggest an overestimated prevalence of food hypersensitivity, the public-health-significance remains high as they reflect the perceived reality to which the children adapt their life and food intakes.

  • Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Digital loggbok för reflektion och lärande under VFU2017In: Högskolepedagogisk debatt, ISSN 2000-9216, no 2, 4-17 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Gold, Judith E.
    et al.
    Hallman, David M.
    Hellstrom, Fredrik
    Björklund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Univ Gävle, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Gävle, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Barbe, Mary F.
    Ali, Sayed
    Systematic review of quantitative imaging biomarkers for neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, 395Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study systematically summarizes quantitative imaging biomarker research in non-traumatic neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). There were two research questions: 1) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the presence of neck and shoulder MSDs?, 2) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the severity of neck and shoulder MSDs? Methods: PubMed and SCOPUS were used for the literature search. One hundred and twenty-five studies met primary inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from 49 sufficient quality studies. Results: Most of the 125 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. Only half controlled for potential confounders via exclusion or in the analysis. Approximately one-third reported response rates. In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. The literature synthesis suggested that neck muscle size may be decreased in neck pain, and trapezius myalgia and neck/shoulder pain may be associated with reduced vascularity in the trapezius and reduced trapezius oxygen saturation at rest and in response to upper extremity tasks. Reduced vascularity in the supraspinatus tendon may also be a feature in rotator cuff tears. Five of eight studies showed an association between a quantitative imaging marker and MSD severity. Conclusions: Although research on quantitative imaging biomarkers is still in a nascent stage, some MSD biomarkers were identified. There are limitations in the articles examined, including possible selection bias and inattention to potentially confounding factors. Recommendations for future studies are provided.