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  • Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wendin, Marcus
    Bengtsson, Cecilia
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Amprazis, Pernilla
    Waste flow mapping: Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-05-30 13:00 Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Kista
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Opportunities and challenges of mobile payment services: The perspective of service providers2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Mobile payments are transforming the payments industry. These services open up the opportunity for non-banking actors to enter the market. In order to embrace this challenge, banks, traditional payments market players, are forced to launch mobile payments. However, in Europe and most developed economies, a big number of launched services get terminated soon after their introduction in the market. Hence, the ability of different actors to act locally calls for additional research.

    The main objective of this thesis is to broaden knowledge and understanding about the ways mobile payment service providers address the opportunities and challenges of mobile payment services. In order to investigate this problem, this research (i) explores factors stimulating and hindering the introduction of mobile payments using perspectives of different types of service providers (i.e., banks, independent providers, direct operator billing providers, retailers, and public transport companies) and (ii) seeks to explain the importance of these factors for each type of provider.

    The primary data collected using interview method. More than 40 industry representatives in six countries were contacted. The Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance (STOF) model was used as a theoretical research framework. This is a business modelling framework that specifies a set of critical design issues that have to  be considered within each model’s domain.

    Research findings highlight that the organisation domain is the key domain, which  affects all other domains and has an impact on the general viability of the business model. A comparison of the approaches used by different service providers to address each of the critical design issues helped to identify the factors that are most important within each domain. These factors stimulate or hinder development of a viable business model within each category of service providers.

    This research contributes to a better understanding of challenges and success factors associated with the design of business models for new mobile services and uses the lens of the STOF model. The contributions to the academic research on mobile payments are: (i) collection and analysis of a rich empirical data set on mobile payment services implemented in six Northern European countries, (ii) discussion of a bigger picture by connecting research findings to the context of the existing payment system, (iii) extension  of knowledge on business models for mobile ticketing, and (iv) extension of knowledge on the value of mobile ticketing services in the business-to-business (B2B) context.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-28 13:00 Albertsalen, Trollhättan
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designing for Adaptable Learning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research in this thesis emphasizes the endeavor of designing for adaptable learning. Designing for adaptable learning is understood as an overall response to designing for integration work. Designing for integration work is thus classified as a special case of designing for adaptable learning. Integration work in this research is understood as a professional practice that aims to improve and support the integration process of newly arrived immigrants (referred to as newcomers) in society. As professional practitioners of integration work, integration workers face daily challenges that are wicked by nature. In order to understand and problematize these challenges, the empirical work of this research was organized and performed within a case of digitalizing the civic orientation program in Sweden. The civic orientation program is a special case of integration work in Sweden, where integration workers organize and provide civic orientation to newcomers in Sweden. Different groups of newcomers are subsequently participating in a required 60 hours of civic orientation and are provided sessions through their native language. The integration workers are responsible for organizing and performing civic orientation through a dynamic process of dialogues, exercises, and more. Integration work as a practice, however, does not incorporate a standardized knowledge base, which provides integration workers a unified way of organizing and performing civic orientation. Instead, different counties and municipalities in Sweden organize and perform civic orientation in various ways. Furthermore, due to the extreme heterogeneity among newcomers as participants in civic orientation, the integration workers are forced to adapt. In turn, the integration workers themselves are heterogeneous due to their different roles, areas of responsibilities, and more essentially, worldviews. In order to understand and problematize the aspects of designing for integration work, an explorative approach was adopted through three consecutive cycles of Action Design Research. The cycles were performed from 2013 until completion of this thesis. The thesis was subsequently governed through three research questions: (1) How to design for integration work? (2)What makes designing for integration work significant? (3) Why do design for integration work? There search questions were addressed and answered through a body of produced knowledge that captures and provides the essential contributions of the thesis. The contributions of the thesis highlight different aspects of designing for integration work, as a special case of designing for adaptable learning. Thus, the contributions are presented and discussed with an explicit bearing toward designing for adaptable learning,as the general class of problems and solutions of this research. The contributions are consequently provided through: (1) an ensemble artifact that is termed a digital platform for civic orientation; (2) an Information Systems Design Theory for adaptable e-learning; (3) a design research methodology that incorporates work-integrated learning; (4) the meta-design of an open learning platform that supports the social integration of newcomers in society; and (5) a philosophical concept that problematizes and conceptualizes the essence of presence in e-learning. Ultimately, the research contributes to the research domains of information systems and work-integrated learning, by providing findings that problematize core aspects of designing for adaptable learning. Furthermore, the thesis extensively discusses the findings of this research by emphasizing a philosophical perspective toward core aspects of the research contributions. Finally, the thesis concludes with a set of limitations of the current research and a brief discussion about potential endeavours of future research.

  • Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Mårtensson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics. Stockholm University.
    Safari, Aswo
    Mälardalen University.
    Expectations and the performance ofgovernance functions between a board, management and other stakeholders: the case of Robotdalen2018In: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963X, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has called for an enhanced understanding of the dynamic and interactional aspects of board work in public sector governance. Using a longitudinal case study of Robotdalen, this paper attempts to meet this call through a processual and qualitative study of board work in public organisations. The aim of the paper is to enhance our understanding of the human side of governance and the interactions between a board, the management in the governed organisation and other stakeholders. We do this by addressing the theoretical concept of an expec- tations gap. The results demonstrated how funding regimes in uence governance functions, structures and practices at the organisational level, and how internal actors such as managers also carry out governance functions. Moreover, the results show how an expectations gap shifts and changes over time. In this way we have contributed a more nuanced theoretical understanding of how the governance func- tion is co-produced and the importance of understanding the expectations gap to further understand the dynamics of public sector board work.

  • Rosenberg, Otto
    Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift: Volym 1: Häfte 1, 19071907Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SELIM BIRGER: Über endozoische Samenverbreitung durch Vögel. NILS SVEDELIUS: Über einen Fall von Symbiose zwischen Zoochlorellen und einer marinen Hydroide. NILS SYLVÉN: Eigenartige, rein florale Sprosse bei zwei schwedischen Artemisia-Arten. TYCHO VESTERGREN: Discosia artocreas (Tode) Fr., eine Leptostromatacee mit eigentümlichem Pyknidenbau. CARL SKOTTSBERG: Blommor och insekter på Skabbholmen i Roslagen sommaren 1901. RUTGER SERNANDER: Om några former för art- och varietetsbildning hos lafvarne. HENRIK HESSELMAN: Lars Albert Nilsson (nekrolog). REDOGÖRELSE FÖR SVENSKA BOTANISKA FÖRENINGENS BILDANDE. SAMMANKOMSTER. SMÄRRE MEDDELANDEN: NILS SYLVÉN: Nya svenska fyndorter för Gentiana uliginosa. SELIM BIRGER: Tvenne sällsynta skandinaviska Gentiana-hybrider. Linnéjubileet. Profföreläsningar. REFERAT: TYCHO VESTERGREN: E. Hannig; Ueber pilzfreies Lolium temulentum. TYCHO VESTERGREN: H. Lindberg; Finlands Hippuris-former.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 13:00 Rosensalen, Jönköping
    Thörne, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Läkare, lärande och interaktion i hälso-och sjukvårdspraktiker2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The level of complexity within healthcare services is continually increasing. These services are put under pressure by changing demographics and associated illness profiles, the influence of globalization, and the introduction of new technologies. Physicians are expected to perform and develop their daily work in cooperation with other healthcare professionals and in association with increasing levels of patient involvement. In such a changing and challenging healthcare environment, more knowledge is needed about how learning takes place and how learning can be facilitated and developed in the daily provision of healthcare services.

    Aim: The overarching aim of this dissertation is to deepen our knowledge and understanding of the pedagogic processes and the learning that takes place in healthcare practices, with particular focus on physicians’ learning.

    Methods: The research methodology employed in this dissertation includes interviews and field studies that used an interactive research approach. Authentic healthcare practices, including physicians, other care providers, patients, clinical tools in use, and the spatial arrangements within which the healthcare practices were performed were studied. The data that was collected was analyzed from a practice-theory perspective, thus allowing the researcher to identify and describe several dimensions of learning and interaction in healthcare practices.

    Results: The pedagogic processes that were identified in the physicians’ and the other healthcare practitioners’ daily work with their patients can be described as read-guide-learning support. The pedagogic dimension of this work was not immediately revealed nor was it overtly articulated. The physicians dynamically, by themselves, taught and supported the junior physicians and other healthcare providers’ learning. The physicians’ mobility in a variety of healthcare contexts was of relevance to the learning that took place. By viewing specific healthcare contexts as performing health care practices during the study, a rounds work emerged which included both (i) co-produced learning rounds and (ii) operative rounds which gave rise to limited learning. The interaction between arrangements in healthcare practices, ‘practice architectures’, and the performance of the healthcare practices actually limited the junior physicians’ learning.

    Implications of the study: A proper understanding of the learning that takes place during the daily work in the provision of healthcare – by revealing and examining the pedagogic dimensions of the work that is done – can contribute to the development of learning and learning support mechanisms. Co-produced learning healthcare practices, where each participant’s needs and contributions are taken into account, have direct implications for professional development initiatives and learning, for patient involvement in their healthcare arrangements, and for interprofessional and inter-disciplinary cooperation. Such practices also provide responsible leaders and decision-makers with the opportunity to tie in healthcare quality assurance work with the daily work that is performed by healthcare practitioners in the field. 

  • Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Klang, Nina
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Almqvist, Lena
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education – A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2018In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N?=?3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs? interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs? employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-09 09:00 Hörsal D, Unod T9, Umeå
    Westerlund, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The role of implementation science in healthcare improvement efforts: investigating three complex interventions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, scholars have found significant gaps between the knowledge available and the knowledge applied in healthcare. Many potential benefits of adequate knowledge based interventions are therefore never achieved. A considerable body of knowledge has evolved on how to promote a better uptake of evidence-based knowledge into routine use. Even so, the actual impact and usefulness of implementation research findings among healthcare practitioners have not been extensively studied.

    Accordingly, the overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of how the implementation of complex interventions into healthcare can be improved. This is done by investigating whether some of these efforts do correspond with available scientific knowledge on implementation.

    The thesis is based on three cases contributing to four studies. The cases studied are: the National Perinatal Patient Safety program (NPPS), the Dynamic and Viable Organisation initiative (DVO), and the International Child Development Program (ICDP). All studies focuses on the early stages of implementation.

    A mixed methods approach was adopted, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data collection consisted of interviews, questionnaires, observations, and process diaries. Qualitative content analysis (conventional and directed), descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used. The focus was on implementation strategies used by healthcare actors in relation to factors influencing implementation processes and outcomes. More specifically, healthcare actors perspectives on such factors and whether they were addressed by the strategies used, was investigated. A process evaluation of implementation outcomes was also part of the thesis.

    The healthcare actors in focus were the adopters, i.e. practitioners expected to change their work practices, and implementation facilitators. The latter refer to actors with a more or less explicit responsibility to implement new practices or interventions aimed at improving the quality and effectiveness of the provided health services.

    Variation was found regarding how the implementation strategies used in the three cases corresponded with available scientific knowledge on implementation. In Case NPPS, the implementation facilitators planned, designed, and ensured that the core interventions of the implementation strategy were executed in a rational manner. Several important implementation factors were addressed by the strategy. The process evaluation of effects on readiness for change by the development of a team mental model among adopters showed positive results.

    In Case DVO a strategy was used that evolved over time, partly based on raised questions and feedback from staff and managers involved. The strategy can be described as an intuitive ‘socially accomplished activity’. This strategy involved addressing ‘Implementation Process-related factors’ in order to affect motivation and increase the tension for change among adopters.

    In Case ICDP, the results reflected a shortage of strategies during the early stage of implementation. The main intervention was the stepwise ICDP-education. A more comprehensive implementation strategy covering implementation factors highlighted as important among adopters was not developed. The process evaluation revealed vague directives on what was expected regarding the use and adaptation of ICDP to current practice versus preservation of fidelity to the original ICDP. This situation resulted in a rather large variation in how the changes in work practices were perceived among the health centres involved. No health centre practiced ICDP in its original form.

    A new knowledge-practice gap is discussed based on the findings in this thesis: a gap between the scientific knowledge on implementation and the actual implementation strategies used in practice during improvement efforts initiated by healthcare actors. The findings show that correspondence between scientific knowledge on implementation and what is actually done in order to accomplish change in practice might be more random (or implicit) than systematic. The question of how to transfer scientific knowledge on implementation into user-friendly resources for practitioners is discussed. A tentative model is suggested, which contributes to existing determinant frameworks by focusing on relations among factors. The model may be used in healthcare practice, to guide the design of an implementation strategy (or as a pathway for tailored implementation interventions) and aid the assignment of responsibilities in relation to factors that are known to affect implementation processes and outcomes.

    The question of how to transfer models and frameworks into user-friendly resources needs further attention. It is suggested that action oriented research aiming at further developing and establishing the concept of ‘practical implementation science’ should be conducted. This could be a way of bridging the knowledge-practice gap in healthcare.

  • Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undervisning och bedömning i ämnet friluftsliv i ämnet idrott och hälsa2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 10:15 2446 ITC, Uppsala
    Ekström, Sven-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing.
    Matrix-Less Methods for Computing Eigenvalues of Large Structured Matrices2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When modeling natural phenomena with linear partial differential equations, the discretized system of equations is in general represented by a matrix. To solve or analyze these systems, we are often interested in the spectral behavior of these matrices. Whenever the matrices of interest are Toeplitz, or Toeplitz-like, we can use the theory of Generalized Locally Toeplitz (GLT) sequences to study the spectrum (eigenvalues). A central concept in the theory of GLT sequences is the so-called symbol, that is, a function associated with a sequence of matrices of increasing size. When sampling the symbol and when the related matrix sequence is Hermitian (or quasi-Hermitian), we obtain an approximation of the spectrum of a matrix of a fixed size and we can therefore see its general behavior. However, the so-computed approximations of the eigenvalues are often affected by errors having magnitude of the reciprocal of the matrix size.

    In this thesis we develop novel methods, which we call "matrix-less" since they neither store the matrices of interest nor depend on matrix-vector products, to estimate these errors. Moreover, we exploit the structures of the considered matrices to efficiently and accurately compute the spectrum.

    We begin by considering the errors of the approximate eigenvalues computed by sampling the symbol on a uniform grid, and we conjecture the existence of an asymptotic expansion for these errors. We devise an algorithm to approximate the expansion by using a small number of moderately sized matrices, and we show through numerical experiments the effectiveness of the algorithm. We also show that the same algorithm works for preconditioned matrices, a result which is important in practical applications. Then, we explain how to use the approximated expansion on the whole spectrum for large matrices, whereas in earlier works its applicability was restricted only to certain matrix sizes and to a subset of the spectrum. Next, we demonstrate how to use the so-developed techniques to investigate, solve, and improve the accuracy in the eigenvalue computations for various differential problems discretized by the isogeometric analysis (IgA) method. Lastly, we discuss a class of non-monotone symbols for which we construct the sampling grid yielding exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

    To summarize, we show, both theoretically and numerically, the applicability of the presented matrix-less methods for a wide variety of problems.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-11 10:15 1B 309 Sjöström, Karlstad
    Vestin, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    SDN-Enabled Resiliency in Computer Networks2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In computer networking, failures, such as breaking equipment, cable cuts, power failures and human errors continuously cause communication interruptions. Such failures may result in dissatisfied customers, loss of product reputation, violation of SLAs and even critical failures in industrial systems. SDN, which logically centralizes the control plane, is an emerging technology in computer networking. The global view provided by the SDN controller can be used to reconfigure the network in case of a link failure. However, this reconfiguration may take too long for high availability networks. With the introduction of proactive link repair, backup paths are preinstalled in the forwarding devices, reducing path recovery time.

    This thesis addresses the usage of SDN to provide resiliency in high availability networks. First, we consider how SDN can be used for increasing the reliability of ICNs. Second, we investigate how similar technologies could be applied to deal with fast channel attenuation and resulting outage in mmWave backhaul networks. Finally, we look at CloudMAC-based Wireless LAN, and how SDN-enabled QoS improvements could improve connection reliability.

  • Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska universitetet.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    What Can We Say Regarding Shared Parenting Arrangements for Swedish Children?2018In: Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, ISSN 1050-2556, E-ISSN 1540-4811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint physical custody (JPC) refers to children living alternatively and about equally with both parents after a parental separation or divorce. The practice has been debated in relation to child well-being because of the frequent moves imposed on children and the potential stress from living in 2 homes. This study describes the background to the high frequency of Swedish children in JPC and the results from research on Swedish children’s well-being in this living arrangement. Children in JPC report better well-being and mental health than children who live mostly or only with 1 parent. No Swedish studies have found children’s health to be worse in JPC than in sole parental care from child age of 3 years and beyond. The existing literature cannot, however, inform us about the mechanisms behind the findings. The risks of selection effects into living arrangements are plausible. For this purpose, longitudinal studies are warranted.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-15 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Mobarak, Hani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and analysis of carbohydrates related to bacterial polysaccharides2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The outer surface of bacteria is composed of around 75% carbohydrates, which are vital for the bacteria to survive and communicate with the host biological system. The thesis discusses different properties of carbohydrates that are essential for understanding the bacterial behavior in biological systems. The first three chapters give an overview of carbohydrates.

    The fourth chapter discusses the synthesis of four amide-substituted 3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranosides, namely, methyl α-3,6-dideoxy-3-formamido-, acetamido-, (R)-3-hydroxybutyramido-, and (4-hydroxybutyramido)-D-galactopyranoside. These sugars were found as components of some bacterial O-antigens; the study is a step toward the synthesis of oligosaccharides that contain them. The fifth chapter describes the exchange kinetics of the formyl and acetyl derivatives that were synthesized. Both of them have two conformational states for the amide side-chain. 13C-NMR saturation transfer experiments are utilized for these measurements to reveal more about their properties in solution.

    In chaptr six, NMR and conformational analysis of oligosaccharides related to the O-antigen of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 bacteria were carried out to obtain more information regarding their 3D structure.

    Chapter seven is focusing on the development of CASPER, a program for rapid assignment of 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, by adding more sugars into its database and testing it for naturally occurring LPS as well as extending the scope for synthetic carbohydrates, which is planned to be developed further in the future.

  • Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Primary data collection: Approaches of service providers towards mobile payments2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile payments are new services enabled by evolution of information and communication technologies. These services can be provided by different types of actors both banks and non-banks. The understanding of capabilities and limitations of different service providers to act in local markets requires further understanding. Implemented research seeks to extend knowledge in this area. I have implemented research focused on approaches used by different types of service providers including banks, independent providers, operator billing providers, retailers, and public transport companies in six Northern European countries.

    Exploratory part of the research aims to address the following research question: What factors stimulate and hinder the introduction of mobile payments? The main objective of this report is to present primary data collected during the research through interviews with contacted companies.

    The collected primary data is classified and organised using the STOF (Service, Technology, Organisation, and Finance) model. Evidence is presented in tables. This primary data is further used for explanatory study. At the same time, this data can be used by other researchers studying the same area. The collected data is reach in facts and presents the overview of different strategies. 

  • Tornhill, Sofie
    Stockholm University.
    Capital visions: the politics of transnational production in Nicaragua2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In processes of economic integration, neoliberal discourse and corresponding notions of development comprise some of the most readily available imaginaries of political and social interaction and change. However, these processes are always also locally produced and negotiated. Engaging with discourse theory, Marxism and postcolonial feminist theory, this dissertation brings together “macro” and “micro” aspects of globalization. The aim is to interrogate discursive reinforcements of and challenges to global orders of production and divisions of labor. With a focus on representations of Free Trade Zones (FTZs), which are tax-exempted enclaves for export production, the study explores competing meanings attributed to the operation of transnational capital in Nicaragua. Based on policy documents, political speeches, promotional videotapes and interviews, the political rhetoric of two governments with competing agendas is analyzed: the neoliberal/conservative government of the Liberal Constitutionalist Party (2002–2007), which framed the FTZs in terms of national progress, and the leftist government of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (2007– ), which attempts to reconnect to the country’s revolutionary past. In this way efforts to formulate legitimate political agendas in the context of shifting relations between states and markets are detailed, together with constructions of citizens and workers along differentiations of class and gender. Relying on interviews with FTZ workers, the study examines ways to interpret, inhabit or resist imperative subject positions at the intersections of contending projects of nation-building and transnational orders of production, in conjunction with a discussion of the uneasy distinction between representation and appropriation that troubles transnational feminist research projects.

  • Klindt, Mads Peter
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Costa, Daniella
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Dopheide, Emile
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tikkanen, Tarja
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Measuring University-Society Collaboration: Recommendations for University of Aveiro2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document is a strategic project report for the University of Aveiro (UA) that addresses the university’s ambition of institutionalizing and measuring collaboration with society. In recent years, responding to developments in Portugal’s higher education policy UA has developed institutional data in order to support performance monitoring, strategic planning and decision-making. The university is well equipped with performance indicators as regards research and education. But how can UA assess the work that faculty and students are doing within the broader regional community and how can impact of collaboration be measured? Based on research literature, the report discusses the prospects and pitfalls of measuring universities’ third mission. The report then compares how four other European universities manage university-society collaboration including how they measure impact. The report finalizes by presenting a number of recommendations for UA.

  • Cagnazzo, Alessandra
    et al.
    Nordita, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, Oslo, Norway..
    Medina-Rincon, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Nordita, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zarembo, Konstantin
    Nordita, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, Oslo, Norway.;ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    String corrections to circular Wilson loop and anomalies2018In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 2, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study string quantum corrections to the ratio of latitude and circular Wilson loops in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. Conformal gauge for the corresponding minimal surface in AdS(5) x S-5 is singular and we show that an IR anomaly associated with the divergence in the conformal factor removes previously reported discrepancy with the exact field -theory result. We also carefully check conformal anomaly cancellation and recalculate fluctuation determinants by directly evaluting phaseshifts for all the fluctuation modes.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 10:00 Juvika
    Solum Myren, Gunn Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Dagaktivitetstilbud for personer med demens som bor hjemme: ”Dagen i dag den kan bli vår beste dag”2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine how persons with dementia in who live at home experience day care services and what the services mean to them, their relatives and care staff. For persons with dementia, everyday life often lacks social and sensory stimuli, and research has shown that their relatives experience a burden of care that strains their quality of life. In response, more knowledge is necessary about how municipal services in should be designed to ensure that persons with dementia can stay at home for as long as possible. From 2020, municipalities in Norway, will have a statutory duty to offer day care services to persons with dementia. The thesis is based on four qualitative studies. In study I, fieldwork comprised observations and informal conversations with persons with dementia (participants) who receive care from two day care services and staff. Study II involved semi-structured interviews and study III, narrative interviews with relatives, whereas study IV involved semi-structured interviews with care staff. In study I, results revealed that location and buildings affected the inclusion of participants in activities. Where as homey, familiar environments contributed to greater activity among participants, institutional environments contributed to greater passivity, at least from the perspective of participants and staff. In turn, the meaningfulness of participants’ everyday lives depended on staff adaptiveness in exercising person-centred care. In study II, relatives of persons with dementia reported that the pre- and post-diagnosis periods were challenging for them and that the day care services, especially the daily routines that they established, were thus exceptionally meaningful. The relatives reported not only that could they afford to rest on days when the persons with dementia received day care services but that the participants experienced those days to be meaningful as well. At the same time, they reported struggling with deciding for how long it would be reasonable for the persons with dementia to live at home. In study III, results revealed that living with persons with dementia affected the everyday lives of spouses and cohabitants, who had to assume new roles and adapt to living lives full of commitment, singularity, anxiety and oneliness. Spouses and cohabitants not only sought to optimally manage their domestic arrangements but also conceal from others how they felt or thought about their situations. To those ends, day care services therefore helped them to persevere in caring for and living with their loved ones, as well as afforded them time to pursue their personal interests. Being visited by day care staff prevented them from having to ask for help because staff members were there to offer it instead.…Last, during study IV, staff reported striving to implement person-centred care by ensuring the dignity of participants and their relatives and facilitating meaningful activities according to individual needs. However, staff also reported facing various barriers in realising person-centred care, including staff shortages, different levels of functioning among participants and limitations in the design of spaces and their location. When developing day care services, it is important to consider both the physical design and location of buildings in which care will be offered. Person-centred care can guide the organization of adequate, tailored day care services able to afford persons with dementia meaningful everyday lives.

  • Bøås, Morten
    Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.
    Rival priorities in the Sahel: finding the balance between security and development2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The G5 Sahel initiative goes some way to make up for the lack of supranational coordination in the troubled Sahel region. If moulded in the interests of development, it could bring about positive change. But the initiative risks becoming yet another excuse to get more ‘boots on the ground’, if external stakeholders place too much emphasis on fighting terror and stopping migration.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-25 13:00 Key 1, Hus Key, Linköping
    Daugaard, Solveig
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Collaborating with Gertrude Stein: Media ecologies, reception, poetics2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reception of the American avant-garde poet, playwright, art collector and salon hostess Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) has to a wide extent taken place in an aesthetic context prior to her work’s academic and hermeneutic canonization. This thesis is in part a mapping of this transmedia reception as it is played out in a North American context in the period from her death and until today, and in part an account of Stein’s particular collaborative poetics, through which her work invites such a reception. Furthermore, the thesis maintains that we in a contemporary context are experien­cing a still increasing receptivity towards Stein’s oeuvre, that seems more relevant today than ever before.  

    These circumstances, the thesis illuminates and discusses via a media theoretical framework, where Stein’s own work, as well as its aesthetic reception is considered as embedded in a complex media ecology. Media ecology is here conceived as a de­centralized, networked approach to aesthetic phenomena, which is able to contain many types of agents and materialities. The media ecology of an artwork is thus po­tentially made up by the entire network of processes, agents and materials that are relevant to its production, distribution and consumption and influences the subject positions available to the individual agents.

    Through Stein’s aesthetic reception it is possible to catch sight of important compo­nents that are active in the media ecology but often neglected or considered subor­dinated to text-internal features. These include the material interface of the medium in question, the aestheticized persona of the artist and infrastructures such as the salon, which affect how and to whom the work and its meanings are distributed. The thesis also traces a number of parallels between the media situation of Stein in the beginning of the 20th century and the digital media situation at the verge of the 21st that suggest both explanations for and implications of her increasing contemporary relevance.

  • Solum Myren, Gunn Eva
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Centre for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Saur, Ellen
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    “Being Free Like a Bird”?: The Meaning of Being an Informal Caregiver for Persons with Dementia Who Are Receiving Day Care Services2015In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 53858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Respite care in the form of day care is one of the several respite services that aims to provide temporary relief to informal caregivers from their responsibilities of caring for a person with dementia. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the meaning of being an informal caregiver for a person with dementia living at home and receiving day care services. Narrative interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. Two main themes emerged: “Living with limitations in everyday life” and “Having a life besides being a caregiver”. The comprehensive understanding suggested living with a person with dementia, changes and influences the informal caregiver’s life through a set of new roles and a new way of living and thinking. The result is discussed in light of Goffman’s analysis of the structures of social encounters from the perspective of the dramatic performance.

  • Husdal, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    The organisation of diabetes care for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nationwide cross-sectional study in Swedish primary health care2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To extend the current knowledge about changes in Swedish diabetes care from 2006 to 2013 (Paper I), and to investigate the association between personnel resources and organisational features of primary health care centres (PHCCs) and the individual level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (Paper II).

    Methods The longitudinal cross-sectional study described in Paper I included a total of 684 (74.3%) of eligible 921 PHCCs in 2006 and 880 (76.4%) of eligible 1152 PHCCs in 2013. The Swedish National Survey of the Quality and Organisation of Diabetes Care in Primary Healthcare (Swed-QOP) questionnaire was sent to PHCC managers in 2007 and 2014. In Paper II, persons with T2DM (n = 230 958) attending 846 PHCCs were included. The PHCC-level data for 2013 were obtained from the Swed-QOP questionnaire and the individual-level data for 2013 were obtained from the National Diabetes Register. These data were linked to national registers containing individual-level data on socio-economic status and comorbidities.

    Results From 2006 to 2013, the median list size of PHCCs decreased while the median number of persons with T2DM at the PHCC increased (all P < 0.001). The median number of whole time equivalent registered nurses (RNs) per 500 persons with T2DM increased from 0.64 in 2006 to 0.79 in 2013 (P < 0.001). Compared with 2006, 30% percentage points more PHCCs (17.0% in 2006 and 47.5% in 2013) had an RN with at least 16 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits in diabetes-specific education in 2013 (P < 0.001). Access to an in-house psychologist increased from 25.9% in 2006 to 47.1% in 2013 (P < 0.001). No change was found regarding in-house access to dietitians, chiropodists, social workers or physiotherapists. Observed changes in the organisational features of PHCCs from 2006 to 2013 included increased frequency of medical check-ups, use of call–recall systems and use of systems for checking that persons with T2DM participated in annual visits to general practitioners (GPs) and RNs (all P < 0.05). Providing group education remained scarce in both years (Paper I). After adjusting for several important confounders, personnel resources associated with decreasing individual HbA1c levels were the number of ECTS credits in diabetes-specific education among RNs (P < 0.001) and the duration of regular visits to RNs (P < 0.001). However, the opposite effect (i.e., increased HbA1c levels) was found for the duration of visits to GPs (P < 0.001). Organisational features associated with decreased individual HbA1c levels were PHCCs having a diabetes team (P < 0.01) and providing group education (P < 0.01) (Paper II).

    Conclusions The findings presented in this thesis add important knowledge on evaluating changes in diabetes care in Sweden. Some findings can be interpreted as initiatives to focus on increasing the time RNs devote to caring for persons with T2DM, and in ensuring RNs undergo diabetes-specific education. Furthermore, factors such as diabetes-specific education, diabetes teams and group education were associated with lower individual HbA1c levels. These findings could stimulate decision-makers to prioritise these factors for offering high-quality, equitable care to persons with diabetes.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-09 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Mussa, Abdilbari Shifa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Durability Aspects of Fast Charging, Mechanical Constraint, and Inhomogeneity in Lithium-Ion Batteries2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of lithium-ion batteries with higher energy and power density, better safety, and lower cost has significantly contributed to the increased market share of electric vehicles (EVs) in the last decade. However, the expectations of end-users of EVs still require a continuous quest for better performance. One important end-user expectation is the ability of the battery to be charged rapidly, but the durability of lithium-ion batteries could be affected by the fast charging. Hence, detailed investigations are required to understand the extent and mechanism of the degradation for an optimized battery usage and material development.   

    In order to meet the high energy and power required in EVs, multiple large-format cells are connected in series and in parallel. Such a condition leads to an uneven distribution of temperature, pressure, and current in a cell or among cells that may cause locally inhomogeneous ageing and accelerate the global battery ageing. This thesis investigates the effects of charging rate, charging protocol, and external compression on battery durability. The impacts of inhomogeneities induced by cell design constraint, and uneven compression and temperature distributions are also addressed. The studies are based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite cells. Cell housing for a controlled pressure and temperature application was developed. Electrochemical and material characterization techniques were used in the investigation.

    The results show that fast charging at a rate equivalent to full charging in 20 minutes (3C rate) or less accelerates battery ageing. The ageing rate is less sensitive to charging rate in a longer charging time, i.e. at 2C and below, where it is determined more by factors such as the extent of full charging. In all cases, the capacity loss is limited by the cyclable lithium loss. External compression of a battery in an optimum range reduces ageing, but compression above or below the optimum range accelerates ageing. Lithium-ion batteries age non-uniformly. Cycling induces an increase in the impedance at the outer radius of curvature of a prismatic cell jellyroll, associated with a loss of contact between the current collector and the electrode coating. An unfavorable current distribution induced by uneven temperature distribution can accelerate battery ageing. 

  • Karlsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Svärd, sandaler och skandaler. Antiken på film och i tv2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 156-158Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Guan, Na N.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallén‐Grufman, Katarina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools2018In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2319-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to store urine and initiate voiding is a valued characteristic of the human urinary bladder. To maintain this feature, it is necessary that the bladder can sense when it is full and when it is time to void. The bladder has a specialized epithelium called urothelium that is believed to be important for its sensory function. It has been suggested that autocrine ATP signalling contributes to this sensory function of the urothelium. There is well‐established evidence that ATP is released via vesicular exocytosis as well as by pannexin hemichannels upon mechanical stimulation. However, there are still many details that need elucidation and therefore there is a need for the development of new tools to further explore this fascinating field. In this work, we use new microphysiological systems to study mechanostimulation at a cellular level: a mechanostimulation microchip and a silicone‐based cell stretcher. Using these tools, we show that ATP is released upon cell stretching and that extracellular ATP contributes to a major part of Ca2+ signalling induced by stretching in T24 cells. These results contribute to the increasing body of evidence for ATP signalling as an important component for the sensory function of urothelial cells. This encourages the development of drugs targeting P2 receptors to relieve suffering from overactive bladder disorder and incontinence.

  • Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lindh, Christian
    Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU, Lunds universitet, institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, avdelningen för arbets- och miljömedicin, AMM.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Executive, Universitet, Umeå universitet, UmU, Umeå universitet, medicinska fakulteten, folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Department of Biobank Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Organiska miljöföroreningar i urin hos unga i norra och södra Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att följa halter av miljöföroreningar hos människor, för riskvärdering och för att få kunskap om hur exponeringen kan minskas.

    Organiska miljöföroreningar (ftalat-metaboliter, bisfenol A, bisfenol F, triklosan, pesticiderna 3-PBA och TCP samt PAH-metaboliten 1-HP) analyserades i urin hos 204 unga i Skåne (gymnasieelever, år 2013) och hos 143 unga i MONICA-studien i norra Sverige (25-35 år, år 2014). Koncentrationer jämfördes statistiskt mellan studierna och kopplingar till levnadsvanor som efterfrågades i båda studierna undersöktes (rökning, fiskintag, intag av mat från konserver och typ av golv i sovrum). En kompletterande enkätstudie gjordes på deltagarna i MONICA-studien som uppgav att de hade plastgolv i sovrummet (n=65), för att utröna om golvvärme under plastgolv i sovrummet kan öka exponering av "plast-ftalaten" MBzP.

    De statistiskt säkerställda skillnader som uppdagades var att de unga i norr hade högre koncentration av de flesta ftalat-metaboliter och av pesticiden 3-PBA medan de unga i söder hade högre koncentration av triklosan.

    Ftalat-metaboliten MBzP kunde kopplas till att ha plastgolv i sovrummet i båda studiepopulationerna. Då endast fyra personer i MONICA-studien uppgav golvvärme under plastgolv och den gruppen inte hade anmärkningsvärt hög MBzP-koncentration i urin kan inte högre användning av golvvärme i norr vara förklaringen till högre koncentration av MBzP i norra Sverige.

    Skillnader i levnadsförhållanden av betydelse för exponering av miljöföroreningarna som beror på den åldersskillnad som fanns mellan studiepopulationerna i norr och söder, och inte undersöktes i den här studien, kan inte uteslutas. Framtida geografiska jämförelser av miljöföroreningar hos människor bör om möjligt göras på människor i samma åldersintervall

  • Public defence: 2018-05-25 10:30 Myrdal, Växjö
    Strand, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjälp mig att hjälpa dig!: – upplevelser och uppfattningar av undersökning med MRT för personer med metastaser i ryggen2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim was to explore how patients with spinal metastasesexperience a magnetic resonance imaging examination (MRI). Furthermore,the purpose was to investigate the radiographers’ perceptions of the patients’care needs and what measures can be taken to relieve the suffering associatedwith an MRI examination.

    Methods: The design for all four studies was qualitative with content analysisused in Studies I, III and IV and a phenomenographic approach in Study II.

    Main Findings: The results showed that the patients could experience worry,anxiety, insecurity and pain during an MRI examination. These adverse feelingscan be reduced by adjustments to the examination’s routines as well as byadjustments to the examination’s settings. A short break in the middle of theexamination can be beneficial if the patient is involved in the decision regardingthe break or other adjustments made in conjunction with the examination.Radiographers’ perceptions of the caring for patients were influenced by theircaring perspective and their approach towards what they consider to be essentialin the care of patients with spinal metastasis. The radiographers used theirintuition as a moral compass when they decided what, when and how to adjustthe different aspects of the MRI examination. A shortage of time can affect theextent of the adjustments that can be made as well as the establishment of acaring relationship with the patient.

    Conclusions: The patients may feel a sense of security when they receive correctinformation prior to and during the examination. Patients want to influencetheir own care. The personalization and adjustments of the examinationroutines need to be performed in agreement with the patient. The radiographersshould not use intuition as the foundation for their care and assumptions aboutthe care needs of the patients should be avoided. The

  • Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hessling, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur regleras kommunala bolags möjligheter att sponsra?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland uppmärksammas att kommunala bolag sponsrar föreningar och evenemang. Inte sällan är rapporteringen kritisk. Här aktualiseras bland annat vad som är tillåtet, lämpligt och etiskt i relation till sponsringsaktiviteterna. Emellertid är det inte uppenbart vad som gäller: Vad reglerar egentligen kommunala bolags möjligheter att sponsra, och när är det lämpligt för dem att göra det?

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är tredelat; 1) att identifiera det eller de regelverk kommunala bolag bör förhålla sig till vid sponsringsbeslut, 2) att ge en kvalificerad uppskattning av i vilken utsträckning kommunala bolag förhåller sig till regelverket; och slutligen, att med grund i resultaten från dessa två delstudier, 3) formulera principer avseende hur sponsringsfrågan kan hanteras på ett korrekt och ändamålsenligt sätt lokalt. Målsättningen med detta är att stimulera till en konstruktiv diskussion om reglering och genomförande av sponsring via kommunala bolag.

    Rapportens syften försöker vi uppfylla genom att ta itu med fyra frågeområden:

    • Vilken lagstiftning och vilka principer bör kommuner och deras bolag förhålla sig till när de ska fatta sponsringsbeslut?
    • Har kommunerna i vårt urval policyer och riktlinjer för sponsring?
    • Hur ser faktiska policyer och riktlinjer för sponsring ut, och hur harmonierar dessa med det regelverk som bör reglera möjligheterna att sponsra?
    • I vilken utsträckning sponsrar kommunala bolag och vilka aktörer sponsras?

    Undersökningen utgör en explorativ pilotstudie av sju kommuner som granskas närmare. Studien visar en stor variation avseende på vilken nivå riktlinjer finns och vad dessa innehåller. Någon kommun saknar helt riktlinjer på kommun- och koncernnivå, andra har det bara på koncern- och bolagsnivå; ytterligare några har övergripande riktlinjer för såväl kommunen som de kommunala bolagen. När vi jämför de principer som vi identifierat som reglerande inom området, med vad som faktiskt återfinns i lokala policyer och riktlinjer, är intrycket att dessa inte alltid relaterar till relevanta lagar och principer, och policyer och riktlinjer ser olika ut från kommun till kommun. Detta i sig behöver inte betyda att bolagen bryter mot existerande regelverk. Men risken för regelöverträdelser torde dock minimeras, om relevanta lagar och principer är specificerade i lokala policyer och riktlinjer, liksom att detta gjorts känt ute i organisationerna, i synnerhet bland aktörer som beslutar om sponsring.

    Vi finner vidare att bolag i samtliga kommuner bedriver sponsringsverksamhet, om än i varierande grad. Framförallt rör det sig om sponsring av idrotts- och kulturföreningar, och större evenemang inom kommunen. Inte sällan är elitidrottsföreningar mottagare av sponsring. I de fall där en kommunal sponsringspolicy finns, bedömer vi att denna följs i majoriteten av fallen.

    Att sponsring regelmässigt förekommer i kommunala bolag, och att den – givet vår måttstock – i förekommande fall är svagt reglerad, understryker behovet av kunskapsutveckling. I rapporten växer en bild fram av bolagens sponsringsverksamhet som saknar tydlig ansvars- och beslutsfördelning; och vi noterar sponsring som riktas mot såväl elitidrott som (i enskilda fall) mot enskilda aktiebolag. De två kommuner som saknar kommunala eller koncernspecifika policyer hör dessutom till dem som lägger allra mest pengar inom bolagens respektive sponsringsverksamhet.

    En huvudpoäng är att kommunerna och deras bolag bättre behöver analysera (och externt kommunicera): 1) varför bolagen bedriver sponsringsverksamhet, 2) hur sponsringen ser ut, vilka man väljer att sponsra och vilka motprestationer man får, samt 3) på vilka grunder sponsringen görs i konkreta fall, 4) vem/vilka individer (eller organ) som i slutänden fattar beslut om detta (och med vilket mandat/förankring), och 5) hur sponsringen följs upp och utvärderas. Sammantaget visar våra resultat, och de frågor de ger upphov till, att det finns ett behov av att föra en aktiv diskussion om bolagens sponsringsverksamhet, samt uppmärksamma och sprida goda exempel på hur kommuner hanterat och reglerat frågan lokalt. Att vi funnit kunskapsluckor i flera avseenden, samt viss avvägningsproblematik, pekar på behovet av fördjupad forskning på området.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-14 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Pateli, Evangelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on International Trade: Theory and Evidence on the Determinants and Implications of Firms' Import Behaviour2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aspires to further contribute to our understanding of both the determinants as well as the implications of intermediate goods trade. Faced with intensifying global competition, firms are increasingly developing their production process and their sourcing strategies beyond national borders in order to take advantage of lower costs, superior quality and technological advances.

    In the first two chapters, I analyse firm-level import decisions in an environment allowing for unintentional exchanges of import-relevant information between firms. I build on the idea that any import-specific knowledge acquired by established importers, in a given region/industry, spills over to prospective importers lowering the costs associated with entry in international markets for intermediates. Chapter 1, using firm-level import data on the universe of Swedish firms, at the product level and by source market for the period 1998-2011, provides evidence for the existence of import spillovers and offers insights into the mechanisms through which they operate. Chapter 2, sets out a theoretical framework formalising import spillovers and their implications for the firm’s import behaviour and for consumer welfare.

    In the third and last chapter of this thesis, I turn to intermediate import dependence with an aim to explain the lack of sensitivity of trade flows to exchange rate movements. I propose a tractable framework and study how real devaluations affect firm-level export decisions and export performance, as well as aggregate exports and welfare in an environment where final goods production uses both domestic and imported intermediates.

  • Skär, Lisa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Hlth, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Söderberg, Siv
    Mid Sweden Univ, SWE.
    Patients' complaints regarding healthcare encounters and communication2018In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore patient-reported complaints regarding communication and healthcare encounters and how these were responded to by healthcare professionals. Design: A retrospective and descriptive design was used in a County Council in northern part of Sweden. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Methods: The content of 587 patient-reported complaints was included in the study. Descriptive statistical analysis and a deductive content analysis were used to investigate the content in the patient-reported complaints. Results: The results show that patients' dissatisfaction with encounters and communication concerned all departments in the healthcare organization. Patients were most dissatisfied when they were not met in a professional manner. There were differences between genders, where women reported more complaints regarding their dissatisfaction with encounters and communication compared with men. Many of the answers on the patient-reported complaints lack a personal apology and some of the patients failed to receive an answer to their complaints.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-16 13:00 E2
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the challenge of road transport electrification using a systems approach for the particular context of Stockholm’s public transport system. The objective is to identify the benefits of large-scale bus electrification on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the cost and planning considerations required for achieving such a shift. Quantitative and qualitative methods are deployed for answering the research questions, including the development and use of an optimisation model, survey research, and interviews. 

    The results of the optimisation model developed for this thesis show that an optimal system configuration is obtained with a combination of electricity and biodiesel. The high energy efficiency of electric buses would lead to a significant reduction of energy consumption in Stockholm, even if not all bus routes in the network are electrified. Although larger battery capacities could support the electrification of more bus routes, this does not necessarily lead to lower environmental impact. In any case, electricity from renewable sources should be used to maximise emission reductions. 

    The results also show that the annual costs necessary to invest in electric buses can be balanced by lower fuel costs. An effective utilisation of the charging infrastructure is of high priority in order to justify the costs of the required investments. The model results confirm the benefits of creating a dense initial network of charging stations in the inner city’s public transport hubs, which would facilitate the electrification of multiple routes and high infrastructure utilisation at lower costs. 

    The survey and interviews with stakeholders indicate that multiple issues affect the choice of charging technology, not just costs. Compatibility, reliability, bus dwell time, as well as weather conditions and visual impact are some of the additional aspects taken into account. The introduction of electricity tax exemption for electric buses, the expansion of the electric bus premium to include private stakeholders, as well as the expansion of infrastructure investment subsidy programmes are among the policy instruments suggested for assisting a faster introduction of electric buses into Stockholm’s public transport system. 

    Although the focus is on Stockholm, the conclusions of this work can be applicable to other cities in Sweden and around the world, which also face the challenge of making public transport a more sustainable option.

  • Agic, Adnan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Analysis of entry phase in intermittent machining2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting forces and vibrations are essential parameters in the assessment of a cutting process. As the energy consumption in the machining process is directly affected by the magnitude of the cutting forces it is of vital importance to design cutting edges and select process conditions that will maintain high tool performance through reduced energy consumption. The vibrations are often the cause of poor results in terms of accuracy, low reliability due to sudden failures and bad environmental conditions caused by noise. The goal of this work is to find out how the cutting edge and cutting conditions affect the entry conditions of the machining operation. This is done utilizing experimental methods and appropriate theoretical approaches applied to the cutting forces and vibrations. The research was carried out through three main studies beginning with a force build-up analysis of the cutting edge entry into the workpiece in intermittent turning. This was followed by a second study, concentrated on modelling of the entry phase which has been explored through experiments and theory developed in the first study. The third part was focused on the influence of the radial depth of cut upon the entry of cutting edge into the workpiece in a face milling application. The methodology for the identification of unfavourable cutting conditions is also explained herein. Important insights into the force build-up process help addressing the correlation between the cutting geometries and the rise time of the cutting force. The influence of the nose radius for a given cutting tool and workpiece configuration during the initial entry is revealed. The critical angle i.e. the position of the face milling cutter that results in unfavourable entry conditions has been explained emphasizing the importance of the selection of cutting conditions. Finally, the theoretical methods utilized for the evaluation of the role of cutting edge geometry within entry phase dynamics has been explored. This has revealed the trends that are of interest for selection of cutting conditions and cutting edge design.

  • Svensson, Arne
    et al.
    Lenefors, Lina
    Sveriges friluftskommun 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunerna har en nyckelroll i att utveckla friluftslivet och många kommuner arbetar aktivt med friluftslivet till nytta och nöje för befolkningens välbefinnande och naturkontakt. Detta arbete vill vi stimulera. Därför genomför vi undersökningen av kommunernas friluftslivsarbete och delar ut priset till Sveriges friluftskommun. Priset delas ut av Naturvårdsverket i samarbete med Svenskt Friluftsliv och Sveriges Kultur- och Fritidschefersförening.

    I rapporten kan du läsa om hur de svenska kommunerna arbetar med friluftsliv i dag. Frågorna är fokuserade på planer för friluftsliv, information och samarbete kring friluftsliv samt aktiviteter inom friluftsliv. Vi har också en öppen fråga om goda exempel på framåtsyftande arbete för att bidra till att uppnå de friluftspolitiska målen. Undersökningen är genomförd de senaste åtta åren och vi har jämfört resultaten mellan åren för att kunna se utvecklingen i arbetet. Det är många kommuner som visar stora förbättringar i år och många hamnar högt upp i poänglistan och det är väldigt glädjande. Vår förhoppning är att arbetet med Sveriges friluftskommun ska stimulera än fler att arbeta aktivt och planerat med friluftsliv.

  • Prax, Patrick
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Rajkowska, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Problem Gaming from the Perspective of Treatment2018In: What’s the Problem in Problem Gaming?: Nordic Research Perspectives / [ed] Jessica Enevold, Anne Mette Thorhauge, Andreas Gregersen, Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2018, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem gaming has so far been defined through, on one hand, psychological models of addiction and on the other, the network approach which focuses on individual’s social environment. This chapter addresses the need expressed in prior research for the perspective of both the people who are treating problem gaming every day as well as those who are receiving treatment and whose lives are most impacted by it. We conducted semi-structured interviews with treatment professionals, gamers, and their parents from two Swedish treatment centers. The results show that from the perspective of the three groups of interviewees problem gaming is not defined through the behavior of the gamer. Instead the interviewees emphasize the negative effects the gaming behavior has on other areas of life leading to the gamer’s suffering. These results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of problem gaming and are used to discuss existing notions of problem gaming and game addiction.

  • Fromholz, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jacobsson, Maritha
    Wahlin, Lottie
    Victim offender mediation in Sweden: an activity falling apart?2018In: Nordic Mediation Research / [ed] Anna Nylund, Kaijus Ervasti, Lin Adrian, Springer , 2018, p. 67-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the government has invested considerable resources to implement victim offender mediation (VOM) for young people (under the age of 21). Despite this, the number of mediations is decreasing. What appears to be a gap between the legislator’s intentions and practical applications raises questions about the reasons for this gap and the premises for mediation in penal matters in Sweden today. Our purpose in this article is to highlight and discuss some circumstances that can explain this decrease and the future of VOM in Sweden. We start by discussing the development of VOM in Sweden and continue by analysing possible reasons for why mediation is declining. The conclusion is that the decrease can be explained by problems related to legal and organisational structures as well as mediation practice. The conclusion is also that if the state and municipalities do not show more interest in VOM and restorative justice, then this activity will probably disappear.

  • Willander, Erika
    Uppsala universitet.
    Mellan sekulära och religiösa förväntningar: Civilreligion på individnivå i Sverige2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 53-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-between Secular and Religious Expectations: Civil Religion at an Individual Level in Sweden

    This article responds to recent calls for reconsidering the concept ‘civil religion’ to advance the understanding of how both religious and secular authorities shape individuals’ attitudes towards the religious. ‘Civil religion’ is defined as set of religious symbols and practices that can be studied at an individual level. The analysis utilized representative survey data collected in 2016–2017 in Sweden. Four basic forms of ‘civil religion’ were identified and justified in relation to expectations held by both religious and secular authorities in Sweden over time. The analysis showed that the identified forms of ‘civil religion’ differ in terms of social class, gender and age. The results are taken to raise further research questions about relationships between high socioeconomic status and criticism of religion and about low socioeconomic status and adherence to religious minorities in Sweden. In addition, it is stipulated that a civil religion approach to religious attitudes might shed new light on questions concerning contemporary covenants and shared ideas about the religious.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-15 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Aichmayer, Lukas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Solar receiver development for gas-turbine based solar dish systems2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale concentrating solar power plants such as micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems have the potential to harness solar energy in an effective way and supply electricity to customers in remote areas. In such systems, the solar receiver transfers the power of concentrated solar radiation to the working fluid of the power conversion cycle. It is one of the key components as it needs to operate at high temperatures to ensure a high power cycle efficiency and under high flux densities to ensure a high receiver efficiency. In order to address these challenges and to ensure efficient and reliable operation innovative designs are needed.

    This research work focuses on the complete development of a novel solar receiver applying a new systematic design and analysis methodology. Therefore, a comprehensive receiver design and experimental evaluation process were developed and implemented. The design process includes the identification of technical specifications and requirements, the development of receiver design tools of different investigation levels coupled with multi-objective optimization tools, the evaluation of scaling effects between tests in the KTH high-flux solar simulator and the full-scale solar dish system. As a result of the design process a representative final receiver was established with material temperatures and stresses below critical limits while respecting the design specification.

    The experimental evaluation includes the enhancement of the KTH high-flux solar simulator to provide stable and reliable operating conditions, the precise characterization of the radiative boundary conditions, the design of a receiver test bed recreating the operating behavior of a gas-turbine, and the final receiver testing for multiple operating points. It was shown that the prototype reaches an efficiency of 69.3% for an air outlet temperature of 800°C and a mass flow of 29.5 g/s. For a larger mass flow of 38.4 g/s a receiver efficiency of 84.8% was achieved with an air outlet temperature of 749°C.

    The measurement results obtained were then used for a multi-point validation of the receiver design tools, resulting in a high level of confidence in the accuracy of the tools. The validated models were then harnessed to calculate the performance of a full-scale solar receiver integrated into the OMSoP solar dish system. It was shown that a solar receiver can be designed, which delivers air at 800°C with a receiver efficiency of 82.2%.

    Finally, the economic potential of micro gas-turbine based solar systems was investigated and it was shown that they are ideally suited for small-scale stand-alone and off-grid applications.

    The results of the receiver development highlight the feasibility of using volumetric solar receivers to provide heat input to micro gas-turbine based solar dish systems and no major hurdles were found.

  • Udehn, Lars
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kommentarer till ”Vem är teori?”2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Jacobsson, Katarina
    Sveriges Sociologförbund.
    Sociologförbundet har ordet: Sociologidagarna 2018 – sicken succé!2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 109-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Sager, Maja
    Lunds universitet.
    An interview with Bridget Anderson2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 99-107Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the interview Anderson is discussing the migrant as a political and analytical category and the need to think across the categories of citizen and migrant to challenge the exclusion of the latter group – but also to highlight the interconnectedness of processes of social exclusion and marginalisation across the citizen/non-citizen divide. Anderson also reflects on current developments in Europe and the UK in regards of Brexit and the growing support for fascist and extreme right populist movements and political projects.

  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, Sara
    Lunds universitet.
    Redaktörerna har ordet2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 111-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Holmqvist, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att studera den ekonomiska eliten: problem och utmaningar2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 5-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the Economic Elite – Problems and Challenges

    This article presents my experiences of studying Djursholm as Sweden’s ”Leader Community” during 2010 through 2015. I address the relative lack of studies of the economic elite, which is a problem both for the sociological literature, and for public debate. The reason to why relatively few studies have been made of the economic elite, particularly in Sweden, has amongst others to do with a reputation of it as being hard to study, not at least due to this group's often social closure. By proposing examples from my own study, I try to describe how studies of the economic elites can be done with a view of generating more research of this anonymous yet influential group.

  • Forsberg, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Valet av utbildning på gymnasiemarknaden i socialt tillbakasatta områden2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 23-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School Choice in Ethnically and Socioeconomically Heterogeneous Residential Areas

    This article explores how young peoples´ strategies when choosing upper secondary education are marked by the segregation and marketization of education. Research is limited to five municipalities in southern Stockholm that are characterized by ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous residential areas. It is argued that the school choice of all pupils at upper secondary level in this region constitutes a socio-geographical space in which the school market is embedded and operates. This space is explored by means of specific multiple correspondence analyses (specific MCA). Using individual census data on all students in the designated municipalities from 2008, the differences between 4 421 pupils are investigated as regards their parents’ education, income, occupation, services, and national origin, as well as the pupils’ academic merits from comprehensive school. The analysis reveals that, despite a ‘free’ school choice and substantial geographical mobility, pupils’ choices are heavily restricted by local social and demographic conditions, not the least those connected to their acquired and inherited assets.

  • Berggren, Kalle
    Stockholms universitet.
    Vem är teori?: Ett normkritiskt pedagogiskt perspektiv på sociologisk teori2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who is theory? A norm-critical pedagogical perspective on sociological theory

    Sociological theory is a central part of the sociology discipline, and courses on sociological theory are found on all levels of university teaching in sociology at Swedish universities. However, while sociologists have successfully uncovered power structures in various domains of social life, we have been more reluctant to examine our own teaching practices. In particular, sociological theory has been pinpointed as an area where men’s dominance often perseveres. This is in stark contrast to international research on exclusion and inclusion in processes of canon formation, which shows how there have always been important sociological theorists who have not been white men, but that they have been more or less written out of history. Drawing on such international research on inclusion and exclusion in the construction of sociological theory, as well as on norm-critical pedagogy, and on a mapping of the curriculum at one of Sweden’s universities, this article identifies key aspects in the quest for a more inclusive curriculum.

  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, SaraLunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2018:12018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Silvermuseet Arjeplog.
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hunters of forests and waters: Late Iron Age and Medieval subsistence and social processes in coastal northern Sweden2018In: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of the 14th century the Swedish Crown and the Catholic Church made robust attempts to include the areas beside the Bothnian bay within their central fiscal and clerical organization. Salmon fishing in the productive river rapids became major targets for external commercial interests. Written records inform us about the situation from the perspective of the exploiters. However, there is a story running in parallel – that of the local population already occupying the lands and the fishing grounds. The study aims to analyse the significance of hunting and fishing to the overall subsistence of coastal communities in northern Sweden during the period AD 500–1600. The social context is of particular interest, specifically in relation to the successive conformation by the local communities to the Swedish fiscal system. The study draws on archaeological records and on historical records from the 14th to the 17th century, in addition to ethnographic accounts for hunting and fishing. We conclude that the legal cultures embraced by the indigenous population and that of the Swedish central powers were in essence incompatible. The acquisition of land and fishing rights was never settled between two equal parties, but one-sidedly enforced by the party holding the pen.

  • Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rec. av Hélio Manhica Mental health, substance misuse and labour market participation in teenage refugees in Sweden – A longitudinal perspective2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 79-81Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Ericson, Mathias
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Krisberedskapspusslet: Meningsskapande och strategier i arbetet med risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 62-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Ljungblom, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Business Excellence with Customer Service in World Class: A Swedish Case Study of Lean in Supermarket2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is nowadays a well-known concept which has been applied in different types of organizations, who strive to improve in order to be more efficient and successful - reduce costs but still maintain and improve quality. The Lean mind-set is based on the use of the human and material resources, matching and getting the associated processes more efficient, by working with continuous improvements. Even if Lean origins from the manufacturing and production sector, research indicate that Lean is transferable into other sectors. Lean is used to develop more seamless processes, improve flow, reduce waste and develop an understanding of customer value.In this case study, the first part of Lean implementation in the Swedish retail sector, in particular a supermarket is outlined and further progression of the research is suggested.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and outline the experiences from the implementation of Lean in the Swedish retail sector.

    In order to fulfil the goal in this paper the data collecting was made by interviews and participating observations during the period February to June 2016. The particular parts followed were the lean implementation process in the education part, different workshops and improvements startups in the chosen store. Analyzing the data was made by pattern-matching when the results were interpreted through the principles of Liker (2009).

    Though, the research is still ongoing some findings have been done. The result so far shows; Standardized routines and clearer information, eliminated waste and better structure, tidiness and orderliness when everything is in the right place. The co-workers in the supermarket find it more smooth and easy to work and they can see a clear target with better engagement in the store. Barriers and success factors while implementing Lean, picked out from earlier research, can be recognized in this study as well. Still the most important cause in Lean implementation is to avoid organizations built and structures their Lean work on hard core, such as quality methodologies and tools, rather than focus on soft core, i.e., the human perspective with values and human resources.