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  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Produktutveckling. Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Produktutveckling - Simulering och optimering.
    Larson, Mats G.
    Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    A simple approach for finite element simulation of reinforced plates2018Inngår i: Finite elements in analysis and design (Print), ISSN 0168-874X, E-ISSN 1872-6925, Vol. 142, s. 51-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach for adding Bernoulli beam reinforcements to Kirchhoff plates. The plate is discretised using a continuous/discontinuous finite element method based on standard continuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces. The beams are discretised by the CutFEM technique of letting the basis functions of the plate represent also the beams which are allowed to pass through the plate elements. This allows for a fast and easy way of assessing where the plate should be supported, for instance, in an optimization loop.

  • Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Troiano, Giuseppe
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Coates, Philip
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Evidence that circulating proteins are more promising than miRNAs for identification of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue2017Inngår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, nr 61, s. 103437-103448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue remains a devastating disease with a five-year survival of around 60%. Late detection and recurrence are the main causes for poor survival. The identification of circulating factors for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer is a rapidly evolving field of interest, with the hope of finding stable and reliable markers of clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating miRNAs and proteins as potential factors for distinguishing patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from healthy controls. Array-based profiling of 372 miRNAs in plasma samples showed broad variations between different patients and did not show any evidence for their use in diagnosis of tongue cancer. Although one miRNA, miR-150, was significantly down-regulated in plasma from patients compared to controls. Surprisingly, the corresponding tumor tissue showed an up-regulation of miR-150. Among circulating proteins, 23 were identified as potential markers of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. These findings imply that circulating proteins are a more promising source of biomarkers for tongue squamous cell carcinomas than circulating miRNAs. The data also highlight that circulating markers are not always directly associated with tumor cell properties.

  • Persson, Christer
    SMHI.
    Normalårskorrigering av Sveriges utsläpp av fossil CO2 från uppvärmning 1990-2002 2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En metodik för att beräkna variationer i de svenska fossila CO2-utsläppen från uppvärmning, som beror på avvikelser från normala väderförhållanden, har tagits fram. Resultat från denna studie har bl.a. inkluderats i Sveriges tredje Nationalrapport om klimatförändringar (2001) samt i Sveriges årliga internationella rapportering till Klimatkonventionen (UNFCCC) avseende data för åren 1999-2002. I denna studie har beräkningar gjorts för vart och ett av åren 1990-2002 samt för en 30-årig normalperiod 1965-95. Vädrets samlade betydelse för uppvärmningsbehovet av byggnader har beräknats månadsvis för ett stort antal platser i Sverige med hjälp av modellen ENLOSS, som utvecklats vid SMHI, se bl.a. Taesler (1986) och CADET Energy Efficiency (1999). ENLOSS är en modell som detaljerat beräknar energiåtgång för uppvärmning av byggnader med hänsyn tagen till temperatur, vind, molnighet, solhöjd och luftens grumlighet (påverkar instrålningen). ENLOSS beräknar en s.k. ekvivalent temperatur som tar hänsyn till väderparametrarna i samverkan med byggnadens läge, egenskaper och användningssätt. Med utgångspunkt från denna ekvivalenta temperatur beräknas sedan ett Energi-Index, som är ett mått på hur mycket energi som krävs för att värma upp en specifik byggnad till normal rumstemperatur (+21°C) i förhållande till vad som behövs för motsvarande tidsperiod under normala väderförhållanden.

    Samtliga beräkningar av normalårskorrigering har gjorts för en "standardfastighet" med följande egenskaper:

    • Representerar blandad bebyggelse

    • Mekanisk ventilation

    • Värmebehovet för varmvatten ej inkluderat

    • Värme från belysning, personer i byggnaden, elektrisk utrustning o. dyl. har schablonmässigt räknats bort från värmebehovet

    • Tidskonstant 24h för beskrivning av värmelagring i byggnaden.

    Med utgångspunkt från ENLOSS-modellens beräkningar av uppvärmningsbehovet på ett stort antal platser har en geografisk fördelning av uppvärmningsbehovet över Sverige bestämts med hjälp av s.k. optimal interpolation. Detta har gjorts månadsvis och därefter adderats till årsvärden. Dessa geografiska kartläggningar har sedan utnyttjats för att beräkna uppvärmningsbehovet årsvis, viktat mot befolkningsfördelningen, inom varje enskilt län. Denna information ger i sin tur underlag för att för varje år bestämma ett länsspecifikt Energi- Index. På detta sätt normerade värden för uppvärmningsbehovet för varje län, tillsammans med SCB:s siffror avseende den faktiska länsvisa uppvärmning av fastigheter med olika bränslen, har legat till grund för de beräknade normalårskorrigeringarna av fossil CO2- emission för varje år under perioden 1990-2002. SCB:s siffror utgår från de s.k. regionala energibalanserna, som summerat för alla län, utgör Sveriges årliga energibalanser. Sveriges årliga energibalanser, minskat med flygets bunkring och korrigerat med s.k. statistisk differens, ligger i sin tur till grund för Sveriges "Reference Approach" i UNFCCC-rapporteringen.

    I denna studie har beräkningar gjorts för två olika val av marginalbränsle (det bränsle som skulle använts/inte använts om vädret varit normalt), dels "olja", dels "aktuell bränslemix" i resp. län för studerat år. Skillnaden mellan dessa båda alternativ var liten för de första åren under 1990-talet, men har därefter ökat. De normalårskorrigerade värdena som hittills rapporterats till Klimatkonventionen har baserats på olja som marginalbränsle.

    4

    För samtliga år under perioden 1990-2002, utom 1996, har den summerade normalårskorrigerade fossila CO2-emissionen från uppvärmning varit större än den verkliga. För år 1990, som är ett referensår i det internationella förhandlingsarbetet, var skillnaden mellan verklig och normalårskorrigerad emission stor. Den normalårskorrigerade emissionen var då drygt 3 miljoner ton större än den verkliga, vilket motsvarade ca 15%. År 2000 var motsvarande normalårskorrigerade emission ca 2,9 miljoner ton större, vilket innebar att den normalårskorrigerade emissionen var hela ca 25% större än den verkliga. I båda fallen antages olja som marginalbränsle. Båda dessa år var betydligt varmare än normalt.

  • Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Pro-invasive properties of Snail1 are regulated by sumoylation in response to TGFβ stimulation in cancer2017Inngår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, nr 58, s. 97703-97726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a key regulator of epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT) during embryogenesis and in tumors. The effect of TGF beta, on EMT, is conveyed by induction of the pro-invasive transcription factor Snail1. In this study, we report that TGF beta stimulates Snail1 sumoylation in aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancer cells. Sumoylation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 confers its transcriptional activity, inducing the expression of classical EMT genes, as well as TGF beta receptor I (T beta RI) and the transcriptional repressor Hes1. Mutation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 to arginine (K234R) abolished sumoylation of Snail1, as well as its migratory and invasive properties in human prostate cancer cells. An increased immunohistochemical expression of Snail1, Sumo1, T beta RI, Hes1, and c-Jun was observed in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their functional roles in tumorigenesis.

  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Dialekt-, namn- och folkminnesarkivet i Göteborg (DAG).
    Gränsöverskridande koordination: syntaktisk förändring i äldre svenska2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Innovative exhaled breath analysis with old breathing manoeuvres-is there a problem or an advantage?2017Inngår i: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7155, E-ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 031001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the field of exhaled breath research is expanding, the question that arises is can the old usual method of spirometry be used in all cases? The answer is yes for some analysation methods and definitely not for others: it all depends on the result you are looking for. Exhaled breath condensate collection can be accomplished with silent tidal breathing, but not in the analysation of the amount of exhaled particles, as they become very low during tidal breathing. There are gases that are exhalation flow dependent, e.g. nitric oxide, acetone and ethanol, that require a special breathing manoeuvre with flow control. Physiological changes of the lung, i.e. inhalation to total lung capacity or forced exhalation such as during spirometry, will affect the result of exhaled biomarkers. The standardisation of exhaled breath requires further development, and there are many aspects to consider.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Emission factors and emissions from residential biomass combustion in Sweden2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Småskalig förbränning är en betydande utsläppskälla för växthusgaser, försurande ämnen, NMVOC, partiklar, tungmetaller, PAH och dioxiner. Varje år har Sverige som krav att rapportera utsläppen av flera ämnen till olika internationella instanser. I tidigare rapporteringar så har för varje ämne bara en emissionsfaktor använts för småskalig biobränsleanvändning, inkluderat alla tekniker och bränslen. En noggrannare undersökning av SCB av den nationella energistatistiken för småskalig förbränning har gjort det möjligt att dela upp emissioner från småskalig biomassa användning efter bränsletyp (ved, pellets, flis) och teknik (panna, kamin och öppen spis). Syftet med föreliggande studie har varit att förbättra rapporteringen av emissioner från småskalig biobränsleeldning genom att revidera emissionsfaktorer för N2O, NOX, CO, NMVOC, SOX, NH3, partiklar (TSP, PM10, PM2.5

    , metaller, dioxiner och PAH. Vidare har tidsserien 1990-2004 för alla dessa ämnen uppdaterats och PAH. Vidare har tidsserien 1990-2004 för alla dessa ämnen uppdaterats. De reviderade emissionsfaktorerna är till stor del baserade på resultat från Energimyndighetens forskningsprogram ”Biobränsle, hälsa och miljö”. Data har även samlats in från andra svenska och internationella studier. Resultat från ett stort

    antal nya mätningar tillsammans med en uppdelning av emissionsfaktorer efterteknik och bränsle, gav stora skillnader mellan tidigoch reviderade emissionsfaktorer för vissa ämnenare använda emissionsfaktorer.De nya emissionsfaktorerna förNMVOC och partiklar är väsentligt lägre, medan emissionsfaktorer för CO ochdioxiner är något högre.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-23 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Ingång 64, plan 9, Linköping
    Nestorson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Arthroplasty in Elbow Fracture Treatment2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for distal humeral fractures. Stable fixation is required to allow early mobilisation and to reduce the risk of poor functional results. In an elderly patient with osteoporotic bone and with a comminuted intra-articular fracture stable internal fixation can be difficult to achieve. In these cases elbow arthroplasty is an option.

    An irreparable radial head fracture can be treated by excision or replacement. The indications for the respective procedure are unclear since reports include an array of different associated soft-tissue and bony injuries.

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use, complication rates and functional outcome of elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for complex distal humeral fractures and assess the usefulness of radial head replacement in Mason IV fracture dislocations.

    50 patients, aged 56-89 years were treated for a distal humeral fracture with primary hemi-arthroplasty using the Kudo© humeral component or the Latitude® prosthesis. The functional outcome was assessed retrospectively. The majority of the 50 patients treated with a primary hemi-arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture had a good or excellent functional result and regained a functional arc of movement of at least 100 degrees at medium term follow-up. There were six patients suffering secondary surgery and two with persistent ulnar nerve symptoms. Wear of the olecranon fossa was seen, mainly in the eight patients treated with a non-anatomical implant (Kudo®). Functional results were comparable to total elbow arthroplasty and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for distal humeral fractures. The use of implants that are more anatomical seemed to reduce the degree of olecranon wear but long-term results are lacking.

    The nationwide use of primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture between 1999 and 2014 was examined using three different registers. The survival rates in relation to prosthetic desing, age and sex were investigated using Cox regression analysis and number of adverse events recorded.

    In total 405 patients were treated with primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture. The mean age at surgery was 75 years and the mean observation time was 67 months. Eighteen patients had undergone revision surgery and another 26 patients suffered an adverse event, 24 of which required secondary surgery.

    Increasing age reduced the risk for revision and there was no significant difference in survival between total- and hemi arthroplasty. The cumulative survival rate at 5 years was 99% (CI 98-100) and at 10 years 90% (CI 85-96). Elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for distal humeral fractures produced reliable results with regards to revision surgery and adverse events.

    18 patients, age 19-79 years, treated with radial head replacement, and 14 patients, age 29-70 years, treated with radial head resection, for a Mason IV fracture dislocation were retrospectively reviewed.

    There were no significant differences in functional outcome in patients treated with replacement or excision for a Mason IV fracture dislocation. The rate of secondary surgery was higher in patients treated with replacement and ulno-humeral osteoarthritis was more pronounced in patients treated with radial head excision but follow-up was longer in these patients. Functional results were not improved by using radial head arthroplasty for Mason IV fracture dislocation. Secondary osteoarthritis is a concern in patients treated with excision but did not affect functional outcome after a mean follow-up time of 108 months.

  • Sundberg, Irene
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket. Medins Havs-och Vattenkonsulter AB.
    Meissner, Ylva
    Naturvårdsverket. Medins Havs- och Vattenkonsulter AB.
    Kiselalger i Kalmar län 2016: en undersökning av åtta lokaler2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen är ett led i länets arbete med regional miljöövervakning och kalkeffektuppföljning. Syftet med rapporten är att få en bättre karakterisering av vattendrag enligt EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten och syftar till att dels öka kunskapen om miljötillståndet i länet och dels fungera som underlag för framtida undersöknings- och åtgärdsprogram. Resultatet av inventeringen också användas för avstämning mot miljömålen ”Levande sjöar och vattendrag”, ”Ingen övergödning”, ”Bara naturlig försurning” och ”Biologisk mångfald”.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Kindbom, Karin
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Cooper, David
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Methane emissions from residential biomass2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale biomass combustion can be a major source of air pollutants like hydrocarbons and particulate matters. Methane is one of the hydrocarbons emitted when burning biomass fuels and recent studies show that methane emissions from different kinds of residential biomass systems can vary significantly depending on type of combustion system and type of fuel. On a yearly basis Sweden is obligated to report air emissions of several pollutants to different international bodies. In previous reporting only one emission factor for methane is accounted for, including all technologies and all fuel types. This study aims to improve the reporting of methane emissions from small scale combustion of biomass by revising both activity data and emission factors. Further, the times series 1990-2003 for methane emission will be updated. New methane emission factors from small scale combustion of wood log, pellets and wood chips/sawdust was determined and an improved method was then used to calculate the emissions. In order to match the activity data categories, the emission factors were grouped by heating system category and fuel type. The result showed that methane emissions from wood log combustion are significantly higher compared to pellets combustion. However, significant variations in emission factors occur for specific combustion appliances and operation conditions. The recalculated time series for 1990- 2003 showed higher values of methane emissions due to desegregation of emission factors by combustion technology

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Fridell, Erik
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Stripple, Håkan
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Uppdatering av klimatrelaterade emissionsfaktorer2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-26 13:00 Belladonna, Linköping
    Hammerman, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Tendon Healing: Mechanical Loading, Microdamage and Gene Expression2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical loading and the inflammatory response during tendon healing might be important for the healing process. Mechanical loading can improve the healing tendon but the mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this thesis was to further clarify the effect of mechanical loading on tendon healing and how mechanical loading affects the inflammatory response during the healing process.

    We used a rat Achilles tendon model to study healing. The rats were exposed to different degrees of loading by unloading methods such as paralysis of the calf muscles with Botox, tail suspension, and an orthosis (a boot). Full loading was achieved by free cage activity or treadmill walking. Microdamage in tendons, unloaded with Botox, was also investigated by needling. The healing tendons were evaluated in a materials testing machine (to analyze the mechanical properties), by gene expression analysis (microarray and PCR), or histology.

    Our results show that moderate loading (unloading with Botox) improves the mechanical properties of healing tendons compared to minimal loading (unloading with Botox in combination with tail suspension or a boot), especially the material properties. In accordance to these findings, expression of extracellular matrix genes were also increased by moderate compared to minimal loading.

    Full loading improved all mechanical properties and the expression of extracellular matrix genes was further increased compared to moderate loading. However, structural properties, such as the strength and the size of the healing tendon, were more affected by full loading. Full loading also affected the expression of inflammation-related genes during the early healing phase, 3 and 5 days after tendon injury, and increased the number of immune cells in the healing tendon tissue. Also microdamage of the healing tendon (detected by blood leakage) was increased by full loading compared to moderate loading during the early healing phase.

    Induced microdamage by repeated needling in the healing tendon tissue increased the structural properties of the healing tendon. The gene expression after needling was similar to the gene expression after full loading.

    The improvement of mechanical properties by loading in healing tendons was decreased by an anti-inflammatory drug called parecoxib, which decreases the production of prostaglandins by inhibiting COX-2 activity. The effect of parecoxib was reduced when loading was reduced but we could not confirm that the effect of parecoxib was related to the degree of loading. However, parecoxib abolished the stimulatory effect of microdamage.

    In conclusion, these studies show that moderate loading improves the quality of the healing tendon whereas full loading also increases the quantity of the healing tendon tissue. Full loading creates microdamage and increases inflammation during the early healing phase. The strong effect of full loading on the structural properties might be due to microdamage. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib seems to impair mechanical stimulation of healing tendons by reducing the response to microdamage.

  • Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Effects of sterilization on composition and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon2017Dataset
  • Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow2017Inngår i: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, s. 30-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

  • Karlsson, Chatarina
    et al.
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Larsson, Peder
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Kiselalgsundersökning i Blekinge län 20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Karlsson, Chatarina
    et al.
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Larsson, Peder
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Kiselalgsundersökning i Blekinge län 20162016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Vlachogiannis, Pavlos
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Gudjonsson, Olafur
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Montelius, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk strålningsvetenskap.
    Grusell, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk strålningsvetenskap.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Medicinsk strålningsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Hypofractionated high-energy proton-beam irradiation is an alternative treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas2017Inngår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, nr 12, s. 2391-2400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155). Eighty-four patients were treated post subtotal resection, 42 at tumour relapse and 44 with upfront radiotherapy after diagnosis based on the typical radiological image. Irradiation was given in a hypofractionated fashion (3-8 fractions, usually 5 or 6 Gy) with a mean dose of 21.9 Gy (range, 14-46 Gy). All patients were planned for follow-up with clinical controls and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after treatment. The median follow-up time was 84 months. Age, gender, tumour location, Simpson resection grade and target volume were assessed as possible prognostic factors for post-irradiation tumour progression and radiation related complications. The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 93% and 85% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 13.5%, while disease-specific mortality was 1.7% (3/170 patients). Older patients and patients with tumours located in the middle cranial fossa had a lower risk for tumour progression. Radiation-related complications were seen in 16 patients (9.4%), with pituitary insufficiency being the most common. Tumour location in the anterior cranial fossa was the only factor that significantly increased the risk of complications. Hypofractionated proton-beam radiation therapy may be used particularly in the treatment of larger World Health Organisation grade I meningiomas not amenable to total surgical resection. Treatment is associated with high rates of long-term tumour growth control and acceptable risk for complications.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 09:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Liu, Yu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Modelling Evolution: From non-life, to life, to a variety of life2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Life is able to replicate itself, e.g., a microorganism is able to divide into two identical ones, and a single plant is able to forest a whole island. But life is the only example of self-replication (note that a computer virus seems able to replicate itself, but it needs the assistance of a processor such as a CPU, and thus not a truly self-replicating entity). So before the appearance of life, nothing can self-replicate. How does life, a truly self-replicating entity, evolve from substances which is not able to self-replicate? Why can it ever happen? Is there a general underlying mechanism that governs how self-replicating entities can develop de novo on Earth, or even other plants?

    As long as the first life appears, it has the potential to cover the whole plant. But one single life form cannot do the job. Life has branched into a huge number of biological classes and species. Different species interact with each other, and with their environment, which, as a whole, is defined as an ecosystem. Distinct ecosystems are found at different scales and different places, e.g., microbes cross-feed and compete for resources within natural communities; and different types of cells interact by exchanging metabolite within an organism body. But, why sometimes we consider an ecosystem as an individual (such as the human body which is, in fact, an ecosystem inhabited by a huge number of microorganisms without which we cannot survive) while sometimes not? What really distinguishes an individual-level life from a system-level life? Are there general properties only a system-level life has, emerged from the interactions among its compositional individual-level life?

    This thesis is to investigate these two questions by mathematical models. For the evolution from non-life to life, namely the origin of life, we build an artificial chemistry model to investigate why an independent self-replicating entity can develop spontaneously from some chemical reaction system in which no reaction is self-replicating. For the evolution from life to a variety of life, we build an artificial ecosystem model to investigate general properties of ecosystems.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-23 09:15 Eken, hus 421, ingång 65, plan 9, Linköping
    Sjölund, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Elekta Instrument AB.
    Algorithms for magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiotherapy plays an increasingly important role in cancer treatment, and medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is poised to be a major component in the development towards more effective radiotherapy treatments with fewer side effects. This thesis attempts to contribute in realizing this potential.

    Radiotherapy planning requires simulation of radiation transport. The necessary physical properties are typically derived from CT images, but in some cases only MR images are available. In such a case, a crude but common approach is to approximate all tissue properties as equivalent to those of water. In this thesis we propose two methods to improve upon this approximation. The first uses a machine learning approach to automatically identify bone tissue in MR. The second, which we refer to as atlas-based regression, can be used to generate a realistic, patient-specific, pseudo-CT directly from anatomical MR images. Atlas-based regression uses deformable registration to estimate a pseudo-CT of a new patient based on a database of aligned MR and CT pairs.

    Cancerous tissue has a different structure from normal tissue. This affects molecular diffusion, which can be measured using MRI. The prototypical diffusion encoding sequence has recently been challenged with the introduction of more general gradient waveforms. One such example is diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE), which allows non-invasive mapping of parameters that reflect variable cell eccentricity and density in brain tumors. To take full advantage of such more general gradient waveforms it is, however, imperative to respect the constraints imposed by the hardware while at the same time maximizing the diffusion encoding strength. In this thesis we formulate this as a constrained optimization problem that is easily adaptable to various hardware constraints. We demonstrate that, by using the optimized gradient waveforms, it is technically feasible to perform whole-brain diffusional variance decomposition at clinical MRI systems with varying performance.

    The last part of the thesis is devoted to estimation of diffusion MRI models from measurements. We show that, by using a machine learning framework called Gaussian processes, it is possible to perform diffusion spectrum imaging using far fewer measurements than ordinarily required. This has the potential of making diffusion spectrum imaging feasible even though the acquisition time is limited. A key property of Gaussian processes, which is a probabilistic model, is that it comes with a rigorous way of reasoning about uncertainty. This is pursued further in the last paper, in which we propose a Bayesian reinterpretation of several of the most popular models for diffusion MRI. Thanks to the Bayesian interpretation it possible to quantify the uncertainty in any property derived from these models. We expect this will be broadly useful, in particular in group analyses and in cases when the uncertainty is large.

  • Ortiz, Carina
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lundblad, Mattias
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Liski, Jari
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Karltun, Erik
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lehtonen, Aleksi
    Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Helsinki, Finland.
    Gärdenäs, Annemieke
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Measurements and models – a comparison of quantification methods for SOC changes in forest soils2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish UNFCCC1-reporting of the LULUCF2-sector is based on methods in compliance with the “Good practice” as described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Biomass and soil inventory data from the Swedish Inventory of Forests is the major source of information used to quantify changes in the various carbon pools on forest land. Even if the reported uncertainties in soil carbon changes are small from a statistical perspective, they are large in relation to the total Swedish emissions of green house gases. This is due to the fact that the soil carbon pool is so large, that even small and statistically non-significant changes may have an impact on the Swedish CO2 balance. Sampling based methods may also result in considerable inter annual variations that may look conspicuous in the reporting. Because of the uncertainty and inter annual variations there has been a discussion on the methods used and if there are possibilities to lower the uncertainty and to get more stable estimates of soil carbon changes by combining measurements and models. In this study results from the two soil carbon models, Yasso07 and Q, were compared with repeated measurements of the soil inventory during the years 1994 to 2000. Soil carbon fluxes were simulated with the two models from 1926 to 2000 with Monte Carlo methodology to estimate uncertainty ranges. The results from the models agreed well with measured data. The simulations of Yasso07 and Q resulted in a soil organic carbon stock in year 2000 of 1600 Mton C and 1580 Mton C, respectively while the measured carbon pool was ¨1670 Mton C. The annual change in soil organic carbon varies substantially between the three methods mainly due to different assumptions regarding annual climate variation. However, the five year averaged mean of annual soil organic carbon change for the two periods 1994-1998 and 1996-2000 indicate the size and direction of the estimated annual changes agree reasonable well. The mean annual change for the two periods was for the Q-model 5.5 Mton C yr-1 and 5.6 Mton C yr-1 with a confidence interval of 2.1-10.7 Mton C yr-1, and for the Yasso07-model 3.7 Mton C yr-1 and 0.9 Mton C yr-1 respectively with a confidence interval ranging between -5 to 12.6 and -7 to 9.8 Mton C yr-1 respectively. The mean annual change for the two periods estimated using NFI-data was 1.6 M ton C yr-1 and 2.5 M ton C yr-1 with a standard error of 2 The general conclusion drawn from this study is that both sampling and the models Yasso07 and Q are possible tools to predict the soil organic carbon accumulation and annual changes for Swedish forest soils. The estimates based on measurements as well as the modelled results indicate an increase in carbon stocks in Swedish forest soils. This study does not support a change of method from inventory to model predictions. However, the agreement between the methods shows that the models are suitable as a complement to other soil carbon estimation methods. They are particularly useful for projections and we recommend a further development of the modelling tools.

    1 UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2 LULUCF, Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 13:00 Hc113, Jönköping
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding engagement among children with and without need of special support due to behavior difficulties. The influence of social interaction as well as the provision of special support in Swedish preschool were investigated. Specifically, the aim was to explore children’s engagement at the nodal point between environmental factors, children’s behavior and characteristics, peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness, both in a cross-sectional perspective and over time. In addition, predictive factors for special support were explored.

    A prospective longitudinal survey design with three data points was used, with both quantitative and qualitative data. The sample consisted of 829 children, 425 boys and 394 girls (10 missing) from 92 preschool units in six municipalities in Sweden. The children participated in at least one wave of data collection. The preschool staff rated the children’s engagement, behavior difficulties, and the provision of special support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. For the cross-sectional analyses 663 children participated, and for the longitudinal analyses, 203 children participated. For the cross-sectional analyses logistics regression and content analyses as well as mediation analyses were used, meanwhile, structural equation models were used for longitudinal analyses, that is, growth curve model with multivariate analyses as well as autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Overall, children with high levels of hyperactive behavior were less engaged in everyday activities in preschool. In addition, the peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness were rated lower for these children, both in current time and longitudinally. Children’s hyperactive behavior had more negative influence on their core engagement (e.g. attentional behavior and persistence behavior), compared to their developmental engagement, (e.g.problem solving, involvement in complex rule-based play, more common for older preschoolers). The levels of social interaction explained a large percent of the negative effect between hyperactive behavior and engagement. Peer-to-child interaction explained between 56-78 percent, whereas teacher responsiveness explained between 33-34 percent.

    Over time, the level of hyperactive behavior decreased more dramatically for girls than for boys. However, boys who became more engaged, showed less hyperactive behavior over time. The majority (63%) of the children displaying behavior difficulties (BD) did not receive special support on top of what was provided to all children in the classroom. No support was related to children being a second language learner in Swedish (EL2) or BDs that did not disturb the peer group or the teachers. Children more often received special support if the staff perceived the child’s behavior difficulties as disruptive in preschool activities or among peers. The most common type of support, mentioned by the staff, was paying attention to the child’s negative behavior, achieved by at least one member of the staff staying close to the child. Other examples of attention to the child’s negative behavior involved the preschool staff providing special support by paying attention to critical situations, by teacher’s proximity to the children, or by distracting the child from situations that could trigger negative behavior. Distractions were used more often for children with high engagement and BD.

    Concerning directional and transactional paths, children’s core engagement was a significant predictor for both peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness. That is, high levels of core engagement at T1 predicted both types of social interaction at T2, which in turn predicted children’s levels of core engagement at T3. Children’s hyperactive behavior did not predict lower ratings in social interactions in preschool over time, whereas, high ratings in peer-to-child interactions and teacher responsiveness were significant predictors for decreased hyperactive behavior over time. Once again, social interactions were important factors for promoting a decrease in children’s hyperactive behavior. Children with high levels of core engagement were more likely to be met by teacher responsiveness and positive peer-to-child interactions over time.

    Several statistical relations exist between children’s engagement, BD, social interactions and special support in preschool settings. This thesis shows that perceived negative behaviors such as BD can co-exist with more positively perceived behaviors or characteristics, such as engagement. However, this research shows that well-functioning peer-to-child interaction and teacher interactions improve child engagement for children with hyperactive behavior, special support is not always provided and seldom focused on improving children’s engagement. In order to improve engagement among children in need of special support due to BD, it is necessary to consider both hyperactive behavior and engagement as well as the influence of social interactions. Teacher responsiveness and peer-to-child interaction may work as supportive factors for children with hyperactive behavior to help sustain attention and stay actively engaged in the activities. Preschool teachers need to self-reflect on their organization, planning ofeveryday activities and how to design special support that consider individual children’s needs for improving their engagement.

  • Samuelsson, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Resistanskurvor för elektriska fuktkvotsmätare1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-04-06 10:15 F 234, Östersund
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Communicating, Negotiating and Stereotyping: The roles of context, situation and gender in small group decision-making2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Making decisions together in groups takes an important role in society. Everywhere and in many different contexts people meet to make more or less formal decisions. As stereotypes constitute simplified group based perceptions of other people, decision-making groups risk making biased judgments and commit discriminating decisions. Stereotyping often follow the two universal dimensions competence and warmth (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2008). How people´s judgments are affected by stereotypes has mainly been studied on individual level and less is known about how stereotypes and prejudice is communicated and negotiated in group decision-making situations. One approach to study this is to investigate how different contexts may lead to different communication patterns, different experiences, and different decisions.  In this thesis context was varied in two different ways in two experiments. In the first experiment the goal set for the decision-making was varied. A competitive goal was contrasted to a cooperative goal in a group decision task using a sports scenario where the participants had to select members to a relay team. In the second experiment different information was used as a context variable. This was done by varying the information of gender and parenthood status of the applicants in a fictive recruitment scenario. In addition, in both experiments the gender composition in the groups was varied, forming yet another variable that might play a role for how the decision-making was carried out. These three factors were assumed to influence the form of the communication, the content of the communication in terms of stereotyping, and how the decision-making process was experienced. A mixed-method approach was chosen where quantitative and qualitative data were used in conjunction with each other, which was assumed to give a richer picture of the results.

    In paper I the form of the communication, as analyzed with interaction process analysis (IPA), did not differ much between the two goals. On the other hand, the content showed more systematic patterns. A competitive goal seemed to lead to both inclusion and exclusion with use of both positive and negative stereotypes. A cooperative goal seemed to lead to inclusion mechanisms and only use of positive stereotypes. In paper II where the aim was to investigate what was experienced as constituting a successful decision-making process it was found that equality of influence was of importance. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of the conversation patterns, by use of the conversational argument coding scheme (CACS), seemed to validate this. The successful groups had a more complex communication pattern than the less successful groups. In paper III, where the information for the decision task was varied in terms of gender and parenthood status of the applicants, it was found that parenthood information triggered a lot of discussion. The participants did not differentiate between mothers and fathers, but they applied attributes of competence and warmth differently to the targets. Furthermore, gender and gender composition seemed to matter as male and female groups applied the attributes differently. Paper IV used data from both experiments in order to investigate how the context variables and gender composition influenced how the decision situation was experienced. The results indicate that the context variables and gender composition interacted with own gender. Men seemed more content in male groups with male targets and a male parent condition while women seemed more content in mixed groups and a female parent condition.

    Context seems to play an important role, as it provides the participants in the group discussions with different information, leading to different patterns of stereotyping in the discussions. Also how the decision was experienced seems to be related to the context. Furthermore, group composition seems to function in this way too. The results are discussed in relation to practical implications and suggestions for future research. 

  • Ambavane, Apoorva
    et al.
    Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, London, United Kingdom.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR). Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiologi.
    Giannitsis, Evangelos
    Medizinische Klinik III, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Roiz, Julie
    Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, London, United Kingdom .
    Mendivil, Joan
    Market Access, Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland .
    Frankenstein, Lutz
    Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Pulmonology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Body, Richard
    Emergency Department, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom .
    Christ, Michael
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg General Hospital, Nuremberg, Germany .
    Bingisser, Roland
    Emergency Department, University of Basel, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland .
    Alquezar, Aitor
    Servei de Urgencies. Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain .
    Mueller, Christian
    Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland .
    Economic evaluation of the one-hour rule-out and rule-in algorithm for acute myocardial infarction using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay in the emergency department2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikkel-id e0187662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The 1-hour (h) algorithm triages patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED) towards "rule-out," "rule-in," or "observation," depending on baseline and 1-h levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). The economic consequences of applying the accelerated 1-h algorithm are unknown.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a post-hoc economic analysis in a large, diagnostic, multicenter study of hs-cTnT using central adjudication of the final diagnosis by two independent cardiologists. Length of stay (LoS), resource utilization (RU), and predicted diagnostic accuracy of the 1-h algorithm compared to standard of care (SoC) in the ED were estimated. The ED LoS, RU, and accuracy of the 1-h algorithm was compared to that achieved by the SoC at ED discharge. Expert opinion was sought to characterize clinical implementation of the 1-h algorithm, which required blood draws at ED presentation and 1h, after which "rule-in" patients were transferred for coronary angiography, "rule-out" patients underwent outpatient stress testing, and "observation" patients received SoC. Unit costs were for the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Germany. The sensitivity and specificity for the 1-h algorithm were 87% and 96%, respectively, compared to 69% and 98% for SoC. The mean ED LoS for the 1-h algorithm was 4.3h-it was 6.5h for SoC, which is a reduction of 33%. The 1-h algorithm was associated with reductions in RU, driven largely by the shorter LoS in the ED for patients with a diagnosis other than AMI. The estimated total costs per patient were £2,480 for the 1-h algorithm compared to £4,561 for SoC, a reduction of up to 46%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of 1-h algorithm is associated with reduction in overall AMI diagnostic costs, provided it is carefully implemented in clinical practice. These results need to be prospectively validated in the future.

  • Ståhlberg, Per
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Från marknadsföring till propagandakrig2017Inngår i: Ikaros, tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 37-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett projekt som inleddes som en studie i nation branding i Ukraina kom efter Majdanrevolten 2013-14 att övergå i en undersökning av hur ukrainska myndigheter och medier hanterar information i konflikten mellan Ukraina och Ryssland. Ryssland antas ha en mäktig propagandaapparat, men hur agerar Ukraina i informationskriget mot Ryssland?

  • Schlackow, Iryna
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Kent, Seamus
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Herrington, William
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Emberson, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Haynes, Richard
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Reith, Christina
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Wanner, Christoph
    Univ Hosp Wurzburg, Dept Med, Div Nephrol, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Njurmedicin. Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gray, Alastair
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Landray, Martin J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Baigent, Colin
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, MRC, Populat Hlth Res Unit, Oxford, England..
    Mihaylova, Borislava
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    A policy model of cardiovascular disease in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease2017Inngår i: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, nr 23, s. 1880-1890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To present a long-term policy model of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods: A Markov model with transitions between CKD stages (3B, 4, 5, on dialysis, with kidney transplant) and cardiovascular events (major atherosclerotic events, haemorrhagic stroke, vascular death) was developed with individualised CKD and CVD risks estimated using the 5 years' follow-up data of the 9270 patients with moderate-to-severe CKD in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) and multivariate parametric survival analysis. The model was assessed in three further CKD cohorts and compared with currently used risk scores.

    Results: Higher age, previous cardiovascular events and advanced CKD were the main contributors to increased individual disease risks. CKD and CVD risks predicted by the state-transition model corresponded well to risks observed in SHARP and external cohorts. The model's predictions of vascular risk and progression to end-stage renal disease were better than, or comparable to, those produced by other risk scores. As an illustration, at age 60-69 years, projected survival for SHARP participants in CKD stage 3B was 13.5 years (10.6 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) in men and 14.8 years (10.7 QALYs) in women. Corresponding projections for participants on dialysis were 7.5 (5.6 QALYs) and 7.8 years (5.4 QALYs). A non-fatal major atherosclerotic event reduced life expectancy by about 2 years in stage 3B and by 1 year in dialysis.

    Conclusions: The SHARP CKD-CVD model is a novel resource for evaluating health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of interventions in CKD.

  • Chabok, Abbas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kolorektalkirurgi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Andreasson, Kalle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kolorektalkirurgi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Nikberg, Maziar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kolorektalkirurgi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Low risk of complications in patients with first-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis2017Inngår i: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 32, nr 12, s. 1699-1702Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    First-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) has been considered to have an increased risk of complication, but the level of evidence is low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of complications in patients with first-time AUD and in patients with a history of diverticulitis. This paper is a population-based retrospective study at Vastmanland's Hospital, VasterA<yen>s, Sweden, where all patients were identified with a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease ICD-10 K57.0-9 from January 2010 to December 2014. The records of all patients were surveyed and patients with a computed tomography (CT)-verified AUD were included. Complications defined as CT-verified abscess, perforation, colonic obstruction, fistula, or sepsis within 1 month from the diagnosis of AUD were registered. Of 809 patients with AUD, 642 (79%) had first-time AUD and 167 (21%) had a previous history of AUD with no differences in demographic or clinical characteristics. In total, 16 (2%) patients developed a complication within 1 month irrespective of whether they had a previous history of diverticulitis (P = 0.345). In the binary logistic regression analysis, first-time diverticulitis was not associated with increased risk of complications (OR 1.58; CI 0.52-4.81). The rate of antibiotic therapy was about 7-10% during the time period and outpatient management increased from 7% in 2010 to 61% in 2014. The risk for development of complications is low in AUD with no difference between patients with first-time or recurrent diverticulitis. This result strengthens existing evidence on the benign disease course of AUD.

  • Aoki, Yasunori
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap. Natl Inst Informat, Tokyo, Japan..
    Roshammar, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden.;SGS Exprimo, Mechelen, Belgium..
    Hamren, Bengt
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hooker, Andrew
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Model selection and averaging of nonlinear mixed-effect models for robust phase III dose selection2017Inngår i: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, ISSN 1567-567X, E-ISSN 1573-8744, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 581-597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Population model-based (pharmacometric) approaches are widely used for the analyses of phase IIb clinical trial data to increase the accuracy of the dose selection for phase III clinical trials. On the other hand, if the analysis is based on one selected model, model selection bias can potentially spoil the accuracy of the dose selection process. In this paper, four methods that assume a number of pre-defined model structure candidates, for example a set of dose-response shape functions, and then combine or select those candidate models are introduced. The key hypothesis is that by combining both model structure uncertainty and model parameter uncertainty using these methodologies, we can make a more robust model based dose selection decision at the end of a phase IIb clinical trial. These methods are investigated using realistic simulation studies based on the study protocol of an actual phase IIb trial for an oral asthma drug candidate (AZD1981). Based on the simulation study, it is demonstrated that a bootstrap model selection method properly avoids model selection bias and in most cases increases the accuracy of the end of phase IIb decision. Thus, we recommend using this bootstrap model selection method when conducting population model-based decision-making at the end of phase IIb clinical trials.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    How to calibrate a questionnaire: quality-assuring categorical data with psychometric measurement theory2018Inngår i: / [ed] Charité, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the social sciences – with ‘instruments’ such as questionnaires, ability tests, – in education, healthcare and so on, need metrological quality assurance. A patient, for instance, expects the same quality of care wherever and whenever provided. This is a challenge since the usual tools of statistics do not always work on the categorical scales typical of such measurements. Modelling a measurement system where the instrument is a human being, and where the output is a performance metric, i.e., how well the set-up performs an assessment, appears to be a way forward. This BEMC Colloquium will present the necessary tools, such as psychometric Rasch measurement theory, and will be followed by a hands-on workshop where you yourselves can analyse cases such as (i) the Quality of the BEMC Colloquium Series and (ii) a Healthy Lifestyle.

  • Warnecke, Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Abele, Sonja
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Musunuri, Sravani
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Harris, Robert A.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Scavenger Receptor A Mediates the Clearance and Immunological Screening of MDA-Modified Antigen by M2-Type Macrophages2017Inngår i: Neuromolecular medicine, ISSN 1535-1084, E-ISSN 1559-1174, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 463-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the uptake of malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the context of lipid peroxidation and its implications in CNS autoimmunity. The use of custom-produced fluorescently labeled versions of MOG or MDA-modified MOG enabled us to study and quantify the uptake by different macrophage populations and to identify the responsible receptor, namely SRA. The SRA-mediated uptake of MDA-modified MOG is roughly tenfold more efficient compared to that of the native form. Notably, this uptake is most strongly associated with anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. MDA-modified MOG was demonstrated to be resistant to degradation by lysine-dependent proteases in vitro, but the overall digestion fragments appeared to be similar in cell lysates, although their relative abundance appeared to be altered as a result of faster uptake. Accordingly, MDA-modified MOG is processed for presentation by APCs, allowing maximized recall proliferation of MOG(35-55)-specific 2D2 T cells in vitro due to higher uptake. However, MDA modification of MOG did not enhance immune priming or disease course in the in vivo MOG-EAE model, but did induce antibody responses to both MOG and MDA adducts. Taken together our results indicate that MDA adducts primarily constitute clearance signals for phagocytes and promote rapid removal of antigen, which is subjected to immunological screening by previously licensed T cells.

  • Snäll, Tord
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Victor
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Stat Sweden, Reg & Environm Dept, Environm & Tourism, Box 24300, SE-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammar, Torun
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Caruso, Alexandro
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Måns
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Transient trade-off between climate benefit and biodiversity loss of harvesting stumps for bioenergy2017Inngår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 1751-1763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To replace fossil fuel and thereby mitigate climate change, harvesting of wood such as stumps for bioenergy will likely increase. Coarse deadwood is an important resource for biodiversity and stumps comprise the main part of the coarse deadwood in managed forests. We provide the first integrated analysis of the long-term climate and biodiversity impacts of a whole landscape. We simultaneously project climate and biodiversity impacts of harvesting stumps to substitute for fossil coal, assuming scenarios with different proportions of the landscape with stump harvest (10, 50, 80%) the coming 50years. A life cycle approach was used to calculate future global temperature changes and future metapopulation changes in six epixylic lichens. Metapopulation dynamics were projected using colonization and extinction models based on times series data. Harvesting stumps from 50% of the clear-cut forest land benefits climate with a net global temperature reduction >0.5.10(-9)Kha(-1) after 50years if assuming substitution of fossil coal. For all scenarios, using stump bioenergy leads to immediate (within 1year) reductions in temperature of >= 50% compared to using fossil coal, increasing to 70% reduction after 50 years. However, large-scale stump harvest inflicted substantial metapopulation declines for five of six lichens. High stump harvest levels (>= 50%) put common lichens at risk of becoming red-listed following the IUCN criteria. The net temperature reduction (cooling effect) from substituting fossil coal with stumps harvested for bioenergy increased over time, while lichen metapopulations stabilized at lower equilibria after two to three decades. This indicates that trade-offs between climate and metapopulations of commons species are transient, where climate benefits become more prevalent in the long term. As both objectives are important for meeting (inter-)national climate and biodiversity targets, integrated analyses such as this should be encouraged and urged to guide policymaking about large-scale implementation of stump harvest.

  • Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Atmosfärisk fjärranalys.
    Håkansson, Nina
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Atmosfärisk fjärranalys.
    Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record2018Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 633-649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50% of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50% over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid-to high latitudes where at least 50% of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts with the highest altitudes over Greenland and Antarctica. It is suggested to quantify the detection performance of other CDRs in terms of a sensitivity threshold of cloud optical thickness, which can be estimated using active lidar observations. Validation results are proposed to be used in Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulation Package (COSP) simulators for cloud detection characterization of various cloud CDRs from passive imagery.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 14:00 F11, Stockholm
    Altafi, Nasrin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.).
    Lefschetz Properties of Monomial Ideals2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the study of the Lefschetz properties of artinian monomial algebras. An artinian algebra is said to satisfy the strong Lefschetz property if multiplication by all powers of a general linear form has maximal rank in every degree. If it holds for the first power it is said to have the weak Lefschetz property (WLP).

    In the first paper, we study the Lefschetz properties of monomial algebras by studying their minimal free resolutions. In particular, we give an afirmative answer to an specific case of a conjecture by Eisenbud, Huneke and Ulrich for algebras having almost linear resolutions. Since many algebras are expected to have the Lefschetz properties, studying algebras failing the Lefschetz properties is of a great interest. In the second paper, we provide sharp lower bounds for the number of generators of monomial ideals failing the WLP extending a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig which provides upper bounds for such ideals. In the second paper, we also study the WLP of ideals generated by forms of a certain degree invariant under an action of a cyclic group. We give a complete classication of such ideals satisfying the WLP in terms of the representation of the group generalizing a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-15 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Dalirian, Maryam
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Investigating parameters governing liquid-phase cloud activation of atmospheric particles2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main sources of uncertainties in modeling and predicting the Earth’s climate. To overcome this uncertainty, we need to improve the understanding about the processes and parameters defining how aerosol particles turn into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) to produce cloud droplets or ice crystals. The focus of this dissertation is on liquid phase cloud droplets. The thesis investigates the effect of water solubility and surface tension on the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles. These parameters are among the key properties defining how an aerosol particle can turn into a cloud droplet. The main goals of this thesis are to investigate 1) the CCN activity of aerosol particles containing both water soluble and insoluble substances and 2) the contribution of molecular-scale surface structure to the surface tension and CCN activity of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures.

    In the first part of this thesis, the CCN activity of water-insoluble aerosol constituents coated by water-soluble or sparingly soluble species was investigated. The results showed that the CCN activity of the insoluble silica and black carbon particles, with sizes between 100 and 300 nm, increased with the amount of the coating on the insoluble cores and at thick enough coating approached the CCN activity of the soluble species. Moreover, controlled dry coating of the insoluble BC cores yielded a size-independent distribution of the coating material on the insoluble cores, which was not achieved by wet coating of the silica particles. The results also confirmed that by knowing the fraction of soluble material (coating thicknesses), the existing theories gave a reasonable estimate of the CCN activity for the mixed soluble-insoluble particles. Finally, the results highlight the need for including the impacts of co-emitted or later condensed compounds in estimates of the climate impacts of atmospheric insoluble aerosol species.

    In the second part of the thesis, surface propensity of succinic acid, pure or mixed with soluble inorganic salts in the aqueous droplets, were quantified via molecular-level surface composition measurement by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of succinic acid aqueous solutions showed strong enrichment of the succinic acid at the surface of the liquid droplets compared to the bulk solution. This effect was more pronounced in the presence of the highly soluble inorganic salts like NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 in the system. The modeled surface tension of the pure organic or mixture of organic and inorganic substances, using surface enrichment factors derived from the XPS experiments were in good agreement with the experimental surface tension data. This demonstrates the high potential of XPS for direct measurements of the surface composition of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures. The results suggest that for modeling the phase-state and water content of the atmospheric particles, the contribution by the surface layer needs to be considered, because aqueous droplet can contain larger amounts of organic compounds than the bulk solubility limit of the solutions. However, the effect of the aqueous surface composition on the CCN activation of particles consisting of the studied mixtures was estimated to be very small.

    The results presented in this thesis provide new insights into the relationship between aerosol particle composition and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the effect of more realistic complex mixtures will require more research. The results showed that for modeling semi-volatile species, the partitioning between the gas and condensed phase needs to be considered. In addition, along with the liquid-phase cloud activation, the ice nucleation ability of the particles made of soluble and insoluble species requires to be further investigated.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-Salen), Stockholm
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Transformative Imagination: Re-imagining the world towards sustainability2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A central task for sustainability science in the Anthropocene is to offer guidance on alternative pathways of change. Even though this search and implementation of pathways towards sustainability is likely to require profound social-ecological transformations, little is yet known about the individual and collective capacities needed to support such transformations. This thesis explores the connection between human imagination and sustainability transformations, and introduces the notion of the transformative imagination to support methodological innovation in sustainability sciences, and practices aiming to support transformations towards sustainability. The transformative imagination is suggested to support fundamentally new ways of seeing, feeling, encountering and envisioning the world. The thesis takes a transdisciplinary action-research approach and studies how specific participatory practices, including the arts, may foster the transformative imagination as a means to more skilfully respond to, anticipate and shape social-ecological trajectories in the Anthropocene. The four included papers, each explores how practices may support particular features of the imagination as a transformative capacity. Paper I analyses a case in coastal Kenya where participatory modelling and future scenarios are applied to foster imagination of dynamics of interdependences and trade-offs within the context of poverty alleviation and ecosystems change. Paper II explores system diagrams and scenarios as practices for the development of social-ecological narratives that may support robust interventions in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Paper III implements, and studies how an art-based approach based on performances, visual methods and an art installation, could support transformative visions of the Iberian Peninsula in the context of extreme climate change. Paper IV is a literature review of the potential contributions of the arts to transformations, in the context of climate change. These papers focus on different features of imagination, which under certain circumstances may progressively develop into societal transformative capacities with the potential to re-structure current social-ecological realities. Overall, this thesis is a step towards forging new kinds of reflexive, imaginative and deliberative practices that can support the emergence of local arrangements of a sustainable world where life can carry on.

  • Sarén, Tina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ramachandran, Mohanraj
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Martikainen, Miika
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Yu, Di
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Insertion of the Type-I IFN Decoy Receptor B18R in a miRNA-Tagged Semliki Forest Virus Improves Oncolytic Capacity but Results in Neurotoxicity2017Inngår i: MOLECULAR THERAPY-ONCOLYTICS, ISSN 2372-7705, Vol. 7, s. 67-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncolytic Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been suggested as a potential candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. However, the oncolytic capacity of SFV is restricted by the anti-viral type-I interferon (IFN) response. The aim of this study was to increase the oncolytic capacity of a microRNA target tagged SFV against glioblastoma by arming it with the Vaccinia-virus-encoded type-I IFN decoy receptor B18R (SFV4B18RmiRT) to neutralize type-I IFN response. Expression of B18R by SFV4B18RmiRT aided neutralization of IFN-b, which was shown by reduced STAT-1 phosphorylation and improved virus spread in plaque assays. B18R expression by SFV4 increased its oncolytic capacity in vitro against murine glioblastoma (CT-2A), regardless of the presence of exogenous IFN-b. Both SFV4B18RmiRT and SFV4miRT treatments controlled tumor growth in mice with syngeneic orthotopic gliomablastoma (CT-2A). However, treatment with SFV4B18RmiRT induced severe neurological symptoms in some mice because of virus replication in the healthy brain. Neither neurotoxicity nor virus replication in the brain was observed when SFV4miRT was administered. In summary, our results indicate that the oncolytic capacity of SFV4 was improved in vitro and in vivo by incorporation of B18R, but neurotoxicity of the virus was increased, possibly due to loss of microRNA targets.

  • Yacob Abraham, Getahun
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    von Brömssen, Kerstin
    Högskolan Väst.
    Internationalisation in teacher education: student teachers’ reflections on experiences from a field study in South Africa2018Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, ISSN 2000-4508, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalisation of higher education and teacher education has been a key issue since the 1990s and many universities still attempt to increase student mobility ever since. Much research has been done on the topic of internationalisation and higher education, including teacher education trying to show how a certain programme impacts on students’ learning, especially intercultural learning when it comes to programmes in teacher education. These studies are often directed towards programmes that last several months or a whole year. The focus of this study is rather to explore if and in what way experiences in a two-week field study can contribute to a student teacher’s intercultural learning and professional development. The findings of the research show that even a short field study has an important impact on the individual student teacher’s understanding of themselves and on awareness of teachers’ living and working conditions in a different culture like South Africa.

  • Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa.
    Wiemerslage, L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Burch, K H
    Maiorana, S A
    Cocolas, E
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kamaloodien, K
    Stein, D J
    The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users2017Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, nr 12, s. 1911-1921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

    METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

    RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

    CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

  • Pisanu, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Cagliari Cagliari Italy.
    Preisig, Martin
    Castelao, Enrique
    Glaus, Jennifer
    Pistis, Giorgio
    Squassina, Alessio
    Del Zompo, Maria
    Merikangas, Kathleen R
    Waeber, Gérard
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    A genetic risk score is differentially associated with migraine with and without aura2017Inngår i: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 136, nr 8, s. 999-1008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence, subtypes and severity in a large population-based sample. The sample comprised 446 subjects with migraine and 2511 controls from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. Fifty-four SNPs earlier associated with migraine were selected. SNPs with a low impact on migraine prevalence in our sample were excluded using random forest. We combined the remaining 21 SNPs into a GRS and analyzed the association with migraine using logistic regression models. The GRS was significantly associated with migraine (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) and migraine without aura (MWOA) (OR = 2.01, p = 0.003), but not with migraine with aura (MWA). The GRS was not associated with migraine frequency, intensity or interference with daily activities. We show that a GRS combining multiple genetic risk variants is associated with MWOA but not MWA, suggesting a different genetic susceptibility background underlying the two forms of migraine.

  • Devine, Josefin
    Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Namnarkivet i Uppsala (NAU).
    Älgen – skogens konung i flera bemärkelser?2018Inngår i: Katharina och namnen: Vänskrift till Katharina Leibring på 60-årsdagen den 20 januari 2018 / [ed] Leila Mattfolk & Kristina Neumuller (huvudred.), Josefin Devine, Elin Pihl, Lennart Ryman & Annette C. Torensjö, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, s. 225-229Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Olsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Tengdelius-Brunell, Johanna
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Avrinningsområden för vattenförekomster 2012: En hydrologisk indelning för PLC-62013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är ett uppdrag från HaV, Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten. Informationen i rapporten riktar sig, i första hand, till dem som inom SMED arbetar med Pollution Load Compilation 6 (PLC6), Vattenförvaltningen vid SMHI och till Vattenmyndigheterna. I rapporten redovisas resultatet av en aktivitet inom SMED där syftet var att definiera hydrologiska avrinningsområden för användning vid beräkning av flöden av vatten, kväve och fosfor till havet. Avrinningsområden för Vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster identifierades i digitala kartskikt från SVAR, Svenskt VattenARkiv vid SMHI. Från projektet har data leverats till andra utvecklingsprojekt inom SMED-vatten, till modelluppsättningen S-HYPE vid SMHI och till representanter för vattenmyndigheterna. Ett kartskikt med indelning i 27 831 områden var tillgängligt 26 november 2012. Kartskiktet kompletterades med information om flödesordning och identiteter för det havsområde som vattnet rinner till. Det kompletterade kartskiktet var tillgängligt för hämtning 21 december 2012. I början av 2013 gjordes ytterligare granskning av kartskikt och utkast till denna rapport. Det ledde till ytterligare förbättringar av kartskiktet till PLC6. I den här rapporten beskrivs kartskiktets innehåll.

    I slutet av 2012 gjordes korrigeringar av några vattenförekomsters identiteter och kartrepresentationer i SVAR. Dessa ändringar har införts i kartskiktet till PLC6 så att samordningen med vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster optimeras. Det här innebar att antalet områden i kartskiktet minskade till 27 830 eftersom två områden slogs samman. Det reviderade kartskiktet till PLC6 blev klart i mars 2013.

    Kartskiktet baseras på avrinningsområden från SVAR version 2012_2. Till den här versionen av vattendelare kunde vi koppla 23 127 av vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster i SVAR version 2012_2 inklusive ändringar av vattenförekomsters identiteter införda i SVAR i slutet av 2012. Av de här vattenförekomsterna var 1 103 preliminära, d.v.s. de var ännu inte fastställda av Vattenmyndigheterna. Det finns fler vattenförekomster för sjöar respektive vattendrag i SVAR men de ligger inte vid avrinningsområdenas utlopp.

  • Devine, Josefin
    [Review of:] Lars-Erik Edlund & Elzbieta Strzelecka (eds.) Mellannorrland i centrum, new edn (Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2017)2017Inngår i: Journal of the English Place-Name Society, ISSN 1351-3095, Vol. 2016, nr 48, s. 112-114Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Turner, David R.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, BOX 461, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences2017Inngår i: ELEMENTA-SCIENCE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE, ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship's antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  • Olsson, Håkan
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Kvantifiering av fysisk påverkan på svenska vatten till följd av vattenuttag, flödesreglering och morfologiska förändringar: Slutrapport december 20042004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet sammanställdes information som kunde användas som indikatorer på

    fysisk påverkan enligt vattendirektivets intentioner. Det rörde sig om information som

    kunde specificeras geografiskt och som kunde tillgängliggöras under projekttiden.

    Målsättningen var att göra en första rikstäckande kartering av områden där det fanns

    vattenobjekt med indikation på kraftig fysisk påverkan.

    Vattenförekomster som är kraftigt fysiskt förändrade kan under vissa förutsättningar

    som specificeras i vattendirektivet bli karaktäriserade som ”preliminärt kraftigt

    modifierade vattenförekomster” (förkortas PKMV). Definitionen ”Kraftigt modifierade

    vatten” erhålls först sedan socio-ekonomiska tester utförts enligt artikel 4:3 i EU:s

    ramdirektiv för vatten. Dessa vattenförekomster får därmed mindre stränga miljömål. I

    projektarbetet identifierades 214 sjöar och 6 kustvattenområden som provisoriskt

    kraftigt modifierade. Inom 3265 delavrinningsområden fanns det i det insamlade

    underlaget indikation på förekomst av vatten som kan komma i fråga som PKMV (se

    karta på sidan 20 i denna rapport).

    Bedömningsunderlag, kartor och kartunderlag som producerats inom projektet lagrades

    vid SMHI för användning vid fortsatt arbete med karaktärisering av vattenförekomster

    inför rapporteringen till EU i mars 2005. Resultaten samlades också på en CD för

    leverans till Naturvårdsverket. I tabell 1 ges en översikt över information som

    sammanställts inom projektet.

    Tabell 1. Antal dokument, kartor och kartunderlag med data (shape-filer) som

    sammanställts i projektet och som rapporteras på CD. Kartor = kartbilder. Shape =

    shape-filer.

    Moment Kartor Shape Word-dok Övrigt

    Vattenuttag 5 1 1 4 av kartorna i Word-dok.

    Regleringsgrad 1

    Flödesindikatorer 1 1

    Flödesstatistik 1

    Regleringshöjd 1

    Sänkta sjöar 3 3

    Dammar 2

    Strandnära 4 4 1

    Hamnar 3 2

    Preliminärt kraftigt modifierade 6 3

    Preliminärt konstgjorda 2

    Slutrapport 1

    SUMMA 27 16 3

  • van der Burgt, Danielle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Children's Spatialities: embodiment, emotion and agency2018Inngår i: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 218-219Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Nyström, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    SCB.
    Cooper, David
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Use of data from the EU emission trading scheme for reporting to EU Monitoring Mechanism, UNFCCC and CLRTAP2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide more accurate data for Sweden’s reporting to the EU Monitoring Mechanism, UNFCCC and CLRTAP, the potential of using emission trading data submitted by individual companies in a trading survey in 2004 has been investigated. In 2004 this work involved a quality check by comparing national Swedish data with data on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reported in the trading survey on plant level for the yeas 1998-2004. In several cases, significant discrepancies were observed which warranted a closer investigation and an eventual revision of activity data and a few emission factors

    This present study covers an investigation of 46 plants with discrepancies in activity data and five plants with discrepancies in emission factors, discovered during the work in 2004. After consultation with the appropriate personnel at each company explanations to the observed differences were found. The results indicated a revision of the activity data, which have been performed for 35 plants. The investigation of emission factors also resulted in revision according to the table below. Previous CO2 factor used in submission 2005

    ton CO2/TJ

    New CO2 factor that will be used in submission 2006

    ton CO2/TJ

    Carbide furnace gas

    60

    145

    Refinery gas

    66.7

    59.3

    Petroleum coke

    103

    100

  • Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Study of differences in plant data between the Energy Statistics and the EU Emission Trading Scheme2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU's utsläppshandel för koldioxid (CO2) inleddes 1 januari 2005 och omfattar drygt 700 anläggningar i Sverige. Naturvårdsverket ansvarar för att samla in och granska rapporterade data.

    För rapportering av utsläpp till UNFCCC, EU Monitoring Mechanism, CLRTAP och EU:s Takdirektiv 1990-2005, används i huvudsak SCB:s kvartalsvisa bränsle-statistik som aktivitetsdata. I vissa fall används kompletterande källor som SCB:s industristatistik, miljörapporter och data från direktkontakter med företagen.

    Under 2006 genomförde SMED ett projekt där anläggningsspecifika data från kvartalsstatistiken jämfördes med data från utsläppshandelssystemet. En av slutsat-serna var att man i en kommande studie behöver fördjupa jämförelsen för ett antal anläggningar, vilket nu gjorts och resultaten från studien redovisas i denna rapport.

    I projektet har den fossila energimängden från 19 anläggningar beräknats i ut-släppshandelsdata och sedan jämförts med energimängderna i kvartalsstatistiken. I de fall energimängderna skiljde sig åt gjordes analyser genom att jämföra energi- och bränsleförbrukning på bränsleslagsnivå. Ett antal anläggningar har kontaktats för att bättre förstå skillnaderna mellan datakällorna. Avfallsförbränning ingår inte i utsläppshandelssystemet och resultaten visar relativt god överensstämmelse mel-lan datakällorna efter det att avfallsförbränning räknats bort från kvartalsstatistiken.

    I kvartalsstatistiken och de beräkningar som görs baserat på dessa data finns en rad brister. För det första så skiljer sig de rapporterade bränslemängderna något för många av anläggningarna och med tanke på att handelsdata data är verifierade bör de anses som mer korrekta. På anläggningsnivå kommer dessutom de nationella värmevärden och emissionsfaktorer som användas inte att vara helt korrekta. En annan brist med kvartalsstatistiken är att ovanliga bränslen grupperas i bränsle-grupper som "övriga icke specificerade". För dessa bränslegrupper används mycket osäkra emissionsfaktorer eftersom de inte är anpassade för ett specifikt bränsle eller anläggning. Ett ytterligare problem är att vissa av dessa ovanliga bränslen är felklassade. I utsläppshandelsdata är ofta dessa bränslen delvis biogena och borde således klassas som "Övriga biobränslen".

    För att få bättre överensstämmelse mellan kvartalsstatistiken och utsläppshandels-data bör dessa brister ses över.

  • Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The effects of increasing the normal retirement age on health care utilization and mortality2018Inngår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 193-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay estimates the health effects of increasing the normal retirement age using Swedish administrative data on drug prescriptions, hospitalizations, and mortality. To this end, I use a reform that raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. Estimating the effect of the reform on individuals' health within the age range 65-69, the results show no evidence that the reform impacted mortality or health care utilization. Increasing the normal retirement age may thus have positive government income effects without seriously affecting short to medium run government health care expenditures.

  • Agustsson, Atli
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Res Ctr Movement Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sveinsson, Thorarinn
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Res Ctr Movement Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Lund Univ, Orthopaed, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden..
    The effect of asymmetrical limited hip flexion on seating posture, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion2017Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 71, s. 18-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postural asymmetries with seating problems are common in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Aims: To analyse the prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion (< 90) in adults with CP, and to evaluate the association between asymmetrical limited hip flexion and postural asymmetries in the sitting position.

    Methods and procedures: Cross-sectional data of 714 adults with CP, 16-73 years, GMFCS level I -V, reported to CPUP, the Swedish cerebral palsy national surveillance program and quality registry, from 2013 to 2015. Hip range of motion was analysed in relation to pelvic obliquity, trunk asymmetry, weight distribution, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

    Outcomes and results: The prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion increased as GMFCS level decreased. Of adults at GMFCS level V, 22% had asymmetrical limited hip flexion (< 90). The odds of having an oblique pelvis (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.6-2.1), an asymmetrical trunk (OR 2.1, 95% CI:1.1-4.2), scoliosis (OR 3.7, 95% CI:1.3-9.7), and windswept hip distortion (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.4) were higher for adults with asymmetrical limited hip flexion compared with those with bilateral hip flexion > 90 degrees.

    Conclusions and implications: Asymmetrical limited hip flexion affects the seating posture and is associated with scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

  • Styrket nordisk lovsamarbeid: Muligheter og utfordringer2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten peker på utfordringer og muligheter for det nordiske lovsamarbeidet, som etter den nordiske samarbeidsavtalen (Helsingforsavtalen) er en sentral del i nordisk samarbeid. Rapporten har en rekke forslag til hvordan man kan styrke lovsamarbeidet.

    Rapporten fremhever at et styrket nordisk lovsamarbeid kan gi bedre lovgivning i hvert enkelt land, forebygge og motvirke grensehindre i Norden,og bidra til å fremheve den nordiske modellen i verdenssamfunnet. Et sterkere lovsamarbeid er viktig for å nå målet om at Norden skal være denmest integrerte region i verden i samsvar med de nordiske statsministrenes felles erklæring i 2016.

    Rapportforfatteren, professor emeritus Inge Lorange Backer ved Universitetet i Oslo, har lang erfaring fra nordisk samarbeid innenjustisområdet. Som ekspedisjonssjef i Lovavdelingen i Justisdepartementet i Norge (1995–2008) var han Norges medlem i den nordiske embetsmannskomiteen for lovsamarbeid.