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  • Lerner, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Cellular mechanisms involved in bone resorption1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), prostaglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2a), cAMP, cAMP-analogues, phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and la (OH) D3 on bone resorption and associated cellular process have been studied in a bone organ culture system using half- calvaria from 6-7 day-old mice. Bone resorption was assessed by determining the release of calcium (Ca22+), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and 45Ca from the calvarial bones to the culture media. The release of lysosomal enzymes was studied by analysing the activities of ß-glucuronidase, ß-N-acetyl- glucosaminidase, ß-galactosidase and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase in bone expiants and culture media. The release of non-lysosomal enzymes was followed by assaying the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in the expiants as well as the media. In addition glucose consumption and lactate production was registered.

    The findings may be summarized as follows:1. cAMP and PDE-inhibitors have the capacity to inhibit the initial stages of spontaneous as well as PTH- PGE1- and PGE2-stimulated bone resorption.

    2. cAMP and PDE-inhibitors produce after a lag period, or a period of reduced bone resorption, a stimulatory effect on bone resorption.

    3. There is a significant correlation between bone resorption and lysosomal enzyme release both as regards the inhibitory and stimulatory effect of cAMP.

    4. PGE2 and la (OH) D3 increase the release of lysosomal enzymes in parallel with bone resorption.

    5. Bone resorption stimulated by cAMP and PGE2 is associated with increased glucose consumption and lactate production, while la (OH) D3 promotes bone resorption without any change with regard to these parameters of glucose metabolism.

    It is concluded that the initial stages of bone resorption stimulated by PTH, PGE1 and PGE2 is medited by cAMP-independent mechanisms, but that this nucleotide may be an intracellular mediator of these hormones of later stages of bone resorption. It is suggested that the role played by cAMP may be related to the capacity of PTH and PGE2 to develop new osteoclasts. The observations further support the concept that lysosomal enzyme release is intimately associated with bone resorption. Finally it is concluded that increased lactate production seems to be related to bone resorption stimulated by agents which increase the level of cAMP (PTH, PGE2, dbcAMP), but that it is not an indispensible part of the mechanism by which the osteoclasts solubilize bone mineral.

  • Akmete, A.
    et al.
    METU, Ankara, Turkey..
    Alexandrov, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Anokhina, A.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Aoki, S.
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Atkin, E.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Azorskiy, N.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Back, J. J.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick, England..
    Bagulya, A.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Baranov, A.
    Yandex Sch Data Anal, Moscow, Russia..
    Barker, G. J.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick, England..
    Bay, A.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Bayliss, V.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Bencivenni, G.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Berdnikov, A. Y.
    St Petersburg Polytech Univ SPbPU, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Berdnikov, Y. A.
    St Petersburg Polytech Univ SPbPU, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Bertani, M.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Betancourt, C.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bezshyiko, I.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bezshyyko, O.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Bick, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Bieschke, S.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Coimbra, LIP, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Boehm, J.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Bogomilov, M.
    Sofia Univ, Fac Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Bondarenko, K.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Bonivento, W. M.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Boyarsky, A.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Breton, D.
    Univ Paris Sud 11, CNRS, IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Brundler, R.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bruschi, M.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Buscher, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Mainz, Germany..
    Buonaura, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Buontempo, S.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Cadeddu, S.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Calcaterra, A.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Campanelli, M.
    UCL, London, England..
    Chauveau, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, LPNHE,Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France..
    Chepurnov, A.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Chernyavsky, M.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Choi, K. -Y
    Chumakov, A.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile.;Ctr Cient Tecnol Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Ciambrone, P.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Dallavalle, G. M.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    D'Ambrosio, N.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;INFN Gran Sasso, Lab Nazl, Laquila, Italy..
    D'Appollonio, G.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    De Lellis, G.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy..
    De Roeck, A.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    De Serio, M.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Dedenko, L.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Di Crescenzo, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Di Marco, N.
    INFN Gran Sasso, Lab Nazl, Laquila, Italy..
    Dib, C.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile.;Ctr Cient Tecnol Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Dijkstra, H.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Dmitrenko, V.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Domenici, D.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Donskov, S.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Dubreuil, A.
    Univ Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Ebert, J.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Enik, T.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Etenko, A.
    Kurchatov Inst, Natl Res Ctr, Moscow, Russia..
    Fabbri, F.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Fabbri, L.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy..
    Fedin, O.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, PNPI, Gatchina, Russia..
    Fedorova, G.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Felici, G.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Ferro-Luzzi, M.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Fini, R. A.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Fonte, P.
    Univ Coimbra, LIP, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Franco, C.
    Univ Coimbra, LIP, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Fukuda, T.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Galati, G.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy..
    Gavrilov, G.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Gerlach, S.
    Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany..
    Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Golubkov, D.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    Golutvin, A.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Gorbunov, D.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Gorbunov, S.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Gorkavenko, V.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Gornushkin, Y.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Gorshenkov, M.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow, Russia..
    Grachev, V.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Graverini, E.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Grichine, V.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Guler, A. M.
    METU, Ankara, Turkey..
    Guz, Yu.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Hagner, C.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Hakobyan, H.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile.;Ctr Cient Tecnol Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile..
    van Herwijnen, E.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Hollnagel, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Hosseini, B.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Hushchyn, M.
    Yandex Sch Data Anal, Moscow, Russia..
    Iaselli, G.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Iuliano, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Jacobsson, R.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Jonker, M.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Kadenko, I.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Kamiscioglu, C.
    Ankara Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kamiscioglu, M.
    METU, Ankara, Turkey..
    Khabibullin, M.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Khaustov, G.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Khotyantsev, A.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Kim, S. H.
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, Jinju, South Korea..
    Kim, V.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, PNPI, Gatchina, Russia.;St Petersburg Polytech Univ SPbPU, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Kim, Y. G.
    Gwangju Natl Univ Educ, Gwangju, South Korea..
    Kitagawa, N.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Ko, J. -W
    Kodama, K.
    Aichi Univ Educ, Kariya, Aichi, Japan..
    Kolesnikov, A.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Kolev, D. I.
    Sofia Univ, Fac Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Kolosov, V.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Komatsu, M.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Konovalova, N.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Korkmaz, M. A.
    METU, Ankara, Turkey..
    Korol, I.
    Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany..
    Korol'ko, I.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    Korzenev, A.
    Univ Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Kovalenko, S.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile.;Ctr Cient Tecnol Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Krasilnikova, I.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow, Russia..
    Krivova, K.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Kudenko, Y.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia.;Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Kurochka, V.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Kuznetsova, E.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, PNPI, Gatchina, Russia..
    Lacker, H. M.
    Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany..
    Lai, A.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Lanfranchi, G.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Lantwin, O.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Lauria, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Lebbolo, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, LPNHE,Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France..
    Lee, K. Y.
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, Jinju, South Korea..
    Levy, J. -M
    Lopes, L.
    Univ Coimbra, LIP, Coimbra, Portugal..
    Lyubovitskij, V.
    Univ Tecn Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile.;Ctr Cient Tecnol Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Maalmi, J.
    Univ Paris Sud 11, CNRS, IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Magnan, A.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Maleev, V.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, PNPI, Gatchina, Russia..
    Malinin, A.
    Kurchatov Inst, Natl Res Ctr, Moscow, Russia..
    Mefodev, A.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Mermod, P.
    Univ Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Mikado, S.
    Nihon Univ, Coll Ind Technol, Narashino, Chiba, Japan..
    Mikhaylov, Yu.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Milstead, D. A.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mineev, O.
    RAS, INR, Moscow, Russia..
    Montanari, A.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Montesi, M. C.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Morishima, K.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Movchan, S.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Naganawa, N.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Nakamura, M.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Nakano, T.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Novikov, A.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Obinyakov, B.
    Kurchatov Inst, Natl Res Ctr, Moscow, Russia..
    Ogawa, S.
    Toho Univ, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan..
    Okateva, N.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Owen, P. H.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Paoloni, A.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Park, B. D.
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, Jinju, South Korea..
    Paparella, L.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Pastore, A.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Patel, M.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Pereyma, D.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    Petrenko, D.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Petridis, K.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Podgrudkov, D.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Poliakov, V.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Polukhina, N.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia.;Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Prokudin, M.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    Prota, A.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Rademakers, A.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Ratnikov, F.
    Yandex Sch Data Anal, Moscow, Russia..
    Rawlings, T.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Razeti, M.
    Sez INFN Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Redi, F.
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Ricciardi, S.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Roganova, T.
    MSU, SINP, Moscow, Russia..
    Rogozhnikov, A.
    Yandex Sch Data Anal, Moscow, Russia..
    Rokujo, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Rosa, G.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Rovelli, T.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy..
    Ruchayskiy, O.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ruf, T.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Samoylenko, V.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, IHEP, Protvino, Russia..
    Saputi, A.
    INFN Frascati, Lab Nazl, Frascati, Italy..
    Sato, O.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Savchenko, E. S.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow, Russia..
    Schmidt-Parzefall, W.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Serra, N.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Shakin, A.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow, Russia..
    Shaposhnikov, M.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Shatalov, P.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    Shchedrina, T.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Shchutska, L.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Shevchenko, V.
    Kurchatov Inst, Natl Res Ctr, Moscow, Russia..
    Shibuya, H.
    Toho Univ, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan..
    Shustov, A.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Silverstein, S. B.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Simone, S.
    Sez INFN Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy..
    Skorokhvatov, M.
    Kurchatov Inst, Natl Res Ctr, Moscow, Russia.;Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Smirnov, S.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Sohn, J. Y.
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, Jinju, South Korea..
    Sokolenko, A.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Starkov, N.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Storaci, B.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Strolin, P.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Takahashi, S.
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Timiryasov, I.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Tioukov, V.
    Sez INFN Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Tosi, N.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Treille, D.
    European Org Nucl Res CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Tsenov, R.
    Sofia Univ, Fac Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria.;Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Ulin, S.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Ustyuzhanin, A.
    Yandex Sch Data Anal, Moscow, Russia..
    Uteshev, Z.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Vankova-Kirilova, G.
    Sofia Univ, Fac Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Vannucci, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, LPNHE,Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France..
    Venkova, P.
    Sofia Univ, Fac Phys, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Vilchinski, S.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Villa, M.
    Sez INFN Bologna, Bologna, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy..
    Vlasik, K.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Volkov, A.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Voronkov, R.
    PN Lebedev Phys Inst LPI, Moscow, Russia..
    Wanke, R.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Mainz, Germany..
    Woo, J. -K
    Wurm, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Mainz, Germany..
    Xella, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Yilmaz, D.
    Ankara Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Yilmazer, A. U.
    Ankara Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Yoon, C. S.
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, Jinju, South Korea..
    Zaytsev, Yu.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, ITEP, Moscow, Russia..
    The active muon shield in the SHiP experiment2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, P05011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SHiP experiment is designed to search for very weakly interacting particles beyond the Standard Model which are produced in a 400 GeV/c proton beam dump at the CERN SPS. An essential task for the experiment is to keep the Standard Model background level to less than 0.1 event after 2 x 10(20) protons on target. In the beam dump, around 10(11) muons will be produced per second. The muon rate in the spectrometer has to be reduced by at least four orders of magnitude to avoid muon-induced combinatorial background. A novel active muon shield is used to magnetically deflect the muons out of the acceptance of the spectrometer. This paper describes the basic principle of such a shield, its optimization and its performance.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-03 10:00 Jordan-Fermi, J402, Fysikhuset ing 57, Linköping
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Study of novel electronic materials by mid-infraredand terahertz optical Hall effect2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of silicon based electronics have revolutionized our every day life during the last three decades. Nowadays Si based devices operate close to their theoretical limits that is becoming a bottleneck for further progress. In particular, for the growing field of high frequency and high power electronics, Si cannot offer the required properties. Development of materials capable of providing high current densities, carrier mobilities and high breakdown fields is crucial for a progress in state of the art electronics.

    Epitaxial graphene grown on semi-insulating silicon carbide substrates has a high potential to be integrated in the current planar device technologies. High electron mobilities and sheet carrier densities make graphene extremely attractive for high frequency analog applications. One of the remaining challenges is the interaction of epitaxial graphene with the substrate. Typically, much lower free charge carrier mobilities, compared to free standing graphene, and doping, due to charge transfer from the substrate, is reported. Thus, a good understanding of the intrinsic free charge carriers properties and the factors affecting them is very important for further development of epitaxial graphene.

    III-group nitrides have been extensively studied and already have proven their high efficiency as light sources for short wavelengths. High carrier mobilities and breakdown electric fields were demonstrated for III-group nitrides, making them attractive for high frequency and high power applications. Currently, In-rich InGaN alloys and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures are of high interest for the research community due to open fundamental questions.

    Electrical characterization techniques, commonly used for the determination of free charge carrier properties, require good ohmic and Schottky contacts, which in certain cases can be difficult to achieve. Access to electrical properties of buried conductive channels in multilayered structures requires modification of samples and good knowledge of the electrical properties of all electrical contact within the structure. Moreover, the use of electrical contacts to electrically characterize two-dimensional electronic materials, such as graphene, can alter their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, the determination of effective mass parameters commonly employs cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measurements, which require long scattering times of free charge carriers, high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

    The optical Hall effect is an external magnetic field induced optical anisotropy in  conductive layers due to the motion of the free charge carriers under the influence of the Lorentz force, and is equivalent to the electrical Hall effect at optical frequencies. The optical Hall effect can be measured by generalized ellipsometry and provides a powerful method for the determination of free charge carrier properties in a non-destructive and contactless manner. In principle, a single optical Hall effect measurement can provide quantitative information about free charge carrier types, concentrations, mobilities and effective mass parameters at temperatures ranging from few kelvins to room temperature and above. Further, it was demonstrated that for transparent samples, a backside cavity can be employed to enhance the optical Hall effect.

    Measurement of the optical Hall effect by generalized ellipsometry is an indirect technique requiring subsequent data analysis. Parameterized optical models are fitted to match experimentally measured ellipsometric data by varying physically significant parameters. Analysis of the optical response of samples, containing free charge carriers, employing optical models based on the classical Drude model, which is augmented with an external magnetic field contribution, provide access to the free charge carrier properties.

    The main research results of the graduate studies presented in this licentiate thesis are summarized in the five scientific papers.

    Paper I. Description of the custom-built terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopic ellipsometer at Linköping University. The terahertz ellipsometer capabilities are demonstrated by an accurate determination of the isotropic and anisotropic refractive indices of silicon and m-plane sapphire, respectively. Further, terahertz optical Hall effect measurements of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures were employed to extract the two-dimensional electron gas sheet density, mobility and effective mass parameters. Last, in-situ optical Hall effect measurement on epitaxial graphene in a gas cell with controllable environment, were used to study the effects of environmental doping on the mobility and carrier concentration.

    Paper II. Presents terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements of the monolayer and multilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed p-type doping for monolayer graphene with a carrier density in the low 1012 cm−2 range and a carrier mobility of 1550 cm2/V·s. For the multilayer epitaxial graphene, n-type doping with a carrier density in the low 1013 cm−2 range, a mobility of 470 cm2/V·s and an effective mass of (0.14 ± 0.03) m0 were extracted. The measurements demonstrate that cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements can be applied to study electronic properties of two-dimensional materials.

    Paper III. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements are employed to study anisotropic transport in as-grown monolayer, quasi free-standing monolayer and quasi free-standing bilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed a strong anisotropy in the carrier mobilities of the quasi freestanding bilayer graphene. The anisotropy is demonstrated to be induced by carriers scattering at the step edges of the SiC, by showing that the mobility is higher along the step than across them. The scattering mechanism is discussed based on the results of the optical Hall effect, low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction and Raman measurements.

    Paper IV. Mid-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are employed to determine the electron effective mass in an In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. The data analysis reveals slightly anisotropic effective mass and carrier mobility parameters together with the optical phonon frequencies and broadenings.

    Paper V. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements are employed to study the free charge carrier properties in a set of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures with modified interfaces. The results show that the interface structure has a significant effect on the free charge carrier mobility and that the sample with a sharp interface between an AlGaN barrier and a GaN buffer layers exhibits a record mobility of 2332±73 cm2/V·s. The determined effective mass parameters showed an increase compared to the GaN value, that is attributed the the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the AlGaN barrier layer.

  • Wiberg, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Mitochondrial monoamine oxidase: studies on its activity in some psychiatric diseases1978Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monoamine oxidase (E.C.I.4.3.4) (MAO) oxidatively deaminates the biogenic amines normally present in the organism. The activities of the neurons utilizing these amines i.e. noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of various psychiatric diseases. It is speculated that the MAO activity is changed as well as the monoaminergic activity in some psychiatric disorders.

    In the present thesis the MAO activity has been studied in brain tissue and in platelets in some psychiatric disorders. The result was as follows:MAO activities in different parts of the human brain seem to be highly intercorrelated in each individual. The brain MAO activity is also weakly correlated both to the concentration of 5-HT and of 5-HIAA, which may indicate that the MAO activity reflects the serotoninergic turnover in the brain.

    The MAO activity in brains from 15 suicides was compared to a control material of 20 individuals without known mental disorders, and it was found to be lower in the suicides in all 13 analysed brain parts. As eight of the patients had been chronic alcoholics, they were excluded and the remaining seven non-alcoholic suicides were tested as regards MAO activity by analysis of variance and still found to have significantly lower MAO activity than the controls.

    The eight chronic alcoholics in the suicide series had the most significantly (p<0.005) reduction of the MAO activity as compared to the control group.

    Rats were given chronic treatments with ethanol, either by 10 °/o ethanol as the only water supply or by exposition to ethanol vapor twice a day. In neither of these cases was the brain MAO activity changed as compared to control rats. The result supports the hypothesis that the low MAO activity found in alcoholic suicides most likely is related to a constitutional factor and not to a direct effect of the ethanol intake.

    Platelet MAO activity was found to be significantly reduced in human alcoholics as compared to matched controls.

    If samples were drawn from the alcoholic patients during their abstinence phase, there could be seen a transitory rise in the platelet MAO activity. This increased activity had its maximum after two weeks, and after four weeks the MAO activity had returned to the initial, low level.

    No difference as regards MAO activity, neither in brain tissue nor in platelets, could be registered when chronic schizophrenics were compared to matched controls.

    Reduced brain MAO activity was found in a group of patients diagnosed as cycloid psychoses when comparing the activity to controls or to the schizophrenic patients.

    The platelet MAO activity was also found to be lower in cycloid psychoses than in a group of unipolar affective psychoses, who repeatedly have been found not to differ from normals.

    These findings suggest that low MAO activities in brain and platelets reflect a phychic constitution in the individual making him more vulnerable for suicidal behaviour, ethanol abuse or cycloid psychosis.

  • Chandran, Salesh P.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;St Johns Res Inst, Div Infect Dis, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.;RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Microbiol, Agar Rd, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Sarkar, Samarpita
    St Johns Res Inst, Div Infect Dis, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Diwan, Vishal
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Publ Hlth & Environm, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Pathak, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Pediat, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Shah, Harshada
    RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Microbiol, Agar Rd, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Tamhankar, Ashok J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden.;RD Gardi Med Coll, Indian Initiat Management Antibiot Resistance, Dept Environm Med, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Macaden, Ragini
    St Johns Res Inst, Div Infect Dis, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Stalsby-Lundborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Detection of virulence genes in ESBL producing, quinolone resistant commensal Escherichia coli from rural Indian children2017In: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, ISSN 2036-6590, E-ISSN 1972-2680, Vol. 11, no 5, 387-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing commensal Escherichia coli are considered as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes that may be transmitted in the community. This study aimed to determine the genes coding for ESBLs, plasmid mediated quinolone resistance and virulence markers in commensal E. coli isolated from healthy school children. Methodology: ESBL producing E. coli isolates (n = 47) were obtained from 529 fecal samples of healthy school children from a rural area in central India. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the genes coding for cephalosporin and quinolone resistance, for virulence fluA, fluB, stx1, stx2, eae, bfp, lt, stII, virF, ipaH, daaE, aafII and phylogenetic groups. Results: Of the 47 ESBL producing E. coli, 41 were positive for CTXM-15, 23 for TEM-1, 8 for OXA-1and a single for SHV-12. For plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, all the 47 isolates carried the aac(6')-ib-cr gene, and amongst them18 were qnrS positive. Virulence gene, fluA was detected in 32, whereas eae in 14, daaE in 7 and fluB in 1. In 10 isolates, fluA and eae and in 7, fluA and daaE co-existed. Of the 47 E. coli isolates, 18 were grouped into the phylogenetic group B2, 17 in D and 12 in A. The proportion of isolates positive for fluA gene in the phylogenetic group B2 (18/18), was significantly higher than in group A (7/12) and D (6/17). Conclusion: Commensal E. coli in healthy children in rural India may serve as reservoirs of resistance towards cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and virulence coding genes for urinary tract and diarrheal infections.

  • Brännäs, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Studies in Biology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of abiotic and biotic factors on hatching, emergence and survival in Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.)1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with important factors that affect the temporal organization of emergence and early survival of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The study population was obtained from the Norrfors hatchery (63°50'N,20°05'E), Umeälven (Urne river) in Northern Sweden. The main objectives of the thesis has been to study; a: the effect of female and egg characteristics on embryonic survival, b: the effect of egg size, temperature and photoperiod on the emergence pattern and c: the impact of early or late emergence on survival in relation to predation and limited territorial space.

    The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Fecundity and egg size increased with increasing weight of females. No effect of female size were found on egg colour. Longer impoundment and later stripping increase egg colour. Egg mortality was not correlated with egg colour. Stripping date was found to have the strongest effect on mortality. (2) Egg size had no effect on the timing of emergence but fry of different egg size emerged synchronously. Fry from large eggs left the gravel as heavier fry and with a larger proportion of yolk left compared to fry from small eggs. (3) The number of days and number of degree days from hatching to 50% emergence decreased exponentially with increasing temperature. Synchronization of emergence increased with increasing temperature. Fry emerged with more yolk at 12 °C compared to 6 °C. (4) Eggs kept in a LD 16:8 light regime hatched mainly during the light period, while eggs kept in constant darkness hatched continously over a 24 hour period. Alevins kept at different light regimes (light>4h) from hatching until emergence left the gravel during the dark period. Daylength had no effect on the annual onset of emergence. (5) In a laboratory stream channel, predator presence at emergence increased mortality especially in early emerging fry. If the predator was introduced after completed emergence high mortality was noted among late emerging fry. The presence of fish predators and a limited territorial space for fry seemed to make early and late emergence hazardous and to favour a "peak" emergence. In the presence of a predator the fry changed their behaviour by reducing their swimming activity.

  • Ekholm, Ulla-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Premenstrual syndrome: a study of change in cyclicity, severity and sexuality1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    82 women seeking help for the Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were successively recruited into a research project on PMS. All of them performed daily self-ratings during one menstrual cycle and 54 of them during two cycles.

    Including the patients with two rated cycles the change between cycles in cyclicity and preovulatory symptoms was studied. They were diagnosed and subgrouped as having ”Pure PMS” with significant cyclicity and only premenstrual symptoms, ”PM aggravation” with significant cyclicity but with additional preovulatory symptoms or ”Non-PMS” without cyclicity. 78% showed the same cyclical pattern in both cycles and 65% were allocated to the same subgroup. The presence or absence of preovulatory symptoms was a more stable factor than the occurence of cyclicity. The cycle more resembling an ”ideal PMS pattern” better separated groups of patients regarding neurotic personality and psychiatric history.

    When all 54 patients were investigated together there was no change in severity between the two cycles when the whole cycles were compared, and using the premenstrual phase only difference in one symptom. When divided into subgroups it was found that the ”Pure PMS” group felt worse during the first rated cycle while the ”PM aggravation” group felt better during the first cycle.

    A method for estimating the severity of PMS was developed and tried. A severity-score was calculated and ± 1 SD was used to subdivide the patients into severity-groups giving 20% classified as having mild PMS, 61% as moderate and 19% as severe. The symptoms with the highest correlation to the severity-score were anxiety, tension and irritability.

    The validity of the severity-score was studied by comparing it with other ways of estimating severity of PMS. There was very good agreement between the severity-score and the prospective rating of influence on family, work and social life, fairly good between the result of a Moos Menstrual Distress Questionaire (MDQ) and the severity-score and also between the retrospective rating of influence and the severity-score. There was good agreement when the severity-score from two rated cycles was compared.

    Sexual parameters and the relationship to androgen levels and SHBG were studied. All sexual parameters showed cyclical change except the parameter ”unpleasant sexual thoughts” in the group with high levels of androstenedione, testosterone and SHBG when using combined p-value. The patients with a low level of androstenedione had more days with maximum ratings of the parameters ”sexual feelings” and ”pleasant sexual thoughts”. Patients with ”Pure PMS” had a lower level of testosterone compared with the ”PM aggravation” group.

    Four different methods for diagnosis of PMS, a nonparametric test, effect size, run test and 30% change were compared. Results showed high agreement except for the method of using 30% of the scale as condition for cyclicity, which resulted in fewer patients with cyclicity than the other methods used.

  • Strand, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stroke: patient characteristics, efficacy of a stroke unit and evaluation of hemodilution therapy1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a major health problem in all developed countries. These studies, performed in a stroke unit at a medical department, were designed to characterize essential clinical features of the different cerebrovascular disorders on admission to hospital, to evaluate the efficacy of admitting unselected stroke patients to a stroke unit and, to evaluate hemodilution as a therapeutical regime in patients with cerebral infarction.

    A prospective registry included 409 patients admitted to the stroke unit over a five-year period. Modern diagnostic equipment (CT scan and CSF analyses) and strict diagnostic criteria revealed a diagnostic distribution of 11% hemorrhagic, 76% ischemic cerebrovascular lesions and 13% TIAs. Mean age varied between 65.8 and 77.5 years in the various diagnostic groups with the highest in patients with embolic cerebral infarctions. Concomitant disorders affecting the cardiovascular system were highly prevalent and only 14% was free of such diseases prior to the stroke.

    In a comparative prospective study, over 16 months, no differences were found between patients treated in the stroke unit (n = 110) and the general medical wards (n = 183) regarding prognostic indicators on admission such as age, concomitant disorders and neurological symptoms. The stroke patients treated in the stroke unit had a statistically significant better prognosis regarding functional outcome and the need for long-term hospitalization was reduced up to one year after the stroke when compared to patients treated in general medical wards. All stroke patients seemed to benefit with the possible exception of patients in coma on admission. These results were achieved within the same or shorter length of initial hospital stay for patients in the stroke unit. Neither overall mortality, nor mortality in subgroups of prognostic importance was significantly affected by the stroke unit regime. Rapid hemodilution in the early phase of cerebral infarction by the combination of venesection and administration of dextran 40 was evaluated in a prospective controlled trial. After randomization 52 hemodi- luted and 50 control patients were comparable in prognostic variables. Signs of blood-brain-barrier breakdown and hemorrhagic admixture to the cerebrospinal fluid in the acute phase were less frequent in hemodiluted subjects. The hemodi luted patients showed a significantly higher degree of early improvement and fewer progressions. Neurological and functional disability in survivors and need for long-term hospitalization was significantly reduced at 3 months and at one year after the stroke compared to controls. Mortality was not affected.

  • Olsson, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Vortex fluctuations in superconductors1992Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vortex fluctuations have proved to be responsible for the onset of dissipation in thin type-II superconducting Aims. There is also growing evidence that dissipation in high- temperature superconductors exhibits the same kind of two-dimensional (2D) behavior. However, a proper analysis of these materials requires a thorough understanding of the two-dimensional fluctuations.

    This thesis may be considered to consist of two parts. The first is concerned with two models that have often been used as models for 2D superconductors, the 2D Coulomb gas and the 2D XY model. The second part contains analyses related to high-temperature sup er conductivity.

    Through analysis of some renormalization equations for the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition, it is shown that the region governed by the KT critical behavior is very small and only applies at very low values for the flux-flow resistance. It is concluded that this critical behavior not is observable in superconductors, and, furthermore, that the only available method to test for 2D fluctuations at the onset of resistance, is through comparison with the 2D resistance scaling function.

    The critical temperature for the 2D XY model is determined by means of a finite- size scaling relation for the helicity modulus. The linearly screened potential in the XY model is written in terms of a correlation function. The analogy to the 2D Coulomb gas is found to be exact with a temperature-dependent bare interaction and a new expression for vorticity. It is also demonstrated that the Coulomb gas scaling concept may be applied to XY-type models.

    An analysis of resistance data for YBCO/PBCO superlattices in terms of the 2D resistance scaling function gives evidence for 2D behavior in the cases with large separation of the superconducting layers. In the superlattices with stronger interlayer coupling, the crossover to three-dimensional behavior is seen as a deviation from the scaling function as Tc is approached from above.

    The anisotropic three-dimensional (3D) XY model is examined as a model for high- temperature superconductors. It is shown that the density of vortices above Tc are closely equal in the anisotropic 3D model and the 2D model. This is taken as evidence that the 3D to 2D crossover found in the superlattices also is present in the anisotropic 3D XY model.

  • Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Digitalt skrivande i gymnasieskolans svenskundervisning: en ämnesdidaktisk studie av skrivprocessen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the writing process in the teaching of the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school. This study analyses the relations between the pupils’ writing and the school environment in which the writing takes place and how the pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classroom. The empirical material has been created in three classes at two different schools. The data consists of participant observations of 42 lessons, all of which were video recorded using two cameras, and audio recorded semi-structured interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers. Theoretically, the study is based on sociocultural perspectives on literacy and learning and a multimodal social semiotic understanding of meaning-making based on an interest in the use of resources that constitute meaning in the social environment. From an ecological perspective, writing is examined as discourses in which the participants and the environment interact. Analytic concepts are used by inspiration from Kress et al (2005) and Smidt (2002). The figure “Writing roles in fields of tension” has been constructed to illustrate the students’ writing roles and positioning's in the empirical material. The results show that the shift from paper and pen to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. The teaching of digital writing has a point of departure as a project in communication. In multimodal environments, pupils are often left without access to a teacher due to the layout of the room. This leads to positioning in roles, such as help seeker and helper. The classrooms are characterised by the constant presence of social media and its demands on students’ attention. Earlier generations of writing processes emphasised the importance of prewriting, drafting and revision in stages. In the digital writing process these stages are lacking. In this context, the digital writing process can be understood as a “fourth generation process” consisting of writing, saving and sending. The fourth generation of writing process stresses on the writing at a micro- rather than macro level. The word processing functions of spelling and grammar offer clickable solutions to problems, but cannot be considered as tools for learning. In the digital classroom pupils are vulnerable, left to their own resources and have difficulties in handling complex assignments.

  • Bergman, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The distribution and concentration of zinc and the effects of zinc deficiency in the mammalian body: some experiments in mice and rats with special reference to mandibular condyle and some other skeletal tissues1970Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis constitutes a summary of the following series of studies:

    I Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of zinc-65 in mice.In collaboration with Rune Söremark. The Journal of Nutrition 94,6, 1968.

    II Comparative study of distribution of injected zinc 65 in the mandibularcondyle and other tissues in rat as determined by gammascintillation. Acta Radiologica, Therapy Physics Biology 1970. Preprint.

    III Concentration of zinc in some hard and soft tissues of rat determinedby neutron activation analysis. Acta Radiologica, TherapyPhysics Biology 1970. Preprint.

    IV The distribution of 65Zn in the endochondral growth sites of themandibular condyle and the proximal end of the tibia in youngrats.—An autoradiographic and gamma scintillation study. OdontologiskRevy, 1970. Preprint.

    V Morphologic and autoradiographic observations on the effect ofzinc deficiency on endochondral growth sites in the white rat. Incollaboration with Ulf Friberg, Stefan Lohmander and TorstenÖberg. Odontologisk Revy, 1970. Preprint.

    VI The zinc concentration in hard and soft tissues of the rat. Theinfluence of zinc deficient feeding. Acta odontologica Scandinavica,1970. Preprint.

    These studies will be referred to in the following by the appropriateRoman numerals.Berlingska Boktryckeriet,

  • Public defence: 2017-11-03 09:00 Originalet, Qulturum, Hus B4, Jönköping
    Nordenfelt, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hereditary Angioedema in Sweden: a National Project2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency, type I and II, is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 1/50,000. Angioedema in the larynx can be life threatening and angioedema in the abdomen and skin can give severe and disabling pain. Data on patients with HAE in Sweden were scarce before our study.

    Aim: To study the prevalence of HAE, and to investigate clinical manifestations, treatments, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) in adults and children in Sweden.

    Method: In studies, I and II, all patients received a written questionnaire followed by a phone interview with questions about clinical manifestations, medication, sick leave and QoL. In study III the patients completed EuroQol 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires for both the attack-free state (EQ5D today), and the last HAE attack (EQ5D attack). Questions were also asked about sick-leave. In study IV all adults received questionnaires with EQ-5D-5L and RAND-36, Angioedema Quality of Life instrument (AE-QoL), and Angioedema Activity Score (AAS) form, and questionnaires on sick leave and prophylactic medication.

    Results: We identified 146 patients, 110 adults and 36 children with HAE, type I (n=136) or II (n=10), giving a minimal HAE prevalence of 1.54/100,000. For adults, the median age at onset of symptoms was 12 years and median age at diagnosis was 22 years. Median age at onset of symptoms for children was 4 years and at diagnosis 3 years. During the previous year, 47% of adults experienced at least 12 attacks, 21% 4-11 attacks, 11% 1-3 attacks, while 22% were asymptomatic. For children, the corresponding figures were about the same. The median number of attacks in those having attacks was 14 in adults and 6 in children last year. Adult females reported on average 19 attacks the previous year versus nine for males. Irrespective of location nine out of 10 reported pain. Trigger factors were experienced in 95 % of adults and 74 % of children. Plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate (pdC1INH) had a very good effect on acute attacks. Long-term prophylaxis with androgens and pdC1INH reduced the annual attack frequency by more than 50 %. Of the children’s parents, 73% had been on parental leave to care for the child due to HAE symptoms. Health and QoL were generally rated as good. In study III 103 of 139 responded and reported an EQ5D today score that was significantly higher than the EQ5D attack score. Attack frequency had a negative effect on EQ5D today. Children had significantly higher EQ-5D-5L than adults. Forty four percent had been absent from work or school during the latest attack. In study IV 64 of 133 adults responded. The most affected HR-QoL dimensions in EQ-5D-5L were pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, in RAND-36 energy/fatigue, general health, health transition, pain, and in AE-QoL fears/shame and fatigue/mood. Females had significantly lower HR-QoL in RAND-36 for general health and energy/fatigue. There was an association between AAS and EQ-5D-5L/RAND-36 (except physical function) /AEQoL. There was no significant difference in HR-QoL in patients with and without prophylactic medication.

    Conclusion: The minimal prevalence of HAE type I and II in Sweden is 1.54/100,000. Median age at onset was 12 years. Adult females had twice as many attacks as males, adults had also twice as many attacks as children. For acute treatment, pdC1INH had a very good effect. For long term prophylaxis, androgens and pdC1INH had good effect. The most affected HR-QoL dimensions in EQ-5D-5L were pain/discomfort and anxiety/ depression, in RAND-36 energy/fatigue, general health, health transition and pain, and in AE-QoL fears/shame and fatigue/mood. Children reported better HR-QoL than adults. AE-QoL is more disease-specific in HAE than the generic instruments EQ-5D-5L and RAND-36. However, the latter highlights the pain aspect, whereas AE-QoL does not. Patients with high disease activity should thus be considered for more intensive treatment to improve their HR-QoL.

  • Arvidsson, Per I.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sci Life Lab, Drug Discovery & Dev Platform, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Translat Med & Chem Biol, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Catalysis & Peptide Res Unit, Durban, South Africa..
    Sandberg, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sakariassen, Kjell S.
    KellSa Sas, Str Campo & Zampe 12, I-13900 Biella, BI, Italy..
    Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab2017In: FUTURE SCIENCE OA, ISSN 2056-5623, Vol. 3, no 2, FSO176Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-17 13:00 Ada Lovelace, B House, Linköping
    Jogenfors, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Breaking the Unbreakable: Exploiting Loopholes in Bell’s Theorem to Hack Quantum Cryptography2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study device-independent quantum key distribution based on energy-time entanglement. This is a method for cryptography that promises not only perfect secrecy, but also to be a practical method for quantum key distribution thanks to the reduced complexity when compared to other quantum key distribution protocols. However, there still exist a number of loopholes that must be understood and eliminated in order to rule out eavesdroppers. We study several relevant loopholes and show how they can be used to break the security of energy-time entangled systems. Attack strategies are reviewed as well as their countermeasures, and we show how full security can be re-established.

    Quantum key distribution is in part based on the profound no-cloning theorem, which prevents physical states to be copied at a microscopic level. This important property of quantum mechanics can be seen as Nature's own copy-protection, and can also be used to create a currency based on quantummechanics, i.e., quantum money. Here, the traditional copy-protection mechanisms of traditional coins and banknotes can be abandoned in favor of the laws of quantum physics. Previously, quantum money assumes a traditional hierarchy where a central, trusted bank controls the economy. We show how quantum money together with a blockchain allows for Quantum Bitcoin, a novel hybrid currency that promises fast transactions, extensive scalability, and full anonymity.

  • Kumlien, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Studies on peroxidase activity and iodine metabolism in salivary glands1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a summary of the following publications:

    I. Iodine metabolism and peroxidase activity in salivaryglands. Acta Endocrinologica 70 (1972) 239.

    II. Cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in thesubmandibular salivary gland ot the hamster. Histochemie22 (1970) 294. (In collaboration with G.D. Bloomand B.Carlsöö).

    III. A comparative histochemical study of peroxidase activityin the submandibular glands of five mammalian speciesincluding man. Histochemie 26 (1971) 80. (In collaborationwith G.D. Bloom and B. Carlsöö).

    IV. Iodide accumulation and peroxidase activity in the submandibularsalivary gland of the normal and castrated malehamster. Archives of Oral Biology (In press). (In collaborationwith G.D. Bloom and B. Carlsöö.)

    V. A method for radiosialometry: Studies on salivary secretion,iodide-concentrating ability, and iodide clearance ofthe parotid and submandibular glands in man. Archives ofOral Biology (In press). (In collaboration with A. Wiberg.)

    In the following discussion the papers will be referred to bythe Roman numerals I—V.

  • Brönnestam, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Polymorphism of the human complement component C3- genetic and immunological aspects1973Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic polymorphism is by definition the occurrence inthe same population of two or more alleles at one locus,each with a frequency high enough not to be maintained byrecurrent mutation only (1). Among the human plasmaproteins two major categories of polymorphism have beendescribed, allotypic and electrophoretic heterogeneity.Allotypy is defined by Oudin as individual antigenic differencesamong proteins within a species (2). The firstdiscovered polymorphism of this category was the Gm systemof immunoglobulin G by Grubb (3). The first describedelectrophoretic heterogeneity in plasma proteins was theHp (haptoglobin) system discovered by Smithies (4). Sincethen genetic variants of several other human plasma proteinshave been found. This dissertation is concerned with thegenetic and immunological aspects of the polymorphism ofthe third component of human complement, C3.

  • Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rytterstrom, Patrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 5, 301-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. Results: The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Conclusion: Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-31 12:09 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Osman, Ayman
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Autophagy in Peripheral Neuropathy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral neuropathy includes a wide range of diseases affecting millions around the world, and many of these diseases have unknown etiology. Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes represents a large proportion of peripheral neuropathies. Nerve damage can also be caused by trauma. Peripheral neuropathies are a significant clinical problem and efficient treatments are largely lacking. In the case of a transected nerve, different methods have been used to repair or reconstruct the nerve, including the use of nerve conduits, but functional recovery is usually poor.

    Autophagy, a cellular mechanism that recycles damaged proteins, is impaired in the brain in many neurodegenerative diseases affecting animals and humans. No research, however, has investigated the presence of autophagy in the human peripheral nervous system. In this study, I present the first structural evidence of autophagy in human peripheral nerves. I also show that the density of autophagy structures is higher in peripheral nerves of patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and inflammatory neuropathy than in controls. The density of these structures increases with the severity of the neuropathy.

    In animal model, using Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with diabetes resembling human type 2 diabetes, activation of autophagy by local administration of rapamycin incorporated in collagen conduits that were used for reconnection of the transected sciatic nerve led to an increase in autophagy proteins LC3 and a decrease in p62 suggesting that the autophagic flux was activated. In addition, immunoreactivity of neurofilaments, which are parts of the cytoskeleton of axons, was increased indicating increased axonal regeneration. I also show that many proteins involved in axonal regeneration and cell survival were up-regulated by rapamycin in the injured sciatic nerve of GK rats four weeks after injury.

    Taken together, these findings provide new knowledge about the involvement of autophagy in neuropathy and after peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction using collagen conduits.

  • Lundgren, Erik
    Amino acid naphthylamidase isozymes in human cells grown in vitro: Hormonal regulation and isozyme differentiation in cancer cells and normal cells1972Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The elucidation of regulatory mechanisms in higher organisms representsa front line problem in biochemical genetics. In Man the only material availablefor experimental studies of regulatory mechanisms is cells culturedin vitro. Enzymes which are differentiated into isozymes may have a complexgenetic background involving the action of more than one gene locus. Thestudy of isozyme systems in cultured cells has developed into a valuabletool of increasing importance for the understanding of the genetic regulatorymechanisms in normal cells as well as in cancer cells.

    The purposes of this investigation were:1. to elucidate the isozyme differentiation of amino acid naphthylamidasein cultured human cancer cells and normal cells.

    2. to study the regulatory effects of steroid hormones especially hydrocortisoneon the levels of the different isozymes.

  • Dahlén, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    The Pre-beta1 lipoprotein phenomenon in relation to serum cholesteroland triglyceride levels, the Lp(a) lipoprotein and coronary heartdisease1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present publication is based on the following papers:

    I Dahlen, G., Ericson, C. & Furberg, C.: Electrophoresis oflipoproteins on cellulose acetate membrane. Acta med. scand. ,Suppl. 531: 5, 1972.

    II Dahlén, G. , Ericson, C. , Furberg, C. , Lundkvist, L. &Svärdsudd, K. : Angina of effort and an extra pre-beta lipoproteinfraction. Acta med. scand. Suppl. 531: 1 1, 1972.

    III Dahlen, G., Ericson, C., Furberg, C., Lundkvist, L. &:Svärdsudd, K. : Familial occurrence of an extra pre-beta lipoproteinfraction. Acta med. scand. Suppl. 531: 17., 1972.

    IV Dahlén, G., Ericson, C. & Furberg, C.: Variations in prebetalipoproteins after a test meal. Acta med. scand. Suppl.531: 21, 1972.

    V Dahlén, G., E ricson, C. &: Furberg, C. : Myocardial infarctionand an extra pre-beta lipoprotein fraction. Acta med. scand.,Suppl. 531: 25, 1972.

    VI Dahlén, G., Ericson, C. &: Ersson, N. O.: Total and freecholesterol in males revealing a pre-beta, lipoprotein fraction.Opusc. med. 18: 216, 1973.

    VII Dahlén, G., Berg, K., Ramberg, U-B. &: Tamm, A.: Lp(a)lipoprotein and pre-ß1-lipoprotein in young adults. Acta med.scand. 1974. In press.

    VIII Frick, M. H., Dahlén, G., Furberg, C., Ericson, C. &Wiljasalo, M. : Serum pre-ß1 lipoprotein fraction in coronaryatherosclerosis. Acta med. scand. 195: 337, 1974.

    IX Berg, K. , Dahlén, G. &; Frick, M. H. : Lp(a) lipoprotein and pre-ß1-lipoprotein in patients with coronary heart disease.Clinical Genetics, 1974. In press.

    X Dahlén, G. h Ericson, C. : Changes in lipid levels with age inmales with and without the pre-ß1-lipoprotein. Opusc. Med.19: 171, 1974.

    XI Dahlén, G., Berg, K., Gillnäs, T. h Ericson, C. : Lp(a)lipoprotein/pre-ß , -lipoprotein in Swedish middle-aged malesand in patients with coronary heart disease. Accepted for publicationin Clinical Genetics, 1974.

    These papers will be referred to in the text by their Roman numerals.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-24 13:00 F3, Stockholm
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Trade-off analysis of forest ecosystem services – A modelling approach2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest is a resource that is increasingly utilized for multiple purposes. The balance between resource and energy demands and the long-term capacity of ecosystems to support biodiversity and other ecosystem services is crucial. The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge on and to develop methods and tools for trade-offs and synergies analysis among forest ecosystem services based on different forest management policies.

    Paper I provides an overview of existing models for integrated energy-environment assessment. A literature review was conducted on assessment models and their ability to integrate energy with environmental aspects. Missing environmental aspects concern land use, landscapes and biodiversity. In Paper II a modelling framework was set up to link a landscape simulator with a habitat network model for integrated assessment of bioenergy feedstock and biodiversity related impacts in Kronoberg County. In Paper III we continued with the same management scenarios, while the analysis was expanded to five ecosystem services by developing the Landscape simulation and Ecological Assessment (LEcA) tool: industrial wood, bioenergy, forest carbon stock, recreation areas and habitat networks. In Paper IV we present two heuristic methods for spatial optimization – simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) – to find optimal solutions for allocating harvest activities, in order to minimize the impacts on habitat networks. In Paper V, as response to the findings in Paper I, we linked the energy model MESSAGE with our LEcA tool for ecosystem services assessment, in a study of Lithuania.

    We found trade-offs between industrial wood production and bioenergy on one side, and recreation values, biodiversity, and to some extent carbon storage on the other side. The LEcA tool integrated forest simulation and management with assessment of ecosystem services, which is promising for integrated sustainability assessment of forest management policies.

  • Lundström, Ulf
    Traditionella bruksbåtar i Västerbotten: om båttyper och deras gränser1998Book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-11-16 09:00 Granitsalen, Norra Entrén, Linköping
    Tiefenböck-Hansson, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    The impact of Survivin, WRAP53β, and Hypoxia on treatment response in Head and Neck Cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common histological type of cancer in the head and neck region and arises in the epithelial mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Approximately one and a half million people are living with the diagnosis. Despite efforts in prevention and advances in treatment, the 5-year survival rate still lies around 60%, and recurrences and second primary tumors remain a problem. Moreover, treatment responses vary from patient to patient, highlighting the need for individually tailored treatments. To make this possible, biomarkers predicting treatment outcome are needed to better guide treatment decisions.

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the expression of certain proteins and the frequency of certain SNPs (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) in tumor biopsies and cell cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and to explore their potential as biomarkers for treatment outcome. Furthermore, we aimed to study the impact of hypoxia on treatment response, epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT), and induction of cancer stem cells (CSC).

    In papers I and II, we investigated two proteins, survivin and WRAP53β, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor biopsies from 40 patients categorized as Non-responders or Responders to radiotherapy. High expression of survivin and nuclear expression of WRAP53β were significantly more prevalent in the Responder group. The combination of these two factors correlated strongest to overall survival, but not to a significantly higher extent compared to survivin alone. Moreover, when examined separately, a high percentage of p53-stained cells and the presence of the SNP FGFR4 Gln388Arg correlated to improved overall survival, whereas the SNP XPD Lys751Gln was associated with worse overall survival. The latter three showed no significant correlations to radiotherapy response. In paper III, the two most promising proteins identified in papers I and II were analyzed in a study cohort of 149 tumor biopsies of glottic laryngeal SCC, categorized as T2N0-T3N0. In this patient group, no significant associations between survivin expression and survival could be found. However, expression of cytoplasmic WRAP53β was significantly linked to worse disease-free-survival (DSF) compared to nuclear WRAP53β or negative staining for WRAP53β. Positive expression of p16INK4a was found in 7% of the tumors. The prevalence of p16 INK4a was higher in younger patients (<60) and associated with absence of recurrence and longer DSF.

    In paper IV, five HNSCC cell lines were cultured in normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions and changes in treatment response, EMT profile, and expression of CSC markers were examined. As expected, hypoxia induced EMT and to a certain extent expression of CSC markers. Silencing of the hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α (HIF-1α) only partly reversed these effects, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved. Whereas most cell lines became more resistant to treatment in hypoxia, one cell line (LK0412) became more sensitive to cetuximab-treatment in hypoxia, an effect that was revoked by depletion of HIF-1α, suggesting a possible sensitizing effect of HIF-1α to cetuximab-treatment.

    Taken together, WRAP53β appears to be a promising biomarker candidate for treatment outcome in HNSCC, but further evaluation especially on the subcellular localization of WRAP53β is required. Even though the role of survivin in radiotherapy response in glottic SCC seems to be insignificant, it might have a more important role in other HNSCC subsites. As far as the effects of hypoxia, it appears that hypoxia might have a sensitizing effect on cetuximab-treatment in certain cases, which seems to be HIF1-α –dependent. Further studies are required to clarify the importance of this observation.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-14 14:15 House D3 3, Saarbrücken
    Schramm Benítez, Isabella Citlalli
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Defect-engineered (Ti,Al)N thin films2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the effect of point defects (nitrogen vacancies and interstitials) and multilayering ((Ti,Al)N/TiN) on the phase transformations in cathodic arc-evaporated cubic (Ti,Al)N thin films at elevated temperatures. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the beneficial spinodal decomposition into c-TiN and c-AlN, the detrimental formation of wurtzite AlN and the potential application as hard coating in cutting tools.

    c-(Ti1-xAlx)Ny thin films with varying Al fractions and N content (y = 0.93 to 0.75) show a delay in the spinodal decomposition when increasing the amount of N vacancies. This results in a 300 °C upshift in the age hardening and a delay in the w-AlN formation, while additions of self-interstitials enhance phase separation. High temperature interaction between hard metal substrates and thin films is more pronounced when increasing N deficiency through diffusion of substrate elements into the film. Low N content films (y = 0.58 to 0.40) showed formation of additional phases such as Ti4AlN3, Ti2AlN, Al5Ti2 and Al3Ti during annealing and a transformation from Ti2AlN to Ti4AlN3 via intercalation. The multilayer structure of TiN/TiAlN results in surfacedirected spinodal decomposition that affects the decomposition behavior. Careful use of these effects appears as a promising method to improve cutting tool performance.

  • Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alkohol och cykling: en multidisciplinär studie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have shown that alcohol impairment can be a contributing factor in cycling accidents, there is currently relatively little knowledge of the connection(s) between alcohol and cycling. The overall aim of this study was therefore to increase the knowledge of alcohol associated with cycling. The study is divided into two different parts; an analysis of the Swedish Road Administration’s in-deep data on killed cyclists and an interview study analyzed from three different perspectives; a social psychological, an emotional sociological and a phenomenographic. While the analysis of the in-deep data resulted in detailed statistics on the accidents involving alcohol impaired cyclists, the interview study resulted in a deeper understanding of cyclists' beliefs, emotions and perceptions regarding alcohol and cycling. Based on these results, information and/or campaigns to reduce the prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling as well as the amount of alcohol associated with cycling, is recommended. However, the introduction of a legal alcohol limit or improved public transport is not recommended in order to reduce the number of cyclists affected by alcohol and/or to improve the safety of those bicycling during alcohol impairment.

  • Norðurlönd og sjálfbærnimarkmið SÞ fram til ársins 2030: Norrænt samstarf og sjálfbærnimarkmiðin fram til ársins 20302017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Haustið 2016 ákvað Norðurlandaráð að koma á fót vinnuhópi með fulltrúum nefndanna og forsætisnefndar til þess að kanna hvort grundvöllur væri og ef svo væri móta tillögu um hvernig Norðurlandaráð gæti stuðlað að framkvæmd markmiðanna í sjálfbærnimarkmiðum SÞ fram til ársins 2030. Verkefni vinnuhópsins var að varpa ljósi á þau markmið sem hægt væri að eiga samstarf um á Norðurlöndum og þær aðgerðir sem mætti hrinda í framkvæmd til að ná fram markmiðunum. Vinnuhópinn skipuðu Sonja Mandt, forsætisnefnd, formaður, Christian Juul, Norrænu velferðarnefndinni, Hanna Kosonen, Norrænu sjálfbærninefndinni, Torgeir Knag Fylkesnes, Norrænu hagvaxtar- og þróunarnefndinni, Norunn Tveiten Benestad, Norrænu þekkingar- og menningarnefndinni og Espen Krogh, forseti Norðurlandaráðs æskunnar.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:00 F3, Stockholm
    Johansson, Petter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    A Silent Revolution: The Swedish Transition towards Heat Pumps, 1970-20152017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, more than half of all Swedish single-family houses have an installed heat pump and more heat is supplied by heat pumps in Sweden than in any other nation. Despite the enormous impact of heat pumps on the Swedish energy system, the transition towards their use has gone relatively unnoticed. Hence the title of this thesis, ‘A silent revolution’.

    This thesis provides an in-depth study of the Swedish transition towards heat pumps and how Swedish industries contributed to it. It approaches the topic from the perspective of value networks and ‘coopetition’, combined with the concept of complementarities. This approach has been inspired by the work of Verna Allee (2009) and Erik Dahmén (1991). In this thesis, value networks are networks of actors surrounding a specific business model, coopetition is used to describe the relationships between actors (as both competitive and cooperative), and the concept of complementarities is used to analyze the dynamics between synergistic elements and value networks in Sweden’s heat pump sector and energy system.

    Based on this approach, the thesis explains how a durable web of relations and interdependencies between complementarities has developed within the heat pump sector and the energy system in Sweden, and between the two, during the country’s transition to widespread use of heat pumps.

    Interest in heat pumps arose in Sweden and other parts of Europe during the 1970s. The Swedish energy system had been caught between international oil crises and national political mobilisation against nuclear power expansion. In this period of negative transformation pressure, the heat pump appeared as a promising alternative that could mitigate the use of oil and electricity for heating. In the 1970s, an early Swedish heat pump industry formed together with a growing heat pump market. A large number of diverse actors became involved in the Swedish heat pump sector, and the intense coopetition dynamics relating to heat pumps following the 1970s oil crisis contributed to durable connections between complementarities during the early stages of the transition.

    The 1980s saw a rapid expansion of large heat pumps in Swedish district heating facilities. In the mid-1980s, however, oil prices dropped back to their previous low levels. This change, combined with other factors, such as lifted subsidies and higher interest rates, created a crisis for Swedish heat pump industry. The industry underwent a 10-year period of low sales of small heat pumps and the market for large heat pumps died out and never returned. Nevertheless, several connections between heat pump–related complementarities remained in Sweden after the mid-1980s. In conjunction with value network reconfigurations, changes in company ownerships and governmental industry support, these complementarities helped the Swedish heat pump sector to maintain both production and service capacity.

    Due to developments that took place largely outside the heat pump manufacturing sector, by the mid-1990s it became possible for the struggling Swedish industry to offer more reliable and standardised heat pumps to the Swedish home heating market. During the years after 1995, the Swedish heat pump market grew to become the biggest in Europe. The industry’s early development and growth gave Swedish companies a comparative advantage over its European competitors, with the result that the manufacturing of heat pumps remained concentrated to Swedish-based manufacturing facilities even after the Swedish heat pump industry became internationalised after 2005. As of 2015, Sweden had the greatest amount of heat production from heat pumps per capita of any European nation, and many heat pump markets in other European countries are 10 to 20 years behind the Swedish market in development.

    This thesis shows how the Swedish heat pump industry has co-evolved with the market and how developments in the industry contributed towards causing the transition to heat pumps to occur so early in Sweden relative to other European markets. It also shows that coopetition dynamics in a socio-technical transition change with the emergence and characteristics of structural tensions between complementarities, which has implications for the strategic management of external relations and partnerships during socio-technical transitions. It further argues that the combination of the value network, coopetition, and complementarity concepts can be conceptualised for descriptive and exploratory studies on the role of firms and industries in socio-technical transitions, thereby offering a complement to existing dominant frameworks in the area of transition studies. 

  • Pohjoismaat ja YK:n 2030-tavoitteet: Pohjoismainen yhteistyö ja kestävän kehityksen 2030-tavoitteet2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [fi]

    Syksyllä 2016 Pohjoismaiden neuvosto päätti asettaa valiokuntien ja puheenjohtajiston edustajista koostuvan työryhmän tarkoituksena selvittää Pohjoismaiden neuvoston edellytyksiä edistää YK:n 2030-tavoitteiden toteutumista ja laatia sitä koskevia ehdotuksia. Työryhmän tehtävänä oli selkeyttää sitä, minkä tavoitteiden parissa Pohjoismaat voivat tehdä yhteistyötä ja mitä toimia voitaisiin käynnistää tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi. Työryhmän jäseniä olivat puheenjohtajiston edustaja ja ryhmän puheenjohtaja Sonja Mandt, Hyvinvointi Pohjolassa -valiokunnan edustaja Christian Juul, Kestävä Pohjola -valiokunnan edustaja Hanna Kosonen, Kasvu ja kehitys Pohjolassa -valiokunnan edustaja Torgeir Knag Fylkesnes, Osaaminenja kulttuuri Pohjolassa -valiokunnan edustaja Norunn Tveiten Benestadja Nuorten Pohjoismaiden neuvoston presidentti Espen Krogh.

  • Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Activity qualifiers using an argument-based construction2017In: Knowledge and Information Systems, ISSN 0219-1377, E-ISSN 0219-3116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an argumentation theory approach, we present a novel method for evaluating complex goal-based activities by generalizing a notion of qualifier defined in the health domain. Three instances of the general qualifier are proposed: Performance, Actuation and Capacity; the first one evaluates what a person does, the second how an individual follows an action plan, and the third one how “well” or “bad” an activity is executed. Qualifiers are intended to be used by autonomous systems for evaluating human activity. We exemplify our approach using a health domain assessment protocol. Main results of this test show a partial correlation between ambiguities assessed by experts and our argument-based approach; and a multi-dimensional perspective how an activity is executed when a combined evaluation of qualifiers is used. This last outcome was interesting for some therapists consulted. Results also show differences between values of qualifiers using different argumentation semantics; two scenarios were proposed by therapist for using different semantics: preliminary activity screening and time-span follow-up evaluation.

  • Abelsson, Anna
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Medical tattoos impact on CPR decisions2017In: Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 2451-4691, Vol. 2, no 3, 140-141 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Fatehi, Hesameddin
    et al.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Bai, Xue-Song
    Effect of Volatile Reactions on the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Particles2017In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY (ICAE2016) / [ed] Yan, J Sun, F Chou, SK Desideri, U Li, H Campana, P Xiong, R, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical and experimental study on the conversion of a biomass particle is carried out to quantify the effect of homogeneous volatile combustion on the biomass pyrolysis. The numerical domain consists of a particle and its surrounding and the model considers detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for reaction of pyrolysis products. A detailed pyrolysis model is employed which provides the composition of pyrolysis products. The effect of gas phase reaction on the conversion time and temperature of the particle is analyzed and it was shown that the gas phase reactions results in shorter pyrolysis time. H2O mole fraction and temperature above a biomass pellet from wheat straw (WS) and stem wood (SW) were experimentally measured using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) while recording the particle mass loss. The TDLAS data were used to validate the numerical model developed for biomass conversion. The results showed that by considering the gas phase reactions a good agreement between the measurement and the model prediction for mass loss and temperature can be achieved. For H2O mole fraction on top of the particle, on the other hand, some discrepancy between the model prediction and the experimental data was observed. Nevertheless, the difference in H2O mole fraction would be much larger by neglecting the gas phase reaction at the particle boundary.

  • Abelsson, Anna
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Learning through simulation2017In: Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 2451–4691, Vol. 2, no 3, 125-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With simulation, caregivers are given the opportunity to improve their knowledge and skills. With simulation, both theoretical and practical knowledge is taught. With the experiences that simulation creates, critical thinking and better care are developed. Learning through simulation complements the learning that takes place in everyday work and can have a positive effect of the advances of the care profession. The purpose of simulation may vary and different learning theories are used, both based on learning objectives and the purpose of the simulation. The experience gained from simulation prepares caregivers on how similar complex situations can be handled in the future.

  • Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Hjulburna oskyddade trafikanter på landsväg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this collection of three sub-studies; 1) Two-minus-one bicycle lanes on rural roads, 2) How close is close? and 3) Pilot study on road friction testing for motorcycles, is to highlight any problems that two-wheeled unprotected road users have on Swedish roads. Studies 1 and 2 are about cyclists on country roads, while study 3 is about motorcyclists. Study 1 is a survey of a new road design, two-minus-one rural roads. Study 2 is an experimental study that highlights the issue of the width of a cycle path/hard-shoulder from the perspective of the cyclist. Study 3 is friction measurements carried out on a measurement method that is more adapted to the situation of motorcyclists. The three sub-studies resulted in the following recommendations: i) stretches of rural roads that are intended to be two-minus-one rural roads should be chosen carefully and in places where sight-lines are obscured (by hedgerows, topography, etc.), alternative solutions should be considered. ii) The speed limitation on the two-minus-one rural roads should not exceed 50 km/h. In order to reduce speeding, signage in combination with surveillance and/or infrastructure measures should be considered to reduce speed violations. iii) The introduction of two-minus-one rural roads should be done in dialogue with local populations and preceded by information efforts so that everyone knows what rules apply. iv) A single carriageway cycle path/hard-shoulder on a two-minus-one rural road with mixed traffic should be at least 120 cm laterally from the middle of the bicycle path to the motor vehicles’ carriageway. v) Friction measurements should be linked to the driver's experience of grip. vi) Develops a measurement method/protocol for friction testing where the measurement section is ≥ 1 m in different levels of wetness on the roadway, which can also be used to evaluate blackspots on road sections that are linked to “temporary” road repairs.

  • Mäkeler, Hendrik
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Uppsala University Museum, Uppsala University Coin Cabinet.
    Gewinner und Verlierer in der Münz- und Medaillenkunst2017In: Gewinner und Verlierer in Medien der Selbstdarstellung: Bilder, Bauten, Inschriften, Leichenpredigten, Münzen und Medaillen in der Frühen Neuzeit / [ed] Jörg H. Lampe, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2017, 37-44 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Kozlowski, Piotr
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Dept Med, Orebro, Sweden..
    Lennmyr, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Ahlberg, Lucia
    Univ Hosp Linkoping, Dept Hematol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Bernell, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hulegårdh, Erik
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol & Coagulat, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karbach, Holger
    Univ Hosp Umea, Ctr Canc, Dept Hematol, Umea, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Karin
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol & Oncol, Lund, Sweden..
    Tomaszewska-Toporska, Beata
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol & Oncol, Lund, Sweden..
    Åström, Maria
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Dept Med, Orebro, Sweden..
    Hallböök, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Age but not Philadelphia positivity impairs outcome in older/elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Haematology, ISSN 0902-4441, E-ISSN 1600-0609, Vol. 99, no 2, 141-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesOlder/elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are poorly represented in clinical trials. MethodsUsing Swedish national leukemia registries, we investigated disease/patient characteristics, treatment choices, outcome, and the impact of an age-adapted protocol (introduced in 2009) in this population-based study of patients aged 55-85years, diagnosed with ALL 2005-2012. ResultsOf 174 patients, 82% had B-phenotype, 11% Burkitt leukemia (excluded), and 7% T-phenotype. Philadelphia chromosome positivity (Ph+) occurred in 35%. Of the 155 B- and T-ALL patients, 80% were treated with intensive protocols, and 20% with a palliative approach. Higher age and WHO performance status 2 influenced the choice of palliation. Intensive, palliative, and both approaches resulted in complete remission rate 83/16/70% and 3-year overall survival (OS) 32/3/26%. The age-adapted protocol did not improve outcome. With intensive treatment, platelet count 35x10(9)/L and age 75years were adverse prognostic factors for OS, Ph+ was not. Male sex was an adverse prognostic factor in the 55-64 year age-group. ConclusionsWe report a high frequency of Ph+ in older/elderly patients, with no evidence of poorer outcome compared to Ph-negative disease. Overall prognosis for elderly patients with ALL remains dismal, despite the use of age-adapted treatment.

  • Shungin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic & Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.
    Deng, Wei Q.
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Metspalu, Andres
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Justice, Anne E.
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Winkler, Thomas W.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Ong, Ken K.
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.
    Scott, Robert A.
    Mägi, Reedik
    Paré, Guillaume
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic & Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions2017In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 13, no 6, e1006812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (GxE) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (P-v), GxE interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (P-m). Correlations between P-v and P-m were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's rho = 0.401 for triglycerides, and rho = 0.236 for BMI) compared to all SNPs. When P-v and P-m were compared for all pruned SNPs, only BMI was statistically significant (Spearman's rho = 0.010). Overall, SNPs with established marginal effects were overrepresented in the nominally significant part of the P-v distribution (P-binomial < 0.05). SNPs from the top 1% of the P-m distribution for BMI had more significant P-v values (Pmann-Whitney = 1.46x10(-5)), and the odds ratio of SNPs with nominally significant (< 0.05) P-m and P-v was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.57) for BMI. Moreover, BMI SNPs with nominally significant GxE interaction P-values (Pint < 0.05) were enriched with nominally significant P-v values (P-binomial = 8.63x10(-9) and 8.52x10(-7) for SNP x smoking and SNP x physical activity, respectively). We conclude that some loci with strong marginal effects may be good candidates for GxE, and variance-based prioritization can be used to identify them.

  • Glorieux, Emile
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Franciosa, Pasquale
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, UK.
    Ceglarek, Darek
    Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry, UK.
    End-effector design optimisation and multi-robot motion planning for handling compliant parts2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of compliant parts during material handling is a critical issue that can significantly affect the productivity and the parts' dimensional quality. There are multiple relevant aspects to consider when designing end-effectors to handle compliant parts, e.g. motion planning, holding force, part deformations, collisions, etc. This paper focuses on multi-robot material handling systems where the end-effector designs influence the coordination of the robots to prevent that these collide in the shared workspace. A multi-disciplinary methodology for end-effector design optimisation and multi-robot motion planning for material handling of compliant parts is proposed. The novelty is the co-adaptive optimisation of the end-effectors' structure with the robot motion planning to obtain the highest productivity and to avoid excessive part deformations. Based on FEA, the dynamic deformations of the parts are modelled in order to consider these during the collision avoidance between the handled parts and obstacles. The proposed methodology is evaluated for a case study that considers the multi-robot material handling of sheet metal parts in a multi-stage tandem press line. The results show that a substantial improvement in productivity can be achieved (up to 1.9%). These also demonstrate the need and contribution of the proposed methodology.

  • Calbucura, Jorge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    La construcción ético-política del pasado2017In: Revista Perspectivas de la Comunicación, ISSN 0718-4867, Vol. 10, no 1, 237-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the repatriation and reburial of human remains, the restitution of cultural property and the recognition of the existence of sacred sites of indigenous communities is an open challenge to the scientific and academic community, mainly European who claim the ownership right of their collections. The questioning of this right highlights the controversy between academic knowledge and indigenous traditional knowledge. In this paper, this demand is analyzed from the perspective of change in perception, with special emphasis on its epistemological implications.

  • Tidehag, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Prosthetic Dentistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Iron absorption and iron status related to diet: an experimental and epidemiological study1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The absorption of iron from the diet is a major determinant of the iron status of an individual. Accuratemeasures of iron absorption are thus essential in the determination of the effects of diet composition on ironabsorption and status.

    The aim of these studies have firstly been to investigate different methods to measure iron absorptionand effects of diet in both rats and humans. Secondly to describe variations in iron status in a generalpopulation and to relate the variations to diet.

    Experimental studies in rats: The most important factors determining the availability of iron from thediet to growing rats appears to be the concentration of iron in the diet and the iron status of the rats. Thetype of cereal |rain in the diet and the diet phytate and fiber concentrations were of far less importance. Theabsorption of Fe from test meals, the iron balance over a period of a few days and the blood hemoglobinand serum and liver iron concentrations were in good general agreement on the effects of diet and iron statuson the bioavailability of iron from grain diets. The extent of coprophagy in rats is not affected by diet or ironstatus and did not affect iron absorption appreciably.

    Effect of dairy products on iron absorption in man: The effect of milk and fermented milk on ironabsorption was studied in nine ileostomy subjects. We found no decrease in iron absorption during twothree-week periods on a high calcium (milk) diet. The results of the present study differ from those studies inwhich the absorption of radioiron from test meals was measured, which have shown a pronounced effect ofhigh calcium levels. We believe that these differences in results were caused by differences in experimentaldesign and choice of measurement method. Our results support earlier findings that the iron status of thesubject rather than the bioavailability of dietary iron is the major factor determining absorption of dietarynon-heme iron.

    Measurement of iron absorption from single meals and daily diets in humans usingradioiron: Ten ileostomy subjects were given the same composite diet for all three meals each day for fiveconsecutive days (meal proportion ratio 1:2:4 for breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively). The ironabsorption from a low-fiber diet measured from the morning meals (55Fe) was almost 80% higher than theaverage iron absorption measured from all meals (59Fe) during the last two days on this diet. The ironabsorption from a high fiber diet eaten at breakfast was almost 50% higher than the daily average absorption.This suggests that all meals of the day should be labeled with radioiron and not just the morning meal.

    Population studies of diet and iron status: In a randomly selected population in Northern Sweden loweriron status was associated with a high intake of dairy products in women (25-44 yr.). The striking result washowever that iron status was not related to other major variations in dietary intake, particularly intake ofenergy and iron. No correlation could be demonstrated between iron status measured as ferritin, serum ironor TIBC and the estimated intakes of calcium, fiber, ascorbic acid, meat, tea or coffee, all of which are knownto be factors which influence the bioavailability of iron. On the population level, factors other than diet, e.g.menstruation and metabolic factors, were more important than diet as determinants of iron status.

  • Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Las Redes Sociales En La Gestión de Los Recursos Naturales: ¿Qué Hay Que Aprender de Una Perspectiva Estructural?2017In: REDES: Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales, ISSN 1579-0185, E-ISSN 1579-0185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Las redes sociales entre actores y grupos de interés están recibiendo cada vez más atención en los estudios sobre la gestión de los recursos naturales, especialmente en los que se refieren a la gestión adaptativa basada en diferentes formas de participación y cogestión. Las redes sociales se han concebido principalmente como recursos que habilitan la colaboración y la coordinación entre diferentes actores. Aquí, continuamos la discusión iniciada por Newman y Dale (2005), que destacaron el hecho de que no todas las redes sociales son creadas iguales. Discutimos la relación entre algunas características estructurales y las funciones de las redes sociales con respecto al manejo de los recursos naturales, centrándonos en las implicaciones estructurales que a menudo se pasan por alto al estudiar las redes en el contexto del manejo de los recursos naturales. Presentamos varias medidas que se utilizan para cuantificar las características estructurales de las redes sociales y vincularlas con una serie de procesos como el aprendizaje, el liderazgo y la confianza, que se consideran importantes en el manejo de recursos naturales. Se muestra esquemáticamente que puede haber yuxtaposiciones entre las diferentes características estructurales que necesitan ser equilibradas en lo que nos imaginamos como estructuras de redes sociales conducentes a la cogestión adaptativa de los recursos naturales. Sostenemos que es esencial desarrollar una comprensión de los efectos que las diferentes características estructurales de las redes sociales tienen sobre la gestión de los recursos naturales. Trhis is translation of Bodin, Crona and Ernstson 2006 in Ecology and Society.

  • Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Stenliden, Linnea
    Linköpings universitet.
    Simuleringsbaserad undervisning som ett kompletterande inslag i lärarutbildningen vid Linköpings universitet2017Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-11-14 13:15 hall B42, Uppsala
    Singh, Kailash
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes: the role of IL-35 in counteracting the disease2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is etiologically considered as an autoimmune disease, where insulin-producing β-cells are damaged by autoimmune attacks. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are immune homeostasis cells. In the present thesis I aimed to investigate the role of Treg cells and other immune cells in the early development of T1D. In order to do that, we first determined which immune cells that are altered at an early stage of the T1D development. We found that dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce the initial immune response.

    Next, we investigated the role of Treg cells in multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) induced T1D and in NOD mice. We found that the numbers of Treg cells were increased in both MLDSTZ and NOD mice when the MLDSTZ mice were hyperglycemic. However, the increased Treg cells showed a decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-β) and an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17a). These results revealed that Treg cells switch their phenotype under T1D conditions.

    IL-35 administration effectively prevented the development of, and reversed established MLDSTZ induced T1D. Treg cells from IL-35 treated mice showed an increased expression of the Eos transcription factor, accompanied by an increased expression of IL-35 and a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL-17a. These data indicate that IL-35 administration counteracted the early development of T1D by maintaining the phenotype of the Treg cells. Furthermore, IL-35 administration reversed established T1D in the NOD mouse model by maintaining the phenotype of Treg cells, seemingly by inducing the expression of Eos. Moreover, the circulating level of IL-35 was significantly lowered in both new onset and long-standing T1D patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, patients with T1D with remaining C-peptide had significantly higher levels of IL-35 than patients lacking C-peptide, suggesting that IL-35 might prevent the loss of β-cell mass. In line with this hypothesis, we found that LADA patients had a higher proportion of IL-35+ tolerogenic antigen presenting cells than T1D patients.

    Subsequently, we determined the proportions of IL-35+ Treg cells and IL-17a+ Treg cells in T1D patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), which were age, sex and BMI matched with healthy controls and T1D patients. The proportion of IL-35+ Treg cells was decreased in DN and T1D patients, but IL-17a+ Treg cells were more abundant than in healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that the number of Foxp3+ Treg cells was increased in the kidneys of MLDSTZ mice. However, infiltration of mononuclear cells was seen in kidneys of these mice. In addition, kidney tissues of IL-35 treated MLDSTZ mice did not show any mononuclear cell infiltration. These results demonstrate that IL-35 may be used to prevent mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney diseases.

    Our findings indicate that the numbers of Foxp3+ Treg cells are increased in T1D, but that these Treg cells fail to counteract the ongoing immune assault in islets and kidneys of hyperglycemic mice. This could be explained by a phenotypic shift of the Treg cells under hyperglycemic conditions. IL-35 administration reversed established T1D in two different animal models of T1D and prevented mononuclear cell infiltration in the kidneys by maintaining the phenotype of Treg cells.

  • Burraco, Pablo
    et al.
    CSIC, Donana Biol Stn, Dept Wetland Ecol, Ecol Evolut & Dev Grp, E-41092 Seville, Spain..
    Valdes, Ana Elisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan
    CSIC, Donana Biol Stn, Dept Wetland Ecol, Ecol Evolut & Dev Grp, E-41092 Seville, Spain..
    Physiological mechanisms of adaptive developmental plasticity in Rana temporaria island populations2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adaptive plasticity is essential for many species to cope with environmental heterogeneity. In particular, developmental plasticity allows organisms with complex life cycles to adaptively adjust the timing of ontogenetic switch points. Size at and time to metamorphosis are reliable fitness indicators in organisms with complex cycles. The physiological machinery of developmental plasticity commonly involves the activation of alternative neuroendocrine pathways, causing metabolic alterations. Nevertheless, we have still incomplete knowledge about how these mechanisms evolve under environments that select for differences in adaptive plasticity. In this study, we investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying divergent degrees of developmental plasticity across Rana temporaria island populations inhabiting different types of pools in northern Sweden. Methods: In a laboratory experiment we estimated developmental plasticity of amphibian larvae from six populations coming from three different island habitats: islands with only permanent pools, islands with only ephemeral pools, and islands with a mixture of both types of pools. We exposed larvae of each population to either constant water level or simulated pool drying, and estimated their physiological responses in terms of corticosterone levels, oxidative stress, and telomere length. Results: We found that populations from islands with only temporary pools had a higher degree of developmental plasticity than those from the other two types of habitats. All populations increased their corticosterone levels to a similar extent when subjected to simulated pool drying, and therefore variation in secretion of this hormone does not explain the observed differences among populations. However, tadpoles from islands with temporary pools showed lower constitutive activities of catalase and glutathione reductase, and also showed overall shorter telomeres. Conclusions: The observed differences are indicative of physiological costs of increased developmental plasticity, suggesting that the potential for plasticity is constrained by its costs. Thus, high levels of responsiveness in the developmental rate of tadpoles have evolved in islands with pools at high but variable risk of desiccation. Moreover, the physiological alterations observed may have important consequences for both short-term odds of survival and long term effects on lifespan.

  • Thorburn, William
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure: development of a new technique and results obtained from a study of human eyes1972Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis is based on the following six papers, which will be referred to in the text by their Roman numerals:

    I. Linnér, E. and Thorburn, W. (1971) Applanation tonography at constant intraocular pressure. I. Basic considerations. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh*) 49, 165-169.

    II. Thorburn, W. Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure. Basic principle and apparatus description. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) In press.

    III. Thorburn, W. Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure. II. Procedures applied on living human eyes. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) In press.

    IV. Thorburn, W. Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure. III. Intraocular volume-pressure relationship studied in intact human eyes. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.)In press.

    V. Thorburn, W. Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure. IV. Intraocular volume changes due to changes in blood content. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh*) In press.

    VI. Thorburn, W* Recordings of applanating force at constant intraocular pressure. V. Intraocular volume changes due to changes in the content of aqueous humour. Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.). In press.

  • Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comment on outlier detection and skewed distributions2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that a paper of mine appearing in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (Carling, 2000) has prompted the development of outlier detection methods for highly skewed data. However, I wrote the paper in the spirit of Exploratory Data Analysis (Tukey, 1977) and I shared Tukey’s opinion, and I still hold it, that skewed data are better to be transformed for approximate symmetry prior to detection of outliers (or other data analyses).

  • Gylfe, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Studies on free amino acids in the pancreatic ß-cells.1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the following publicatipns, which will be referred to bytheir Roman numerals.

    I Gylfe, E: Changes of free amino acids in pancreatic ß-cells after starvation and substrate deprivation. Acta endocr (Kbh) 75, 105 (1974).

    II Gylfe, E and Heilman, B: Role of glucose as a regulator and precursor of amino acids in the pancreatic ß-cells. Endocrinology in press.

    III Gylfe, E: Glucose oxidation and contents of free amino acids in pancreatic ß-cells stimulated by a non-metabolizable leucine analogue. Biochim Biophys Acta in press.

    IV Gylfe, E, Heilman, B, Sehlin ] and Täljedal, l-B: Amino acid conversion into 5-hydroxytryptamine in pancreatic ß-cells. Endocrinology 93, 932 (1973).

  • Hassler, Ove
    et al.
    Hietala, Sven-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Angiographic abnormalities in the urinary bladder wall after irradiation1973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Mjörndal, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Thiothixene: a study on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects in animal and man1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisthesis is based on the following publications:

    I    Mjörndal, T. and Oreland, L.: Determination of thioxan-thenes in plasma at therapeutic concentrations. Actapharmacol. et toxicol. 29, 295-302, 1971.

    II   Bergling, R., Mjörndal, T., Oreland, L., Rapp, W. andWold, S.: Plasma levels and clinical effects of thioridazine and thiothixene. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 15, 178-186, 1975.

    III  Mjörndal, T., Wiesel, F.A. and Oreland, L.: Biochemicaland behavioural effects of thiothixene. Relation totissue levels of the drug. Acta pharmacol. et toxicol.38, 490-496, 1976.J

    IV   Mjörndal, T.: A study on the effects of thiothixene,N-demethyl-thiothixene, thiothixene sulfoxide and barbital on the motor activity of the rat. Submitted toActa pharmacol. et toxicol.

    V    Mjörndal, T.: Effects of chlorpromazine and thiothixeneon hepatic microsomal enzymes. Submitted to Acta pharmacol. et toxicol.

    In the following discussion the papers will be referred to by their Roman numerals; other references are indicated by Arabic numerals.