1234567 1 - 50 of 2069
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Stabel Jørgensen, Camilla
    et al.
    NTNU Trondheim.
    Madsen, Roar
    NTNU Trondheim.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2019:12019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. i-iiiArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Petteri, Muukkonen
    helsingfors universitet.
    Recension av Elmeroth: Etnisk maktordning i skola och samhälle2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 156-157Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro University.
    Between stability and contingency: A case study of the social, political and fantasmatic logics of Swedish history classroom practice2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 132-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the political and ideological workings of history classroom practices enacted in the context of Swedish upper secondary education. Using the post-structuralist logics of critical explanation framework (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the paper reports on a series of video-recorded observations and outlines the discursive logics found to constitute the studied practices. At the heart of the analysis are the socially shared assumptions, political relationships of us-and-them, and ideological narratives that alternately furnish the history classroom practices with stability and contingency. The results encompass three case-specific logics: (I) a social logic demonstrating that the stability of the studied classroom practices rests on shared assumptions about historical idealism and partial progress, (II) a political logic indicating that the classroom practices are unsettled when students establish temporal equivalence between past and present us-and-them relationships, and (III) a fantasmatic logic showing that teachers and students become ideologically invested in said practices through narratives emphasizing the need to prevent the repetition of past injustices.

  • Nersäter, Anders
    Jönköping University.
    Students’ Understanding of Historical Sources – A Composite Ability2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 105-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what students need to learn, to be able to interpret and evaluate sources, in relation to specific subject matter addressing Imperialism and Decolonization. The History-didactical framework used stems from the Historical Thinking tradition and the method applied is a textual analysis informed by theoretical assumptions originating from Variation theory. Data is derived from assignments generated in two Learning Studies undertaken in a Swedish upper secondary school. Specific aspects were identified as critical for our students’ ability to handle the sources in a composite manner. On a more general level results indicate that the application of source-criticism only in the form of source-critical criteria is not the ideal choice, since their design not necessarily seem to encourage students to interpret and evaluate sources from a composite standpoint. A proposal given is that the development of students’ ability to handle historical sources might benefit if Swedish history instruction adopted elements associated with the second order concept of evidence and allowed such practices to complement usage of  source-critical criteria.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-03 13:00 Nyquistsalen, 9C 203
    Ungerberg, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Flytande inflytande: Affektiva relationer mellan barn och miljön i förskolan2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to develop more understandings concerning children’s influence in preschool. By adopting an immanent approach the study centers on young children’s affective relations with the milieu in preschool.

    The empirical material was produced through approximately 30 hours of observations by video camera and field notes in a preschool department with children aged one to three years. Focus of the observations has been to follow the children in their everyday lives in preschool.

    The result shows three forms of influence characterized by four qualities. One quality is that influence is understood as collective. This means that the children’s relations always involves other actors, both human and non-human which produces an understanding of influence as fluent in the relations between different actors. Children’s relations also emerge through active affects with a creative quality to produce difference and alternatives. This produces an understanding of a child-influence. The result shows how the active intensity in child-influence also sometimes involves the pedagogues. Other affects that has emerged between the children and the milieu in preschool are the passive ones. These affects decreases the intensity and are characterized by acting as usual and according to routines. The pedagogues’ responses to the children’s relations are characterized by both a standardized response that points to a territorialization of earlier routines and the recognizable, and an affective attunement which emerge as a quality where the pedagogues’ tune in to the children’s affective relations. The affective attunement becomes a possibility for a togetherness-influence.

    The study concludes that instead of arranging certain situations where children verbally can express their opinions and take part in decision-making the influence of young children can be based on their bodily and affective relations with the milieu in preschool.

  • Johansson, Patrik
    Stockholm University.
    Historical enquiry with archaeological artefacts in primary school2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 78-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article contributes with knowledge of primary school pupils’ learning of historical enquiry with an intercultural perspective on the Viking age and investigates what it means for pupils to learn to interpret archaeological artefacts. Research was conducted as a Learning study with 10 and 11-year-old pupils and lessons were performed as historical enquiry with archaeological artefacts. Three questions are posed: (1) how were the pupils’ historical consciousness activated by the archaeological artefacts, (2) how did the pupils experience the task of interpreting archaeological artefacts with an intercultural perspective, and (3) what are critical aspects for this learning? Three variation patterns that activated pupils’ historical consciousness are identified, including (a) material, (b) cultural and (c) normative contrasts. Four perception categories for historical interpretation of archaeological artefacts and three critical aspects are also identified. It is suggested that it is critical for the pupils to discern (i) historicity, (ii) historical representativeness and (iii) intercultural interaction in relation to artefacts and historical narratives. The study suggests that teachers could start from archaeological artefacts to activate pupils’ historical consciousness, rather than from textbook narratives and that pupils’ perceptions should be seen as a resource in enabling historical learning. Also, historical enquiry appears to be a reasonable approach to teaching intercultural perspectives on a historical content. These findings can be valuable for history educators and researchers who engage in teaching historical enquiry with an intercultural perspective from material culture.

  • Dahlsson Leitao, Charles
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rinne, Sara S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Molecular Design of HER3-Targeting Affibody Molecules: Influence of Chelator and Presence of HEHEHE-Tag on Biodistribution of 68Ga-Labeled Tracers2019In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 20, no 5, article id 1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody-based imaging of HER3 is a promising approach for patient stratification. We investigated the influence of a hydrophilic HEHEHE-tag ((HE)3-tag) and two different gallium-68/chelator-complexes on the biodistribution of Z08698 with the aim to improve the tracer for PET imaging. Affibody molecules (HE)3-Z08698-X and Z08698-X (X = NOTA, NODAGA) were produced and labeled with gallium-68. Binding specificity and cellular processing were studied in HER3-expressing human cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and DU145. Biodistribution was studied 3 h p.i. in Balb/c nu/nu mice bearing BxPC-3 xenografts. Mice were imaged 3 h p.i. using microPET/CT. Conjugates were stably labeled with gallium-68 and bound specifically to HER3 in vitro and in vivo. Association to cells was rapid but internalization was slow. Uptake in tissues, including tumors, was lower for (HE)3-Z08698-X than for non-tagged variants. The neutral [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA complex reduced the hepatic uptake of Z08698 compared to positively charged [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-conjugated variants. The influence of the chelator was more pronounced in variants without (HE)3-tag. In conclusion, hydrophilic (HE)3-tag and neutral charge of the [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA complex promoted blood clearance and lowered hepatic uptake of Z08698. [68Ga]Ga-(HE)3-Z08698-NODAGA was considered most promising, providing the lowest blood and hepatic uptake and the best imaging contrast among the tested variants.

  • Sandberg, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Manligt och kvinnligt i skolämnet historia. Vad har det för konsekvenser för elevernas historiekultur?2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 56-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån intervjuer med elever i årskurs fem skildras i denna artikel elevernas historiekultur. Texten har två infallsvinklar, den första är elevernas uppfattning om manliga respektive kvinnliga aspekter av det förflutna. Den visade att eleverna främst ser manliga aktörer och manliga aktiviteter som riktig historia. Den andra infallsvinkeln är skillnader mellan pojkar och flickors inställningar till skolämnet historia och till historien som fenomen samt elevernas historiekultur. Den genomgången visade att flickor uppvisar ett större intresse än pojkarna för historia, både som skolämne och för att ta del av historia på fritiden. I artikeln påvisas att elevernas historiekultur förefaller vara inriktad på vad de beskriver som de stora händelserna i det förflutna. Pojkarna visar inget intresse för andra delar av det förflutna medan flickor också visar intresse för den vardagliga historien. Flickor framför att de behöver läsa historia för att få bra betyg medan både pojkar och flickor vill läsa historia för att bli allmänbildade och bli en del av samhället. Slutligen förs en diskussion av dessa aspekters relevans för skolämnet historia och dess under­visning.

  • Haas, Claus
    Danmarks Institut for Pædagogik og Uddannelse, Aarhus Universitet.
    Lægpersoners historiebrug i hverdagslivets populær- og historiekultur. En historiedidaktisk udfordring2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 36-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History teachers – and researchers of history didactics – confront a still more pressing challenge: How are they supposed to cope with the fact that for the most important part, laypeople’s uses of history, and production of historical consciousness, are to be found outside school and other disciplinary uses of history? While the latter often struggle for attention and relevance among our students, uses of history within the popular and history culture of everyday life thrive more than ever -  in TV-series, films, reenactments, family genealogy, and so forth. Should history teachers, and researchers of history didactics to a predominantly degree ignore this fact? Should it be regarded it as an appendix to more traditional disciplinary uses of history, and official national narratives? Alternatively, could or should it rather be considered as constituting the pivotal point for future history teaching in schools, and research of history didactics? In order to discuss these and related questions, I believe we still require more empirically embedded examples, which highlight what seems to incite the uses of history among laypeople? What characterizes laypeople’s uses of history within the popular culture of everyday life? Consecutively, which criteria of relevance are at stake? In this article, I look for answers as laypeople use and interpret so-called n-words, like ‘neger’ and ‘nigger’ within Danish popular culture of the 2000s. Here we gain some insight into the personal and intimate uses of history among laypeople, embedded in emotional and contested issues concerning racism in African-Danes’ life stories on Facebook, postcolonial therapy of a ‘brown’ Danish satirist, and the longing for a ‘neger’ identity in Danish hip-hop. 

  • Børhaug, Kjetil
    University of Bergen.
    Watching, assessing, participating.: Globalising political education in Norwegian upper secondary education2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 17-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transnational governance is expanding rapidly. From a political education perspective, an important question is to what extent and how these are included in the political universe that adolescents are being prepared for at school. Of particular interest is social science, which is part of social studies in primary and lower secondary school, before it develops into a variety of social science courses in upper secondary school. Including the transnational level in political education may mean critical thinking about current transnational issues as well as understanding how to participate politically with a transnational aim. Are these elements included in Norwegian political education in social science at school? And if so, is such participation related to notions of influence, power and conflicting interests? Or are notions of participation based on classical idealism? The research method is an analysis of selected social science textbooks in Norwegian upper secondary education. Textbooks are not assumed to determine teaching, but they are assumed to frame the field within which teachers develop their practice. The analysis shows that in the textbooks political education is expanded to a transnational level, where both political judgement of issues as well as participation are elaborated upon.

  • Lödén, Hans
    Karlstads universitet.
    Vetenskaplig litteratur om internationell migration – en introduktion och diskussion2019In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2019:1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    : International migration is one of the defining issues of our time. In this introduction to scientific texts on migration it is argued that teaching on migration in teacher training and in secondary and upper secondary school would benefit from the conscious use of the concept of powerful knowledge when texts are selected. Thus, about 30 peer-reviewed texts in English, Swedish and Norwegian on international migration are referred to and discussed from the point of view of powerful knowledge. Five concepts or perspectives are suggested as important and useful. These are push-pull as explanation to migration; levels of analysis; network; the role of women in migration and the role of religion in migration. Further, the tension between the positions of an alleged ‘methodological nationalism’ and the national characteristics of migration are discussed. Among the suggested concepts ‘levels of analysis’ and ‘network’ are proposed as especially important in order to develop powerful knowledge. Both concepts are highly useful in order to give teachers and students some structure and order in the studied issue while the concepts also can be re-contextualized to and used within other issue areas.        

  • Sederholm, Bror
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Luping, Tang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ny provningsmetodik för bestämning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar slutrapporteringen av forskningsprojektet - Ny provningsmetodik för bedömning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong – Underlag till LCA och livslängdsbedömning. I rapporten redovisas resultat från elektrokemiska undersökningar utförda på laboratorium och korrosionsprovningar i fält. Undersökningarna har genomförts av Swerea KIMAB, RISE CBI Betonginstitutet (väst och öst) samt Chalmers. Projektets mål har varit att genom en nationell samling av expertis ta fram en ny provningsmetodik som på ett enkelt och tillämpbart sätt ska utvärdera olika bindemedels korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong. I denna undersökning har framför allt tiden till initiering av korrosion (gropfrätning) från det att kloriderna har nått stålytan och tills gropfrätning har initieras på stålytan undersökts. Tre olika accelererade elektrokemiska mätmetoder har använts och jämförts:

     Potentiostatisk mätmetod

     Potentiodynamisk mätmetod

     Galvanostatisk mätmetod

    Den framtagna provningsmetodiken med framställning av provkroppar har visat sig fungera väl. För att minska spridningen är det emellertid viktigt att använda en homogen och rengjord stålyta utan glödskal. Glödskalet avlägsnas lämpligast genom slipning eftersom betning kan bygga upp ett passivskikt på stålytan. För att undvika att betongrester fastnar på stålytan ska släta provstänger användas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att resultaten från laboratorie- och fältmätningarna samt analyser av bindemedlens korrosionskänslighet genom TG- och XRD-analyser visade att denna kombination av mätningar ger ett bra verktyg att bedöma den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos olika bindemedel. En sammanställning av rangordningen för bindemedlens korrosionsskyddande förmåga redovisas i tabellen nedan.

    Den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos de undersökta bindemedlen rangordnas från en sammanvägning av de olika provningsmetoderna:

     bra < 1,5 och

     1,5 ≥mindre bra ≤2,5 och

     dåligt > 2,5.

    Som rangordningen visar i tabellen så har bindemedel med slagg och portlandcement med hög C 3A en bra korrosionsskyddande förmåga. Detta beror till största delen på kapaciteten att bilda Friedels salt från monosulfat under härdningsprocessen. Bindemedel som har en låg korrosionsskyddande förmåga har ett lågt C3A-innehåll och en inblandning av flygaska och/eller silika. Det medför dessutom en utspädningseffekt på förmågan att bilda Friedels salt.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-17 13:00 Grönwallsalen, Uppsala
    Löfling Skogar, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Bariatric Surgery: Outcomes after Gastric Bypass and Duodenal Switch2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A BMI >40 kg/mshortens life expectancy by about 10 years. The obesity related comorbidities diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep apnea contributes to the increased risk of cardiovascular events. There is also an increased risk of some forms of cancer (e.g. colon, breast, and prostate cancer) as well as mental illness (depression and low self-esteem). Bariatric surgery is indicated for those with a BMI >35 kg/m2. Unfortunately, there are an increasing number of patients seeking bariatric surgery who are super obese (BMI >50 kg/m2), a condition more difficult to treat because of insufficient weight loss with standard operations, like the Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). Therefore some surgeons advocate the Duodenal Switch (DS) in super obese patients, because DS results in greater and more sustained weight loss. However, DS is a technically more challenging operation and is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition and surgical complications. There are also concerns about an excessive loss of fat-free mass during weight loss after RYGB and especially after DS.

    This thesis focuses on weight-loss, effect on comorbidities, quality of life and complications after DS and RYGB, respectively, with comparisons between the two procedures in patients with super obesity. 

    DS resulted in a superior weight loss compared to RYGB (paper I, II and III) and body composition after weight loss did not differ compared with non-operated controls with the same BMI after surgery, for neither DS nor RYGB (paper I). Both DS and RYGB resulted in an improved metabolic control (paper II and III), but the effect on diabetes and hypertension was greater and maintained in the long-term after DS (paper III). Both DS and RYGB resulted in an improved physical quality of life, with greater improvements after DS (paper III). However, complications and long-term adverse effects were more common after DS (paper II and IV).

    In conclusion, the superior weight loss and greater improvements in several obesity-related comorbidities after DS must be weighed against the increased risk of complications and long-term adverse effects compared to RYGB. 

  • Hagman, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bostrom, D.
    Lundberg, Mats
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Alloy degradation in a co-firing biomass CFB vortex finder application at 880 degrees C2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 150, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms of alloy degradation in a fireside N-S-O-C-H-Cl-Na-K atmosphere at 880 degrees C were elucidated using SEM-EDS, chemical equilibrium calculations, and XRD. Alloys 310S, 800H/HT, and 600 were studied after 0, 8000, and 16,000 h exposure in a boiler co-firing biomass waste. For 310S and 800H/HT it was shown that nitrogen formed internal Cr nitrides lowering the Cr activity and inhibiting internal alloy Cr permeation, and that NaCl and Na2SO4 reacted with Cr oxide to form chromate and to accelerate the S and the Cl pickup. Alloy 600 showed no nitride or major chromate formation.

  • Harris, Sansha J.
    et al.
    Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.
    Gee, Melanie
    Hampshaw, Susan M.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Haywood, Annette
    Interpersonal touch interventions for patients in intensive care: A design-oriented realist review2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 216-235Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To develop a theoretical framework to inform the design of interpersonal touch interventions intended to reduce stress in adult intensive care unit patients.

    Design: Realist review with an intervention design-oriented approach.

    Methods: We searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and grey literature sources without date restrictions. Subject experts suggested additional articles. Evidence synthesis drew on diverse sources of literature and was conducted iteratively with theory testing. We consulted stakeholders to focus the review. We performed systematic searches to corroborate our developing theoretical framework.

    Results: We present a theoretical framework based around six intervention construction principles. Theory testing provided some evidence in favour of treatment repetition, dynamic over static touch and lightening sedation. A lack of empirical evidence was identified for construction principles relating to intensity and positive/negative evaluation of emotional experience, moderate pressure touch for sedated patients and intervention delivery by relatives versus healthcare practitioners.

  • Lovvik, Tone S.
    et al.
    Carlsen, Sven M.
    Salvesen, Oyvind
    Steffensen, Berglind
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Gomez-Real, Francisco
    Lennebotn, Marianne
    Hestvold, Kristin, V
    Zabielska, Renata
    Hirschberg, Angelica L.
    Trouva, Anastasia
    Thorarinsdottir, Solveig
    Hjelle, Sissel
    Berg, Ann Hilde
    Andrae, Frida
    Poromaa, Inger S.
    Molin, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Underdal, Maria
    Vanky, Eszter
    Use of metformin to treat pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PregMet2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial2019In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN 2213-8587, E-ISSN 2213-8595, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Epi-analysis of two previous randomised controlled trials that compared metformin with placebo during pregnancy in women with PCOS showed a significant reduction in late miscarriages and preterm births in the metformin group. The aim of this third randomised trial (PregMet2) was to test the hypothesis that metformin prevents late miscarriage and preterm birth in women with PCOS.

    Methods: PregMet2 was a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial done at 14 hospitals in Norway, Sweden, and Iceland. Singleton pregnant women with PCOS aged 18-45 years were eligible for inclusion. After receiving information about the study at their first antenatal visit or from the internet, women signed up individually to participate in the study. Participants were randomly assigned (1: 1) to receive metformin or placebo by computer-generated random numbers. Randomisation was in blocks of ten for each country and centre; the first block had a random size between one and ten to assure masking. Participants were assigned to receive oral metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo during the first week of treatment, which increased to 1000 mg twice daily or placebo from week 2 until delivery. Placebo tablets and metformin tablets were identical and participants and study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the composite incidence of late miscarriage (between week 13 and week 22 and 6 days) and preterm birth (between week 23 and week 36 and 6 days), analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and admission of the neonate to the neonatal intensive care unit. We also did a post-hoc individual participant data analysis of pregnancy outcomes, pooling data from the two previous trials with the present study. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT01587378, and EudraCT, number 2011-002203-15.

    Findings: The study took place between Oct 19, 2012, and Sept 1, 2017. We randomly assigned 487 women to metformin (n=244) or placebo (n=243). In the intention-to-treat analysis, our composite primary outcome of late miscarriage and preterm birth occurred in 12 (5%) of 238 women in the metformin group and 23 (10%) of 240 women in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.22- 1.08; p = 0.08). We found no significant differences for our secondary endpoints, including incidence of gestational diabetes (60 [25%] of 238 women in the metformin group vs 57 [24%] of 240 women in the placebo group; OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.69-1.66; p=0.75). We noted no substantial between-group differences in serious adverse events in either mothers or offspring, and no serious adverse events were considered drug-related by principal investigators. In the post-hoc pooled analysis of individual participant data from the present trial and two previous trials, 18 (5%) of 397 women had late miscarriage or preterm delivery in the metformin group ]compared with 40 (10%) of 399 women in the placebo group (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.79; p=0.004).

    Interpretation: In pregnant women with PCOS, metformin treatment from the late first trimester until delivery might reduce the risk of late miscarriage and preterm birth, but does not prevent gestational diabetes.

  • Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    En transportmodell med fokus på cykeltrafik: modellutveckling och scenarioanalyser2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging the use of active travel modes such as walking and cycling is vital for ensuring a sustainable urban development. In many European metropolitan areas, cycling is becoming increasingly popular within the recent decades. On the other hand, large-scale transport models, which serve as the main tools for policy evaluation and cost-benefit analysis, are often designed for modelling motorised travel modes such as private car and public transport. This study presents a tourbased transport model to better model cycling demand and supply. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing more than 200,000 links, covering the whole Greater Stockholm Area. Second, the model utilizes a refined zoning system with totally 5 808 zones each of the size of 250 m×250 m covering the entire Greater Stockholm Area. Third, the model is estimated on the newest Stockholm travel survey 2015, and therefore the model can represent travel behaviour that is up-to-date. In addition to the improvements mentioned above, the model also considers cycling as an access travel mode to a trip by public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes, and the model is capable of evaluating the impact of an improvement in bicycle infrastructure on cycling, as well as on cycling to public transport stations. The model is then validated against bicycle count data from the City of Stockholm. Six scenarios are tested according to the investment plan from the City of Stockholm. The results show that the investments have a limited effect on modal shift but a moderate effect on the existing cyclists' route choice, travel time and generalised cost.

  • Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Kowalchuk, George A.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Van der Velden, Merit
    Visser, Eric J. W.
    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Alternative transient states and slow plant community responses after changed flooding regimes2019In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1358-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will have large consequences for flooding frequencies in freshwater systems. In interaction with anthropogenic activities (flow regulation, channel restoration and catchment land-use) this will both increase flooding and drought across the world. Like in many other ecosystems facing changed environmental conditions, it remains difficult to predict the rate and trajectory of vegetation responses to changed conditions. Given that critical ecosystem services (e.g. bank stabilization, carbon subsidies to aquatic communities or water purification) depend on riparian vegetation composition, it is important to understand how and how fast riparian vegetation responds to changing flooding regimes. We studied vegetation changes over 19 growing seasons in turfs that were transplanted in a full-factorial design between three riparian elevations with different flooding frequencies. We found that (a) some transplanted communities may have developed into an alternative stable state and were still different from the target community, and (b) pathways of vegetation change were highly directional but alternative trajectories did occur, (c) changes were rather linear but faster when flooding frequencies increased than when they decreased, and (d) we observed fastest changes in turfs when proxies for mortality and colonization were highest. These results provide rare examples of alternative transient trajectories and stable states under field conditions, which is an important step towards understanding their drivers and their frequency in a changing world.

  • Anton, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Engine Optimized Turbine Design2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on our environment has never been as great as it is today. The impact of global warming and emissions from combustion processes become increasingly more evident with growing concerns among the world’s inhabitants. The consequences of extreme weather events, rising sea levels, urban air quality, etc. create a desperate need for immediate action. A major contributor to the cause of these effects is the transportation sector, a sector that relies heavily on the internal combustion engine and fossil fuels. The heavy-duty segment of the transportation sector is a major consumer of oil and is responsible for a large proportion of emissions.

    The global community has agreed on multiple levels to reduce the effect of man-made emissions into the atmosphere. Legislation for future reductions and, ultimately, a totally fossil-free society is on the agenda for many industrialized countries and an increasing number of emerging economies.

    Improvements of the internal combustion engine will be of importance in order to effectively reduce emissions from the transportation sector both presently and in the future. The primary focus of these improvements is undoubtedly in the field of engine efficiency. The gas exchange system is of major importance in this respect. The inlet and exhaust flows as the cylinder is emptied and filled will significantly influence the pumping work of the engine. At the center of the gas exchange system is the turbocharger. The turbine stage of the turbocharger can utilize the energy in the exhaust flow by expanding the exhaust gases in order to power the compressor stage of the turbocharger.

    If turbocharger components can operate at high efficiency, it is possible to achieve high engine efficiency and low fuel consumption. Low exhaust pressure during the exhaust stroke combined with high pressure at the induction stroke results in favorable pumping work. For the process to work, a systems-based approach is required as the turbocharger is only one component of the engine and gas exchange system.

    In this thesis, the implications of turbocharger turbine stage design with regards to exhaust energy utilization have been extensively studied. Emphasis has been placed on the turbine stage in a systems context with regards to engine performance and the influence of exhaust system components.

    The most commonly used turbine stage in turbochargers, the radial turbine, is associated with inherent limitations in the context of exhaust energy utilization. Primarily, turbine stage design constraints result in low efficiency in the pulsating exhaust flow, which impairs the gas exchange process. Gas stand and numerical evaluation of the common twin scroll radial turbine stage highlighted low efficiency levels at high loadings. For a pulse-turbocharged engine with low exhaust manifold volume, the majority of extracted work by the turbine will occur at high loadings, far from the optimum efficiency point for radial turbines. In order for the relevant conditions to be assessed with regards to turbine operation, the entire exhaust pulse must be considered in detail. Averaged conditions will not capture the variability in energy content of the exhaust pulse important for exhaust energy utilization.

    Modification of the radial turbine stage design in order to improve performance is very difficult to achieve. Typical re-sizing with modifying tip diameter and trim are not adequate for altering turbine operation into high efficiency regions at the energetic exhaust pulse peak.

    The axial turbine type is an alternative as a turbocharger turbine stage for a pulse-turbocharged engine. The axial turbine stage design can allow for high utilization of exhaust energy with minimal pressure interference in the gas exchange process; a combination which has been shown to result in engine efficiency improvements compared to state-of-the-art radial turbine stages.

  • Klope, Eva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    I skuggan av ett yrke: om gymnasieelevers identitetsskapande på hantverksprogrammet frisör2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to understand the creation of identities, especially focusing on vocational identities within the vocational education and training (VET) for hairdressers. To be trained for a vocation like hairdressing means that more has to be learnt other than to do nice haircuts or other treatments. The handicraft is one part of the vocational knowing of hairdressing, but to be a hairdresser is about something more besides handicraft. Identity in this study is understood from a sociological perspective influenced by Richard Jenkins’ (2004, 2008) theoretical model of social identities. This is used together with the Bourdieu-inspired concept of vocational habitus (Colley, James, Tedder, & Diment, 2003). The method is inspired by ethnographic research and the empirical material consists of interviews and observations. Based on this material personal portraits have been created of four students. The intention is to focus on the students’ perspective about the everyday activities in school and their experiences of being trained for a vocation in school. The analyse shows that students are trained to develop a vocational habitus, to look, move, talk and feel like a hairdresser is expected to. The students encounter these expectations differently, depending on their identities as hairdressers, students or identities established in other contexts. A main finding of the study is that student identities and vocational identities sometimes are in conflict with each other.

    The contribution of the study is an increased understanding of identity creation in vocational education. It also contributes to a better knowledge of young people in vocational education and their relationship with their vocational education and upcoming vocation.

  • Hagström, Anneli Silvén
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Social Work & Psychol, Gavle, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Social Work, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toft, Teolinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    "TOGETHER WE ARE UNBEATABLE": young sisters' narration of a sibling's cancer in personal blogs on the internet2019In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1586625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Siblings of children and young people diagnosed with cancer are commonly reluctant to talk about their experiences due to the circumstances of the illness situation. This article aims to bring voice to experience and inform practice by investigating what and how three young sisters narrate about their illness experiences in personal blogs on the Internet.

    Methods: A narrative methodology for the analysis of life storytelling was applied primarily to investigate the sister's coping strategies and support needs.

    Results: The results show how the sisters constructed their own space for narration, with the main aims of expressing their feelings about the illness and seeking social support. The telling of their experiences along with encouraging comments from a supportive audience enabled a change in position from feeling neglected and silenced to being a recognized agent and caring sister. In addition, through their narrative coping the sisters went from powerless to powerful in their position in relation to cancer.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need for siblings to be able to narrate experience in a supportive context, where the processing of their relationship with the ill sister/brother should be understood as an important element of their coping with cancer and death.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-15 09:00 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Nahar, Khayrun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    The role of PDGF-B in brain blood vessels2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of blood vessels is dependent on several molecular cues to form properly. A functional PDGF-B/PDGFR-b signaling is paramount for the investment of mural cells, that provide with support, to the developing vasculature. Mutations in PDGFB and PDGFRB are linked to PFBC, an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition manifested by vessel associated calcifications in the brain. The overall aim of the work presented in here was to investigate PFBC related calcifications and analyze the effects of impaired PDGF-B/PDGFR-b signaling on the formation of brain calcifications in different mouse models.

    In paper I, we functionally analyzed PFBC-related PDGFB and PDGFRB mutations in vitro. While all PDGFB mutations lead to abolished protein function, PDGFRB mutations have more diverse consequences. We also show that reduced Pdgfb and Pdgfrb levels are insufficient for the formation of brain calcifications in several mouse strains. Moreover, region-specific susceptibility factors seem to reside in PFBC pathogenesis that are distinct from pericyte coverage and BBB deficiency.

    In paper II, we described the molecular composition and cellular association of calcified nodules that develop in two mouse models of PFBC, Pdgfbret/ret and Slc20a2-/- mice. We show that the nodules are composed of pro- and anti-mineralization proteins and that they are in direct association with astrocytes and microglia

    In paper III, we analyzed the effects of EC-specific ablation of PDGF-B in adult brain vasculature.  We report a substantial decrease of pericyte coverage and altered VSMC morphology and that this phenotype is inadequate to trigger the formation of calcifications or affect BBB integrity.

    The aim of paper IV was to molecularly define the adult mouse brain vasculature by taking advantage of the scRNAseq technique. Here, we describe a gradual change in expression profile along the arteriovenous axis: ECs present a continuum along the axis while mural cell expression profile is punctuated. 

    In summary, this thesis present detailed description of calcifications formed in mouse models of PFBC and address the role of impaired PDGF-B/PDGFR-b signaling for the formation of nodules in mice. Furthermore, the scRNaseq analysis performed on healthy adult brain vasculature has paved the way for future analysis in mouse models of PFBC.

  • Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Aging, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen, G. L.
    Univ Vermont, Larner Coll Med, Deans Off, Burlington, VT USA;Univ Vermont, Larner Coll Med, Dept Med, Burlington, VT USA.
    Correia, M. I. T. D.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Surg, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Gonzalez, M. C.
    Univ Catolica Pelotas, Postgrad Program Hlth & Behav, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Fukushima, R.
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Med, Dept Surg, Dept Med, Tokyo, Japan.
    Higashiguchi, T.
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Sch Med, Dept Surg & Palliat Med, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Baptista, G.
    Univ Cent Venezuela, Univ Hosp Caracas, Med Fac,Cent Univ Venezuela, Chief Nutr Support Unit,Hosp Univ,Acad Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Barazzoni, R.
    Univ Trieste, Osped Cattinara, Dept Med Technol & Translat Sci, Trieste, Italy.
    Blaauw, R.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Div Human Nutr, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Coats, A. J. S.
    Monash Univ, Clayton, Vic, Australia;Univ Warwick, Warwick, England.
    Crivelli, A. N.
    Hosp HIGA San Martin, Unit Nutr Support & Malabsorpt Dis, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Evans, D. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Surg, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Gramlich, L.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, V.
    Hosp Gen Mexico City, Dept Clin Nutr, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Keller, H.
    Univ Waterloo, Schlegel UW Res Inst Aging, Waterloo, ON, Canada;Univ Waterloo, Dept Kinesiol, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    Llido, L.
    St Lukes Med Ctr Quezon City, Clin Nutr Serv, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Malone, A.
    Amer Soc Parenteral & Enteral Nutr, Silver Spring, MD USA;Mt Carmel West Hosp, Columbus, OH USA.
    Mogensen, K. M.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Nutr, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Morley, J. E.
    St Louis Univ Hosp, Div Geriatr, St Louis, MO USA.
    Muscaritoli, M.
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Clin Med, Rome, Italy.
    Nyulasi, I.
    Alfred Hlth, Dept Nutr, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;La Trobe Univ, Dept Rehabil Nutr & Sport, Dietet Practice, Bundoora, Vic, Australia;Monash Univ, Cent Clin Sch, Dept Med, Clayton, Vic, Australia.
    Pirlich, M.
    Imperial Oak Outpatient Clin, Endocrinol Gastroenterol & Clin NutritionBerlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Pisprasert, V.
    Khon Kaen Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    de van der Schueren, M. A. E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Amsterdam, Netherlands;HAN Univ Appl Sci, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Fac Hlth & Social Studies, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Siltharm, S.
    Minist Sci & TechnologyBangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Singer, P.
    Rabin Med Ctr, Dept Gen Intens Care, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Tappenden, K.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Kinesiol & Nutr, Chicago, IL USA.
    Velasco, N.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Sch Med, Dept Nutr Diabet & Metab, Santiago, Chile.
    Waitzberg, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Gastroenterol, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Yamwong, P.
    Siriaj Hosp, Dept Med, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Yu, J.
    Peking Union Med Coll Hosp, Dept Gen Surg, GI Surg & Nutr Metab Div, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Van Gossum, A.
    Free Univ Brussels, Hop Erasme, Clin Intestinal Dis & Nutr Support, Dept Gastroenterol, Brussels, Belgium.
    Compher, C.
    Univ Penn, Sch Nursing, Biobehav Hlth Sci Dept, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ Penn, Sch Nursing, Nutr Programs, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    GLIM criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition - A consensus report from the global clinical nutrition community2019In: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, ISSN 2190-5991, E-ISSN 2190-6009, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale; This initiative is focused on building a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings.

    Methods: In January 2016, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. GLIM appointed a core leadership committee and a supporting working group with representatives bringing additional global diversity and expertise. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications.

    Results: A two-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, i.e., first screening to identify "at risk" status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among the GLIM core and supporting working group members. The top five ranked criteria included three phenotypic criteria (weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and two etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least one phenotypic criterion and one etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity as Stage 1 (moderate) and Stage 2 (severe) malnutrition are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories.

    Conclusion: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure further collaboration and endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The diagnostic construct should be re-considered every 3-5 years.

  • Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.
    et al.
    Hosp Univ Ramon y Cajal IRYCIS, Serv Geriatr, Madrid, Spain.
    Bahat, Gülistan
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul Med Sch, Div Geriatr, Dept Internal Med, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Bauer, Jürgen
    Heidelberg Univ, Ctr Geriatr Med, Agaples Bethanien Krankenhaus, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Boirie, Yves
    CHU Clermont Ferrand, Res Dept, Clermont Ferrand, France.
    Bruyere, Olivier
    Univ Liege, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Hlth Econ, Liege, Belgium.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Ageing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Epidemiol, Ox, England.
    Landi, Francesco
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Inst Med Interna & Geriatria, Rome, Italy.
    Rolland, Yves
    Hosp & Univ Toulouse, Dept Geriatr, Toulouse, France.
    Sayer, Avan Aihie
    Newcastle Upon Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, NIHR Newcastle Biomed Res Ctr, Newcastle, England;Newcastle Univ, Fac Med Sci, Newcastle, England.
    Schneider, Stephane M.
    Univ Cote Azur, CHU Nice, Dept Gastroenterol & Clin Nutr, Nice, France.
    Sieber, Cornel C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ, Inst Biomed & Ageing, Dept Internal Med Geriatr, Erlangen, Germany.
    Topinkova, Eva
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Dept Geriatr, Prague, Czech Republic;Gen Fac Hosp, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vandewoude, Maurits
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Geriatr, Ziekenhuisnetwerk Antwerpen ZNA, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Visser, Marjolein
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Sci, Dept Hlth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Zamboni, Mauro
    Univ Verona, Geriatr Sect, Dept Med, Verona, Italy.
    Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis2019In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings.

    Objectives: To increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia.

    Recommendations: Sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia.

    Conclusions; EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.

  • Borgström, Britt-Marie
    The Nordic Museum.
    Nordiska museets lekstuga1991In: Leka för livet, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1991, p. 16-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Rentzhog, Sten
    The Nordic Museum.
    Barnets århundrade1991In: Leka för livet, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1991, p. 9-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lindgren, Astrid
    Skulle kunna flyga...1991In: Leka för livet, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1991, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-05-24 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Surgically Treated Intracerebral Haemorrhage: Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortality and morbidity of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is excessively high, and the case fatality rate has not improved in the last decades. Although surgery for ICH can be life-saving, no positive effect on functional outcome has been found in large cohorts of ICH patients. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of ICH is needed to develop improved treatment strategies.

    In 17 ICH patients, paired cerebral microdialysis (CMD) catheters were inserted in the perihaemorrhagic zone (PHZ) and in normal uninjured cortex at time of surgery. Despite normalisation of cerebral blood flow, a persistent metabolic crisis indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the PHZ. This metabolic pattern was not observed in the uninjured cortex.

    CMD was also used to sample proteins for proteomic analysis. A distinct proteome profile that changed over time was found in the PHZ when compared to the seemingly normal, uninjured cortex. However, protein adsorption to CMD membranes, which may interfere with concentration measurements, was substantial.

    Surgical treatment of 578 ICH patients was analysed in a nation-wide retrospective multi-centre study in Sweden over five years. Patients selected for surgery had similar age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidity profiles, but ICH volume and the proportion of deep-seated ICH differed among the six neurosurgical centres. Furthermore, there was variability in the post-operative care, including the use and duration of intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebrospinal fluid drainage and mechanical ventilation.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis show that:

    (i) Despite surgical removal of an ICH a metabolic crisis caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, a potential future therapeutic target, persists in the perihaemorrhagic zone.

    (ii-iii) CMD is a valuable tool in ICH research for sampling novel biomarkers using proteomics, which may aid in the development of improved therapeutic interventions. However, caveats of the technique, such as protein adsorption to the CMD membrane, must be considered.

    (iv) The nation-wide study illustrates similar clinical features in patients selected for ICH surgery, but substantial variability in ICH volume and location as well as neurocritical care strategies among Swedish neurosurgical centres. Development of refined clinical guidelines may reduce such intercentre variability and lead to improved functional outcome for ICH patients.  

  • Bayisa, Fekadu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Model-based computed tomography image estimation: partitioning approach2019In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to get a fully MR based radiotherapy. The most important development needed is to obtain improved bone tissue estimation. The existing model-based methods perform poorly on bone tissues. This paper was aimed at obtaining improved bone tissue estimation. Skew-Gaussian mixture model and Gaussian mixture model were proposed to investigate CT image estimation from MR images by partitioning the data into two major tissue types. The performance of the proposed models was evaluated using the leaveone-out cross-validation method on real data. In comparison with the existing model-based approaches, the model-based partitioning approach outperformed in bone tissue estimation, especially in dense bone tissue estimation.

  • Renner, Fritz
    et al.
    Univ Freiburg, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychotherapy, Freiburg, Germany;Univ Cambridge, MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England;Univ Freiburg, Inst Psychol, Dept Clin Psychol & Psychotherapy, Engelbergerstr 41, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Murphy, Fionnuala C.
    Univ Cambridge, MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Ji, Julie L.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol Sci, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
    Manly, Tom
    Univ Cambridge, MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ Cambridge, MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Mental imagery as a "motivational amplifier" to promote activities2019In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 114, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facilitating engagement in rewarding activities is a key treatment target in depression. Mental imagery can increase engagement in planned behaviours, potentially due to its special role in representing emotionally salient experiences. The present study tested the hypothesis that mental imagery promotes motivation and engagement when planning pleasant and rewarding activities. Participants were recruited from a community volunteer panel (N = 72). They self-nominated six activities to complete over the following week, and were randomized to either: a) a single-session Motivational Imagery condition (N = 24); b) an Activity Reminder control condition (N = 24); or c) a No-Reminder control condition (N = 24). As predicted, relative to control groups, the Motivational Imagery group reported higher levels of motivation, anticipated pleasure, and anticipated reward for the planned activities. The Motivational Imagery group also completed significantly more activities than the Activity Reminder group, but not more than the No-Reminder group. Relevance of results to behavioural activation approaches for depression are discussed.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-17 09:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
    Ward, Liam
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sex differences in atherosclerosis and exercise effects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, with atherosclerosis being the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall, which over time will cause thickening and hardening of the vessel wall. Atherosclerosis can result in catastrophic vascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. There are distinct sex differences in CVD mortality at different ages, before menopause women have a lower mortality of CVD in comparison to men, which equalises after menopause. In addition to sex differences in the incidence of CVD, there are also distinct sex differences in the phenotype of atherosclerotic plaques, with men generally developing more severe and vulnerable plaques that are at risk of rupture.

    This thesis aimed to investigate the sex differences in atherosclerosis, in particular how the proteome and pathophysiology differs. In addition, we sought to investigate the potential benefit of an exercise programme, in reducing CVD risks, using a randomised controlled trial including postmenopausal women.

    Sex differences in atherosclerosis were first investigated via proteomic analysis of human carotid endarterectomy samples. Initially, five intraplaque biopsies were taken from distinct atheroma regions, including; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Protein extracts from these biopsies were subjected to analysis by mass spectrometry. The novel sampling method was successful in reducing the effect of plaque heterogeneity, a limitation in previous proteomic studies of atherosclerosis, and a number of previously unreported proteins were identified in human carotid atheroma. In addition to this, with the inclusion of multivariate statistical modelling, it was found that 43 proteins significantly discriminated the carotid atheroma between men and women. These proteins were grouped by function, and it was found that atheroma from men was associated with the increased abundance of inflammatory response proteins, including phospholipase-A2 membrane associated and lysozyme C, and atheroma from women was associated with increased abundance of blood coagulation, complement activation, and transport proteins, notably including; antithrombin-III, coagulation factor XII, and afamin. In addition, differences were also ii observed in the abundance of iron metabolism related proteins. These sex differences were further expanded upon from a pathophysiological perspective. Immunohistochemistry stainings of ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 were found significantly increased in the atheroma from men. Moreover, the levels of plasma haemoglobin were also significantly increased in men and were associated with the development of more vulnerable and severe plaque types. The more vulnerable and severe plaque types were also associated with significantly greater macrophage infiltration. In summary, these results are indicative of men developing atheroma with greater inflammation that are more vulnerable, due to increased iron and inflammatory proteins and macrophage infiltration, whereas atheroma from women develop with less inflammation and a more stable phenotype.

    The randomised controlled clinical trial aimed at investigating the effects of resistance training (RT), over a 15-week period, in postmenopausal women. Plasma samples were obtained at week-0 and week-15 of the study period, and analyses were performed primarily using a series of immunoassays. Results showed that women participating in RT, with good compliance, were associated with significant decreases in plasma levels of ferritin, lipids, and inflammatory adipokines. These results suggest that the use of regular RT may be a beneficial intervention in reducing the levels of body iron, lipids, and inflammation, all of which are risk factors for the development of CVD. However, validation studies are required in a larger cohort of postmenopausal women, in addition to the inclusion or complementary studies in middle-aged men.

    In summary, the works included in this thesis further expand on the current knowledge of sex differences in atherosclerosis, and also provides information on the potential of an exercise intervention to beneficially reduces the effects of known risk factors of CVD.

  • Karlsson, Kåre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Ambulance Services, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson Niemelä, Patrik
    Ambulance Services, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    School of Health Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Törnhage, Carl-Johan
    Department of Paediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, Sweden.
    Stress response in swedish ambulance personnel evaluated by Trier social stress test2019In: Journal of Health and Environmental Research, ISSN 2472-3584, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous research, ambulance personnel often consider themselves as healthy, but at the same time several studies show that they suffer from several stress-related illnesses, take early retirement and even suffer early death. The aim of this study was to explore mental stress during the Trier Social Stress Test. Questions were whether heart rate measurement could replace cortisol concentration in saliva as an indicator of stress and if there were differences between genders. During 20 Trier Social Stress Tests heart rate and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured. Heart rate was measured every 15 seconds and salivary cortisol was collected at seven occasions. Fourteen men and six women (sixteen ambulance nurses and four paramedics) participated. A questionnaire with background data was collected. Statistical analysis used was non-parametric tests to adjust for misalignment. During the Trier Social Stress Test women had their highest salivary cortisol concentration before start of test while the maximum values for men were 10 to 20 minutes after start. In contrast, there was no difference in heart rhythm before, during and after test between genders. No correlation between heart rate and salivary cortisol was found. There was no significant difference in stress response according to personnel’s age or level of education. Women and men exhibit different hormonal stress responses when it comes to performing unfamiliar actions, something that has not been seen before. Since no correlation could be seen between heart rate and salivary cortisol concentration they cannot replace each other as indicators of stress.

  • Huijben, Jilske A.
    et al.
    Wiegers, Eveline J. A.
    de Keizer, Nicolette F.
    Maas, Andrew I. R.
    Menon, David
    Ercole, Ari
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Lecky, Fiona
    Wilson, Lindsay
    Cnossen, Maryse C.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Steyerberg, Ewout W.
    van der Jagt, Mathieu
    Lingsma, Hester F.
    Aries, Marcel
    Badenes, Rafael
    Beishuizen, Albertus
    Bilotta, Federico
    Chieregato, Arturo
    Cingolani, Emiliano
    Cnossen, Maryse
    Coburn, Mark
    Coles, Jonathan P.
    Delargy, Mark
    Depreitere, Bart
    Flaatten, Hans
    Golyk, Volodymyr
    Grauwmeijer, Erik
    Haitsma, Iain
    Helbok, Raimund
    Hoedemaekers, Cornelia
    Jacobs, Bram
    Jellema, Korne
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Maegele, Marc
    Martin Delgado, Maria Cruz
    Moller, Kirsten
    Moreno, Rui
    Nelson, David
    Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.
    Payen, Jean-Francois
    Pejakovic, Jasmina
    Ribbbers, Gerard M.
    Rossaint, Rolf
    Schoonman, Guus Geurt
    Steiner, Luzius A.
    Stocchetti, Nino
    Silvio, Fabio
    Takala, Riikka
    Tenovuo, Olli
    Valeinis, Eglis
    van den Bergh, Walter M.
    van Essen, Thomas
    van Leeuwen, Nikki
    Verhofstad, Michael H. J.
    Vos, Pieter E.
    Development of a quality indicator set to measure and improve quality of ICU care for patients with traumatic brain injury2019In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 23, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We aimed to develop a set of quality indicators for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in intensive care units (ICUs) across Europe and to explore barriers and facilitators for implementation of these quality indicators.

    Methods: A preliminary list of 66 quality indicators was developed, based on current guidelines, existing practice variation, and clinical expertise in TBI management at the ICU. Eight TBI experts of the Advisory Committee preselected the quality indicators during a first Delphi round. A larger Europe-wide expert panel was recruited for the next two Delphi rounds. Quality indicator definitions were evaluated on four criteria: validity (better performance on the indicator reflects better processes of care and leads to better patient outcome), feasibility (data are available or easy to obtain), discriminability (variability in clinical practice), and actionability (professionals can act based on the indicator). Experts scored indicators on a 5-point Likert scale delivered by an electronic survey tool.

    Results. The expert panel consisted of 50 experts from 18 countries across Europe, mostly intensivists (N=24, 48%) and neurosurgeons (N=7, 14%). Experts agreed on a final set of 42 indicators to assess quality of ICU care: 17 structure indicators, 16 process indicators, and 9 outcome indicators. Experts are motivated to implement this finally proposed set (N=49, 98%) and indicated routine measurement in registries (N=41, 82%), benchmarking (N=42, 84%), and quality improvement programs (N=41, 82%) as future steps. Administrative burden was indicated as the most important barrier for implementation of the indicator set (N=48, 98%).

    Conclusions: This Delphi consensus study gives insight in which quality indicators have the potential to improve quality of TBI care at European ICUs. The proposed quality indicator set is recommended to be used across Europe for registry purposes to gain insight in current ICU practices and outcomes of patients with TBI. This indicator set may become an important tool to support benchmarking and quality improvement programs for patients with TBI in the future.

  • Stålnacke, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Individual investors’ information use, subjective expectations, and portfolio risk and return2019In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What information do individual investors use when making their financial decisions and how is it related to their stock market expectations, their confidence in these expectations, and the risk and return of their stock portfolios? I study these questions by combining survey data on the information usage among individual investors in Sweden with detailed registry data on their stock portfolios. I find that investors use filtered financial information (e.g. information packaged by a professional intermediary) more frequently than they use unfiltered financial information (e.g. information from annual reports and financial statements). Investors who frequently use filtered financial information are, however, more confident in their stock market expectations and take larger risks in their stock portfolios. Investors that instead use unfiltered financial information take lower portfolio risks and obtain higher portfolio returns. The findings in this paper thus suggest that investors can improve their financial decisions by using more unfiltered financial information rather than filtered financial information when they make their financial decisions.

  • Jahn, Olga
    et al.
    Leshchenko, Vyacheslav E.
    Tzallas, Paraskevas
    Kassel, Alexander
    Krueger, Mathias
    Muenzer, Andreas
    Trushin, Sergei A.
    Tsakiris, George D.
    Kahaly, Subhendu
    Kormin, Dmitrii
    Veisz, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany.
    Pervak, Vladimir
    Krausz, Ferenc
    Major, Zsuzsanna
    Karsch, Stefan
    Towards intense isolated attosecond pulses from relativistic surface high harmonics2019In: Optica, ISSN 2334-2536, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relativistic surface high harmonics have been considered a unique source for the generation of intense isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultra-violet and x-ray spectral ranges. Their practical realization, however, is still a challenging task and requires identification of optimum experimental conditions and parameters. Here, we present measurements and particle-in-cell simulations to determine the optimum values for the most important parameters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of harmonics efficiency, divergence, and beam quality on the pre-plasma scale length as well as identify the optimum conditions for generation of isolated attosecond pulses by measuring the dependence of the harmonics spectrum on the carrier - envelope phase of the driving infrared field. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

  • Willander, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sveriges religiösa landskap: samhörighet, tillhörighet och mångfald under 2000-talet2019Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-05-10 09:15 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Ástvaldsson, Ásgeir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Pathogenesis and Cell Biology of the Salmon Parasite Spironucleus salmonicida2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spironucleus species are classified as diplomonad organisms, diverse eukaryotic flagellates found in oxygen-deprived environments. Members of Spironucleus are parasitic and can infect a variety of hosts, such as mice and birds, while the majority are found to infect fish. Massive outbreaks of severe systemic infection caused by a Spironucleus member, Spironucleus salmonicida (salmonicida = salmon killer), have been reported in farmed salmonids resulting in large economic impacts for aquaculture.

    In this thesis, the S. salmonicida genome was sequenced and compared to the genome of its diplomonad relative, the mammalian pathogen G. intestinalis (Paper I). Our analyses revealed large genomic differences between the two parasites that collectively suggests that S. salmonicida is more capable of adapting to different environments. As S. salmonicida can infiltrate different host tissues, we provide molecular evidence for how the parasite can tolerate oxygenated environments and suggest oxygen as a potential regulator of virulence factors (Paper III). To further investigate the molecular responses of the parasite and in addition, its host, during infection we set up an interaction system of S. salmonicida and ASK (Atlantic salmon kidney) cells (Paper VI).

    To study the cell biology in S. salmonicida we optimized an enzymatic proximity labeling method using ascorbate peroxidase (APEX) as a reporter for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Paper IV). As the system is robust and versatile, we showed the localization and performed ultrastructural characterization of numerous proteins in S. salmonicida and G. intestinalis. We furthermore utilized the APEX system to study the annexin protein family in S. salmonicida (Paper II). Super resolution microscopy and TEM were applied to show that the annexins are mostly associated with cytoskeletal and membranous structures. In addition, we performed phylogenetic analyses concluding that the annexin gene family is expanded in diplomonads.

    We performed experimental infection in Atlantic salmon and derived a potential model for the route of infection (Paper V). The results suggested multiple routes of transmission between hosts for the parasite.

    To conclude, the comprehensive work in this thesis has provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis and cell biology of the highly adaptable diplomonad parasite S. salmonicida.      

  • Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Constructions of Language Competence: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Assessing Second Language Interactions in Basic Adult Education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is concerned with constructions and perceptions of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’ in the context of a language programme in basic Swedish called Swedish for Immigrants (SFI). A particular focus is given to the testing and assessment of oral interaction. The prevailing communicative approach to language teaching and testing makes it relevant to investigations of both language use and reflections on communicative experiences. The thesis is based on three studies. Drawing on insights from linguistic anthropology, multimodal interaction analysis, phenomenology and social theory, the three studies address different sociolinguistic perspectives on language testing and assessment. Whereas Studies I and II investigate paired speaking tests in the final national exam in SFI as a speech event, Study III builds upon focus group discussions with SFI participants with the aim of exploring the participants’ reflections on communicative experiences.

           Drawing on linguistic anthropological performance theory, Study I makes the case that the paired speaking tests can be analysed as staged institutionalized performances that put speaking and ideologies on display. Study I draws on an analysis of sequences in the test data where the participants expressed beliefs on language learning, language use and language competence. One important resource for the test takers to maintain the discussion in front of the examiners was to draw on dominant discourses on language and integration, such as stating the importance of learning Swedish, speaking only Swedish, attempting to find Swedish friends and taking responsibility for one’s learning, making testing practices an important site for the reproduction of such discourse. The orientation to being ‘a competent language user’ was performed by indexing other images of being ‘a good student’ and ‘a good immigrant’.

          Study II takes an interactional practice in the paired speaking tests, word searching sequences, as its starting point. Word searches tap into two aspects of communicative language testing: vocabulary knowledge and the ability to negotiate meaning and solve interactional problems. The test takers drew on different embodied semiotic resources to negotiate participation and meaning or to display an avoidance to participating in the fellow test taker’s word search. Overall, the participants prioritized the progressivity of talk over lexical precision. By avoiding using languages other than Swedish during the test, the test takers sustained and constructed a monolingual orientation to language competence.

         Study III discusses how the SFI participants’ lived experience of language constituted their understanding of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’. Accordingly, the participants’ comments primarily constructed a view of competence as made relevant through and being shaped in social interactions, making language competence a primarily relational construct. Corroborating the relational construction of language competence was the importance given to language assessments, both those made by others and internalized self-assessments. In the focus group discussions, overall, being ‘a competent language user’ was oriented to as a desired, but yet unstable and vulnerable subject position.

          Taken together, the three studies address ideological, embodied, emotional and relational perspectives on language and language competence. By contrast, language testing practices are built upon a view of language competence as an individual and objective ability that can be measured. The main conclusions drawn in the thesis are that testing and assessment practices constitute a social practice where perceptions and constructions of language competence are constructed and regimented metapragmatically as well as interactionally. Furthermore, embodied experiences of language assessment made in institutional and everyday practices make competence a powerful concept influencing L2 users’ self-perception and agency. 

  • Alaridah, Nader
    et al.
    Hallbäck, Erika Tång
    Tångrot, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden (NBIS), SciLifeLab, Computational Life Science Cluster, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Winqvistz, Niclas
    Sturegard, Erik
    Floren-Johanssons, Kerstin
    Jonsson, Bodil
    Tenland, Erik
    Welinder-Olssons, Christina
    Medstrand, Patrik
    Kaijser, Bertil
    Godaly, Gabriela
    Transmission dynamics study of tuberculosis isolates with whole genome sequencing in southern Sweden2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 4931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological contact tracing complemented with genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is important for understanding disease transmission. In Sweden, tuberculosis (TB) is mostly reported in migrant and homeless where epidemiologic contact tracing could pose a problem. This study compared epidemiologic linking with genotyping in a low burden country. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n = 93) collected at Scania University Hospital in Southern Sweden were analysed with the standard genotyping method mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and the results were compared with whole genome sequencing (WGS). Using a maximum of twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the upper threshold of genomic relatedness noted among hosts, we identified 18 clusters with WGS comprising 52 patients with overall pairwise genetic maximum distances ranging from zero to nine SNPs. MIRU-VNTR and WGS clustered the same isolates, although the distribution differed depending on MIRU-VNTR limitations. Both genotyping techniques identified clusters where epidemiologic linking was insufficient, although WGS had higher correlation with epidemiologic data. To summarize, WGS provided better resolution of transmission than MIRU-VNTR in a setting with low TB incidence. WGS predicted epidemiologic links better which could consolidate and correct the epidemiologically linked cases, avoiding thus false clustering.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-31 13:00 Hugo Theorell, Norra Entrén, Linköping
    Ziegler, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Improving Assessments of Hemodynamics and Vascular Disease2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood vessels are more than simple pipes, passively enabling blood to pass through them. Their form and function are dynamic, changing with both aging and disease. This process involves a feedback loop wherein changes to the shape of a blood vessel affect the hemodynamics, causing yet more structural adaptation. This feedback loop is driven in part by the hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow, and the distribution and strength of these forces appear to play a role in the initiation, progression, severity, and the outcome of vascular diseases.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers a unique platform for investigating both the form and function of the vascular system. The form of the vascular system can be examined using MR-based angiography, to generate detailed geometric analyses, or through quantitative techniques for measuring the composition of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaques. To complement these analyses, 4D Flow MRI can be used to quantify the functional aspect of the vascular system, by generating a full time-resolved three-dimensional velocity field that represents the blood flow.

    This thesis aims to develop and evaluate new methods for assessing vascular disease using novel hemodynamic markers generated from 4D Flow MRI and quantitative MRI data towards the larger goal of a more comprehensive non-invasive examination oriented towards vascular disease. In Paper I, we developed and evaluated techniques to quantify flow stasis in abdominal aortic aneurysms to measure this under-explored aspect of aneurysmal hemodynamics. In Paper II, the distribution and intensity of turbulence in the aorta was quantified in both younger and older men to understand how aging changes this aspect of hemodynamics. A method to quantify the stresses generated by turbulence that act on the vessel wall was developed and evaluated using simulated flow data in Paper III, and in Paper V this method was utilized to examine the wall stresses of the carotid artery. The hemodynamics of vascular disease cannot be uncoupled from the anatomical changes the vessel wall undergoes, and therefore Paper IV developed and evaluated a semi-automatic method for quantifying several aspects of vessel wall composition. These developments, taken together, help generate more valuable information from imaging data, and can be pooled together with other methods to form a more comprehensive non-invasive examination for vascular disease.

  • Zhou, Yueting
    et al.
    Liu, Jianxin
    Guo, Songjie
    Zhao, Gang
    Ma, Weiguang
    Cao, Zhensong
    Dong, Lei
    Zhang, Lei
    Yin, Wangbao
    Wu, Yongqian
    Xiao, Lianxuan
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Jia, Suotang
    Laser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidar2019In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1807-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidar is an effective tool for high-altitude atmospheric measurement in which a weak absorption line for the target gas is selected to ensure a large optical depth. The laser frequency stabilization to the line center is required, and a sub-Doppler (sD) spectroscopy of the target line is preferred as a frequency reference. In this paper, a novel universal sD noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) instrumentation based on a fiber-coupled optical single-sideband electro-optic modulator (f-SSM) for the potential application in atmospheric lidar for different target gases with different types of lasers is reported. The f-SSM can replace all frequency actuators in the system, so as to eliminate the individual design of feedback servos that often are tailored for each laser. The universality of the instrumentation was demonstrated by the alternative use of either an Er-doped fiber laser or a whispering-gallery mode laser. Then the instruments based on both lasers were used to produce the sD signals of acetylene, which worked as a frequency reference to stabilize the laser. By performing the lockings, relative frequency stabilizations of 8.3 x 10(-13) and 7.5 x 10(-13) at an integration time of 240 s were demonstrated.

  • Harvey, E. Therese
    et al.
    Walve, Jakob
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlson, Bengt
    Kratzer, Susanne
    The Effect of Optical Properties on Secchi Depth and Implications for Eutrophication Management2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, p. 1-19, article id 496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful management of coastal environments requires reliable monitoring methods and indicators. Besides Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), water transparency measured as Secchi Depth (ZSD) is widely used in Baltic Sea management for water quality assessment as eutrophication indicator. However, in many coastal waters not only phytoplankton but also coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) influence the under-water light field, and therefore the ZSD. In this study all three main optical variables(CDOM, Chl-a and SPM [organic and inorganic]) as well as ZSD were measured in three Swedish regions: the Bothnian Sea, the Baltic Proper and the Skagerrak in 2010-2014. Regional multiple regressions with Chl-a, CDOM and inorganic SPM as predictors explained the variations in ZSD well (R2adj = 0.53-0.84). Commonality analyses of the regressions indicated considerable differences between regions regarding the contribution of each factor to the variance, R2adj, in ZSD. CDOM explained most of the variance in the Bothnian Sea and the Skagerrak; in general, Chl-a contributed only modestly to the ZSD. In the Baltic Proper the largest contribution was from the interaction of all three variables. As expected, the link between Chl-a and ZSD was much weaker in the Bothnian Sea with high CDOM absorption and SPM concentration. When applying the Swedish EU Water Framework Directive threshold for Good/Moderate Chl-a status in the models it was shown that ZSD is neither a sufficient indicator for eutrophication, nor for changes in Chl-a. Natural coastal gradients in CDOM and SPM influence the reference conditions for ZSD and other eutrophication indicators, such as the depth distribution of macro-algae. Hence, setting targets for these indicators based on reference Chl-a concentrations and simple Chl-a to ZSD relationships might in some cases be inappropriate and misleading due to overestimation of water transparency under natural conditions.

  • Clendenen, Tess V.
    et al.
    Ge, Wenzhen
    Koenig, Karen L.
    Afanasyeva, Yelena
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Brinton, Louise A.
    Darvishian, Farbod
    Dorgan, Joanne F.
    Eliassen, A. Heather
    Falk, Roni T.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hankinson, Susan E.
    Hoffman-Bolton, Judith
    Key, Timothy J.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Nichols, Hazel B.
    Sandler, Dale P.
    Schoemaker, Minouk J.
    Sluss, Patrick M.
    Sund, Malin
    Swerdlow, Anthony J.
    Visvanathan, Kala
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Liu, Mengling
    Breast cancer risk prediction in women aged 35-50 years: impact of including sex hormone concentrations in the Gail model2019In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 21, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50.

    Methods: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers.

    Results: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer.

    Conclusions: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.

  • Wode, Kathrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Regional Cancer Center Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden; Department for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer, K42, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Regional Cancer Center Stockholm Gotland, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharp, Lena
    Stoltenberg, Anna
    Nordberg, Johanna Hök
    Cancer patients' use of complementary and alternative medicine in Sweden: a cross-sectional study2019In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 19, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Access to and advice on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) are uncommon within Swedish conventional cancer care and little is known about cancer patients' own use of CAM. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore Swedish cancer patients patterns of CAM use, their experiences and preferences.

    Methods. Questionnaires were distributed consecutively to 1297 cancer patients at a university hospital's out-patient oncology units. The response rate was 58% (n=755). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between CAM use and gender, age and level of education. Open-ended responses were analyzed, using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Lifetime CAM use was reported by 34% (n=256), and 26% (n=198) used CAM after cancer diagnosis. Being female, younger and having higher education predicted CAM use. Most commonly used methods were natural products including vitamins and mineralsand relaxation. Main reasons for CAM use were improvement of physical, general and emotional wellbeing and increasing the body's ability to fight cancer. Satisfaction with CAM usage was generally high. Reported adverse effects were few and mild; 54% of users spent <50 Euro a month on CAM. One third had discussed their CAM use with cancer care providers. More than half of all participants thought that cancer care providers should be able to discuss (58%) and to consider (54%) use of CAM modalities in cancer care.

    Conclusions: Despite limited access and advice within conventional cancer care, one fourth of Swedish cancer patients use CAM. The insufficient patient-provider dialogue diverges with most patients' wish for professional guidance in their decisions and integration of CAM modalities in conventional cancer care. Concurrent and multimodal CAM use implies challenges and possibilities for cancer care that need to be considered.

  • Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Vasile, Silvana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Østergaard, Søren
    Novo Nordisk AS, Prot & Peptide Chem 2, Malov, Denmark.
    Paulsson, Johan F.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Obes Res, Malov, Denmark.
    Pruner, Jasna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Åqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Wulff, Birgitte S.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Obes Res, Malov, Denmark.
    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Elucidation of the Binding Mode of the Carboxyterminal Region of Peptide YY to the Human Y-2 Receptor2018In: Molecular Pharmacology, ISSN 0026-895X, E-ISSN 1521-0111, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the agonist-receptor interactions in the neuropeptide Y (NPY)/peptide YY (PYY) signaling system is fundamental for the design of novel modulators of appetite regulation. We report here the results of a multidisciplinary approach to elucidate the binding mode of the native peptide agonist PYY to the human Y2 receptor, based on computational modeling, peptide chemistry and in vitro pharmacological analyses. The preserved binding orientation proposed for full-length PYY and five analogs, truncated at the amino terminus, explains our pharmacological results where truncations of the N-terminal proline helix showed little effect on peptide affinity. This was followed by receptor mutagenesis to investigate the roles of several receptor positions suggested by the modeling. As a complement, PYY-(3-36) analogs were synthesized with modifications at different positions in the common PYY/NPY C-terminal fragment (32TRQRY36-amide). The results were assessed and interpreted by molecular dynamics and Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) simulations of selected mutants, providing a detailed map of the interactions of the PYY/NPY C-terminal fragment with the transmembrane cavity of the Y2 receptor. The amidated C-terminus would be stabilized by polar interactions with Gln2886.55 and Tyr2195.39, while Gln1303.32 contributes to interactions with Q34 in the peptide and T32 is close to the tip of TM7 in the receptor. This leaves the core, α-helix of the peptide exposed to make potential interactions with the extracellular loops. This model agrees with most experimental data available for the Y2 system and can be used as a basis for optimization of Y2 receptor agonists.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-09 09:15 C4:305, Uppsala
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    The Role of Angiotensin II in Experimental Acute Kidney Injury and Cardiorenal Failure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure and fluid regulation are kept constant through the interaction between heart and kidneys. When the systemic blood pressure decreases, the levels of the hormone Angiotensin II increase, leading to vasoconstriction and therefore increased blood pressure. Angiotensin II may act directly on the vessels or cause fluid retention in the kidneys, consequently increasing blood pressure. Dysfunctional heart and kidneys lead to different diseases, such as heart failure and acute kidney injury. A failing heart can cause damage to kidneys and vice versa, leading to cardiorenal syndrome. Due to the severity of these diseases and their increasing prevalence, it is important to investigate them further. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate blockage or treatment of Angiotensin II on the effects on renal and cardiac function.

    Study I investigates the effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker, on kidney oxygenation as well as the effect on blood pressure, after resuscitated haemorrhage and Norepinephrine administration. It showed that Losartan does not worsen the effects of kidney oxygenation. The blood pressure managing affects of Norepinephrine were also not worsened in rats treated with Losartan.

    Study II-IV investigate treatment of Angiotensin II and high salt diet on renal and cardiac function in Balb/CJ and C57BL/6J mice. This treatment showed increased mortality in Balb/CJ mice compared to C57BL/6J. Balb/CJ also retained more fluid and sodium than C57BL/6J and had worsened cardiac function after Angiotensin II and salt treatment. These are signs of heart failure and decompensation. Balb/CJ had lower amount of oxidative stress, compared to C57BL/6J. Treating the latter with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, reduced the levels of oxidative stress, but increased the mortality.

    In conclusion, Angiotensin II treatment or blockage has different effects on both renal function as well as cardiac function, depending on strain and treatment settings.

  • Almlöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Per-Olof, Bjuggren
    Ratio - Näringslivets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    What Matters in Design of Corporate Law2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the corporate business model to be successful, it is important to align the interests of thosewho control and finance the firm. Corporate law has here an important task to fulfill. It offers alegal framework that can facilitate for parties to conclude mutually preferable agreements atlow transaction costs. The purpose of the paper is to show how to design corporate law to fulfillthis task. A two-dimension model that simultaneously considers both regulation intensity andthe level of default of the corporate law is presented. Earlier literature treats these dimensionsseparately. By adding a transaction cost perspective to our model, we assess different regulatorytechniques and examine how legislation can help corporations by offering a standard contractthat lowers transaction costs of contracting. This can be achieved through a legislation thatcovers most contingencies and take the heterogeneity of firms into consideration. Furthermore,default rules or standards of opt-out character should be combined with other regulatorytechniques with lower transaction costs such as opt-in alternatives and menus.

  • Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-09 09:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Sundman, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dog behaviour: Intricate picture of genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs, Canis familiaris, share the lives of humans all over the world. That dogs, and the behavior of dogs, are of interest to many is therefore no surprise. In this thesis, the main aim has been to identify factors that affect dogs’ behaviours.

    The dog, Canis familiaris, is our first domesticated animal. Since domestication, various types of dogs have developed through adaptation to an environment shared with humans and through our selective breeding, resulting in a unique variation in morphology and behaviour. Although there is an individual variation in the behaviour of dogs, there is also a difference between breeds. Moreover, selection during the last decades has split some breeds into divergent types. Labrador and golden retrievers are divided into a common type, for show and companionship, and a field type, for hunting. By comparing the breed types, we can study the effects of recent selection. In Paper I, we investigate differences in general behavioural traits between Labrador and golden retriever and between common and field type within the two breeds by using results from the standardized behaviour test Dog Mentality Assessment. There were differences between breeds and types for all behavioural traits. However, there was also an interaction between breed and type. Thus, a common/field-type Labrador does not behave like a common/field-type golden retriever. Even though they have been selected for similar traits, the selection has affected the general behavioural traits differently in the two breeds.

    In paper II, we were interested in dogs’ human-directed social skills. Dogs have a high social competence when it comes to humans. Two experiments commonly used to study these skills are the problem-solving test, where dogs’ human-directed behaviours when faced with a problem are measured, and the pointing test, where dogs are tested on how well they understand human gestures. We compared the social skills of German shepherds and Labrador retrievers, and of common- and field-type Labradors. Labradors were more successful in the pointing test and German shepherds stayed closer to their owners during the problem solving. Among Labrador types, the field type had more human eye contact than the common type. Importantly, when comparing the two experiments, we found no positive correlations between the problem-solving test and the pointing test, suggesting that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs.

    A previous study has identified two suggestive genetic regions for human-directed social behaviours during the problem-solving test in beagles. In paper III, we show that these SNPs are also associated to social behaviours in Labrador and golden retrievers. Moreover, the Labrador breed types differed significantly in allele frequencies. This indicates that the two SNPs have been affected by recent selection and may have a part in the differences in sociability between common and field type.

    The behaviour of dogs cannot simply be explained by genetics, there is also an environmental component. In paper IV, we study which factors that affect long-term stress in dogs. Long-term cortisol can be measured by hair samples. We found a clear synchronization in hair cortisol concentrations between dogs and their owners. Neither dogs’ activity levels nor their behavioural traits affected the cortisol, however, the personality of the owners did. Therefore, we suggest that dogs mirror the stress level of their owners.

    The mediator between genes and the environment is epigenetics, and one epigenetic factor is DNA methylation. In paper V, we compared methylation patterns of wolves and dogs as well as dog breeds. Between both wolves and dogs and among dogs there were substantial differences in methylated DNA regions, suggesting that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to the vast variation among canines. We hypothesize that epigenetic factors have been important during domestication and in breed formation.

    In this thesis, I cover several aspects on how dogs’ behaviours can be affected, and paint an intricate picture on how genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations forms dog behaviour.

  • Public defence: 2019-05-15 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Ciftci, Sibel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Padlock Probe-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests: Point-of-care Diagnostics of Infectious Diseases2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in molecular biology and biotechnology have pushed the field of molecular diagnostics much further to benefit the society towards smart access for rapid and simplified health care. In this context, point-of-care (PoC) technologies that bring the inventions in diagnostics closer to bedside settings draw attention. This becomes all the more relevant in the case of infectious diseases which pose the major burden, in terms of mortality and economic loss, especially for third world developing countries with resource-limited settings (RLS). Moreover, emerging and re-emerging viruses, known for their rapid mutation rates, demand huge attention in terms of timely diagnosis and the need for effective treatments. Hence, appropriate and accurate tests to detect the pathogens with enhanced sensitivity and specificity would be needed to bridge the gap between bioanalytics and clinics.

    This research work is an attempt to combine the tools and techniques required for the development of such efficient PoC technologies to combat infectious diseases. Among available nucleic acid-based amplification tests, padlock probing and isothermal rolling circle amplification are used to benefit from the advantages they offer for diagnostic applications, in terms of specificity, multiplexability, single molecule detection, high throughput, compatibility with various read-out platforms and inexpensive digital quantification.

    In the first paper, simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA forms of adenovirus is shown to study the spatio-temporal expression patterns in both lytic and persistent infections. In situ quantification of viral DNA as well as transcripts with single cell resolution has been achieved. In the second paper, novel probe design strategy has been presented for the development of molecular assays to detect hypervariable RNA viruses. This approach becomes helpful in targeting rapidly evolving viruses by using mutation-tolerant probes for RCA. Third paper demonstrates simple RCA for rapid detection of Ebola virus in clinical samples, followed by a multiplexed detection with other re-emerging tropical viruses, namely Zika and Dengue. This study also includes a simple easy-to-operate pump-free membrane enrichment read-out, combined together with microscopy for digital quantification of the products. In the fourth paper, near point-of-care glucose sensor-based RCP detection has been proposed for Ebola virus detection. All these attempts clearly bring RCA closer to PoC settings for molecular diagnostics of virus infections.