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  • Barnes, Christopher
    et al.
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Schneider, David
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Walczak, Katarzyna
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Bukala, Michal
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Kosminska, Karolina
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Acad Ctr Mat & Nanotechnol, Krakow, Poland.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High-spatial resolution dating of monazite and zircon revealsthe timing of subduction-exhumation of the Vaimok Lens in the Seve Nappe Complex (Scandinavian Caledonides)2019In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 174, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-situ monazite Th-U-total Pb dating and zircon LA-ICP-MS depth-profiling was applied to metasedimentary rocks from the Vaimok Lens in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), Scandinavian Caledonides. Results of monazite Th-U-total Pb dating, coupled with major and trace element mapping of monazite, revealed 603 +/- 16 Ma Neoproterozoic cores surrounded by rims that formed at 498 +/- 10 Ma. Monazite rim formation was facilitated via dissolution-reprecipitation of Neoproterozoic monazite. The monazite rims record garnet growth as they are depleted in Y2O3 with respect to the Neoproterozoic cores. Rims are also characterized by relatively high SrO with respect to the cores. Results of the zircon depth-profiling revealed igneous zircon cores with crystallization ages typical for SNC metasediments. Multiple zircon grains also exhibit rims formed by dissolution-reprecipitation that are defined by enrichment of light rare earth elements, U, Th, P, +/- Y, and +/- Sr. Rims also have subdued Eu anomalies ( Eu/Eu* approximate to 0.6-1.2) with respect to the cores. The age of zircon rim formation was calculated from three metasedimentary rocks: 480 +/- 22 Ma; 475 +/- 26 Ma; and 479 +/- 38 Ma. These results show that both monazite and zircon experienced dissolution-reprecipitation under high-pressure conditions. Caledonian monazite formed coeval with garnet growth during subduction of the Vaimok Lens, whereas zircon rim formation coincided with monazite breakdown to apatite, allanite and clinozoisite during initial exhumation.

  • Karlsson, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Minnesord: Johan Asplund som lärare2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 513-516Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Mai, Juri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Bridging McMurry and Wittig in One-Pot: Olefins from Stereoselective, Reductive Couplings of Two Aldehydes via Phosphaalkenes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of C=C bonds is of great importance for fundamental and industrial synthetic organic chemistry. There are many different methodologies for the construction of C=C bonds in the literature, but currently only the McMurry reaction allows the reductive coupling of two carbonyl compounds to form alkenes. This thesis contributes to the field of carbonyl olefinations and presents the development of a new synthetic protocol for a one-pot reductive coupling of two aldehydes to alkenes based on organophosphorus chemistry. The coupling reagent, a phosphanylphosphonate, reacts with an aldehyde to yield a phosphaalkene intermediate which upon activation with a base undergoes an olefination with a second aldehyde.

    A general overview of synthetic methods for carbonyl olefinations and the chemistry of phosphaalkenes is given in the background chapter. The Wittig reaction and its variations are discussed in detail. The synthesis, reactivity, properties and applications of phosphaalkenes are highlighted with particular focus on strategies to stabilize these otherwise reactive species.

    The third chapter describes a novel method for the reductive coupling of aldehydes. The activation of phosphaalkene intermediates by a hydroxide base, mechanistic studies, development of a one-pot procedure and investigations of the substrate scope are discussed. The new one-pot reaction is advantageous over the McMurry coupling since it allows the formation of unsymmetrical E-alkenes under mild conditions.

    The next chapter is dedicated to a modification of the reaction sequence. The results show that activation of the phosphaalkene with an alkoxide instead of hydroxide, followed by oxidation, generates a more reactive transient species that can undergo the coupling with electron rich (deactivated) aldehydes which was not possible under the initial reaction conditions.

    Chapter five describes a modification of the phosphanylphosphonate reagent that enables the preparation of alkenes with high Z-stereoselectivity.

    In the final chapter, chemical equilibria studies of triphenylphosphaalkenes are presented. It is found that phosphaalkenes with poor kinetic stabilization can also be used as intermediates in the carbonyl-to-alkene coupling chemistry.

    In summary, this thesis presents the development of an unprecedented synthetic method for the direct formation of C=C double bonds from two aldehydes together with strategies on improvements of the substrate scope and modifications to control the stereochemical outcome of the reaction.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-13 13:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Paidikondala, Maruthibabu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is a tissue that heals by itself, unless the defect is too large (critical size). Today, novel regenerative medicine approaches have emerged as an alternative to treat such defects. This thesis explores alternative therapeutic strategies for bone tissue engineering which are biocompatible and clinically translatable. Many types of scaffolds that can act as reservoirs for growth factors such as rh-BMP-2 have been developed for bone tissue engineering in the past. However, the role of cross-linking chemistries that are employed to make hydrogels on the integrity and function of the loaded growth factors is not well understood. In this thesis, we have explored the influence of cross-linking chemistry on rh-BMP-2 integrity and bioactivity both in-vitro and in-vivo. These studies have demonstrated that thiol-Michael addition cross-linking chemistry greatly affects the integrity and bio-functionality of the loaded protein BMP-2 and leads to poor bone formation in an in-vivo rat model. On the other hand, hydrogels employing hydrazone chemistry did not significantly affect the integrity and bioactivity of BMP-2, which lead to a superior bone formation in-vivo. Since the high dose of rh-BMP-2 is known to confer many side effects, alternative ex-vivo strategies involving transient transfection of BMP-2 expressing plasmid DNA and silencing of anti-osteogenic genes using siRNA are developed. Our optimized method involves rapid transfection of hMSCs in suspension (5 minutes) with plasmid DNA followed by centrifugation and encapsulation in a hydrogel not only reduced cytotoxicity but also lead to efficient osteoblast differentiation of stem cells. Furthermore, this thesis presents the role of ECM-derived polymer HA in interacting with siRNA and trafficking across the plasma membrane, presumably through CD44 receptors and successfully silencing the target gene in-vitro. We explored the potential of such a non-cationic transfection method to deliver functional siRNA (anti-Pleckho-1 siRNA) in MSCs and compared it with commercially available cationic lipid LipofectamineTMRNAiMAX, using our optimized suspension transfection method. Our novel ex-vivo strategy employing HA hydrogels enabled efficient silencing of BMP-2 signaling pathway antagonist Pleckho-1 while avoiding the cytotoxicity issues in 3D, which further qualifies them for potential clinical application for cell-based therapies. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 09:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Suhm, Tamara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mitochondrial translation and its impact on protein homeostasis and aging2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides their famous role as powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria are also involved in many signaling processes and metabolism. Therefore, it is unsurprising that mitochondria are no isolated organelles but are in constant crosstalk with other parts of the cell. Due to the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria, they still contain their own genome and gene expression machinery. The mitochondrial genome of yeast encodes eight proteins whereof seven are core subunits of the respiratory chain and ATP synthase. These subunits need to be assembled with subunits imported from the cytosol to ensure energy supply of the cell. Hence, coordination, timing and accuracy of mitochondrial gene expression is crucial for cellular energy production and homeostasis. Despite the central role of mitochondrial translation surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms.

    In this work, I used baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study different aspects of mitochondrial translation. Exploiting the unique possibility to make directed modifications in the mitochondrial genome of yeast, I established a mitochondrial encoded GFP reporter. This reporter allows monitoring of mitochondrial translation with different detection methods and enables more detailed studies focusing on timing and regulation of mitochondrial translation. Furthermore, employing insights gained from bacterial translation, we showed that mitochondrial translation efficiency directly impacts on protein homeostasis of the cytoplasm and lifespan by affecting stress handling. Lastly, we provided first evidence that mitochondrial protein quality control happens at a very early stage directly after or during protein synthesis at the ribosome. Surveillance of protein synthesis and assembly into complexes is important to avoid accumulation of misfolded or unassembled respiratory chain subunits which would disturb mitochondrial function.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Chamoun, Mylad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Based on Available Resources: Investigation and Development towards Efficient Battery Performance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries employing water based electrolytes enable extremely low manufacturing costs and are inherently safer than Li-ion batteries. Batteries based on zinc, manganese dioxide, iron, and air have high energy relevancy, are not resource restricted, and can contribute to large scale energy storage solutions. Zinc has a rich history as electrode material for primary alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries. Historically, its use in secondary batteries has been limited because of morphological uncertainties and passivation effects that may lead to cell failure. Manganese dioxide electrodes are ineffective as rechargeable electrodes because of failure mechanisms associated with phase transformations during cycling. The irreversibility of manganese dioxide is strongly correlated to the formation of the electrochemically inactive spinel, Mn3O4/ZnMn2O4. The development of the iron electrode for Fe–air batteries was initiated in late the 1960s and these batteries still suffer from charging inefficiency, due to the unwanted hydrogen evolution reaction. Meanwhile, the air electrode is limited in long-term operation because of the sluggish oxygen evolution and reduction kinetics. These limitations of the Fe–air battery yield poor overall efficiencies, which bring vast energy losses upon cycling.

    Herein, the limitations described above were countered for rechargeable Zn–MnO2 and Fe–air batteries by synthesizing electrode materials and modifying electrolyte compositions. The electrolyte mixture of 1 M KOH + 3 M LiOH for rechargeable alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries limited the formation of the inactive spinels and improved their cycle life significantly. Further, the formation of the inactive spinels was overcome in mildly acidic electrolytes containing 2 M ZnSO4, enabling the cells to cycle reversibly at lower pH via a distinctive reaction mechanism. The iron electrodes were improved with the addition of stannate, which suppressed hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, optimal charge protocols of the iron electrodes were identified to minimize the hydrogen evolution rate. On the air electrode, the synthesized NiCo2O4 showed excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and reduction, and was incorporated to a flow assisted rechargeable Fe–air battery, in order to prove the practicability of this technology. Studies of the electrode materials on the micro, macro, nano, and atomic scales were carried out to increase the understanding of the nature of and interactions between of these materials. This included both in operando and ex situ characterization. X-ray and neutron radiation, and analytical- and electrochemical methods provided insight to improve the performance and cycle life of the batteries.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 sal FA31, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Young Star Clusters and Clumps in the Local Universe: The effect of galactic environment on star formation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stars do not form in isolation, but rather out of a hierarchical structure set by the turbulence of the interstellar medium. At the densest peak of the gas distribution, the star formation process can produce young star clusters (YSCs), which are gravitationally bound systems of stars with mass between ~100 and 106 MSun and typical size of few parsecs. At larger scales, clusters are themselves arranged into cluster complexes, on scales of hundreds of parsecs and up to kiloparsec scales, which are usually referred to as ‘star-forming clumps’.

    Observations of local star-forming galaxies show that YSCs form over a wide range of galactic environment. However, it is not yet clear if and how the galactic environment relates to the properties of star clusters. I present the results obtained by studying the YSC population of the nearby spiral galaxy M51. We find that the cluster mass function, dN/dM, can be described by a power-law with a -2 slope and an exponential truncation at 105 MSun, consistent with what is observed in similar galaxies in the literature. The shape of the mass function is similar when looking at increasing galactocentric distances. We observe significant differences, however, when comparing clusters located in the spiral arm with those the inter-arm environments. On average, more massive clusters are formed in the spiral arms, as also previously found for the YSC progenitors, the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Finally, we see that clusters are more quickly disrupted in denser environments, as expected if their disruption is mainly caused by tidal interaction with dense gas structures like the GMCs.

    I have also undertaken the analysis of the interplay between galactic scale properties and larger star forming units, the stellar clumps. The analysis has been conducted in a sample of 14 low-redshift starburst galaxies, the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). The elevated star formation rate densities of such galaxies allow to form clumps with densities comparable to clumps at high-redshift, typically more massive and denser than what is normally observed in the local universe. The clumps in the LARS galaxies contribute to a large fraction to the UV flux of the galaxy itself (in many galaxies > 50%), resulting in galaxies which appear ‘clumpy’. In agreement with formation theories we observe that clumpiness is higher in galaxies with higher SFR surface density and dominated by turbulent gas motion.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Braga, Mariana Pires
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evolution of host repertoires and the diversification of butterflies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All herbivorous insects are specialized to some extent to their host plants, but the level of specialization varies greatly. Insect-plant coevolution is often invoked to explain the large diversity of herbivorous insects, but the role of specialization during diversification is still controversial. Although well-studied, our understanding of the evolution of species interactions is still improving, and recent theoretical developments have highlighted the role of generalization (via colonization of new hosts) on diversification. In this thesis, various approaches are combined for a detailed study of the origins of macroevolutionary patterns of host use and butterfly diversity. Chapter I provides a mechanistic basis for such patterns through simulations of lineages evolved in silico. By separating the effects of the number of hosts used by a parasite lineage and the diversity of resources they encompass, we found that resource diversity, rather than host range per se, was the main driver of parasite species richness in both simulated and empirical systems. In Chapter II, we combined network and phylogenetic analyses to quantify support for the two main hypothesized drivers of diversification of herbivorous insects. Based on analyses of two butterfly families, Nymphalidae and Pieridae, we found that variability in host use is essential for diversification, while radiation following the colonization of a new host is rare but can produce high diversity. We then reconciled the two alternative hypotheses into a unified process of host-associated diversification where continuous probing of new hosts and retention of the ability to use hosts colonized in the past are the main factors shaping butterfly-plant networks. While network analysis is a powerful tool for investigating patterns of interaction, other methods are necessary to directly test the mechanisms generating the observed patterns. Therefore, in Chapter III we describe a model of host repertoire evolution we developed for Bayesian inference of evolution of host-parasite interactions. The approach was validated with both simulated and empirical data sets. Finally, in Chapter IV we used the method described in Chapter III to explicitly test the predictions made in Chapter II about the evolution of butterfly-plant networks. We found direct evidence for the role of expansion of fundamental host repertoire and phylogenetic conservatism as important drivers of host repertoire evolution. Thus, using three different approaches, we found overall support for the idea that variation in host use accumulated over evolutionary time is essential for butterfly diversification.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:00 B21, Uppsala
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Neuromolecular and behavioural profile of teleosts: - effects of boldness, agonistic behaviour and reproductive status2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if boldness is reflected in the function of brain histaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Moreover, behavioural differences in AB line, spiegeldanio (spd) line and wild caught strain of zebrafish have also been explored apart from the winner-loser effect in AB and spd fish. This thesis also includes studies on the effect of progestins on reproductive behaviour in zebrafish and regulation of leptinergic system on sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Boldness is reflected in higher expression of histamine receptor 1 (hrh1) in the telencephalon and diencephalon of male zebrafish and dominance by an elevated expression of hrh1 in the optic tectum. In female zebrafish boldness is also associated with lower expression of histamine receptor 3 (hrh3) in the optic tectum and dominance by lower expression of hrh3 in the telencephalon. Comparison of behavioural traits of zebrafish of AB, spd and wild type shows that wild type strain is most shy and shows no gender difference. AB is bolder than spd in the open field test while spd is bolder AB in the novel tank dive test. Similarly results for aggression are also test dependent since the spd is more aggressive than AB in the mirror test, however no difference is measured during dyadic fight test. A typical loser effect and activation of serotonergic system is observed in both AB and spd fish. Further, both levonorgestrel (LNG) and progesterone (P4) cause an early puberty in male zebrafish. However only levonorgestrel causes males biased population at environmental concentrations. In male Atlantic salmon, during early spring, both leptin paralogues, lepa1 and lepa2 in the liver and leptin receptor (lepr) in the brain are downregulated in non-maturing control group. At final maturational stage both hepatic lepa1 and lepa2 are upregulated 7.7 times and 49 times respectively in maturing control males. A significant upregulation of lepr is also measured from mid to late spermatogenesis.  

    This thesis elucidates that an elevated brain histaminergic tone is associated with boldness and dominance and in both sexes changes at gene level are orchestrated by different brain region. Boldness is a contextual trait as it depends on strain, line, sex and test. The loser effect after losing a fight is present in both AB and spd line, however it has been shown for the first time in spd line here. Only androgenic progestin causes male biased population but both androgenic and anti androgenic progestin cause early puberty in zebrafish. The expression of leptinergic system is significantly affected during early sexual maturation in parr stage of salmon. Moreover, depleted fat stores are associated with low leptin levels and feed restriction is association with an elevated leptinergic tone in liver and pituitary. This thesis not only emphasizes that strain vs line difference exists and should be an important criterion before designing any experiment, but it also indicates an important role histaminergic system, progestins and leptinergic system in divergent behaviour profiles, puberty and sexual maturation, respectively of teleosts and contributes to our understanding of it.

  • Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ávila, Marcela
    Isakson, Alberto
    Greco, Iván
    Moscoso, Patricia
    Rodríguez, Daniel
    Granjeras del Mar: Luchas y Sueños en Coliumo2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the book is to make visible the history and aspirations of the Union of Independent Workers of Artisanal Fishermen, Shore Harvesters and Seaweed collectors, Caleta Coliumo − which in spite of its masculine name is composed only of women. In doing so the authors hope to contribute to supporting the Union’s ongoing struggle to secure productive livelihoods and contribute more widely to coastal sustainability in the region. These are goals that we think should involve partnerships between scientists, fishing organizations and local, regional and national authorities. The book is also a contribution to the general discussion on the Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB) and especially to the entry of women into fishing in Chile.

    More particularly, this book focuses on the experience of women in Coliumo, in southern Chile (Bío-Bío region), who in the heat of the struggle for coastal resources with fishermen from an adjacent fishing cove, organized themselves and were successful in applying for and obtaining exclusive use rights in coastal marine areas under the system of Territorial Rights of Use for Fishing (TURFs). Gaining entitlements to TURFs soon evolved into a new struggle for resources, this time among women aligned with different fishing unions in Coliumo. The outcome of this struggle was the creation of a second TURFs, again governed only by an all-women fishing union. This demonstrated once again, that in addition to the women’s role as seaweed collectors, they were able to effectively exercise their recently acquired negotiation and managerial skills. These were capacities that even local fishermen came to admire. What began as a conflict with fishermen from another cove, became an avenue where two all-women fishing unions became managers of two TURFs entitlements in the village.  The women’s capacities to effectively manage their TURFs entitlements and related resources has resulted in increases in income and enhanced standing in their communities. The fishing union examined in the study will soon be moving up the value chain from seaweed collectors to producers. With the support of the State, there are also plans to develop small-scale algae aquaculture. Through the collective exercise of their own agency the women of Coliumo have empowered themselves not only as fishers and workers but also as resource managers, entrepreneurs and community leaders.

  • Zackrison, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Including grid storage to increase the use of renewables case of an island in the North sea2018In: Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2018. Conference Program &Abstract Book, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of renewable energy supply is limited by fluctuations and lack of alignment with demand. Including storage technology in the grid can increase self-consumption of renewable energy in local applications as well as reduce peaks in supply and demand for local low voltage grids with a high share of renewable energy input. The project NETfficient, funded by the European Union under the Grant Agreement 646463, explores requirements and effects of storage solutions in a grid on different levels. On the island of Borkum in the North Sea, a variety of grid-connected use cases is installed and tested in pilot studies. This paper focusses on homes equipped with photovoltaic panels for harvesting energy and two different storage solutions. The research addresses the resource demand and emissions due to novel components and the potential to decrease resource demand during the use phase, applying a life cycle perspective for components and systems. Data from the project as well as from LCA databases are collected and used to calculate environmental impacts for three different systems or applications: Stand alone photovoltaic (PV) panels, PV panels and customized Li- Ion-batteries and PV panels with a disused Li-Ion battery from an electric vehicle. The results indicate that the customized or dedicated Li-Ion battery in combination with PV panels have a larger climate impact avoidance than the other systems.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 Jupiter, Uppsala
    Starlander, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Dissemination of Multiresistant Bacteria: Their Selection, Transmission, Virulence and Resistance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria are an emerging threat in modern medicine. Consumption of antimicrobial agents among humans, animals and in agriculture causes a selection of resistance genes. Dissemination of bacteria carrying resistance genes occurs both globally and locally, and hospital settings pose a special risk for spread when staff, environment and vulnerable patients interact. The overall aim of this thesis was to analyse underlying factors that facilitate the dissemination of multiresistant pathogenic bacteria in hospital settings.

    Clusters of resistant bacteria from six occasions were investigated. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSRP), ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analysed by a range of methods, from cultures on broth to PCR and whole genome sequencing. Type of resistance, clonality, virulence factors, mobile genetic elements, epidemiology, survival in the environment, and patient history were examined variously depending on study.

    The results showed that VRE resistance genes can be acquired during treatment with vancomycin. Furthermore, contamination of the hospital environment could quickly cause an outbreak, when patients are frequently relocated and exposition to contaminated rooms increase. Resistant bacteria emerging among companion animals, such as the dog-associated MRSP, can pose a zoonotic threat, when a virulent clone finds a new niche in humans.

    The ability of Gram-negative bacteria to survive in a hospital environment is probably better than expected, given the right prerequisites; incorrect use of sinks enabled the spread of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the survival on hospital associated materials was longer for ESBL-producing E. coli than the AmpC-producing counterpart, which could tell part of why ESBL-producing E. coli is increasing. Hence, the survival in the environment calls for consideration when choosing materials and equipment for hospitals and nursing homes.

    Exchange of bacteria occurs continuously between humans and our surroundings. Outbreaks of multiresistant bacteria are rare in Sweden but expose the weaknesses in healthcare when occurring. The organization, materials and equipment of hospitals facilitate the dissemination of resistant bacteria, as does animals and humans around us and even the genes in our own microbiota.

  • Dongre, Mitesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Larsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Miftakhova, Regina R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Johannessen, Mona
    von Hofsten, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Erhardt, Marc
    Tuck, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Flagella-mediated secretion of a novel Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin affecting both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts2018In: Communications Biology, ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an infection host model for Vibrio cholerae predator interactions, we discovered a bacterial cytotoxin, MakA, whose function as a virulence factor relies on secretion via the flagellum channel in a proton motive force-dependent manner. The MakA protein is expressed from the polycistronic makDCBA (motility-associated killing factor) operon. Bacteria expressing makDCBA induced dramatic changes in intestinal morphology leading to a defecation defect, starvation and death in C. elegans. The Mak proteins also promoted V. cholerae colonization of the zebrafish gut causing lethal infection. A structural model of purified MakA at 1.9 Å resolution indicated similarities to members of a superfamily of bacterial toxins with unknown biological roles. Our findings reveal an unrecognized role for V. cholerae flagella in cytotoxin export that may contribute both to environmental spread of the bacteria by promoting survival and proliferation in encounters with predators, and to pathophysiological effects during infections.

  • Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • Kuhn, McKenzie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundin, Erik J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emissions from thaw ponds largely offset the carbon sink of northern permafrost wetlands2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern regions have received considerable attention not only because the effects of climate change are amplified at high latitudes but also because this region holds vast amounts of carbon (C) stored in permafrost. These carbon stocks are vulnerable to warming temperatures and increased permafrost thaw and the breakdown and release of soil C in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The majority of research has focused on quantifying and upscaling the effects of thaw on CO2 and CH4 emissions from terrestrial systems. However, small ponds formed in permafrost wetlands following thawing have been recognized as hotspots for C emissions. Here, we examined the importance of small ponds for C fluxes in two permafrost wetland ecosystems in northern Sweden. Detailed flux estimates of thaw ponds during the growing season show that ponds emit, on average (±SD), 279 ± 415 and 7 ± 11 mmol C m−2 d−1 of CO2 and CH4, respectively. Importantly, addition of pond emissions to the total C budget of the wetland decreases the C sink by ~39%. Our results emphasize the need for integrated research linking C cycling on land and in water in order to make correct assessments of contemporary C balances.

  • Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL Site Lausanne, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering ENAC, Laboratory of ecological systems ECOS, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Institute for Peat and Mire Research, Northeast Normal University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun, China.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    School of Science and the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Galanina, Olga
    Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Galka, Mariusz
    Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Monitoring & Department of Biogeography and Paleoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan, Polen.
    Ganeva, Anna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gillikin, David P.
    Department of Geology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Goia, Irina
    Babe ̧s-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar, Russia.
    Hajek, Michal
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Univ Kitakyushu, Dept Biol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McGill Univ, Dept Geog, Montreal, Canada.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton Univ, Dept Geog & Environm Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jirousek, Martin
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic; Mendel Univ Brno, Fac AgriSci, Dept Plant Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Lapshina, Elena
    Yugra State Univ, Khanty Mansiysk, Russia.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Northeast Normal Univ, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Inst Peat & Mire Res, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China; Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    No Arizona Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc Ecoss, Flagstaff, USA.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Geog, Calgary, Canada; St Marys Univ, Dept Geol, Calgary, Canada.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, USA.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Noskova, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England; Penza State Univ, Penza, Russia.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Robinson, Sean
    SUNY Coll Oneonta, Dept Biol, Oneonta, NY USA.
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Univ Southampton, Biol Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Rochefort, Line
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Sci, Quebec City, PQ, Canada; Laval Univ, Ctr Northern Studies, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Singer, David
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland; Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Verheyden, Anouk
    Union Coll, Dept Geol, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Waddington, James Michael
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, Canada.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • Carstensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Rosberg, Birgitta
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Before evening falls: Perspectives of a good old age and healthy ageing among oldest-old Swedish Men2019In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Olah, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The new roles of men and women and implications for families and societies.2018In: A Demographic Perspective on Gender, Family and Health in Europe / [ed] G. Doblhammer and J. Gumà, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents main research findings on new gender roles and their implications for families and societies. It first depicts the development of family forms in Europe over the past fifty years, with a focus on increasingly diverse family biographies along with changes in the roles of women and men. It highlights that changes in women’s role have been more comprehensive, whereas transformation of the male role has barely started in most countries. Thereafter, views in contemporary scholarship on the interplay between the increasing family complexity and gender role changes are addressed. A detailed discussion of new challenges of transitions in and organization of family life follows, with a focus on four main topics: women’s new role and its implications for family dynamics, the gendered transition to parenthood, new gender roles in doing families, and coping strategies in family and work reconciliation under conditions of uncertainty and precariousness and impacts on fertility. A brief conclusion ends the chapter. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-13 09:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Johnsson, Inger W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Long-term metabolic effects of a high birth weight2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrauterine environment influences foetal growth as well as future response to risk factors for disease. This occurs partly through epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, birth weight is a possible risk marker of adult disease. Low birth weight is a well-known risk factor for adult disease, particularly when associated with obesity and a U-shaped relationship between birth weight and several metabolic diseases has been suggested.

    In this thesis we investigated associations between a high birth weight and risk of adult disease, e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

    By analyses of national register data on 759 999 subjects up to the age of 37 years, we could demonstrate an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males, but not in females, with a high birth weight (>2 SDS). The increase was particularly pronounced in males with a birth weight >3 SDS. There was an association between high birth weight and obesity in males and females, but no such relation was seen for hypertension or serum lipid abnormalities.

    In a clinical study, 27 cases with a birth weight ≥4 500 grams were compared with 27 controls with normal birth weight, regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The cases had a greater radial artery intima thickness and intima:media ratio compared with the controls indicating early atherosclerotic changes. Body mass index, body composition, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient did not differ between cases and controls, but females with a high birth weight had a more disadvantageous distribution of body fat.

    In order to investigate associations between birth weight and pregnancy outcomes, register data on 305 893 females was analysed. The results demonstrated an association between the female´s own birth weight and offspring birth weight. A high maternal birth weight was associated with increased risk of obesity. The risk of gestational diabetes was increased in females with a low, but not a high birth weight.

    In conclusion, subjects with a moderately high birth weight did not differ substantially from those with a normal birth weight regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, differences in arterial wall dimensions were demonstrated in a clinical investigation, and there were differences in BMI and risk of type 2 diabetes on a population level. Since risks are most pronounced in subjects with a birth weight >3 SDS, this group is in particular need of follow up and disease preventive measures.

  • Trochidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Guedes, Carlos
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Anantapadmanabhan, Akshay
    Klaric, Andrija
    Analysis-by-synthesis of rhythm in South Indian Art percussion performances by means of statistical analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Christoffersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jury, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication of modular hyaluronan-PEG hydrogels to support 3D cultures of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device2018In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 015013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liver cell culture models are attractive in both tissue engineering and for development of assays for drug toxicology research. To retain liver specific cell functions, the use of adequate cell types and culture conditions, such as a 3D orientation of the cells and a proper supply of nutrients and oxygen, are critical. In this article, we show how extracellular matrix mimetic hydrogels can support hepatocyte viability and functionality in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device. A modular hydrogel system based on hyaluronan and poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEG), modified with cyclooctyne moieties for bioorthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-azide 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition (SPAAC), was developed, characterized, and compared for cell compatibility to hydrogels based on agarose and alginate. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) formed spheroids with viable cells in all hydrogels with the highest expression of albumin and urea in alginate hydrogels. By including an excess of cyclooctyne in the HA backbone, azide-modified cell adhesion motifs (linear and cyclic RGD peptides) could be introduced in order to enhance viability and functionality of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEPs). In the HA-PEG hydrogels modified with cyclic RGD peptides hiPS-HEPs migrated and grew in 3D and showed an increased viability and higher albumin production compared to when cultured in the other hydrogels. This flexible SPAAC crosslinked hydrogel system enabled fabrication of perfused 3D cell culture of hiPS-HEPs and is a promising material for further development and optimization of liver-on-a-chip devices.

  • Persson, Magnus
    Malmö universitet.
    Uppfinningen av ett skolämne: Ett historiesociologiskt perspektiv på samhällskunskapsämnets logik2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 160-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From being a part of the history subject, social studies was established as an independent school-subject in Sweden during the first decades of the postwar era. By using a historical sociology analysis this article argue that the specific social and moral setting that dominated how the educational system were organized after WWII, formed durable and still present  logics of the definition of subject-content, the societal function of the subject and the means of knowledge (re)production related to the subject. Social studies developed a normative content taught with progressive methods in close relation to state-ideological ideas of citizenship and democracy rather than academic production of knowledge. This developed a school-subject based on institutionalized unpredictability, a content with high elasticity and with weak links to knowledge (re)production system most often carried out by the academic system.

  • Wendell, Joakim
    History Teaching between Multiperspectivity and a Shared Line of Reasoning: Historical  Explanations in Swedish Classrooms2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 136-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the presence of multiperspectivity in history teaching through teachers' constructions of historical explanations in classroom interactions.  The concept of multiperspectivity is linked to the related concept of interpretation as a central aspect of comprehension of history, in particular to the idea of including different interpretations of the same historical event or process. This idea, as expressed in the current Swedish history syllabus, is contrasted with the notion of establishing a shared line of reasoning as a central aim of teaching practices. The study is built on classroom observations of three teachers in lower secondary school, and specifically analyses how historical explanations are constructed as more or less open to different interpretations. The results indicate that explanations only occasionally are presented as open to different interpretations, and that the degree of openness is influenced by adaptation to student groups, but also possibly by the content matter. The study suggests that the notion of multiperspectivity may come into conflict with the aim of establishing a shared line of reasoning.

  • Kimanen, Anuleena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Kallioniemi, Arto
    University of Helsinki.
    Towards Interpretive and Empathetic Encounters between Worldviews2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 118-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on young people’s attitudes and skills in dealing with religious diversity has been conducted in many surveys, but in real life one is faced with many different types of diversity. How does pupils’ preparedness for inter-worldview dialogue develop? This article approaches young people’s emotions faced by different types of dissimilarity and skills of asking about others’ worldviews. Key theories in analysing the results were Abu-Nimer’s stage model of interreligious sensitivity and Jackson’s interpretive approach to religious education with a special focus on empathy. The use of pictures when studying emotions revealed that most of the participants experienced non-religious features as pleasant. The pictures depicting the most dissimilarity were experienced as the most negative but also in many cases as interesting. The questions written by the teenagers indicated a wide range of attitudes and skills. Many of them were capable of addressing religious or personal meanings, thus showing an ability to rise above the surface level and seek understanding. An interesting category of questions on the possibility of inter-worldview interaction also emerged. Visual techniques in the research on teenagers’ thinking should be further developed because young people today are surrounded by images.

  • Olovsson, Tord Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Ämnesövergripande undervisning och betyg i årskurs 4-6 i svensk grundskola i SO- och NO-ämnena2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 88-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden introduced a new national curriculum (Lgr11) for the compulsory school in 2011. It included new syllabi for the school subjects and a grading system now starting from school year 6. Social studies (civics, geography, history and religious studies) and natural sciences (biology, chemistry and physics) received syllabus with knowledge requirements for each respective subject. Despite the sectioning, Lgr11 encourages subject-integrated teaching and, when teaching has mainly been subject-integrated, summarised grades in both social studies and natural sciences are possible in school year 6. The purpose of this study is to investigate, analyse and compare to which extent teaching in school year 4-6 is subject-integrated and whether the grades in school year 6 are summarised in social studies as well as natural sciences. In the autumn of 2017, principals from 113 schools comprehending school years 4-6, completed a questionnaire. The results, also analysed in relation to Bernsteins theoretical model, show that teaching in each individual subject, as well as alternation between subject-integrated teaching and teaching in the individual subjects is most common. Fully subject-integrated teaching in social studies and nature sciences respectively is the least common practise. Three quarters of the schools give grades in the individual subjects. In schools with fully subject-integrated teaching, it is more common with summarised grades than grades in the individual subjects. However, this is more common in social studies than in the natural sciences. Almost all of the schools that teach in the individual subjects also give grades in the individual subjects.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-28 13:15 G207, Skövde
    Tavara, Shirin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    High-Performance Computing For Support Vector Machines2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning algorithms are very successful in solving classification and regression problems, however the immense amount of data created by digitalization slows down the training and predicting processes, if solvable at all. High-Performance Computing(HPC) and particularly parallel computing are promising tools for improving the performance of machine learning algorithms in terms of time. Support Vector Machines(SVM) is one of the most popular supervised machine learning techniques that enjoy the advancement of HPC to overcome the problems regarding big data, however, efficient parallel implementations of SVM is a complex endeavour. While there are many parallel techniques to facilitate the performance of SVM, there is no clear roadmap for every application scenario. This thesis is based on a collection of publications. It addresses the problems regarding parallel implementations of SVM through four research questions, all of which are answered through three research articles. In the first research question, the thesis investigates important factors such as parallel algorithms, HPC tools, and heuristics on the efficiency of parallel SVM implementation. This leads to identifying the state of the art parallel implementations of SVMs, their pros and cons, and suggests possible avenues for future research. It is up to the user to create a balance between the computation time and the classification accuracy. In the second research question, the thesis explores the impact of changes in problem size, and the value of corresponding SVM parameters that lead to significant performance. This leads to addressing the impact of the problem size on the optimal choice of important parameters. Besides, the thesis shows the existence of a threshold between the number of cores and the training time. In the third research question, the thesis investigates the impact of the network topology on the performance of a network-based SVM. This leads to three key contributions. The first contribution is to show how much the expansion property of the network impact the convergence. The next is to show which network topology is preferable to efficiently use the computing powers. Third is to supply an implementation making the theoretical advances practically available. The results show that graphs with large spectral gaps and higher degrees exhibit accelerated convergence. In the last research question, the thesis combines all contributions in the articles and offers recommendations towards implementing an efficient framework for SVMs regarding large-scale problems.

  • Lars, Bröndum
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Graphic Notation, Indeterminacy and Improvisation: Implementing Choice Within a Compositional Framework2018In: Open Cultural Studies, ISSN 2451-3474, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 639-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the use of graphic notation in relation to improvisation and indeterminacy in practice. The paper opens with a background context around terms and ideas about improvisation and indeterminate music pioneered by composers in the 20th century. The techniques the author used in the pieces Fluttering (Brondum 2015) and Serpentine Line (Brondum 2010) are examined and discussed in informal interviews with four musicians. The paper closes with a discussion and conclusions gained from the interviews and from working with musicians in the context of using graphic notation as a bridge between improvisation and notated music. Documentation of the author’s practice and research of these methodological and aesthetical issues may be of interest to composers and musicians that work with similar techniques. It may also add to theory by developing the understanding of a composer’s own approach, and in extension, to ask questions on how to develop these theories further.

  • Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Barn och fred. En pilotstudie om förskolebarns förståelse av fred2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 65-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt FN:s mål om hållbar utveckling (Agenda 2030) betonas bland annat främjandet av en kultur av fred och icke-våld. Utvecklingen i finländska styrdokument för förskolan visar däremot att temat fred har nedtonats. Denna studie vill genom ämnesdidaktisk samverkan mellan bildkonst och religion synliggöra 6-åringars förståelse av fred, deras sätt att samtala om och i teckningar gestalta ett liv i fred med varandra. Den kvalitativa temaanalysen visade att barn i denna pilotstudie förstår fred som tillstånd, fred som relationer, fred som förhandlingar och fred som möte och handling. Samtal kring barnens teckningar och de visuella konkretiseringarna stöder tolkningen. Pilotstudien har genom pedagogiska och ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv på lärande för fred uppmärksammat vikten av att barns lärandeprocesser om fred, icke-våld och globalt medborgaskap behöver beakta kravet på tid, rum, språk och struktur för interaktion, tolkning, fördjupning och handling.

  • Karpaty, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson
    Stockholm School of Economics and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Offshoring of Services and Corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze how the offshoring of services by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in target economies. Taking stance from the gravity model of trade, we analyze how the choice of country, volume and composition of offshored services is affected by the presence of corruption in target economies. The results suggest that corruption is a deterrent for service offshoring. Firms avoid corrupt countries, and corruption reduces the amount of offshored services. In addition, the sensitivity to corruption is highest for poor countries, and large and internationalized firms are the ones that tend to be the most sensitive to corruption. Given the importance of large firms as international investors and subcontractors, this adds yet another argument for fighting corruption.

  • Tväråna, Malin
    Stockholm University.
    Theories of justice among eight-year-olds: Exploring teaching for an emerging ability to critically analyse justice issues in social science2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 43-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study addresses the question of what conditions of teaching that benefits the development of the ability to critically analyse issues of justice in early social science and civics education. It also presents some indications of this emerging ability, where students treat the concept of justice not as a stated or explained fact or viewpoint but as a contested concept that needs critical examination. The analysis shows the possibility for eight-year-olds to start learning how to reason about justice as an essentially contested concept and to start participating in critical analyses of societal issues of distributive justice in a qualified way. This article discusses how teaching can be designed to help younger students develop and qualify the ability to analyse justice issues and proposes indications of such an ability.

  • Gregers Eriksen, Kristin
    University of South-Eastern Norway Drammen.
    Education for sustainable development and narratives of Nordic exceptionalism: The contributions of decolonialism2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that approaches embedded in technology optimism hold a hegemonic stance in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Norway. A monolithic focus on technology also leads to a lack of emphasis on the possible contributions of Social Studies. Although sustainable development is commonly understood as having the global goal of “saving the planet,” ESD remains situated within a colonial epistemological regime. In spite of its good intentions, ESD may in fact contribute to the construction and reproduction of differences between “Us” and “Them,” denoting the Global North and South. The aim of this paper is to explore the contributions of decolonial perspectives in providing possible interruptions of the hegemonic narratives, and fostering transformation. The paper exemplifies how current practices of ESD can serve to sustain rather than change the global economic and political systems. It is argued that decolonial perspectives can be tools for disrupting mainstream ESD.

  • Manni, Annika
    Umeå University.
    Contingency and transformation. Teachers’ and students’ experiences of a Climate Council School Project2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of a Climate Council School project within education for sustainable development (ESD). Students and their teachers from grade 9 and upper secondary school took part in this project when working on finding sustainable visions and solutions for their city in 2030. The project involved the local government as well as businesspeople, since they all met and shared sustainable visions at the climate council conference. Drawing on transformative learning theories, the case is studied and analysed from both teacher and student perspectives. Educational challenges as well as new possibilities are documented outcomes through the participants’ experiences in this school project aiming for sustainability. Initial contingency, in relation to the complex content and new ways of teaching, is found to be a presumption for learning as creative work, transformation, and new ideas contributing to a more sustainable society.

  • Franck, Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Osbeck, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2018:42018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. i-vArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • Afton, Halloran (Lead Editor)
    Persson, Marie (Editor)
    Skylare, Elisabet (Editor)
    Guía para gente soñadora: Versión abreviada del Menú deSoluciones: Una guía nórdica parapolíticas alimentarias sostenibles.2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Por primera vez se reúnen en un mismo documento las soluciones de política alimentaria más innovadoras de la región nórdica. Este Menú de Soluciones abarca nutrición, cultura e identidad alimentarias, comida y alimentación públicas, desperdicio de alimentos y dietas sostenibles. Incluye 24 ejemplos de políticas locales, nacionales y regionales diseñadas para suscitar nuevas conversaciones e inspirar nuevas políticas en otras partes del mundo. Cada una de las soluciones supone un paso tangible para abordar un problema específico; en su conjunto, representan un enfoque nuevo e integral a la política alimentaria. También dan testimonio de cómo las políticas blandas pueden traducirse en soluciones y desempeñar un importante papel en la consecución de objetivos ambiciosos a nivel nacional e internacional.

  • Guntoro, Pratama Istiadi
    et al.
    Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering.
    Jokilaakso, Ari
    Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering.
    Hellstén, Niko
    Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering.
    Taskinen, Pekka
    Aalto University, School of Chemical Engineering.
    Copper matte - slag reaction sequences and separation processes in matte smelting2018In: Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy, ISSN 1450-5339, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 301-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While particle combustion and chalcopyrite oxidation in suspension smelting is well understood, few studies are available regarding the melt-melt reactions and the separation between copper matte and slag in matte smelting. In the present work, experimental investigations in air and argon atmosphere were conducted using a mixture of synthetic slag and chalcopyrite concentrate. The sequential reaction and separation processes occurring in matte smelting are outlined. Possible limiting factors in the overall process are also proposed. The result of the present work forms an important foundation for future work in the kinetic rate formulation of molten phase reactions between copper matte and slag in matte smelting.

  • Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 2, article id 021506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

  • Hörnfeldt, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Ethnology.
    Föräldrastöd i praktiken.: Uppföljning och utvärdering av Allmänna Arvsfondens stöd till föräldrastödsprojekt 1994–20162017Report (Other academic)
  • Hörnfeldt, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Ethnology.
    The End of the World: Apocalyptic Narratives in Children's Fears2018In: Ethnologia Scandinavica, ISSN 0348-9698, E-ISSN 0348-9698, Vol. 48, p. 153-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Mankevich, Vasili
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    McCarthy, Ian P.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Why Zlatan Ibrahimović is Bigger Than Manchester United: Investigating Digital Traces in Co-branding Processes on Social Media Platforms2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, p. 2729-2738Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the co-branding activity on social media platforms, particularly in regard to company-employee relationship. We conducted a case study of co-branding on Instagram involving the soccer club Manchester United and the soccer player Zlatan Ibrahimović. We performed sentiment and emotional tone analysis, assessed intersection of the audience and illustrated non-verbal communication used by social media users. We demonstrated how the soccer club failed to capitalize on co-branding activity as measured through consolidating the audience, generating consistent emotional response, and creating a coherent message. This paper contributes to social media management research by illustrating the difficulties associated with co-branding between personal and corporate brands as well asynchronous communication. Further, our use of digital traces and computational analysis illustrates how access to social media can illuminate research activities and provide insight about online communication.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-18 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Zhang, Han
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Optimizing Networked Systems and Inverse Optimal Control2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the problems of optimizing networked systems, including designing a distributed energy optimal consensus controller for homogeneous networked linear systems, maximizing the algebraic connectivity of a network by projected saddle point dynamics. In addition, the inverse optimal control problems for discrete-time finite time-horizon Linear Quadratic Regulators (LQRs) are considered. The goal is to infer the Q matrix in the quadratic cost function using the observations (possibly noisy) either on the optimal state trajectories, optimal control input or the system output.

    In Paper A, an optimal energy cost controller design for identical networked linear systems asymptotic consensus is considered. It is assumed that the topology of the network is given and the controller can only depend on relative information of the agents. Since finding the control gain for such a controller is hard, we focus on finding an optimal controller among a classical family of controllers which is based on the Algebraic Riccati Equation (ARE) and guarantees asymptotic consensus. We find that the energy cost is bounded by an interval and hence we minimize the upper bound. Further, the minimization for the upper bound boils down to optimizing the control gain and the edge weights of the graph separately. A suboptimal control gain is obtained by choosing Q=0 in the ARE. Negative edge weights are allowed, meaning that "competitions" between the agents are allowed. The edge weight optimization problem is formulated as a Semi-Definite Programming (SDP) problem. We show that the lowest control energy cost is reached when the graph is complete and with equal edge weights. Furthermore, two sufficient conditions for the existence of negative optimal edge weights realization are given. In addition, we provide a distributed way of solving the SDP problem when the graph topology is regular.

    In Paper B, a projected primal-dual gradient flow of augmented Lagrangian is presented to solve convex optimization problems that are not necessarily strictly convex. The optimization variables are restricted by a convex set with computable projection operation on its tangent cone as well as equality constraints. We show that the projected dynamical system converges to one of the saddle points and hence finding an optimal solution. Moreover, the problem of distributedly maximizing the algebraic connectivity of an undirected network by optimizing the "port gains" of each nodes is considered. The original SDP problem is relaxed into a nonlinear programming (NP) problem that will be solved by the aforementioned projected dynamical system. Numerical examples show the convergence of the aforementioned algorithm to one of the optimal solutions. The effect of the relaxation is illustrated empirically with numerical examples. A methodology is presented so that the number of iterations needed to converge is reduced. Complexity per iteration of the algorithm is illustrated with numerical examples.

    In Paper C and D, the inverse optimal control problems over finite-time horizon for discrete-time LQRs are considered. The well-posedness of the inverse optimal control problem is first justified. In the noiseless case, when these observations of the optimal state trajectories or the optimal control input are exact, we analyze the identifiability of the problem and provide sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the solution. In the noisy case, when the observations are corrupted by additive zero-mean noise, we formulate the problem as an optimization problem and prove that the solution to this problem is statistically consistent. The following two scenarios are further considered: 1) the distributions of the initial state and the observation noise are unknown, yet the exact observations on the initial states and the noisy observations on the system output are available; 2) the exact observations on the initial states are not available, yet the observation noises are known to be white Gaussian and the distribution of the initial state is also Gaussian (with unknown mean and covariance). For the first scenario, we show statistical consistency for the estimation. For the second scenario, we fit the problem into the framework of maximum-likelihood and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to solve this problem. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated through numerical examples.

  • Gunnarsson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, The University Library.
    A framework for strict structured literature reviews within management research and management education: establishing a model for evidence-based management and increased scholarly interactionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the systematic literature review has extended to management research and management education. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative method named Strict Structured Literature Review (SSLR), to provide a robust selection of articles for starting a longitudinal study or as a fast reliable and transparent method reviewing literature for shorter work under a time-limit, for example research projects or educational assignments. A properly executed Strict Structured Literature Review will lead to the desirable outcome of connecting researchers, or students, with practitioners and create conditions for evidence-based management based on already existing research results. Using a Strict Structured Literature Review would create a publishing strategy where research funders return on investments (ROI) can be met through increased implementation of earlier research results in organizational decision making as well as extended scholarly communication. This is completely in line with the movement towards open science. At the same time, the method for Strict Structured Literature Review fosters a development within management education towards evidence-based management and scholarly interaction.

  • Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    VILÄR Abstraktbok2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Olguín Muñoz, Manuel Osvaldo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Wang, Junjue
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Satyanarayanan, Mahadev
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    EdgeDroid: An Experimental Approach to Benchmarking Human-in-the-Loop Applications2019In: Proceedings of the 20th International Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile '19), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging mobile applications, including augmented reality (AR) and wearable cognitive assistance (WCA), aim to provide seamless user interaction. However, the complexity of benchmarking these human-in-the-loop applications limits reproducibility and makes performance evaluation difficult. In this paper, we present EdgeDroid, a benchmarking suite designed to reproducibly evaluate these applications.Our core idea rests on recording traces of user interaction, which are then replayed at benchmarking time in a controlled fashion based on an underlying model of human behavior. This allows for an automated system that greatly simplifies benchmarking large scale scenarios and stress testing the application.Our results show the benefits of EdgeDroid as a tool for both system designers and application developers.

  • Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i samband med bilkörning: översättning till svenska av avhandlingen Sleepiness at the wheel2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sömniga förare är en viktig orsak till trafikolyckor. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förmedla ny kunskap om sömnighet och risken för olyckor på vägarna genom att undersöka försämrad körförmåga kopplad till sömnighet hos förare. Motmedel kommer också att lyftas fram. Avhandlingen börjar med ett avsnitt om dödsfall och skador som ett folkhälsoproblem och hur sömnighet hos förare inverkar på trafikolyckor. Därefter följer att avsnitt som beskriver sömn, trötthet och grundläggande reglering av sömn och uppvaknande. Nästa avsnitt handlar om sömnighetsrelaterade trafikolyckors orsaker och kännetecken. Avslutningsvis diskuteras några motmedel mot sömnighet.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-14 15:00 FB52, Stockholm
    Alp, Dennis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Core-collapse Supernovae: Theory vs. Observations2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A core-collapse supernova (CCSN) is an astronomical explosion that indicates the death of a massive star. The iron core of the star collapses into either a neutron star or a black hole while the rest of the material is expelled at high velocities. Supernovae (SNe) are important for the chemical evolution of the Universe because a large fraction of the heavier elements such as oxygen, silicon, and iron are liberated by CCSN explosions. Another important role of SNe is that the ejected material seed the next generation of stars and planets. From observations, it is clear that a large fraction of all massive stars undergoes SN explosions, but describing how SNe explode has remained a challenge for many decades.

    The attached papers focus on comparing theoretical predictions with observations, primarily observations of SN 1987A. The compact remnant in SN 1987A has not yet been detected and we have investigated how a compact object can remain hidden in the ejecta (Paper I and II). Because of the high opacity of the metal-rich ejecta, the direct X-ray observations are not very constraining even for potentially favorable viewing angles. However, the combined observations still strongly constrain fallback accretion and put a limit on possible pulsar wind activity. The thermal surface emission from a neutron star is consistent with the observations if our line of sight is dust-obscured, and only marginally consistent otherwise. Future observations provide promising opportunities for detecting the compact object.

    We have also compared the most recent three-dimensional neutrino-driven SN models that are based on explosion simulations with early X-ray and gamma-ray observations of SN 1987A (Paper III). The models that are designed to match SN 1987A fit the data well, but not all tensions can be explained by choosing a suitable viewing angle. More generally, the asymmetries do not affect the early emission qualitatively and different progenitors of the same class result in similar early emission. We also find that the progenitor metallicity is important for the low-energy X-ray cuto↵. Current instruments should be able to detect this emission from SNe at distances of 3–10 Mpc, which correspond to distances slightly beyond the Local Group.

  • Persson, Mikael
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    The intersection of gender and class in secondary school music education in Sweden2018In: / [ed] Lilli Mittner, Hilde Synnøve Blix, Tromsø: HSL Trykkeriet, UiT The Arctic University of Norway , 2018, p. 32-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, I will discuss how different structural positions concerning gender and class may affect the students’ participation in musical activities in secondary school music education in Sweden. The research is part of my, soon to be finished, doctoral thesis in music pedagogy. The design could be described as a case study in which the cases represents differences regarding to social class. Each case has been analysed to find similarities and differences regarding what positions boys and girls accomplish in the classroom. My contribution to the discipline will primarily be to address the question of how differences in the students’ socioeconomic background, social class, intersects with gender, an intersection rarely addressed in music pedagogical research. I also hope to create a foundation to discussion differences created by the increasing segregation of the school system and the individual music teacher’s possibilities to compensate for the effects of this segregation.

  • Ding, Zou
    et al.
    Stehlik, Romana
    Center for Sleep and Vigilance Disorders, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Pain Center, Akademiska University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedner, Jan
    Ulfberg, Jan
    Grote, Ludger
    Chronic pulmonary disease is associated with pain spreading and restless legs syndrome in middle-aged women-a population-based study2018In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of chronic pain conditions and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (CPD). We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors for pain and RLS in a population-based sample of females with comorbid CPD.

    METHOD: Questionnaire-based data from 2745 women aged 18-64 years were analyzed regarding comorbid CPD status (severe bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). Pain status was assessed according to symptoms reflecting severity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS rating 0-10) and duration and spreading (limited spread or widespread) of pain. A diagnosis of RLS was defined by four validated diagnostic criteria. Anthropometrics and co-morbidities were assessed as covariates in univariate and multivariate analyses.

    RESULTS: Widespread pain was overrepresented in women with CPD (44.6 vs. 24.6%, p < 0.001). The odds ratio for widespread pain in women with CPD was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001) in the fully adjusted model. Severe pain (VAS rating ≥ 7) was more prevalent in females with known CPD (28.8 vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001, odd ratio 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9, p = 0.029)). The prevalence of RLS was 37.4 and 23.8% in subjects with or without CPD, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CPD was associated with a 30% risk increase for RLS (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7, p = 0.04)).

    CONCLUSION: This population-based study identified CPD as an independent risk factor for severe and widespread pain as well as for RLS. Further research addressing pathophysiological mechanisms linking CPD and chronic pain conditions/RLS is warranted.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson’s disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • Siverbo, Sven
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andersson, Morgan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Galan, Nataliya
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hellman, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Myhrman, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nehls, Eddy
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Staxäng Torbäck, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    #metoo-management2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Just over a year ago the #metoo movement began, which is a reminder that there are faults in society even if everything looks fine on the surface. There are many signs that #metoo is not a passing phenomenon. This is not a coordinated action with a clear goal, nor is there any one leader of the movement. The #metoo movement is self-organized, a way to make visible what over basically all of human history has been silenced, denied and trivialized, even though everyone has known about it. This report takes a look at the #metoo movement's impact on organisations from a management perspective. We are interested in the phenomenon of "#metoo management", which we define as organisations' work to prevent and deal with sexual harassment (or assault) as a result of the #metoo movement. The primary purpose of the report is to find out if #metoo management exists. The second purpose is to investigate how organisations work with #metoo management. A third purpose is to explain why organisations choose to work with #metoo management in different ways. Based on interviews with representatives of ten organisations, in several cases quite different, we have determined that the #metoo movement has indeed given rise to #metoo management. More precisely, #metoo management refers to a number of different measures and activities. Organisations have restated and specified their policies about sexual harassment. The programs have been given renewed distribution at workplaces and additional measures for program compliance have been taken. Procedures for complaint processing have been developed, trainings have been initiated and risk factors have been identified and reduced. Not least, the occurrence of problems with sexual harassment has been quantified. Somewhat surprisingly, we noted that there was no example that the programs against sexual harassment were evaluated and that plans were lacking for reducing dependency relationships between supervisors and employees in the organisations where these were significant. It is important to emphasize that there are significant differences between organisations in how intensively the work with #metoo management has been pursued. The differences seem to depend on several different factors. One is that the incidence of sexual harassment varies, and another is that organisations make varying assessments of how much damage publicized cases would have on the employer's brand. Additional explanations for the intensity of the work are differences in how ambitious the process was prior to the #metoo movement, and that in certain organisations there is greater awareness of risk factors than in others. Finally, the organisation's size and visibility appear to play a role in that those that are more closely monitored have greater reason to avoid problems that attract negative attention.

  • Zhang, Han
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Umenberger, Jack
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control, Uppsala University.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Inverse Quadratic Optimal Control for Discrete-Time Linear SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the inverse optimal control problem for discrete-time Linear Quadratic Regulators (LQRs), over finite-time horizons. Given observations of the optimal trajectories, or optimal control inputs, to a linear time-invariant system, the goal is to infer the parameters that define the quadratic cost function. The well-posedness of the inverse optimal control problem is first justied. In the noiseless case, when these observations are exact, we analyze the identiability of the problem and provide sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the solution. In the noisy case, when the observations are corrupted by additive zero-mean noise, we formulate the problem as an optimization problem and prove that the solution to this problem is statistically consistent. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated through numerical examples.