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  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 13:00 Astrid Fagraeus hörsal A103, byggnad 6E, Umeå Universitet, Umeå
    Bitar, Aziz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Vibrio cholerae modulates the immune defense of human gut mucosa2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The key function of innate immunity is to sense danger signals and initiate effective responses as a defense mechanism against pathogens. Simultaneously, effector responses must be regulated to avoid excessive inflammation with resulting tissue damage. microRNAs (miRNAs), are small endogenous molecules, that has recently gained attention as important regulatory elements in the human inflammation cascade. The control over host miRNA expression may represent a previously uncharacterized molecular strategy exploited by pathogens to mitigate innate host cell responses.

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human small intestine and causes life-threatening secretory diarrhea, essentially mediated by cholera toxin (CT). It is considered a non-invasive pathogen and does not cause clinical inflammation. Still, cholera is associated with inflammatory changes of the small intestine. Furthermore, CT-negative strains of V. cholerae cause gastroenteritis and are associated with extra-intestinal manifestations, suggesting that other virulence factors than CT are also involved in the pathogenesis.

    The innate immune response to V. cholerae is poorly investigated and the potential role of miRNA in cholera had not been studied before. Therefore, this thesis explores the role of intestinal epithelial cells in response to V. cholerae infection with a focus on regulatory miRNA as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis. The in vivo material was small intestinal biopsies from patients suffering from V. cholerae infection. As an in vitro model for V. cholerae attack on intestinal epithelium, we used tight monolayers of T84 cells infected with V. cholerae and their released factors. We analyzed changes in levels of cytokines, immunomodulatory microRNA and their target genes.

    We showed that miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 reached significantly elevated levels in the intestinal mucosa at acute stages of disease in V. cholerae infected patients and declined to normal levels at the convalescent stage. Low-grade inflammation was identified at the acute stage of V. cholerae infection, which correlated with elevated levels of regulatory miRNA. Furthermore, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by the bacteria were shown to induce miR-146a and live bacteria induced miR-155 in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, OMVs decreased epithelial permeability and caused mRNA suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including immune cell attractant IL-8 and CLL20, and the inflammasome markers IL-1b and IL-18. These results propose that V. cholerae regulates the host expression of miRNA during infection and may set the threshold for activation of the intestinal epithelium.

    Moreover, we showed that V. cholerae also harbors inflammatory-inducing capabilities, by secreting a pore-forming toxin, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC). By using genetically modified strains as well as soluble protein challenge experiments, VCC was found solely responsible for the increased epithelial permeability and induction of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells. In contrast to OMVs, VCC displayed strong upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-a, CCL20 and IL-1b and IRAK2, a key signaling molecule in the IL-1 inflammasome pathway. This suggest that VCC is an important virulence factor in the V. cholerae pathogenesis, particularly in CT-negative strains. Furthermore, we showed that the bacterium could control the inflammatory actions of VCC by secreting the PrtV protease, which degraded VCC and consequently abolished inflammation.  

    In summary, we showed that V. cholerae harbors immunomodulating capabilities, both at the gene level, through induction of host regulatory miRNA, and at the protein level, through secretion of VCC and PrtV. These strategies may be relevant for V. cholerae to promote survival in the gut and cause successful infections in the human host.

  • Pelle, Snickars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Mähler, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SpotiBot — Turing Testing Spotify2018Inngår i: Digital Humanities Quarterly, ISSN 1938-4122, E-ISSN 1938-4122, Vol. 12, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even if digitized and born-digital audiovisual material today amounts to a steadily increasing body of data to work with and research, such media modalities are still relatively poorly represented in the field of DH. Streaming media is a case in point, and the purpose of this article is to provide some findings from an ongoing audio (and music) research project, that deals with experiments, interventions and the reverse engineering of Spotify’s algorithms, aggregation procedures, and valuation strategies. One such research experiment, the SpotiBot intervention, was set up at Humlab, Umeå University. Via multiple bots running in parallel our idea was to examine if it is possible to provoke — or even undermine — the Spotify business model (based on the so called “30 second royalty rule”). Essentially, the experiment resembled a Turing test, where we asked ourselves what happens when — not if — streaming bots approximate human listener behavior in such a way that it becomes impossible to distinguish between a human and a machine. Implemented in the Python programming language, and using a web UI testing frameworks, our so called SpotiBot engine automated the Spotify web client by simulating user interaction within the web interface. The SpotiBot engine was instructed to play a single track repeatedly (both self-produced music and Abba’s “Dancing Queen”), during less and more than 30 seconds, and with a fixed repetition scheme running from 100 to n times (simultaneously with different Spotify Free ‘bot accounts’). Our bots also logged all results. In short, our bots demonstrated the ability (at least sometimes) to continuously play tracks, indicating that the Spotify business model can be tampered with. Using a single virtual machine — hidden behind only one proxy IP — the results of the intervention hence stipulate that it is possible to automatically play tracks for thousands of repetitions that exceeds the royalty rule.

  • Allin, Kristine H.
    et al.
    Tremaroli, Valentina
    Caesar, Robert
    Jensen, Benjamin A. H.
    Damgaard, Mads T. F.
    Bahl, Martin I.
    Licht, Tine R.
    Hansen, Tue H.
    Nielsen, Trine
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Jørgensen, Torben
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Kristiansen, Karsten
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hansen, Torben
    Bäckhed, Fredrik
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes2018Inngår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 810-820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1-7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42-48 mmol/mol [6.0-6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health.

    Methods: In the present case-control study, we analysed the gut microbiota of 134 Danish adults with prediabetes, overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and low-grade inflammation and 134 age-and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Results: We found that five bacterial genera and 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were differentially abundant between individuals with prediabetes and those with normal glucose regulation. At the genus level, the abundance of Clostridium was decreased (mean log2 fold change -0.64 (SEM 0.23), p adj = 0.0497), whereas the abundances of Dorea, [Ruminococcus], Sutterella and Streptococcus were increased (mean log2 fold change 0.51 (SEM 0.12), p adj = 5 x 10-4; 0.51 (SEM 0.11), p adj = 1 x 10-4; 0.60 (SEM 0.21), p adj = 0.0497; and 0.92 (SEM0.21), p adj = 4 x 10-4, respectively). The two OTUs that differed the most were a member of the order Clostridiales (OTU 146564) and Akkermansia muciniphila, which both displayed lower abundance among individuals with prediabetes (mean log2 fold change -1.74 (SEM0.41), p adj = 2 x 10-3 and -1.65 (SEM0.34), p adj = 4 x 10-4, respectively). Faecal transfer from donors with prediabetes or screen-detected, drug-naive type 2 diabetes to germfree Swiss Webster or conventional C57BL/6 J mice did not induce impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings are comparable to observations in overt chronic diseases characterised by low-grade inflammation.

  • Shi, Lin
    et al.
    Brunius, Carl
    Lehtonen, Marko
    Auriola, Seppo
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hanhineva, Kati
    Landberg, Rikard
    Plasma metabolites associated with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish population: a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort2018Inngår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 849-861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Vasterbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Using untargeted liquid chromatography-MS metabolomics, we analysed plasma samples from 503 case-control pairs at baseline (a median time of 7 years prior to diagnosis) and samples from a subset of 187 case-control pairs at 10 years of follow-up. Discriminative metabolites between cases and controls at baseline were optimally selected using a multivariate data analysis pipeline adapted for large-scale metabolomics. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between discriminative metabolites and future type 2 diabetes, adjusting for several known risk factors. Reproducibility of identified metabolites was estimated by intra-class correlation over the 10 year period among the subset of healthy participants; their systematic changes over time in relation to diagnosis among those who developed type 2 diabetes were investigated using mixed models. Risk prediction performance of models made from different predictors was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, discrimination improvement index and net reclassification index.

    Results: We identified 46 predictive plasma metabolites of type 2 diabetes. Among novel findings, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing odd-chain fatty acids (C19: 1 and C17:0) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate were associated with the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes; we also confirmed previously identified predictive biomarkers. Identified metabolites strongly correlated with insulin resistance and/or beta cell dysfunction. Of 46 identified metabolites, 26 showed intermediate to high reproducibility among healthy individuals. Moreover, PCs with odd-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid and glutamate changed over time along with disease progression among diabetes cases. Importantly, we found that a combination of five of the most robustly predictive metabolites significantly improved risk prediction if added to models with an a priori defined set of traditional risk factors, but only a marginal improvement was achieved when using models based on optimally selected traditional risk factors.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Predictive metabolites may improve understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and reflect disease progression, but they provide limited incremental value in risk prediction beyond optimal use of traditional risk factors.

  • Medina, Anya
    et al.
    Parween, Saba
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Ullsten, Sara
    Vishnu, Neelanjan
    Siu, Yuk Ting
    Quach, My
    Bennet, Hedvig
    Balhuizen, Alexander
    Åkesson, Lina
    Wierup, Nils
    Carlsson, Per Ola
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Lernmark, Åke
    Fex, Malin
    Early deficits in insulin secretion, beta cell mass and islet blood perfusion precede onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in BioBreeding rats2018Inngår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 896-905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Genetic studies show coupling of genes affecting beta cell function to type 1 diabetes, but hitherto no studies on whether beta cell dysfunction could precede insulitis and clinical onset of type 1 diabetes are available.

    Methods: We used 40-day-old BioBreeding (BB) DRLyp/Lyp rats (a model of spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes) and diabetes-resistant DRLyp/+ and DR+/+ littermates (controls) to investigate beta cell function in vivo, and insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro. Beta cell mass was assessed by optical projection tomography (OPT) and morphometry. Additionally, measurements of intra-islet blood flow were performed using microsphere injections. We also assessed immune cell infiltration, cytokine expression in islets (by immunohistochemistry and qPCR), as well as islet Glut2 expression and ATP/ADP ratio to determine effects on glucose uptake and metabolism in beta cells.

    Results: DRLyp/Lyp rats were normoglycaemic and without traces of immune cell infiltrates. However, IVGTTs revealed a significant decrease in the acute insulin response to glucose compared with control rats (1685.3 +/- 121.3 vs 633.3 +/- 148.7; p < 0.0001). In agreement, insulin secretion was severely perturbed in isolated islets, and both first- and second-phase insulin release were lowered compared with control rats, while glucagon secretion was similar in both groups. Interestingly, after 5-7 days of culture of islets from DRLyp/Lyp rats in normal media, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was improved; although, a significant decrease in GSIS was still evident compared with islets from control rats at this time (7393.9 +/- 1593.7 vs 4416.8 +/- 1230.5 pg islet-1 h-1; p < 0.0001). Compared with controls, OPT of whole pancreas from DRLyp/Lyp rats revealed significant reductions in medium (4.1 x 109 +/- 9.5 x 107 vs 3.8 x 109 +/- 5.8 x 107 μm3; p = 0.044) and small sized islets (1.6 x 109 +/- 5.1 x 107 vs 1.4 x 109 +/- 4.5 x 107 μm3; p = 0.035). Finally, we found lower intra-islet blood perfusion in vivo (113.1 +/- 16.8 vs 76.9 +/- 11.8 μl min-1 [g pancreas]-1; p = 0.023) and alterations in the beta cell ATP/ADP ratio in DRLyp/Lyp rats vs control rats.

    Conclusions/interpretation: The present study identifies a deterioration of beta cell function and mass, and intra-islet blood flow that precedes insulitis and diabetes development in animals prone to autoimmune type 1 diabetes. These underlying changes in islet function may be previously unrecognised factors of importance in type 1 diabetes development.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-04 10:00 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Komplexa material och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Doping and Density of States Engineering for Organic Thermoelectrics2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric materials can turn temperature differences directly into electricity. To use this to harvest e.g. waste heat with an efficiency that approaches the Carnot efficiency requires a figure of merit ZT larger than 1. Compared with their inorganic counterparts, organic thermoelectrics (OTE) have numerous advantages, such as low cost, large-area compatibility, flexibility, material abundance and an inherently low thermal conductivity. Therefore, organic thermoelectrics are considered by many to be a promising candidate material system to be used in lower cost and higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, despite record ZT values for OTE currently lying around 0.25.

    A complete organic thermoelectric generator (TEG) normally needs both p-type and n-type materials to form its electric circuit. Molecular doping is an effective way to achieve p- and ntype materials using different dopants, and it is necessary to fundamentally understand the doping mechanism. We developed a simple yet quantitative analytical model and compare it with numerical kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to reveal the nature of the doping effect. The results show the formation of a deep tail in the Gaussian density of states (DOS) resulting from the Coulomb potentials of ionized dopants. It is this deep trap tail that negatively influences the charge carrier mobility with increasing doping concentration. The trends in mobilities and conductivities observed from experiments are in good agreement with the modeling results, for a large range of materials and doping concentrations.

    Having a high power factor PF is necessary for efficient TEG. We demonstrate that the doping method can heavily impact the thermoelectric properties of OTE. In comparison to conventional bulk doping, sequential doping can achieve higher conductivity by preserving the morphology, such that the power factor can improve over 100 times. To achieve TEG with high output power, not only a high PF is needed, but also having a significant active layer thickness is very important. We demonstrate a simple way to fabricate multi-layer devices by sequential doping without significantly sacrificing PF.

    In addition to the application discussed above, harvesting large amounts of heat at maximum efficiency, organic thermoelectrics may also find use in low-power applications like autonomous sensors where voltage is more important than power. A large output voltage requires a high Seebeck coefficient. We demonstrate that density of states (DOS) engineering is an effective tool to increase the Seebeck coefficient by tailoring the positions of the Fermi energy and the transport energy in n- and p-type doped blends of conjugated polymers and small molecules.

    In general, morphology heavily impacts the performance of organic electronic devices based on mixtures of two (or more) materials, and organic thermoelectrics are no exception. We experimentally find that the charge and energy transport is distinctly different in well-mixed and phase separated morphologies, which we interpreted in terms of a variable range hopping model. The experimentally observed trends in conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are reproduced by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in which the morphology is accounted for.  

  • Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Teknikämnet i svensk grundskolas tidiga skolår sett genom forskningscirkelns lupp.2018Inngår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 113-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has been a compulsory subject in the Swedish school curriculum since 1980. However,many primary school teachers say that they do not feel comfortable with teaching technology. Thisoften results in a teaching time that is a (too) small part of the total teaching time of science andtechnology. In addition, studies show that pupils are probably not given equivalent education asthe syllabi may be interpreted in different ways. Against this background, we have conducted threeresearch circles under the guidance of researchers, in three municipalities in the Mälardalen region,addressing teachers working in preschool class to grade 6. Each circle had up to five participants andhad five meetings during one year. Based on the teachers’ own questions and needs we have studieddidactic literature connected to the subject of technology, discussed the syllabi for technology anddifferent forms of teaching support. An existing model for pedagogical content knowledge in technologyhas been used to interpret the activities in the research circles. The teachers experienced and appreciatedthe opportunities to work with the subject content linked to the syllabi for technology andsaw ways to integrate technology with other school subjects.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 13:00 C203, Borås
    Söderholm, Jonas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Borrowing and lending tools: The materiality of x-lending libraries2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Libraries lend an expanding array of items: bikes, clothes, seeds, and tools, to name a few. In correspondence with this development, the library as concept is increasingly connected with current sharing trends. At the same time, the library is expected to still be about books, literature, and reading, to deal in information and documents. The library is regarded as a well-established and predictable institution of integrity. These intriguing dynamics of responsiveness and stability provide the inspiration for this work.

    The thesis presents a case study of tool lending libraries. The aim is to explore what is introduced here as x-lending libraries: the idea of libraries based on the types of materials borrowed and lent. Findings show that patrons, staff, and managers experience their tool lending library as immediately and locally relevant to their community, rather than related to long-term global concerns. In their experience, the tool lending library is also decidedly different from other libraries. Seemingly, what is borrowed and lent is important to understanding the role different libraries play in their communities. In other words, material matters.

    The work concludes with proposing a theoretical concept for how different values involved in library borrowing and lending can be understood, again in the community context.

  • Seyfferth, Carolin
    et al.
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wessels, Bernard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sundberg, Björn
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Felten, Judith
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ethylene-Related Gene Expression Networks in Wood Formation2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood) inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen (Populus tremula) stems. ACC synthase expression suggests that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is synthesized during xylem expansion and xylem cell maturation. Ethylene-mediated transcriptional reprogramming occurs during all stages of secondary growth, as deduced from AspWood expression profiles of ethylene-responsive genes. A network centrality analysis of the AspWood dataset identified EIN3D and 11 ERFs as hubs. No overlap was found between the co-expressed genes of the EIN3 and ERF hubs, suggesting target diversification and hence independent roles for these transcription factor families during normal wood formation. The EIN3D hub was part of a large co-expression gene module, which contained 16 transcription factors, among them several new candidates that have not been earlier connected to wood formation and a VND-INTERACTING 2 (VNI2) homolog. We experimentally demonstrated Populus EIN3D function in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ERF hubs ERF118 and ERF119 were connected on the basis of their expression pattern and gene co-expression module composition to xylem cell expansion and secondary cell wall formation, respectively. We hereby establish data resources for ethylene-responsive genes and potential targets for EIN3D and ERF transcription factors in Populus stem tissues, which can help to understand the range of ethylene targeted biological processes during secondary growth.

  • Igamberdiev, Abir U.
    et al.
    Kleczkowski, Leszek A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The Glycerate and Phosphorylated Pathways of Serine Synthesis in Plants: The Branches of Plant Glycolysis Linking Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 318Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine metabolism in plants has been studied mostly in relation to photorespiration where serine is formed from two molecules of glycine. However, two other pathways of serine formation operate in plants and represent the branches of glycolysis diverging at the level of 3-phosphoglyceric acid. One branch (the glycerate serine pathway) is initiated in the cytosol and involves glycerate formation from 3phosphoglycerate, while the other (the phosphorylated serine pathway) operates in plastids and forms phosphohydroxypyruvate as an intermediate. Serine formed in these pathways becomes a precursor of glycine, formate and glycolate accumulating in stress conditions. The pathways can be linked to GABA shunt via transamination reactions and via participation of the same reductase for both glyoxylate and succinic semialdehyde. In this review paper we present a hypothesis of the regulation of redox balance in stressed plant cells via participation of the reactions associated with glycerate and phosphorylated serine pathways. We consider these pathways as important processes linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism and maintaining cellular redox and energy levels in stress conditions.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-08 10:00 C326, Sundsvall
    Abbasi, Seyed
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Determinants of social inequalities in cardiovascular disease among Iranian patients2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the world. Similar to other health issues, CVD is generally affected either by individual risk factors, which may influence the risk for developing an illness or its complications, or by social indicators (social determinants of health). There is evidence from developed countries which shows that the so-called "upstream factors"—including social determinants such as political, social, spiritual, cultural, and economic factors—may affect the prevalence and incidence of CVD. Scarce evidence from studies in low- and middle-income countries also suggests that social factors may affect the distribution of CVD across population groups. However, there is a dearth of such data in Iran, where only a few small-sizedstudies have focused on the social determinants of health. Therefore, the present thesis sought to fill this gap by assessing the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the distribution of CVD and the relevant inequalities within the Iranian context.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four studies, which used data from the Tehran Heart Center’s Databases. In Study I, a total of 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center between 2005 and 2010 were recruited. Then, their pre- and post-procedural data—including demographics, CVD risk factors, symptoms, and laboratory tests—were compared between men and women. In Study II, 6,246 patients with acutecoronary syndrome who were hospitalized between March 2004 and August 2011 were included and, based on their education and their employment status, were divided into high- and low-SES groups. Thereafter, the effect of SES on the in-hospital death of the patients was evaluated. In Study III, 20,165 patients with documented coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center were enrolled and CVD risk factors and severity (measured by the Gensini score) were assessed among the six major Iranian ethnic groups. In Study IV, 9,088 patients with acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized at Tehran Heart Center between May 2007and June 2014 were recruited and the association between in-hospital death due to acute coronary syndrome and place of residence (rural/urban) was assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.

    Results: In this thesis, the data analyses were based on the hypothesis that there is a potential association between the different socioeconomic indicators and the selected cardiovascular outcomes. In Study I, among the recruited participant, 25,363 men and 11,995 women had coronary artery disease and the women not only were significantly older, less educated, and more overweight but also had higher blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar than the men. Moreover, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in the women with coronary artery disease (OR=3.45, 95% CI: 3.28to 3.61 and OR=2.37, 95% CI: 2.26 to 2.48, respectively). In addition, the frequency of post-procedural recommendations for non-invasive procedures was higher in the women than in the men (20.1% vs 18.6%; P<0.001). In StudyII, of the 6,246 recruited patients with acute coronary syndrome, 3,290individuals were considered low-SES and 2,956 high-SES individuals. In-hospital death occurred in 79 (1.26%) patients: 1.9% in the low-SES and 0.6% in the high-SES groups. After adjustment for the possible cofounders, our multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect of the patients’ SES on their in-hospital death and a lower in-hospital mortality rate was shown in the high-SES patients (OR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.98; P=0.046). In Study III, the Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest frequency of having at least four simultaneous risk factors. Additionally, the mean Gensini score was lowest in the Lurs (67.5±52.8) and highest among the Gilaks (77.1±55.9). The multivariable regression analysis indicated that the Gilaks showed the worst CVD severity (β: 0.056, 95% CI: 0.009 to 0.102; P=0.018), followed by the Turks (β: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.059; P=0.020), and the lowest CVD severity, was detected in the Lurs (β: -0.087, 95% CI: -0.146 to -0.027;P=0.004). Study IV showed that while smoking (P=0.002), positive family history of coronary artery disease (P=0.003), higher body mass index (P=0.013),and hyperlipidemia (P=0.026) were more prevalent in the urban patients, the rural patients showed lower educational levels (P<0.001) and higher frequency of unemployment (P=0.009). Meanwhile, in-hospital death occurred in 135 (1.5%) patients: 125 (1.5%) urban and 10 (1.2%) rural. To adjust the effects of the possible confounders, we utilized the Firth regression model, which showed no significant difference regarding in-hospital death betweenthe rural and urban patients (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.376 to 7.450; P=0.585).

    Conclusions: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of social determinants (particularly SES) on CVD and its modifiable risk factors among Iranian patients. Results showed that medical treatment for CVD was more recommended (by treating physicians) to the women than the men, and the low-SES patients with acute coronary syndrome were more likely to die in the hospital than their high-SES counterparts. In addition, the thesis found heterogeneity in the distribution of the traditional risk factors for CVD as well as CVD severity in the major Iranian ethnic groups. Further, there were no differences concerning the in-hospital death rates due to acute coronary syndrome between the urban and rural patients after adjustment for the potential confounders.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-08 14:15 Auditorium Minus, Uppsala
    Nordin, Kristin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Aging Along the Hippocampal Axis: Structure, Function and Whole-brain Connections in Association with Memory2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hippocampus-dependent functions display marked reductions in older age, an observation that has led to the extensive study of age effects on hippocampal properties. Even though research indicates that the hippocampus is structurally and functionally heterogeneous along its longitudinal axis, its anterior and posterior regions differentially supporting episodic and spatial memory representations, few studies explicitly consider age effects in relation to axis. Relatedly, as men and women commonly differ in episodic and spatial memory performance, and sometimes also in rates of age-related hippocampal atrophy, sex could be a potential modifier of age effects. The aim of this thesis was therefore to assess age effects on the hippocampus and its role in episodic and spatial memory across young (20-35 years), middle-aged (40-50 years) and older (60-70 years) adults, adopting a longitudinal-axis approach while considering interactions with sex. Study I evaluated hippocampal volume and activation in relation to associative memory across middle-aged and older adults. Age differences in associative memory were largest in men and paralleled by smaller volumes and less activation in the anterior hippocampus. Study II assessed hippocampus-dependent network-like organization of gray matter by measures of structural whole-brain covariance. The anterior and posterior hippocampus showed shared and distinct patterns of covariance, which were qualitatively comparable across age groups. However, participants’ expression of these patterns decreased as a function of age, comparably for men and women, and showed significant associations with episodic memory. Study III investigated age effects on resting-state functional connectivity and demonstrated that both the anterior and posterior hippocampus decreased in connectivity with several brain regions across middle-aged and older adults. Memory was only associated with age-related connectivity of the posterior hippocampus: episodic memory negatively with connectivity increasing as a function of age, and spatial memory positively with connectivity that decreased. These studies demonstrate distinct effects of age on the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and show that age-related decline of these regions differentially relates to episodic and spatial memory. Overall, findings highlight the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of the hippocampal axis in the assessment of its role in age-related memory decline.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Univ Mohamed Premier, Fac Sci, Oujda, Morocco.;LPTPM, Oujda, Morocco..
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik. Georg August Univ, Phys Inst 2, Gottingen, Germany.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Isacson, Max F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Mårtensson, Mikael U. F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Rangel Smith, Camila
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro H.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Searches for heavy ZZ and ZW resonances in the ℓℓqq and ννqq final states in pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2018Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 3, artikkel-id 009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports searches for heavy resonances decaying into ZZ or ZW using data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s - 13 TeV. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1), were recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider. The searches are performed in final states in which one Z boson decays into either a pair of light charged leptons (electrons and muons) or a pair of neutrinos, and the associated W boson or the other Z boson decays hadronically. No evidence of the production of heavy resonances is observed. Upper bounds on the production cross sections of heavy resonances times their decay branching ratios to ZZ or ZW are derived in the mass range 300-5000 GeV within the context of Standard Model extensions with additional Higgs bosons, a heavy vector triplet or warped extra dimensions. Production through gluon-gluon fusion, Drell-Yan or vector-boson fusion are considered, depending on the assumed model.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-07 13:00 D2, Stockholm
    Lapko, Yulia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM). Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering.
    Opening the black box of material criticality: heterogeneity and interrelations of companies within and across industrial sectors2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ‘material criticality’ has been introduced to examine availability and accessibility of natural resources that underlie industrial competitiveness and deployment of strategic technologies, such as electric mobility or wind turbines. The academic and policy discourse conceptualised material criticality rather as a black box, assuming industrial sectors to be monolithic, homogeneous and independent entities, neglecting complexity of the company dimension. The thesis questions appropriateness of these assumptions and aims to achieve the following objectives: 1) to examine the influence of heterogeneity and interrelations of companies on identification and mitigation of material criticality; and 2) to demonstrate their relevance for understanding material criticality.Through the exploratory case based research, the thesis highlights the importance of the company dimension for examination of critical materials. The findings indicate the need to extend the criticality analysis to consider power relations of companies along supply chains, and competitive relations of companies across industrial sectors at a shared resource market. These relations influence a company’s ability to identify and mitigate material criticality, which in turn affects an industrial system’s ability to withstand supply disruptions. Heterogeneity of companies within and across industrial sectors suggests against utility of generic outcomes of the criticality analysis at the national/global levels.The thesis provides implications for policy-makers regarding selective support for companies and industrial sectors to assist their efforts to mitigate material criticality. The results serve to raise awareness of practitioners about material criticality and to assist with the decision-making for development of mitigation strategies. Finally, the thesis calls for the need to establish a dialogue between policy-makers, industrial actors and researchers to advance understanding and analysis of material criticality.

  • Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Naghdad.
    Owens, Gary
    University of South Australia, Adelaide.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Centre, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Dahaan, Saadi
    Environment and Geomorphology Department, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chemometric Methods to Predict of Pb in Urban Soil from Port Pirie, South Australia, using Spectrally Active of Soil Carbon2018Inngår i: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, ISSN 0010-3624, E-ISSN 1532-2416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 73 soil samples were initially analyzed for lead (Pb) concentration as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity in the Port Pirie, South Australia. Chemometric techniques were used to assess the ability of near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict soil Pb using spectrally active soil characteristics such as soil carbon (C). The result indicated a strong linear relationship between log-transformed data of soil Pb and spectral reflectance in the range between 500 and 612 nm with R2 = 0.54 and a low root-mean-square error (RMSEv = 0.38) for the validation mode with an acceptable ratio of performance to deviation and ratio of error range (1.6 and 7.7, respectively). This study suggested that NIR spectroscopy based on auxiliary spectrally active components is a rapid and noninvasive assessment technique and has the ability to determine Pb contamination in urban soil to be useful in environmental health risk assessment.

  • Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Rostami, Ahmad
    Vidal, Allan
    Santos, Mateus
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Monti, Paolo
    Priority-Aware Service Orchestration Using Big Data Analytics for Dynamic Slicing in 5G Transport Networks2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2018-06-15 10:00 Forum Humanum, önköping
    Lannering, Christina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Experiences and outcomes of systematic preventive work to reduce malnutrition, falls and pressure ulcers in nursing home residents2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older people living in nursing homes are at a high risk of becoming malnourished, falling and developing pressure ulcers. In Sweden the national quality registry Senior Alert was developed to support prevention in these areas. Prevention according to Senior Alert follows a preventive care process of four steps, including risk assessment, analysis of the causes of risk, to determine and perform appropriate actions, and finally, to evaluate the care given.

    Aim: The overall aims of this thesis were to investigate how the preventive care process in Senior Alert functions as a tool for preventive work among older persons living in nursing homes, and to investigate the results of risk assessments and actions.

    Design: The thesis is based on three longitudinal quantitative studies (I, III, and IV) and one qualitative study (II). In Studies I and III, process- and patient results were compared among different groups of nursing home residents, with a follow-up time of 6 months. In Study IV, associations between the assessment instruments and the outcomes of weight loss, falls and pressure ulcers were investigated. The qualitative study (II) was based on focus group interviews with healthcare professionals and was analyzed using content analysis.

    Results: The residents included in the registry during the later years (2013-2014) had a higher proportion of registered preventive actions in the three areas, and were followed up more frequently regarding weight and new assessments than residents included during the earlier years (2010-2012). Nevertheless, regardless of risk, only 30% were reassessed, and 44% of the residents at risk for malnutrition were followed up for body weight within 6 months. No difference in weight change was found between a group of residents included in Senior Alert and a second group receiving ‘care as usual’. Generally, the mobility variables in the risk assessment instruments had the strongest associations with the tested outcomes of weight loss, fall and pressure ulcers, albeit in different ways. Healthcare professionals described that Senior Alert stimulated better teamwork while at the same time they experienced the increased documentation and time constraints as aggravating circumstances. They also described a lack of reliability of the assessment instruments in that they overrated the risks compared to their own clinical judgement. Healthcare professional’s knowledge about the evaluation part of the process was low.

    Conclusion: The evaluation and follow-up step of the preventive care process was not sufficiently applied. This was expressed by the participants in the focus groups and was also reflected in registry data by the varying time to follow-up and the poor event registration. As a consequence, the sample to measure outcomes within 6 months became small. Therefore, larger samples are needed to study longitudinal outcomes, if a fixed system-mandatory time point for follow-up is not implemented. A committed leadership is important to improve the preventive work and to stimulate follow-up of results.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 13:15 Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Uppsala
    Edlund, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Constructing an Arbiter of Status: A Study of the European Research Council's Emergence in the Field of Science2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on how certain actors are constructed into third-party arbiters of status. Such arbiters mediate the triadic relations in which status is created, assessing and suggesting certain candidates as particularly worthy of deference from audiences.

    While previous literature has provided us with compelling insights into the pervasive authority of status arbiters, less attention has been paid to the ways in which these arbiters reach their authoritative positions. I seek to build new knowledge on the processes through which third-party status arbiters are constructed by exploring how the European Research Council (ERC) was transformed into an authority in science. In a short period of time, the ERC’s evaluations of funding applications and subsequent allocations of research resources came to be approached as a benchmark of scientific quality, which scientists, departments, universities, and countries anxiously compared their research performance with. I suggest that these evaluations and allocations soon became more than instances in which quality was assessed and resources were distributed, thus turning into potent bases for status creation as well.

    In three empirical chapters, which draw upon documents, interviews, and observations, I place the ERC within the context of a field, showing how its construction into a third-party status arbiter needs to be understood as a process that unfolded over time. First, I look at major tensions and struggles that surrounded Europe-level science in the advent of the ERC’s founding. Then, I examine the active efforts with which the ERC attempted to engender acceptance for its evaluations of Starting Grant (StG) funding applications. Finally, I explore the status consequences of ERC StG allocations for the careers of scientists, the milieus within departments, and the relations between universities in Sweden.

    My findings contribute to previous literature by demonstrating how arbiters are constructed through mutually reinforcing relations in which the status-creating potential of evaluations is continuously framed and validated. My findings also contribute by showing how the creation of status over time requires constant maintenance efforts to sustain the agreement between arbiters and audiences in terms of candidates that are worthy of deference.

  • Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The MINT-project: Modeling infant language acquisition from parent-child interction2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Ingemarson, Maria
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap, Avdelningen för forskning om det civila samhället. Centrum för kunskapsutveckling i praktiken i Stockholm.
    Bergmark, Åsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Centrum för kunskapsutveckling i praktiken i Stockholm.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för kunskapsutveckling i praktiken i Stockholm.
    Att planera för boendestöd: Om planer, trepartssamtal och klientmedverkan i socialpsykiatrin2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Gunnarsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolebiblioteket.
    Att söka förändring2018Inngår i: Världen där utanför: Bibliotekariens roll som omvärldsbevakare och analytiker / [ed] Marja Haapalainen & Christine Wallén, Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket , 2018, s. 88-100Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Disputas: 2018-06-01 10:15 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Wiger, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Logistics management operationalised in a healthcare context: Understanding care chain effectiveness through logistics management theories and systems theory2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare improvements is constantly relevant and an important topic. Healthcare is frequently being called upon to be more cost-efficient and still fulfil demands regarding waiting times, quality and availability. Experience from structural changes in other contexts gives reason to be positive about the potential for logistics improvements in the healthcare sector as well. From a logistics perspective patients pass different care functions, units, organisations and health facilities. It is assumed that logistics management knowledge applied in healthcare can lead to lower costs, shorter waiting times, better patient service, shorter treatment times and increased capacity. This dissertation therefore presents an exploration of how logistics management theories can be operationalised in a healthcare context to understand care chain effectiveness.

    Theoretically, the operationalisation is done by systems theory creating compatibility between logistics management theories and the healthcare context. As a first step, features for a logistics system forms features for achieving care chain effectiveness. High care chain effectiveness is thus a desired condition and the care delivery system is the tool to achieve it. As the final step in the operationalisation the features for care chain effectiveness are in turn used to analyse today’s practices. Empirically, the research is based on qualitative data from a single case study with multiple units of analysis. It includes four care units at one of Sweden’s university hospitals, where the data is gathered through interviews, insight into management systems and document analysis. One of the main results is the 21 areas identified for analysing today’s practices by means of features for care chain effectiveness. Another main result is the four important concepts revealed through the operationalisation:

    • Lead time - the episode of care from order to delivery as the amount of time for patient cases between first contact with healthcare and the last.
    • Patient order fulfilment - fulfilment of patients’ needs, broken down into several smaller steps performed over time within different care units in one or several organisations, consisting of five sub-processes - order handling, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and discharge.
    • True demand – patients’ needs that is to be met and thus sets what care to deliver, i.e. the production plan and the subordinate resource plan.
    • System boundaries - defines which care units to include when focusing on the care delivery system’s performance as a whole and should be more important than the performance and productivity of each individual care unit.

    A number of direct suggestions for care chain improvement can also be found in the concluding remarks, for example that objectives linked to economic influx or penalty narrow the system and that lead time data on an aggregated level is needed to cover episodes of care. The theoretical contribution of the dissertation is to the field of logistics management through the methodological development of using these theories in a new context. The managerial contribution is to healthcare managers through providing opportunities to improve care chains primarily by means of a greater understanding of care delivery systems.

  • Disputas: 2018-05-25 10:00 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Brege, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring Proactive Market Strategies: Managing the Market to Create Value2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How can firms become more successful and achieve higher business performance? How can they manage more complex and dynamic markets and maintain a high competitiveness? The answer is: through a more proactive approach to managing the market and creating customer value. This thesis explores proactive market strategies, which are firm’s proactive strategies for creating, communicating, and delivering superior value to their customers, thereby achieving superior business performance. Prior literature in market orientation has touched the area of proactiveness in firms’ approach to the market, but never properly defines proactiveness and lacks a clear connection to actual firm activities. Thus, in order to better understand how firms can gain the performance benefits from proactiveness, this thesis sets out to explore what proactiveness in a market-strategic context entails and what proactive activities firms perform in implementing their proactive market strategies.

    The research is based on two papers, each detailing one of the two complementary branches of the research. The first paper presents the conceptual work, focusing on a typology of marketoriented strategic behaviors, which are important for understanding how firms can gain the potential performance benefits of market orientation and how they can achieve behavioral fit among their activities. The second paper presents the empirical work, focusing on the qualitative case study performed and the themes of proactiveness that emerged from it. These papers are then synthesized into a holistic view of proactive market strategies in the thesis.

    The thesis finds that proactiveness at the firm level in a marketing context means a firm is future-oriented, initiative-taking, change-inducing, and creative. With a basis in this definition and the extensive literature on market orientation, the thesis presents conceptual developments that are important for understanding proactiveness in market strategy, such as a framework for understanding market strategies through firm activities and one for identifying and categorizing different types of proactive activities. Furthermore, the thesis gives more detailed descriptions of the case firms and how their proactive activities help them achieve success.

    This results in a thorough exploration of proactive market strategies, which contributes to the marketing and strategic management literatures by clearly defining proactiveness, conceptualizing and describing proactive market strategies, and delineating proactive firm activities to better understand how firms are being proactive. In doing so, the thesis provides interesting directions for future research and presents interesting implications for managerial practice.  

  • Disputas: 2018-06-07 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Gutierrez Salas, Mauricio
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Development of Accurate Reduced Order Models in a Simulation Tool for Turbomachinery Aeromechanical Phenomena2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern gas turbines are still vulnerable to vibrations when operated at certain speeds. This unstable environment can lead to high cycle fatigue (HCF) and damage several of the components inside the turbine. Since engineers are striving to increase the turbines’ efficiency with thinner and more complex blade shapes, these critical speeds will always be present. For these reasons, aeromechanical analyses that is the study of structural and aerodynamic forces need to be assessed with a high level of accuracy. Since this type of analysis are very computational expensive, reduced order models (ROMs) are utilized to decrease the degrees of freedom (DoF) for a faster computation without compromising the accuracy. The present work focuses on cyclic and noncyclic ROMs implemented in an already existing aeroelastic tool, with different characteristics in their condensation and ease of usage depending on the analysis.

     

    The AROMA (Aeroelastic Reduced Order Model Analysis) tool has been previously developed to predict the fatigue life of turbomachinery blades with the use of ROMs. The aim of this work has been to improve the tool in terms of accuracy, flexibility and speed, by employing additional reduction methods capable to predict forced responses analysis of large industrial-size models.

     

    The understanding of an aeroelastic phenomena would not be complete if mistuning is not considered in the analysis. A mistuned bladed-disk means that all its sectors do not share the same mass and stiffness properties, which in reality this is the case. Mistuning can be addressed as probabilistic, taking into account the manufacturing tolerances and wear of the bladed disk, or it can be assessed as deterministic, also known as intentional mistuning.

     

    The latter is achieved to increase the flutter stability by breaking the circumferential traveling waves modes due to energy confinement, and also to have a certain understanding of the forced response amplitude, which helps in designing for worst and best case scenarios.

     

    The ROMs that have been incorporated in the AROMA tool are known as the component mode synthesis (CMS) and subset nominal mode (SNM) approaches. The CMS is split into two branches, these are the fixed- and freeinterface methods known as Craig-Bampton (CB) and Craig-Chang (CC), respectively. An intensive study with numerical and experimental validation has been performed for these three reduction methods. The outcome of the study is that each of these methods have their own drawbacks and benefits depending on the aeromechanical analysis problem. The SNM showed that it produces fast computations, with high level of accuracy when the mistuning level is low. On the other hand, a novel and unique approach, Craig-Chang multisubstructuring (CCMS), demonstrated fast computations and high accuracy when the mistuning level is high.

  • Fuertes, Elaine
    et al.
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Antó, Josep M.
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo Guido
    Demoly, Pascal
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Gullón, José-Antonio
    Janson, Christer
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Holm, Mathias
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Martinez-Moratalla, Jesús
    Nowak, Dennis
    Erquicia, Silvia Pascual
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    Raherison, Chantal
    Raza, Wasif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Real, Francisco Gómez
    Russell, Melissa
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Weyler, Joost
    Aymerich, Judith Garcia
    Leisure-time vigorous physical activity is associated with better lung function: the prospective ECRHS study2018Inngår i: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 73, nr 4, s. 376-384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We assessed associations between physical activity and lung function, and its decline, in the prospective population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey cohort. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured in 3912 participants at 27-57 years and 39-67 years (mean time between examinations= 11.1 years). Physical activity frequency and duration were assessed using questionnaires and used to identify active individuals (physical activity >= 2 times and >= 1 hour per week) at each examination. Adjusted mixed linear regression models assessed associations of regular physical activity with FEV1 and FVC. Results: Physical activity frequency and duration increased over the study period. In adjusted models, active individuals at the first examination had higher FEV1 (43.6 mL (95% CI 12.0 to 75.1)) and FVC (53.9 mL (95% CI 17.8 to 89.9)) at both examinations than their non-active counterparts. These associations appeared restricted to current smokers. In the whole population, FEV1 and FVC were higher among those who changed from inactive to active during the follow-up (38.0 mL (95% CI 15.8 to 60.3) and 54.2 mL (95% CI 25.1 to 83.3), respectively) and who were consistently active, compared with those consistently non-active. No associations were found for lung function decline. Conclusion: Leisure-time vigorous physical activity was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC over a 10-year period among current smokers, but not with FEV1 and FVC decline.

  • Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Effective schools, school segregation, and the link with school achievement2018Inngår i: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether 3 teacher-rated aspects of school effectiveness differ across school segregation profiles in Stockholm, and to what extent these indicators are associated with the academic achievement of 9th-grade students. Analyses were based on 2 cross-sectional data collections performed in 2014 and 2016, respectively (147 school units), one among teachers (= 2,024) and the other among 9th-grade students (= 9,151). Multilevel analysis was applied, estimating 2-level random intercept linear regression models. Results show that teachers’ ratings of school leadership, teacher cooperation, and school ethos, as well as student-reported marks differ across school segregation profiles. Findings further reveal significant associations between these school effectiveness indicators and student performance, even when taking student family background and the school’s student body composition into consideration. In part, these associations are also identified within segregation profiles. Moreover, results show that school ethos acts as a mediator between school segregation profile and student achievement.

  • Charlotta, Nordlöf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Tekniklärares attityder till teknikämnet och teknikundervisningen2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolforskning i allmänhet visar på att läraren är viktig, läraren är faktiskt en av de viktigaste faktorerna för elevernas framgång. Läraren är betydelsefull både när det gäller elevernas prestationer och deras attityder. Från tidigare attitydforskning vet vi att lärarens attityder har betydelse för undervisningen, men även för lärarens eget tankesätt. När det kommer till området teknikundervisning behöver lärarnas attityder undersökas och utforskas mer, vilket denna licentiatuppsats, bestående av två delstudier, bidrar till. Den övergripande forskningsfrågan är; Vad har svenska tekniklärare i grundskolan för attityder till teknikämnet och teknikundervisningen? Tekniklärarnas attityder har undersökts med både kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder. Den första studien baseras på en enkätundersökning med 1153 tekniklärare i Sverige. Till att börja med identifierades fyra dimensioner av attityd i materialet; Teknikundervisning är viktigt, Förutsättningarna för teknikundervisning är goda, Kursplanen är i fokus för teknikundervisningen och Läraren har intresse, kunskap och självförtroende. Vidare så fanns tre kluster av lärare, Positiva, Negativa och Blandade, vilka baserades på lärarnas attityd till teknikämnet och teknikundervisning. Därefter testades olika variabler som prediktorer för klustertillhörighet, och att ha tekniklärarutbildning visade sig vara den mest betydelsefulla prediktorn. Licentiatuppsatsens andra studie är kvalitativ och bygger på intervjuer med 10 svenska tekniklärare. I den delstudien studeras en specifik del av attityder till teknikundervisning, nämligen lärarnas upplevda kontroll, som består av två komponenter; upplevd självförmåga (self-efficacy) och kontextberoende. Studien resulterade i tre underkategorier av upplevd självförmåga (self-efficacy). Dessa var Erfarenhet, utbildning och intresse, Ämneskunskap och Förberedelse. Vidare så utvecklades fyra underkategorier av kontextberoende; Stöd av kollegor, Kursplan, Resurser och Status. Lärare har olika attityder till olika delar av teknikundervisningen, men generellt sett så har lärare med tekniklärarutbildning fördelar vad gäller attityd. Vidare så pekar resultatet på att kontextuella faktorer både kan begränsa och utveckla teknikundervisningen.

    Att avsätta tid på olika sätt: genom tid för teknikundervisning, tid för tekniklärare att mötas och tid för utbildning av tekniklärare, visar sig vara möjliga vägar för att komma framåt och att förbättra tekniklärares attityder till teknikundervisning.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 10:00 D2, Stockholm
    A Monfared, Behzad
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Magnetic Refrigeration for Near Room-Temperature Applications2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Refrigeration plays a crucial role in many different sectors and consumes about 17% of the electricity produced globally. This significant energy consumption implies large share of refrigeration in primary energy consumption and other environmental impacts. In addition to the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, the vapor-compression systems contribute in global warming due to the release of their gaseous refrigerants into the atmosphere. As an alternative technology for near room-temperature applications, magnetic refrigeration is proposed by some researchers to eliminate the release of gaseous refrigerants into the atmosphere and to reduce the energy consumption. This thesis is a compilation of a number of studies done on magnetic refrigeration for room-temperature applications.

    In the first study, the environmental impacts associated to magnetic refrigeration are looked at closely through a life cycle assessment. The life cycle assessment indicates that because of the environmental burdens related to the rare-earth materials used in magnetic refrigeration, the reduction in the environmental impacts is not guaranteed by switching to magnetic refrigeration technology. Accordingly to avoid the extra environmental impacts the magnetic refrigeration systems should use magnetic materials frugally, which requires an optimized design. In addition, operation with higher efficiency compared to vapor-compression systems is necessary to have environmental advantages, at least in some impact categories.

    A practical method to optimize the design of magnetic refrigeration systems, e.g. to have a compact design or high efficiency, is utilizing a flexible software model, with which the effect of varying different parameters on the performance of the system can be simulated. Such a software model of the magnetic refrigeration system is developed and validated in this project. In developing the model one goal is to add to the precision of the simulated results by taking more details into consideration. This goal is achieved by an innovative way of modeling the parasitic heat transfer and including the effect of the presence of magnetocaloric materials on the strength of the field created by the magnet assembly. In addition, some efforts are made to modify or correct the existing correlations to include the effect of binding agents used in some active magnetic regenerators. Validation of the developed software model is done using the experimental results obtained from the prototype existing at the Department of Energy Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.

    One of the parameters that can be modified by the developed software model is the choice of the magnetocaloric materials for each layer in a layered active magnetic regenerator. Utilizing the software model for optimizing the choice of the materials for the layers reveals that materials with critical temperatures equal to the cyclic average temperature of the layers in which they are used do not necessarily result in the desired optimum performance. In addition, for maximizing different outputs of the models, such as energy efficiency or temperature lift sustained at the two ends of the regenerators, different choice of materials for the layers are needed. Therefore, in other studies seeking to improve one of the outputs of a system, the choice of the transition or critical temperatures of the materials for each layer is an additional parameter to be optimized.

    The prototype existing at the Department of Energy Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, was initially designed for replacing the vapor-compression system of a professional refrigerator. However, it could not fulfil the requirements for which it was initially designed. The aforementioned developed simulation model is used to see how much the choice of the materials, size of the particles, and number of layers can enhance the performance while the operation frequency and flow rate of the heat transfer fluid are at their optimum values. In other words, in that study the room for improvement in the performance without applying major changes in the system such as the geometry of the regenerator, which implies redesigning the whole magnet assembly, is investigated. In the redesign process the effect of binding agent and the limitations associated to different properties of it is also investigated theoretically. Nevertheless, the study did not show that with keeping the geometry of the regenerators and the currently existing magnetocaloric materials the initial goals of the prototype can be achieved.

    In the next study more flexible choice of geometries and magnetocaloric materials are considered. In fact, in this study it is investigated how much the magnetocaloric materials need to be improved so that magnetic refrigeration systems can compete with vapor-compression ones in terms of performance. For the two investigated cases, the magnetic-field dependent properties of the currently existing materials are enough provided that some other issues such as low mechanical stability and inhomogeneity of the properties are solved. Nevertheless, for more demanding design criteria, such as delivering large cooling capacity over a considerable temperature span while the magnetic materials are used sparingly, the magnetic-field dependent properties need to be enhanced, as well.

    A less explored area in room-temperature magnetic refrigeration is the subject of another study included in the thesis. In this study, solid-state magnetic refrigeration systems with Peltier elements as heat switches are modeled. Since the Peltier elements consume electricity to pump heat, the modeled systems can be considered hybrid magnetocaloric-Peltier cooling systems. For such systems the detailed transient behavior of the Peltier elements together with layers of magnetocaloric materials are modeled. The mathematical model is suitable for implementation in programing languages without the need for commercial modeling platforms. The parameters affecting the performance of the modeled system are numerous, and optimization of them requires a separate study. However, the preliminary attempts on optimizing the modeled system does not give promising results. Accordingly, focusing on passive heat switches can be more beneficial.

  • Ålund, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Beräkningsmatematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Beräkningsmatematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Stable Domain Decomposition Technique for Advection–Diffusion Problems2018Inngår i: Journal of Scientific Computing, ISSN 0885-7474, E-ISSN 1573-7691, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of implicit methods for numerical time integration typically generates very large systems of equations, often too large to fit in memory. To address this it is necessary to investigate ways to reduce the sizes of the involved linear systems. We describe a domain decomposition approach for the advection–diffusion equation, based on the Summation-by-Parts technique in both time and space. The domain is partitioned into non-overlapping subdomains. A linear system consisting only of interface components is isolated by solving independent subdomain-sized problems. The full solution is then computed in terms of the interface components. The Summation-by-Parts technique provides a solid theoretical framework in which we can mimic the continuous energy method, allowing us to prove both stability and invertibility of the scheme. In a numerical study we show that single-domain implementations of Summation-by-Parts based time integration can be improved upon significantly. Using our proposed method we are able to compute solutions for grid resolutions that cannot be handled efficiently using a single-domain formulation. An order of magnitude speed-up is observed, both compared to a single-domain formulation and to explicit Runge–Kutta time integration.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 10:00 Hambergssalen, Uppsala
    Svensson, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Mesoscale Processes over the Baltic Sea2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to study mesoscale processes above the Baltic Sea, which is a small, semi-enclosed sea where land-sea interaction may have a large impact on the offshore conditions. It is only the last tens of years that offshore research has become more popular, and one reason for this is the increasing offshore wind energy, which poses the need for accurate estimates of wind speed and turbulence conditions in the marine environment. In this thesis a range of mesoscale processes over the Baltic Sea are studied using the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and different types of measurements.It is found that mesoscale effects are largest during spring and summer, when stable conditions dominate. The whole Baltic sea surface is affected by warm-air advection and low-level jets. There is very little spatial variation in seasonally averaged fields, which shows that the extent of mesoscale effects is several hundred kilometres. Wind speed and temperature profiles can thus not be described solely by the local conditions even far out over sea surface. Sea breezes are relatively unimportant for modyfing the seasonally averaged wind fields, but other types of low-level jets have a large influence. Results show that most of the low-level jets are likely created by inertial oscillations initiated when air flows across a coastline from the convective land surface to stable sea surface.Evaluation of the model shows that the discrepancies are largest during very stable conditions, but are also quite large during very unstable. The reasons for this are discussed.Several cases of boundary layer rolls are investigated using measurements and simulations and it is found that the rolls are likely created over the convective mainland and advected out over the stable sea surface, which may be a new finding that has not been reported before.

  • Medina, Anya
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Parween, Saba
    Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Mol Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Ullsten, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Vishnu, Neelanjan
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Siu, Yuk Ting
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Quach, My
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Bennet, Hedvig
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Balhuizen, Alexander
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Åkesson, Lina
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Wierup, Nils
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Mol Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Lernmark, Åke
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Fex, Malin
    Lund Univ, Ctr Diabet, Clin Res Ctr, Skane Univ Hosp SUS, Jan Waldentromsgata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Early deficits in insulin secretion, beta cell mass and islet blood perfusion precede onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in BioBreeding rats2018Inngår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 896-905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Genetic studies show coupling of genes affecting beta cell function to type 1 diabetes, but hitherto no studies on whether beta cell dysfunction could precede insulitis and clinical onset of type 1 diabetes are available. Methods We used 40-day-old BioBreeding (BB) DRLyp/Lyp rats (a model of spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes) and diabetes-resistant DRLyp/+ and DR+/+ littermates (controls) to investigate beta cell function in vivo, and insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro. Beta cell mass was assessed by optical projection tomography (OPT) and morphometry. Additionally, measurements of intra-islet blood flow were performed using microsphere injections. We also assessed immune cell infiltration, cytokine expression in islets (by immunohistochemistry and qPCR), as well as islet Glut2 expression and ATP/ADP ratio to determine effects on glucose uptake and metabolism in beta cells. Results DRLyp/Lyp rats were normoglycaemic and without traces of immune cell infiltrates. However, IVGTTs revealed a significant decrease in the acute insulin response to glucose compared with control rats (1685.3 +/- 121.3 vs 633.3 +/- 148.7; p < 0.0001). In agreement, insulin secretion was severely perturbed in isolated islets, and both first- and second-phase insulin release were lowered compared with control rats, while glucagon secretion was similar in both groups. Interestingly, after 5-7 days of culture of islets from DRLyp/Lyp rats in normal media, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was improved; although, a significant decrease in GSIS was still evident compared with islets from control rats at this time (7393.9 +/- 1593.7 vs 4416.8 +/- 1230.5 pg islet(-1) h(-1); p < 0.0001). Compared with controls, OPT of whole pancreas from DRLyp/Lyp rats revealed significant reductions in medium (4.1 x 10(9) +/- 9.5 x 10(7) vs 3.8 x 10(9) +/- 5.8 x 10(7) mu m(3); p = 0.044) and small sized islets (1.6 x 10(9) +/- 5.1 x 10(7) vs 1.4 x 10(9) +/- 4.5 x 10(7) mu m(3); p = 0.035). Finally, we found lower intra-islet blood perfusion in vivo (113.1 +/- 16.8 vs 76.9 +/- 11.8 mu l min(-1) [g pancreas](-1); p = 0.023) and alterations in the beta cell ATP/ADP ratio in DRLyp/Lyp rats vs control rats. Conclusions/interpretation The present study identifies a deterioration of beta cell function and mass, and intra-islet blood flow that precedes insulitis and diabetes development in animals prone to autoimmune type 1 diabetes. These underlying changes in islet function may be previously unrecognised factors of importance in type 1 diabetes development.

  • Juter, Kristina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Hansson, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Hansson, Örjan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Redfors, Andreas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Upper secondary physics teachers’ views of mathematics2018Inngår i: Proceedings of Madif 11, 2018, s. 102-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physics teachers at upper secondary school indirectly teach mathematics in their physics classes through their teaching strategies and preferred ways of using mathematics. Their views of physics and mathematics are important for the way they depict mathematics to the students. A web-questionnaire was administered to Swedish physics teachers. Part of the questions investigated views of mathematics, i.e. as a means for application, as a schema, as a formal construct or as processes. Mathematics as a means for application was the dominant opinion. Students’ lack of knowledge in mathematics was regarded as a problem to many of the teachers, and particularly problem solving and modelling. Students’ conceptual and relevance proficiencies in mathematics were less problematical.

  • Willers, Carl
    et al.
    Lekander, Ingrid
    Ekstrand, Elisabeth
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.
    von Euler, Mia
    Sex as predictor for achieved health outcomes and received care in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage: a register-based study2018Inngår i: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Differences in stroke care and health outcomes between men and women are debated. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between patients' sex and post-stroke health outcomes and received care in a Swedish setting.

    Methods: Patients with a registered diagnosis of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or ischemic stroke (IS) within regional administrative systems (ICD-10 codes I61* or I63*) and the Swedish Stroke Register during 2010-2011 were included and followed for 1 year. Data linkage to multiple other data sources on individual level was performed. Adjustments were performed for age, socioeconomic factors, living arrangements, ADL dependency, and stroke severity in multivariate regression analyses of health outcomes and received care. Health outcomes (e.g., survival, functioning, satisfaction) and received care measures (regional and municipal resources and processes) were studied.

    Results: Study population: 13,775 women and 13,916 men. After case-mix adjustments for the above factors, we found women to have higher 1-year survival rates after both IS (ORfemale = 1.17, p < 0.001) and ICH (ORfemale = 1.65, p < 0.001). Initial inpatient stay at hospital was, however, shorter for women βfemale, IS = -0.05, p < 0.001; βfemale, ICH = -0.08, p < 0.005). For IS, good function (mRS <= 2) was more common in men (ORfemale = 0.86, p < 0.001) who also received more inpatient care during the first year βfemale = -0.05, p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: A lower proportion of women had good functioning, a difference that remained in IS after adjustments for age, socioeconomic factors, living arrangements, ADL dependency, and stroke severity. The amount of received hospital care was lower for women after adjustments. Whether shorter hospital stay results in lower function or is a consequence of lower function cannot be elucidated. One-year survival was higher in men when no adjustments were made but lower after adjustments. This likely reflects that women were older at time of stroke, had more severe strokes, and more disability pre-stroke-factors that make a direct comparison between the sexes intricate.

  • Juter, Kristina
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Wästerlid, Catarina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning.
    The space between pre-service primary teachers’ first year status and their goals2018Inngår i: Proceedings of Madif 11, 2018, s. 102-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ mathematics teacher identity is formed in various settings. A study with 45 pre-service students in their first year of education was conducted as part of alongitudinal study of year 4-6 mathematics teachers’ identity formation, to study the development during their education in terms of mathematical knowledge, pupils’ learning and the teacher role. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The result shows that many students were reluctant to use mathematics and had conceptions that may mislead pupils. The students’ learning focus was less on pupils’ learning than mathematics and teacher role, but theirideal teacher focused on pupils’ learning.

  • Disputas: 2018-05-25 10:00 Portalen, Insikten
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Metamodel Based Multi-Objective Optimization with Finite-Element Applications2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the increase in accessibility of computational resources and the increase of computer power during the last two decades, designers are able to create computer models to simulate the behavior of complex products. To address global competitiveness, companies are forced to optimize the design of their products and production processes. Optimizing the design and production very often need several runs of computationally expensive simulation models. Therefore, integrating metamodels, as an efficient and sufficiently accurate approximate of the simulation model, with optimization algorithms is necessary. Furthermore, in most of engineering problems, more than one objective function has to be optimized, leading to multi-objective optimization(MOO). However, the urge to employ metamodels in MOO, i.e., metamodel based MOO (MB-MOO), is more substantial.Radial basis functions (RBF) is one of the most popular metamodeling methods. In this thesis, a new approach to constructing RBF with the bias to beset a priori by using the normal equation is proposed. The performance of the suggested approach is compared to the classic RBF and four other well-known metamodeling methods, in terms of accuracy, efficiency and, most importantly, suitability for integration with MOO evolutionary algorithms. It has been found that the proposed approach is accurate in most of the test functions, and it was the fastest compared to other methods. Additionally, the new approach is the most suitable method for MB-MOO, when integrated with evolutionary algorithms. The proposed approach is integrated with the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) and applied to two real-world engineering problems: MB-MOO of the disk brake system of a heavy truck, and the metal cutting process in a turning operation. Thereafter, the Pareto-optimal fronts are obtained and the results are presented. The MB-MOO in both case studies has been found to be an efficient and effective method. To validate the results of the latter MB-MOO case study, a framework for automated finite element (FE) simulation based MOO (SB-MOO) of machining processes is developed and presented by applying it to the same metal cutting process in a turning operation. It has been proved that the framework is effective in achieving the MOO of machining processes based on actual FE simulations.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-12 14:00 F3, Stockholm
    Jin, Junchen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Advance Traffic Signal Control Systems with Emerging Technologies2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, traffic congestion poses critical problems including the undermined mobility and sustainability efficiencies. Mitigating traffic congestions in urban areas is a crucial task for both research and in practice. With decades of experience in road traffic controls, there is still room for improving traffic control measures; especially with the emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and Big Data. The focus of this thesis lies in the development and implementation of enhanced traffic signal control systems, one of the most ubiquitous and challenging traffic control measures.

    This thesis makes the following major contributions. Firstly, a simulation-based optimization framework is proposed, which is inherently general in which various signal control types, and different simulation models and optimization methods can be integrated. Requiring heavy computing resources is a common issue of simulation-based optimization approaches, which is addressed by an advanced genetic algorithm and parallel traffic simulation in this study.

    The second contribution is an investigation of an intelligent local control system. The local signal control operation is formulated as a sequential decision-making process where each controller or control component is modeled as an intelligent agent. The agents make decisions based on traffic conditions and the deployed road infrastructure, as well as the implemented control scheme. A non-parametric state estimation method and an adaptive control scheme by reinforcement learning (RL) are introduced to facilitate such an intelligent system.

    The local intelligence is expanded to an arterial road using a decentralized design, which is enabled by a hierarchical framework. Then, a network of signalized intersections is operated under the cooperation of agents at different levels of hierarchy. An agent at a lower level is instructed by the agent at the next higher level toward a common operational goal. Agents at the same level can communicate with their neighbors and perform collective behaviors.

    Additionally, a multi-objective RL approach is in use to handle the potential conflict between agents at different hierarchical levels. Simulation experiments have been carried out, and the results verify the capabilities of the proposed methodologies in traffic signal control applications. Furthermore, this thesis demonstrates an opportunity to employ the systems in practice when the system is programmed on an intermediate hardware device. Such a device can receive streaming detection data from signal controller hardware or the simulation environment and override the controlled traffic lights in real time.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-06 09:15 Enghoffsalen, Uppsala
    Schiller, Petter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Thoraxkirurgi.
    Mechanical Circulatory Support in Left Ventricular Heart Failure2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) with ventricular assist devices or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) has become the standard treatment in patients with cardiogenic shock unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. However, the haemodynamic effects of these devices are not yet fully described, nor are their effects on ventricular function and myocardial recovery.

    The aims of this thesis are to increase knowledge of the haemodynamic changes during MCS in different settings and to provide new insights into how MCS therapy should be guided in the specific patient.

    In Studies I and II, we developed experimental animal models to investigate the effect of VA ECMO on left ventricular (LV) performance and size of myocardial infarction in different cannulation strategies. In Study I, we found that the LV performance was negatively affected by VA ECMO in both centrally and peripherally cannulated animals. In Study II, we specifically studied the effect of VA ECMO with and without the addition of LV drainage on the size of experimentally induced myocardial infarction. The results showed that active LV decompression had no effect on infarct size in the acute setting.

    Studies III and IV are retrospective studies on patients in cardiogenic shock treated with short-term mechanical support with either Impella® (Studies III and IV) or VA ECMO (Study IV). In Study IV, we concluded that treatment with Impella® has excellent effects on haemodynamic parameters and an acceptable mortality and complication rate. The studied pre-implantation patient parameters did not significantly affect outcome. In Study IV, we compared the outcome of patients treated with Impella® with those treated with VA ECMO. After adjustment for pre-implantation patient status, as defined by SAVE score, no difference in short- or long-term mortality was seen between the two groups.

    In conclusion, VA ECMO, whether central or peripheral, negatively affects the LV, and the addition of a LV drain has no effect on infarct size in these experimental models. Both Impella® and VA ECMO offer good haemodynamic results with acceptable mortality and complication rates in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. When adjusted for the SAVE score, the outcomes of both treatment modalities are comparable.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-01 10:00 M311, Stockholm
    Laspas, Theodoros
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Maskin- och processteknologi.
    Closed Force Loop Evaluation of Machining Systems2018Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine tools accuracy has been a cornerstone in defining machining system capability and directly affecting dimensional and geometrical tolerance of machined parts. The effort for achieving higher precision and accuracy can be distinguished in two general ideas. One is to improve performance of machine tools by designing better, stiffer and more accurate machine tools. The other is to develop tools and methods for evaluating and measuring their behaviour and gain knowledge of their performance. In order to properly control the machine tool characteristics that can affect and improve their accuracy such as static stiffness and static accuracy.This thesis is aiming at establishing and further advancing the idea of loaded testing of machining systems and the concept of Elastically Linked Systems as a framework for measuring, identifying and characterising quasi-static stiffness of machine tools under loaded conditions. This will allow the creation of an improved capability profile of machining system accuracy. The focus is on the implementation of Elastically Linked Systems concept (ELS) through the Loaded Double Bar system, a measurement method that can partly simulate the process-machine interaction by reproducing forces exerted on the machine tool structure for the evaluation of system characteristics under loaded condition. This allows the qualitative and quantitative evaluation and comparison of machine tools for the purpose of accuracy enhancement, identification of weak directions with potential utilization in process planning, machine procurement and maintenance.Through two case studies, the capability to identify the effect of machine components and structure behaviour is shown.

  • Matikas, Alexios
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Margolin, Sara
    Stockholm South Gen Hosp, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellström, Mats
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Hemming
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bengtsson, Nils-Olof
    Norrland Univ Hosp, Umea, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Lena
    Cty Hosp, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Edlund, Per
    Gavle Cent Hosp, Gavle, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Per
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Oncol,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lidbrink, Elisabet
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Linderholm, Barbro
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Oncol,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindman, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Malmstrom, Per
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol & Radiat Phys, Lund, Sweden..
    Villman, Kenneth
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden..
    Foukakis, Theodoros
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bergh, Jonas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Radiumhemmet, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Long-term safety and survival outcomes from the Scandinavian Breast Group 2004-1 randomized phase II trial of tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer2018Inngår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 168, nr 2, s. 349-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although adjuvant polychemotherapy improves outcomes for early breast cancer, the significant variability in terms of pharmacokinetics results in differences in efficacy and both short and long-term toxicities. Retrospective studies support the use of dose tailoring according to the hematologic nadirs. The SBG 2004-1 trial was a randomized feasibility phase II study which assessed tailored dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) followed by docetaxel (T) (group A), the same regimen with fixed doses (group B) and the TAC regimen (group C). Women aged 18-65 years, ECOG PS 0-1 with at least one positive axillary lymph node were randomized 1:1:1. The primary endpoint of the study was the safety and feasibility of the treatment. Toxicity was graded according to CTC-AE version 3.0. The design and short-term toxicity have been previously published. Here, we report safety and efficacy data after 10 years of follow-up. A total of 124 patients were included in the study. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, the probability for 10-year survival was 78.5, 75.1, and 63.4% and for relapse free survival 64.1, 71.0, and 59.5% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. There were no cases of clinically diagnosed cardiotoxicity or hematologic malignancies. No patient was lost to follow-up. In this randomized phase II trial, tailored dose adjuvant chemotherapy was feasible, without an increased risk for long-term adverse events after a median follow-up of 10 years.

  • Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL..
    Event-related potentials as indices of mental workload while using an in-vehicle information system2018Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New in-vehicle information systems are now being commercialized. Despite the expected benefits, some concerns exist that they may overload drivers’ capacity and decrease performance. According to the multiple resource theory (Wickens, Hum Factors 50:449–455, https://doi.org/10.1518/001872008X288394 , 2008), overload may occur at different stages of processing, that is, perceptual–central and/or response-related stages. Therefore, different measures may be needed to detect such specific demands. We explored the sensitivity of different mental workload measurements during the performance of an auditory task alone (single task) and in combination with a tracking task that was presented without (dual task) or, with a visual display (triple task). The demands associated with the number of concurrent tasks (single, dual and triple tasks), tracking speed (low, high, adjustable) and their interaction were analyzed. To account for different processing requirements, mental workload was assessed using subjective, behavioral (performance on the auditory task) and psychophysiological measurements (event-related potentials). 17 young adults participated in the study. The results showed that most measurements discriminated between the performances of one or more tasks, as well as between low and high speeds. However, only the subjective ratings and tracking task performance further discriminated between the dual- and triple-task conditions. Finally, ERPs (N1 and P3) were the only measure detecting increases in cognitive demands associated with higher requirements on processing speed combined with the addition of the display. Our results suggest that ERPs may provide complementary information to other traditional mental workload measures. Its applications in the evaluation and design of future systems should be investigated.

  • Lavassani, Mehrzad
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Combining Fog Computing with Sensor Mote Machine Learning for Industrial IoT2018Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, nr 5, artikkel-id 1532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a global trend becoming ever more important to our connected and sustainable society. This trend also affects industry where the Industrial Internet of Things is an important part, and there is a need to conserve spectrum as well as energy when communicating data to a fog or cloud back-end system. In this paper we investigate the benefits of fog computing by proposing a novel distributed learning model on the sensor device and simulating the data stream in the fog, instead of transmitting all raw sensor values to the cloud back-end. To save energy and to communicate as few packets as possible, the updated parameters of the learned model at the sensor device are communicated in longer time intervals to a fog computing system. The proposed framework is implemented and tested in a real world testbed in order to make quantitative measurements and evaluate the system. Our results show that the proposed model can achieve a 98% decrease in the number of packets sent over the wireless link, and the fog node can still simulate the data stream with an acceptable accuracy of 97%. We also observe an end-to-end delay of 180 ms in our proposed three-layer framework. Hence, the framework shows that a combination of fog and cloud computing with a distributed data modeling at the sensor device for wireless sensor networks can be beneficial for Industrial Internet of Things applications.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-05 10:00 B2, Stockholm
    Yvell, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental Studies of Deformation Structures in Stainless Steels using EBSD2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the focus has been the study of deformation structures in stainless steels by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Via increased knowledge of the evolution of the substructure during deformation, the design and control of the manufacturing process can be improved.

    A relation was found between the active deformation mechanisms, the evolution of low angle boundaries (LABs) and the strain hardening rate. When deformation twinning was an active deformation mechanism in an austenitic stainless steel with lower stacking fault energy (SFE), the strain hardening rate was maintained up to large strains due to formation of LABs. The deformation twin boundaries acted as new obstacles for dislocation slip which in turn increased the formation of LABs even further. During deformation by slip in an austenitic stainless steel with a higher SFE, the strain hardening rate instead decreased when LABs were formed. A high value of SFE promotes dislocation cross slip which in turn increases annihilation of dislocations leading to a minor increase in LAB formation.

    Deformation structures formed in surface grains during in situ tensile tests were found to develop at lower strains than in bulk grains obtained from interrupted conventional tensile tests. This behavior is consistent with the fact that dislocations sources and deformation twinning operate at approximately half the stress on a free surface as compared to the bulk.

    The deformation structures were quantified by measuring size distributions for entities bounded by LABs and high angle boundaries (HABs). The size distributions were found to be well described by bimodal lognormal distribution functions. The average size for the distribution of small grains and subgrains correlated well with the mean free distance of dislocation slip and to the strain hardening.

  • Disputas: 2018-06-08 10:15 TEMCAS, Hus T, Linköping
    Backman, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy efficiency in Swedish SMEs: Exploring barriers, knowledge creation and the role of municipal energy efficiency programs2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze how municipalities support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in their work to improve their energy efficiency. The purpose of this study is to increase the current understanding of how the methods and tools used by municipalities to assist SMEs in improving their energy efficiency influence the end results in terms of achieved energy efficiency, and how knowledge related to energy efficiency is created within SMEs. This thesis consists of two separate case studies that examine how two municipalities used a network approach to support SMEs in implementing energy efficient measures.  

    The theoretical frameworks of policy networks, barriers, communities of practice (COPs), and energy efficiency networks were used in this thesis. The findings are presented in the appended four articles. An overall conclusion is that networks that provide information in the form of a report with technological solutions as the only output are less likely to reach the agreed-upon goals. To achieve a more successful result, SMEs must be active in the process; they must be allowed to create knowledge and understanding that they perceive as valuable and relevant for themselves. Another important result is that information is not automatically transformed by SMEs into knowledge. In fact, SMEs need a platform from which they can negotiate the received information and use it to create knowledge through practice and social interaction. Finally, it was found that the type of technological solution is not insignificant; the type of energy efficient measure to be implemented and its level of complexity affect how a municipality should support energy efficiency work among SMEs. 

  • Oudin Åström, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    Center for Health and the Global Environment, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA..
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK..
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK..
    Investigating changes in mortality attributable to heat and cold in Stockholm, Sweden2018Inngår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Projections of temperature-related mortality rely upon exposure-response relationships using recent data. Analyzing long historical data and trends may extend knowledge of past and present impacts that may provide additional insight and improve future scenarios. We collected daily mean temperatures and daily all-cause mortality for the period 1901-2013 for Stockholm County, Sweden, and calculated the total attributable fraction of mortality due to non-optimal temperatures and quantified the contribution of cold and heat. Total mortality attributable to non-optimal temperatures varied between periods and cold consistently had a larger impact on mortality than heat. Cold-related attributable fraction (AF) remained stable over time whereas heat-related AF decreased. AF on cold days remained stable over time, which may indicate that mortality during colder months may not decline as temperatures increase in the future. More research is needed to enhance estimates of burdens related to cold and heat in the future.

  • Aspelin, Jonas
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap inriktning grundskola, gymnasium och specialpedagogik.
    Relationskompetens i pedagogiska sammanhang: rapport från en forskningscirkel2018Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna skrift rapporteras ett forskningscirkelprojekt ompedagogisk relationskompetens. Projektet hade sin bas påHögskolan Kristianstad och pågick under 2017, medrapportering våren 2018. I cirkeln samverkade nio förstelärarefrån Sölvesborgs kommun med en forskare från högskolan. Detsom utforskades var hur relationskompetens tar sig uttryck ipedagogisk praktik.I ett inledande kapitel introduceras projektet. Därefterpresenteras lärarnas studier. Rapporten ger konkret inblick i ett(alltför) outforskat område i skolvärlden.

  • Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Taylor, Neil
    Intec Services Pty Ltd.
    Drivers for sustainability: Making better use of cement in Dar es Salaam2009Inngår i: International Conference - Quality and Service Sciences 2009, Verona Italy, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Stern Review asserts that “Policy to reduce emissions should be based on three essential elements: carbon pricing, technology policy, and removal of barriers to behavioural change”. The most demanding challenge could be the issue of behavioural change which requires the mobilization of drivers for change towards more sustainable performance. According to reports from the WBCSD, the building supply chain in many countries could account for as much as 40% of man made carbon emissions. Most building growth is taking place in Third World countries with concrete and especially concrete blocks as the most widely used building material. Cement is the most expensive component of these materials and also has the highest carbon footprint. This means that it is of both economic and environmental interest to see that cement is used in the best way in order to make best use of resources.

    Purpose: To diagnose the improvement potential of a typical building supply network. To identify governance, technology and behavioural barriers to change and to propose how drivers for sustainable change could be strengthened.

    Methodology: A process based system model has been used to identify the main elements in the building supply network used for making concrete blocks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The blockmaking process has been studied in some detail, using process walks at five different blockmaking sites. Additionally interviews with block makers, cement manufacturers and control laboratories for brick measurement have also been used to collect data. The resulting material has been summarised in a single unit multiple case study. The collected material has then been subjected to an opportunity study that covers diagnosis, analysis, and to some extent, proposed actions for improvement. The diagnosis provides the theoretical improvement potential in terms of user value per price and user value per carbon footprint. The analysis of the causes for the improvement potential has been carried out using a checklist for resources with focus on Material, Machine, Method, Measurement, Manpower and Management factors. Proposed actions focus on ideas of how to reinforce drivers that will help to overcome the main identified barriers, which are mainly expressed as resource problems.

    Research limitations: Block-making has been used to exemplify the main building supply network in Dar es Salaam. The justification for this choice is that approximately 60% of cement sales in Dar es Salaam go into block-making. In a typical Western context only 15% of the entire carbon footprint over the lifetime of a building comes from building materials with the rest coming mainly from heating and cooling. The situation in an African city like Dar es Salaam is very different with relatively few buildings having cooling and none having heating. Consequently  the role of the building materials, and especially cement use, becomes more important both in terms of initial cost and for the resulting carbon footprint.  

  • Svendsen, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Reklambranschen liksom alla andra behöver ta ansvar för sitt agerande2015Inngår i: Resumé, ISSN 0036-1887, nr 27 novemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Svendsen, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Bekämpa dålig reklam – inte adblockers2016Inngår i: Resumé, ISSN 0036-1887, nr 15 marsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Svendsen, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Cambridge Analytica-skandalen en chans för branschen att tänka om2018Inngår i: Resumé, ISSN 0036-1887, nr 7 majArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Svendsen, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Reklamkritikerna bör rannsaka sitt samvete2018Inngår i: Resumé, ISSN 0036-1887, nr 11 majArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))