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  • Tengdin, Phoebe
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    You, Wenjing
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Chen, Cong
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Shi, Xun
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Zusin, Dmitriy
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Zhang, Yingchao
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Gentry, Christian
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Blonsky, Adam
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Keller, Mark
    NIST, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 USA.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Kapteyn, Henry C.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Tao, Zhensheng
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Murnane, Margaret M.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA;NIST, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
    Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 3, article id eaap9744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time-and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel. This is evidenced by several observations. First, we observe a divergence of the transient heat capacity of the electron spin system preceding material demagnetization. Second, when the electron temperature is transiently driven above the Curie temperature, we observe an extremely rapid change in the material response: The spin system absorbs sufficient energy within the first 20 fs to subsequently proceed through the phase transition, whereas demagnetization and the collapse of the exchange splitting occur on much longer, fluence-independent time scales of similar to 176 fs. Third, we find that the transient electron temperature alone dictates the magnetic response. Our results are important because they connect the out-of-equilibrium material behavior to the strongly coupled equilibrium behavior and uncover a new time scale in the process of ultrafast demagnetization.

  • Mohlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Kvanta, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, St Erik Eye Hosp, Sect Ophthalmol & Vis, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden.
    A model to study complement involvement in experimental retinal degeneration2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 28-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The complement system (CS) plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Given that many of the complex eye-related degenerative diseases have limited treatment opportunities, we aimed to mimic the in vivo retinal degenerative process by developing a relevant co-culture system.

    Method and materials: The adult porcine retina was co-cultured with the spontaneously arising human retinal pigment epithelial cells-19 (ARPE-19).

    Results: Inflammatory activity was found after culture and included migrating microglial cells, gliosis, cell death, and CS activation (demonstrated by a minor increase in the secreted anaphylotoxin C3a in co-culture). CS components, including C1q, C3, C4, soluble C5b-9, and the C5a receptor, were expressed in the retina and/or ARPE cells after culture. C1q, C3, and CS regulators such as C4 binding protein (C4BP), factor H (CFH), and factor I (CFI) were secreted after culture.

    Discussion: Thus, our research indicates that this co-culturing system may be useful for investigations of the CS and its involvement in experimental neurodegenerative diseases.

  • Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • Talagrand-Reboul, Emilie
    et al.
    Boyer, Pierre H.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Vial, Laurence
    Boulanger, Nathalie
    Relapsing Fevers: Neglected Tick-Borne Diseases2018In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 8, article id 98Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relapsing fever still remains a neglected disease and little is known on its reservoir, tick vector and physiopathology in the vertebrate host. The disease occurs in temperate as well as tropical countries. Relapsing fever borreliae are spirochaetes, members of the Borreliaceae family which also contain Lyme disease spirochaetes. They are mainly transmitted by Ornithodoros soft ticks, but some species are vectored by ixodid ticks. Traditionally a Borrelia species is associated with a specific vector in a particular geographical area. However, new species are regularly described, and taxonomical uncertainties deserve further investigations to better understand Borrelia vector/host adaptation. The medical importance of Borrelia miyamotoi, transmitted by Ixodes spp., has recently spawned new interest in this bacterial group. In this review, recent data on tick-host-pathogen interactions for tick-borne relapsing fevers is presented, with special focus on B. miyamotoi.

  • Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sect Social Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How gender theories are used in contemporary public health research2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public health research often focuses on gender differences within certain diagnoses, but so far research has failed to explain these differences in a satisfactory way. Theoretical development could be one prerequisite for moving beyond categorical thinking. The aim of this paper was to analyse how gender theories have been used in public health research in relation to various methodological approaches. Method: Six special issues of gender research with public health relevance (comprising 33 papers in total) were identified from a search of PubMed and Web of Science, spanning a 10-year period. The papers were analysed inductively through posing questions to the text. Results: Gender theories were used in eight different ways: 1. to test hypotheses, 2. integrate theories, 3. develop gender concepts and models, 4. interpret findings, 5. understand health problems, 6. illustrate the validity of other theories, 7. integrated into a gender blind theory, as well as to 8. critique of other gender theories. The strategies applied seemed independent of the health aspects of the papers. However, the methodologies were of importance, indicating that both theoretical papers and papers using qualitative methodologies used almost all available strategies, while papers using quantitative empirical research used a limited number of strategies. Conclusions: This study contributes to identifying how gender theories are used in contemporary public health research, which can help researchers move beyond a categorical understanding of gender in health research.

  • Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training). KTH, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Giacomellob, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn högskola, Flemmingsberg, Sverige.
    The Invisible Hand?: Critical Information Infrastructures, Commercialisation and National Security2018In: The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 0393-2729, E-ISSN 1751-9721, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporatisation of critical information infrastructure (CII) is rooted in the ‘privatisation wave’ of the 1980s-90s, when the ground was laid for outsourcing public utilities. Despite well-known risks relating to reliability, resilience, and accountability, commitment to efficiency imperatives have driven governments to outsource key public services and infrastructures. A recent illustrative case with enormous implications is the 2017 Swedish ICT scandal, where outsourcing of CII caused major security breaches. With the transfer of the Swedish Transport Agency’s ICT system to IBM and subcontractors, classified data and protected identities were made accessible to non-vetted foreign private employees – sensitive data could thus now be in anyone’s hands. This case clearly demonstrates accountability gaps that can arise in public-private governance of CII.

  • Ansal, A.
    et al.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Erdik, M.
    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul.
    Studer, J.
    Studer Engineering, Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Buchheister, J.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Giardini, D.
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Fäh, D.
    Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Köksal, D.
    World Institute for Disaster Risk Management- DRM, Virginia.
    Seismic microzonation for earthquake risk mitigation in turkey2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a tool to improve the state of land use management in Turkey and to better mitigate earthquake risk inthe future, a microzonation project was initiated after the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. The project had twocomponents (a) drafting a microzonation manual [1], (b) conducting pilot case studies in the selected tworegions affected by the 1999 Marmara earthquakes [2]. The main purpose of the study was to test anddemonstrate the applicability of the methodology proposed in the Seismic Microzonation Manual preparedfor the project. The major contributions of the study are the probabilistic assessment of the regionalearthquake hazard, interpretation of the microtremor records, and interpretation of the available geologicaland geotechnical data based on a grid approach. All the available data was transformed to GIS format andthe results are evaluated to obtain a microzonation with respect to site amplification, liquefactionsusceptibility and landslide hazard. An attempt will be made to summarize the results of the pilot studyconducted for the Gölcük region to give an overview of the proposed methodology.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-21 13:15 F229, Östersund
    Lindvert, Marta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Resource acquisition and the complexity of social capital: Perspectives from women entrepreneurs in Tanzania and Pakistan2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women entrepreneurs all over the world contribute significantly to innovation, employment opportunities and wealth creation in their respective economies. Despite their importance as drivers of development, there is a lack of research on preconditions for women’s entrepreneurship. In particular, little attention has been given to women’s venturing in developing economies. This is troublesome, since women have the potential to play a crucial role in the development of any society, not least through venturing. Entrepreneurshiphas long been recognized as one of the keys to economic developmentand numerous studies have confirmed its economic value. At the same time, a lack of capital and other resources is a crucial constraint in starting and expanding new businesses, especially in developing economies where the financial markets are often underdeveloped or dysfunctional. Further,previous research shows that women entrepreneurs face particularly high obstacles when searching for capital and other resources, as they have to overcome both formal and informal barriers.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to previous knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship in developing countries, by exploring and describing women entrepreneurs’ resource acquisition. The aim is further to explore the role of formal and informal institutions, as well as the role of social capital in relation to resource acquisition. The thesis is based on two field studies, conducted in two different developing contexts – Tanzania and Pakistan. Extended periods of time were spent in these contexts, where data were collected through semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and participant observation. The focus is on how women entrepreneurs obtain access to financial and other resources. The focus is further on the role of formal and informal institutions in relation to women entrepreneurs as they acquire resources, and the role of social capital in resource acquisition. Special attention is given to contextual preconditions.

    The results from the four papers of this thesis show that the studied groups of entrepreneurs use similar financial behavior. In both contexts, women have almost no access to formal capital from banks, and have to rely on informal sources of capital and resources, mainly from family members. In Tanzania, the microfinance sector plays an important role, and other semi-formal actors (e.g. SACCOs and RoSCAs) are commonly used as well. In Pakistan, the microfinance sector is less developed. There are semi-formal actors that can be used (such as so-called “committees”) but it is more common to use one’s own savings and loans or grants from family members. Further, results show that women entrepreneurs have to navigate through a complex interplay of barriers on both formal and informal levels. Although respondents in both contexts recognize that informal contacts (such as family members, friends, and social networks) are important sources of capital and other resources, they clearly express their desire for reliable, well-functioning, formal financial institutions. Lastly, results confirm that social capital is a crucial factor for entrepreneurs. As women in the studied contexts are excluded from formal finance, they are even more dependent on informal capital, and thereby their ability to use social capital. However, it is remarkable how often their social embeddedness is not only complex but counterproductive. Results show both negative outcomes of, and limited access to, social capital for the studied entrepreneurs.

  • Bauer, Bjørn
    et al.
    Watson, David
    Gylling, Anja
    Remmen, Arne
    Lysemose, Michael Hauris
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    Jönbrink, Anna-Karin
    Potential Ecodesign Requirements for Textiles and Furniture2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of the lifecycle environmental impacts of a product are determined at the design stage, why The EU Eco design Directive’s potential for application to non-energy related themes has come under the spotlight in recent years with Nordic countries at the forefront. In this report potential eco design requirements that can be drawn up for non-energy-related products are in focus. Textiles are here used as an example, and a light application of the approach has subsequently been applied to the furniture sector. Clothing and home textiles were chosen due to significant wastage in the value chain due to fast fashion, dropping quality and relatively low repair and reuse rates.The project was initiated and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and led by its Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production. A separate Policy Brief (ANP2018:739) is also published.

  • Amos, Gideon Jojo
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    (Investigating) MNCs' CSR-related behaviour and impacts in institutionally and culturally distant markets: African developing-countries in focus2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to explore why and how institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing-countries. In order to achieve the purpose stated above, the thesis seeks to answer the overarching research question: How do institutional distance and contextual differences influence MNCs’ CSR-related behavior in African developing countries? To answer the research question this thesis employed an interpretive methodological approach in order to increase my understanding of the CSR phenomenon in a specific contextual environment characterized by different institutional distance through different theoretical and empirical perspectives (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 2000). The thesis consists of two qualitative case studies, a systematic literature review, a conceptual paper focused on analyzing distance and MNC foreign subsidiaries’ CSR-related behaviour, and a longitudinal content analysis of annual CSR reports.

    The thesis found that the most prevalent CSR themes addressed in journal articles focused on developing-countries have been social issues, followed by environmental issues as a distant second, with ethics-related issues receiving the least attention. The findings further indicate that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive and significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivises the host-communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations or CSR initiatives proposed by the mining companies. Soft’ regulations to which members of industry associations voluntarily adhere mitigate the absence of enforcement of more stringent hard regulations by the state for companies. In doing business in distant or different institutional contexts, institutional duality of MNC subsidiaries renders business activities complex and even conflicting when it comes to seeking internal and external legitimacy. This finding and the proposed model extend Hillman and Wan’s (2005) argument of the existence of ‘institutional duality’ of MNC subsidiaries. The 60-item disclosure index is in itself a contribution to research as it provides a measure of ‘disclosure quality’ in relation to the disclosures of CSR-related performance information and CSR-related governance information.

    The main theoretical contribution of the thesis is that CSR expectations in developing-countries are distinct and may be more important to know how these empirical realities are taken into account when firms with their origin in developed-countries internationalize and enter markets in developing-countries. Second, an extended model is proposed which illustrates the roles of organizational fields, institutional pressures, legitimating environments, and legitimating strategies for MNC subsidiaries’ voluntary disclosure of CSR performance information. The overall contribution of the thesis is that it deepens our understanding of the CSR phenomenon, and of the role of host-communities and MNC subsidiaries’ managers from the context of developing-countries.

    © Gideon Jojo Amos

  • Peterson, Abby
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wahlström, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Pride Parades and LGBT Movements: Political Participation in an International Comparative Perspective2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • Airey, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    The Concept of Affordance in the Teaching and Learning of Undergraduate Science2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Concept of Affordance in Teaching and Learning Undergraduate Science 

     

    John Airey 

    Physics Education Research Group

    Department of Physics and Astronomy

    Uppsala University

    Sweden

     

    And   

     

    Department of Mathematics and Science Education

    Stockholm University

    Sweden

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979)the concept of affordance has been debated by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman(1988)about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Fredlund, 2015 for a recent example). 

    In the presentation the interrelated concepts of disciplinary affordance and pedagogical affordance will be presented. Both concepts make a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, they refer to the disciplinary community as a whole. Disciplinary affordance is "the agreed meaning making functions that a semiotic resource fulfills for a disciplinary community". Similarly, pedagogical affordance is "the aptness of a semiotic resource for the teaching and learning of some particular educational content" (Airey, 2015). As such, in a teaching situation the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is the process through which students come to use semiotic resources in a way that is accepted within the discipline. In this characterization then, learning can be framed in terms of coming to perceive and leverage the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources. 

    References

    Airey, J. (2006). Physics Students' Experiences of the Disciplinary Discourse Encountered in Lectures in English and Swedish.   Licentiate Thesis. Uppsala, Sweden: Department of Physics, Uppsala University., 

    Airey J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. ActaUniversitatis  Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala Retrieved 2009-04-27, from   http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Airey, J. (2014) resresentationsin Undergraduate Physics. Docent lecture,ÅngströmLaboratory, 9th June 2014 From   http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-226598

    Airey, J. (2015). Social Semiotics in Higher Education: Examples from teaching and learning in undergraduate physics In: SACF   Singapore-Sweden Excellence Seminars, Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research in Higher   Education (STINT) , 2015 (pp. 103). urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266049. 

    Airey, J. & Linder, C. (2015) Social Semiotics in Physics Education: Leveraging critical constellations of disciplinary representations   ESERA 2015 From http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn%3Anbn%3Ase%3Auu%3Adiva-260209

    Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2009). "A disciplinary discourse perspective on university science learning: Achieving fluency in a critical   constellation of modes." Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(1), 27-49.

    Airey, J. & Linder, C. (2017) Social Semiotics in Physics Education : Multiple Representations in Physics Education   Springer 

    Airey, J., & Eriksson, U. (2014). A semiotic analysis of the disciplinary affordances of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in   astronomy. Paper presented at the The 5th International 360 conference: Encompassing the multimodality of knowledge,   Aarhus, Denmark. 

    Airey, J., Eriksson, U., Fredlund, T., and Linder, C. (2014). "The concept of disciplinary affordance"The5th International 360   conference: Encompassing the multimodality of knowledge. City: Aarhus University: Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 20.

    Eriksson, U. (2015) Reading the Sky: From Starspotsto Spotting Stars Uppsala:ActaUniversitatisUpsaliensis.

    Eriksson, U., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Redfors, A. (2014). Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat? Science Education, 98(3),   412-442. 

    Eriksson, U., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Redfors, A. (2014). Introducing the anatomy of disciplinary discernment: an example from   astronomy. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(3), 167‐182. 

    Fredlund 2015 Using a Social Semiotic Perspective to Inform the Teaching and Learning of Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students   sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Fredlund, T, Airey, J, & Linder, C. (2015a). Enhancing the possibilities for learning: Variation of disciplinary-relevant aspects in   physics representations. European Journal of Physics. 

    Fredlund, T. & Linder, C., & Airey, J. (2015b). Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: an   example from electrostatics.European Journal of Physics. 36055002. 

    Fredlund, T. & Linder, C., & Airey, J. (2015c). A social semiotic approach to identifying critical aspects. International Journal for   Lesson and Learning Studies2015 4:3 , 302-316 

    Fredlund, T., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Linder, A. (2014). Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary   affordance. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res., 10(020128).

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception(pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton   Miffin.

    Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as a social semiotic. London: Arnold.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentationin the teaching and learning of science. European  Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

    Mavers, D. Glossary of multimodal terms  Retrieved 6 May, 2014, from http://multimodalityglossary.wordpress.com/affordance/

    van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing social semiotics. London: Routledge. 

    Wu, H-K, & Puntambekar, S. (2012). Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(6), 754-767.

  • Blikstad, Mathias
    et al.
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lööw, Tomas
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    An optimisation approach for pre-runtime scheduling of tasks and communication in an integrated modular avionic system2018In: Optimization and Engineering, ISSN 1389-4420, E-ISSN 1573-2924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern integrated modular avionic systems, applications share hardware resources on a common avionic platform. Such an architecture necessitates strict requirements on the spatial and temporal partitioning of the system to prevent fault propagation between different aircraft functions. One way to establish a temporal partitioning is through pre-runtime scheduling of the system, which involves creating a schedule for both tasks and a communication network. While avionic systems are growing more and more complex, so is the challenge of scheduling them. The scheduling of the system has an important role in the development of new avionic systems, since functionality is typically added to the system over a period of several years and a scheduling tool is used both to detect if the platform can host the new functionality and, if this is possible, to create a new schedule. For this reason an exact solution strategy for avionics scheduling is preferred over a heuristic one. In this paper we present a mathematical model for an industrially relevant avionic system and present a constraint generation procedure for the scheduling of such systems. We apply our optimisation approach to instances provided by our industrial partner. These instances are of relevance for the development of future avionic systems and contain up to 20,000 tasks to be scheduled. The computational results show that our optimisation approach can be used to create schedules for such instances within a reasonable time.

  • Nicklasson, Emil
    et al.
    Rodéhn, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Persson, Kristina
    En Annorlunda Visning2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala / [ed] John Ljungkvist & Anneli Ekblom, Uppsala: Plan B Publishing , 2018, p. 77-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Dyrvold, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Uncommon vocabulary in mathematical tasks in relation to demand of reading ability and solution frequency2015In: Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 101-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the relation between commonness of the vocabulary used in mathematics tasks and aspects of students’ reading and solving of the tasks. The vocabulary in PISA tasks is analyzed according to how common the words are in a mathematical and an everyday context. The study examines correlations between different aspects of task difficulty and the presence of different types of uncommon vocabulary. The results show that the amount of words that are uncommon in both contexts are most important in relation to the reading and solving of the tasks. These words are not connected to the solution frequency of the task but to the demand of reading ability when solving the task

  • Grip, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Physical Geography.
    Water chemistry and runoff in forest streams at Kloten1982Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural variability of stream water composition and discharge was studied in the Kloten area, Central Sweden, by means of statistical methods and simulation technique. The effects of Urea (155 kgN ha-1) and ammonium nitrate (AN, 160 kgN ha-1) fertilization and clear-cutting were studied by comparing treated and reference streams before and after management.

    The concentrations of the chemical constituents and runoff were mostly inhomogeneous in space and time and the coefficients of variation were considerable.

    Urea fertilization had a more prolonged nitrogen leaching and a total of 750 kgN km-2 compared with AN treated areas (500 kgN km-2). The difference was due to higher nitrate leaching. Base cation leaching was larger and pH increased after Urea fertilization. pH decreased after AN fertilization.

    Runoff increased 180 mm year-1 after clear-cutting, while no significant change was found after fertilization. The immediate effect of clear-cutting on stream water chemistry was an increase in dissolved organic matter, followed by increased leaching of ammonia (10x), nitrate (9x) and potassium (4.8x). The total excess leaching of nitrogen was 1 040 kgN km-2 during the first three years after clear-cutting.

    A Norwegian hydrochemical model, that explained stream water composition, was modified and parameterized (40 parameters) for two catchments to analyse differences between them.

    The differences in parameters between the catchments were interpreted as differences in slopes close to the drainage net, dilution due to different evaporation, differences in standing biomass and current annual increment and slightly different mineral composition of the soils. pH at high flows could be deduced from stand characteristics.

  • Rodéhn, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Utfärder till Gamla Uppsala2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala / [ed] John Ljungkvist & Anneli Ekblom, Uppsala: Institution för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 175-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Hultman, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Perimed AB, Järfälla-Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaluation of a high framerate multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging setup2018In: High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy III: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management / [ed] Kevin K. Tsia, Keisuke Goda, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first evaluation of a new multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (MELSCI) system for assessing spatial variations in the microcirculatory perfusion. The MELSCI system is based on a 1000 frames per second 1-megapixel camera connected to a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) capable of producing MELSCI data in realtime. The imaging system is evaluated against a single point laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system during occlusionrelease provocations of the arm in five subjects. Perfusion is calculated from MELSCI data using current state-of-the-art inverse models. The analysis displayed a good agreement between measured and modeled data, with an average error below 6%. This strongly indicates that the applied model is capable of accurately describing the MELSCI data and that the acquired data is of high quality. Comparing readings from the occlusion-release provocation showed that the MELSCI perfusion was significantly correlated (R=0.83) to the single point LDF perfusion, clearly outperforming perfusion estimations based on a single exposure time. We conclude that the MELSCI system provides blood flow images of enhanced quality, taking us one step closer to a system that accurately can monitor dynamic changes in skin perfusion over a large area in real-time

  • Rodéhn, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Landskapsbruk och Museipedagogik2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala / [ed] John Ljungkvist & Anneli Ekblom, Uppsala: Institution för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 31-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The adaptation of the Dignity Care Intervention to a Swedish context2018In: Nordic Conference in Nursing Research - Methods and Networks for the future, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Dignity Care Intervention (DCI) was developed in Scotland by Johnston and co-workers for nurses in municipality care, to enhance dignity in persons with palliative care needs. DCI includes a questionnaire, examples of reflective questions and suggests care actions. DCI has been tested in Ireland, and is now adapted to Swedish.

    Objective: To translate and adapt the DCI to a Swedish palliative context.

    Method: The questionnaire was translated and adapted into Swedish and reviewed by an expert group, before validated in cognitive interviews (N=7) with older persons. To update evidence concerning care actions from a Swedish context, a review of Swedish research literature and interviews with older persons, relatives and health care professionals were carried out. This gathered knowledge has been integrated into the Swedish DCI (DCI-SWE) and a feasibility study now takes place in one municipality in home care, Sweden. Included nurses got repeated information and participated in a shorter DCI-education, and will use the DCI in their everyday work for three months. Follow-up interviews will be conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The Swedish version of the questionnaire was experienced relevant for older persons, and both the Swedish review and the interviews gave culturally relevant proposals about dignity care actions. Further, a feasibility study will contribute to the ongoing development of the Swedish DCI-version.

    Conclusion and implication for practice: Implementing DCI in Sweden can enhance dignity in persons with palliative care needs and facilitate for a person-centered care.

  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Centre for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Enhancing dignity in older persons in Sweden: adaptation of the Dignity Care Intervention2018In: 24th Nordic Congress of Gerontology, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : In end of life, the older persons´ experiences of dignity can be affected due to serious illness and life changes, derived from physical, psychological, social and existential dimension. Loss of dignity impact the persons´ will to live. The Dignity Care Intervention (DCI) was developed and tested in Scotland and Ireland, to enhance dignity of older persons with palliative care needs, by nurses in municipality care. DCI consists a patient dignity inventory, reflective questions and examples of evidence-based care actions.

    The aim was to develop and adapt the DCI to a Swedish context.

    Methods: The patient dignity inventory was overall accepted by older persons in home care, however some changes in the wording were performed. The Swedish care actions reflected mostly earlier care actions described in the original version. However some more care actions derived in some of the categories in the Swedish DCI (DCI-SWE) e.g. “social support”, and some less care actions derived for example in the category “aftermath concerns”.  In DCI-SWE general care actions like e.g. to show respect were concretized unlike the original DCI.

    Conclusions: The DCI-SWE has prospects to enhance older persons´ dignity, and is now tested in a feasibility study by twelve nurses in home care.

  • de Alwis, M.P.
    et al.
    Garme, K:
    Martire, R. Lo
    Kåsin, J.I.
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Crew acceleration exposure, health and performance in high-speed operations at sea2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research program investigates the association between working conditions aboard High-Speed Craft (HSC) and its outcomes in terms of acceleration exposure and crew health and systems performance respectively. The aim is to identify the related risk factors and further, to use them to improve the assessment criteria in a simulation-based-design framework. The investigation initially document a seaborne population by a web-based questionnaire tailored for High-Performance Marine Craft Personnel (HPMCP) and similar populations. Then data is collected during regular service by measuring craft acceleration and through another questionnaire especially resolute on perceived work-exposure, health and performance. Exposure and performance data is collected daily and health data weekly, depending on seaborne frequency. The population repeats the prevalence questionnaire about a year later enabling a longitudinal follow-up for identifying long-term effects of exposure. The paper reports the two questionnaires´ development and pilot test as well as the first application for baseline data collection in the target group. The results indicate health and performance characteristics of the study population and data shows a promising correlation between the self-reported subjective exposure and the measured objective acceleration. Data indicates a comparatively higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the study population than that of the general population.

  • Söderman, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    En intervention för att bevara sköra äldre personers värdighet: utveckling och anpassning till en svensk kontext 2018In: Forskningen och utvecklingens dag, 2018, Örebro, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Utvärdering av palliativ vård i Sverige har visat att vården är ojämlik och att äldre personer får sämre palliativ vård. För att främja äldre personers livskvalitet den sista tiden i livet är bevarande av värdighet grundläggande. Förlust av värdighet kan innebära förtvivlan, en känsla av att vara en börda för andra och en önskan om att få dö, vanliga upplevelser hos sköra äldre personer. Konkreta arbetssätt behöver därför utvecklas för att bevara äldre personers värdighet, vilket idag saknas inom svensk palliativ vård. En värdighetsbevarande intervention (DCI) har utvecklats och prövats i Skottland och Irland. Interventionen består av ett formulär för kartläggning av värdighet, reflekterande frågor samt evidensbaserade vårdhandlingar.

    Syfte: Syftet var att utveckla och anpassa DCI till en svensk kontext.

    Metod: Utveckling och kulturanpassning skedde genom 1) översättning och anpassning av formuläret till svensk kontext via en expertpanel och via kognitiva intervjuer med äldre personer 2) identifiering av värdighetsbevarande vårdhandlingar relevanta för en svensk kontext, utifrån en litteraturgenomgång samt via intervjuer med äldre personer, deras närstående och vårdpersonal.

    Resultat: Mindre revideringar av formuläret genomfördes, men överlag accepterades det av de äldre personerna. Identifierade värdighetsbevarande vårdhandlingar speglade mestadels de redan angivna i originalversionen DCI. Dock framkom fler vårdhandlingar än i originalet vid några av kategorierna i den svenska DCI (DCI-SWE) som t.ex. ”socialt stöd”, medan det framkom färre vårdhandlingar än originalet vid t.ex. ”dödens följder för andra”. I DCI-SWE konkretiserades generella vårdhandlingar som t.ex. att lyssna och visa respekt, till skillnad från originalet.

    Konklusion: DCI-SWE har möjlighet att främja sköra äldre personers värdighet, och prövas nu av sjuksköterskor i en genomförbarhetsstudie inom hemsjukvården.

  • Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Damasceno, Davi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Jan
    Naturgasteknik AB.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Investigation of research needs regarding the storage of hydrogen gas in lined rock caverns: Prestudy for Work Package 2.3 in HYBRIT Research Program 12018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of HYBRIT RP1 is to explore and assess pathways to fossil-free energy-mining-iron-steel value chains and thereby provide a basis for industrial development activities and the necessary future transformative change in this field. A large-scale storage capacity for hydrogen gas is an important component of the proposed HYBRIT concept. Underground storage in lined rock caverns provides a reasonable option: a large-scale demonstration plant for storage of natural gas was constructed in Sweden in 2002 and has operated safely since then. Considering that this lined rock cavern facility was constructed for natural gas, the present report investigates the current research needs to allow for underground storage of hydrogen gas in such a facility. This will serve as a basis for the research in Work Package 2.3 of HYBRIT RP1.

    Studying the experiences from decades of Swedish and international research and practice on the construction of underground gas storage facilities, the conclusion is that the lined rock cavern concept seems a reasonable way forward. In terms of rock engineering research, there are currently no critical research issues; however, a development of a previously proposed risk-based design framework for lined rock caverns may further strengthen the ability to manage risks related to underground gas storage facilities. The report identifies several potential research questions on this topic to be further studied: development of a risk-based design approach using subset simulation, the optimization potential of the concrete thickness in the lining, and the effect of spatial variation of rock mass properties on a location’s suitability for the storage facility.

    Additionally, the report identifies the potential effect of hydrogen embrittlement on the steel lining as a critical research issue to ensure safe storage of hydrogen gas in lined rock caverns. However, as this issue is not related to rock engineering, but a material issue, it will not be covered further in Work Package 2.3.

  • Lenau, Torben Anker
    et al.
    Orrù, Anna Maria
    Linkola, Lilli
    Biomimicry in the Nordic Countries2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of Biomimicry within the processes of design and development in Nordic companies are not well known. As a result, The Nordic Council of Ministers Working Group for Sustainable Consumption and Production has called for this report to highlight Nordic forerunners in Biomimicry and actors and activities in the field of biomimicry, biomimetics and biologically inspired design in Nordic countries today. The study conducted by Torben Lenau, Lilli Linkola and Anna Maria Orrù, will present a basis for planning further activities to leverage the possibilities for actors in biomimicry and to disseminate knowledge and methodology on if and how nature's solutions can provide environmental and competitive advantages in business development. Results showed that over 100 organisations and almost 100 professionals from the Nordic countries are listed in the stakeholder map.

  • Agrawal, Sumit
    et al.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada.
    Schart-Moren, Nadine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Liu, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Ladak, Hanif M.
    Western Univ, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Med Biophys, London, ON, Canada;Western Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, London, ON, Canada.
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Li, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    The secondary spiral lamina and its relevance in cochlear implant surgery2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We used synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI) to study the 3D microanatomy of the basilar membrane (BM) and its attachment to the spiral ligament (SL) (with a conceivable secondary spiral lamina [SSL] or secondary spiral plate) at the round window membrane (RWM) in the human cochlea. The conception of this complex anatomy may be essential for accomplishing structural preservation at cochlear implant surgery.

    Material and methods: Sixteen freshly fixed human temporal bones were used to reproduce the BM, SL, primary and secondary osseous spiral laminae (OSL), and RWM using volume-rendering software. Confocal microscopy immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to analyze the molecular constituents.

    Results: SR-PCI reproduced the soft tissues including the RWM, Reissner's membrane (RM), and the BM attachment to the lateral wall (LW) in three dimensions. A variable SR-PCI contrast enhancement was recognized in the caudal part of the SL facing the scala tympani (ST). It seemed to represent a SSL allied to the basilar crest (BC). The SSL extended along the postero-superior margin of the round window (RW) and immunohistochemically expressed type II collagen.

    Conclusions: Unlike in several mammalian species, the human SSL is restricted to the most basal portion of the cochlea around the RW. It anchors the BM and may influence its hydro-mechanical properties. It could also help to shield the BM from the RW. The microanatomy should be considered at cochlear implant surgery.

  • Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, S-72218 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    More secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate whether more secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with less depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to explore possible sex differences.

    Method: A population-based sample of adolescents completed a school-based survey assessing demographic data, attachment to father and mother, as well as depressive symptoms. Participation rate was 80% of the eligible population, and 3,988 adolescents (1,937 boys and 2,051 girls) had complete data for the analyses.

    Results: Paired samples t tests showed that participants rated their attachment to mothers as slightly more secure than their attachment to fathers (t = 15.94, P < 0.001; boys: t = 5.23, P < 0.001; girls: t = 16.16, P < 0.001). In linear regression analyses there was an association between the outcome, number of depressive symptoms, and more secure attachment to the mother for boys (B=-0.532; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.656, -0.407, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.623; 95% CI -0.730, -0.516, P < 0.001). Analogous results were found for more secure attachment to the father for boys (B = -0.499; 95% CI -0.608, -0.391, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.494; 95% CI -0.586, -0.401, P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Understanding the relationship between attachment to both father and mother and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls is essential for further development of strategies for prevention and treatment of depression.

  • Rashid, Shaista
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Cunningham, Una
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Watson, Kevin
    University of Canterbury New Zealand.
    Task-based language teaching with smartphones: A case study in Pakistan2017In: Teachers and Curriculum, ISSN 2382-0349, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of technology in task-based language teaching (TBLT) has long been a source of attraction for language teachers (Pierson, 2015). In the case of developing countries, such as Pakistan, mobile phones are the modern form of technology commonly available at low cost to individuals as well as institutions. The present descriptive case study explores the impact of ubiquitous smartphones and a TBLT approach on students’ and teachers’ perception and motivation in improving English writing skills. A mixed method approach was used to explore the qualitative and quantitative data. Smartphones were used to complete writing tasks on blogs. The results of the study reveal that using smartphones, combined with a TBLT approach, created learning environments which promote self-confidence and interaction with the teacher and peers. It also helped the teacher in providing individual feedback to the students, improving students’ engagement in learning tasks as well as self-expression in English.

  • Vesterlund, Sabina
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning. FIHD - Forskarskolan för idrott och hälsas didaktik, GIH.
    Hälsa med andra ord: Innebörden av att genomföra och värdera street dance utifrån begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To grasp what learning, teaching and knowing health might be in relation to a physical activity, the study explores what ninth grade students find difficult, and what they need to discern in teaching to experience the knowing of participation and evaluation of street dance classes through the concepts comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. These concepts are brought from Aron Antonovsky perspective of salutogenic health by Sense of Coherence (SOC). However I do not claim to embrace the complete SOC since it relates to life as a whole (Antonovsky, 1991; 2005).

    The aim of the study is to investigate how to deal with the content of teaching making the students develop the ability to participate and evaluate physical activity in relation to the concepts mentioned. Furthermore by using the onset of phenomenography and theory of variation the study explores ways for teachers and students to discern critical features of the content of teaching.

    The study design used is Learning study. It is a cyclic, pedagogical design aiming for making it possible for teachers to scientifically explore the quality of their own teaching in relation to a specific content being taught. In a Learning study teachers are collaborating with content of teaching, trying to discern critical features of the content to make these aspects come clear for the students in renewed teaching. A phenomenographic perspective is used to discern how the students’ experiences of the teaching content vary. The theory of variation is used for planning and carrying out lessons and evaluating them in order to make the critical aspects discernable for the students.

    Three lessons within one Learning study cycle were staged. They were videotaped and field notes were taken. The sample consisted of three groups of ninth grade students, 15 to 16 years of age (n=52) and three teachers.

    Three critical aspects according to the object of learning were discerned in the study:

    • Experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness within the context of street dance.
    • Experiences of different forms of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness within different situations of the context of street dance.
    • Within the context of street dance experience how the actions and experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness by oneself simultane-ously relates to actions and experiences of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness of others.

    The study shows how young students’ ability to carry through and evaluate street dance with point of departure in the meaning of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness may be improved when the students are offered a variation in the critical features of the subject content.

  • Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurship on Regional Development in Western Sweden2018In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 18-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how immigrant entrepreneurship impacts regional development. Three towns in Western Sweden are analysed,using unique data on company start-ups at a local level. The findings suggest that immigrant entrepreneurs are overrepresented in the start-ups of labour intensive and low productive businessesin the service sector. Such entrepreneurship does not promoteregional development, but it may get the entrepreneur out of thereliance onwelfare schemes and meet theirbills. Resultantly, the region appears to be caught in a vicious circle of underdevelopment, whereincompanies started by immigrant entrepreneurs experience a limited market expansion, and this leads to low savings,low consumption, reduced stock of capital in the economy,and low income.

    Thispaper offers important insights on how theory and results that stem from an aggregate national level may differ when entrepreneurship is analysed at a local level. It concludes that what works well and promotes regional development in metropolitan areas may lead to completely different outcomes in smaller towns in decaying industrial regions.

  • Bydler, Charlotte
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Gedin, AndreasSödertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.Ringarp, JohannaSödertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Pontus Hultén på Moderna Museet: Vittnesseminarium Södertörns högskola, 26 april 20172018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 9 maj 1958 invigdes Moderna Museet i marinens gamla Exercishall på Skeppsholmen i Stockholm. Museet var inte en självständig institution utan Nationalmuseums avdelning för modern konst med Bo Wennberg som chef. Året därpå tog Pontus Hultén över.

    Under Hulténs ledning blev Moderna ett av Europas viktigaste museer för modern konst. Men det var också något av stockholmarnas kulturhus, bland annat inspirerat av Stedelijk Museum i Amsterdam, med plats för film, musik, teater, happenings och modevisningar.

    Efter de första årens framgångar möttes Hultén av ett kulturpolitiskt motstånd mot slutet av 1960-talet. Hultén kritiserades för ointresse för den svenska konsten, för bristande politiskt engagemang och för att gå den amerikanska imperialismens ärenden.

    Den 26 april 2017 anordnade Samtidshistoriska institutet tillsammans med forskningsprojektet Levande arkiv: Pontus  Hultén på Moderna Museet (1957-73), fiansierat av Vetenskapsrådet och placerat vid ämnet Konstvetenskap, Södertörns högskola, ett vittnesseminarium om Pontus Hulténs tid på Moderna Museet.

  • Iveson, Timothy J.
    et al.
    Southampton Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Southampton SO16 0YD, Hants, England.
    Kerr, Rachel S.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Oncol, Oxford, England.
    Saunders, Mark P.
    Christie Hosp, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Cassidy, Jim
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Henrik Hollander, Niels
    Zealand Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol & Palliat Care, Naestved, Denmark.
    Tabernero, Josep
    Vall dHebron Univ Hosp, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CIBERONC, Inst Oncol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Haydon, Andrew
    Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Harkin, Andrea
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Allan, Karen
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    McQueen, John
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Scudder, Claire
    Univ Oxford, Dept Oncol, OCTO, Oxford, England.
    Boyd, Kathleen Anne
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Briggs, Andrew
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Ctr Hlth & Policy Outcomes, New York, NY 10021 USA.
    Waterston, Ashita
    Beatson West Scotland Canc Ctr, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Medley, Louise
    Royal United Hosp, Bath, Avon, England.
    Wilson, Charles
    Addenbrookes Hosp, Cambridge, England.
    Ellis, Richard
    Royal Cornwall Hosp NHS Trust, Truro, England.
    Essapen, Sharadah
    Royal Surrey Cty Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Lukes Canc Ctr, Guildford, Surrey, England.
    Dhadda, Amandeep S.
    Castle Hill Hosp, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England.
    Harrison, Mark
    Mt Vernon Canc Ctr, Northwood, Middx, England.
    Falk, Stephen
    Bristol Canc Inst, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Raouf, Sherif
    Barking Havering & Redbridge Univ Hosp NHS Trust, Barking, England.
    Rees, Charlotte
    Southampton Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Southampton SO16 0YD, Hants, England.
    Olesen, Rene K.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Propper, David
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts Canc Inst, London, England.
    Bridgewater, John
    UCL, UCL Canc Inst, London, England.
    Azzabi, Ashraf
    Newcastle Upon Tyne Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Newcastle, England.
    Farrugia, David
    Cheltenham Gen Hosp, Gloucestershire Oncol Ctr, Cheltenham, Glos, England.
    Webb, Andrew
    Brighton & Sussex Univ Hosp Trust, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Cunningham, David
    Royal Marsden Hosp, London, England.
    Hickish, Tamas
    Bournemouth Univ, Poole Hosp, Bournemouth, Dorset, England.
    Weaver, Andrew
    Oxford Univ Hosp Fdn Trust, Dept Oncol, Oxford, England.
    Gollins, Simon
    North Wales Canc Treatment Ctr, Rhyl, Wales.
    Wasan, Harpreet S.
    Imperial Coll London, Hammersmith Hosp, London, England.
    Paul, James
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Canc Sci, Canc Res UK Clin Trials Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    3 versus 6 months of adjuvant oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine combination therapy for colorectal cancer (SCOT): an international, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial2018In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 562-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 6 months of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is usually given as adjuvant treatment for stage 3 colorectal cancer. We investigated whether 3 months of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy would be non-inferior to the usual 6 months of treatment.

    Methods: The SCOT study was an international, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done at 244 centres. Patients aged 18 years or older with high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer underwent central randomisation with minimisation for centre, choice of regimen, sex, disease site, N stage, T stage, and the starting dose of capecitabine. Patients were assigned (1: 1) to receive 3 months or 6 months of adjuvant oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy. The chemotherapy regimens could consist of CAPOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX (bolus and infused fluorouracil with oxaliplatin). The regimen was selected before randomisation in accordance with choices of the patient and treating physician. The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival and the non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio of 1.13. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in patients who started study treatment. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN59757862, and follow-up is continuing.

    Findings: 6088 patients underwent randomisation between March 27, 2008, and Nov 29, 2013. The intended treatment was FOLFOX in 1981 patients and CAPOX in 4107 patients. 3044 patients were assigned to 3 month group and 3044 were assigned to 6 month group. Nine patients in the 3 month group and 14 patients in the 6 month group did not consent for their data to be used, leaving 3035 patients in the 3 month group and 3030 patients in the 6 month group for the intention-to-treat analyses. At the cutoff date for analysis, there had been 1482 disease-free survival events, with 740 in the 3 month group and 742 in the 6 month group. 3 year disease-free survival was 76.7% (95% CI 75.1-78.2) for the 3 month group and 77.1% (75.6-78.6) for the 6 month group, giving a hazard ratio of 1.006 (0.909-1.114, test for non-inferiority p=0.012), significantly below the non-inferiority margin. Peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or worse was more common in the 6 month group (237 [58%] of 409 patients for the subset with safety data) than in the 3 month group (103 [25%] of 420) and was long-lasting and associated with worse quality of life. 1098 serious adverse events were reported (492 reports in the 3 month group and 606 reports in the 6 month group) and 32 treatment-related deaths occurred (16 in each group).

    Interpretation: In the whole study population, 3 months of oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy was non-inferior to 6 months of the same therapy for patients with high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer and was associated with reduced toxicity and improved quality of life. Despite the fact the study was underpowered, these data suggest that a shorter duration leads to similar survival outcomes with better quality of life and thus might represent a new standard of care.

  • Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tobias Dalberg, Mot lärdomens topp: Svenska humanisters och samhällsvetares ursprung, utbildning och yrkesbana under 1900-talets första hälft2018In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 5, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Havnen, Ingvard
    Norden – nye muligheter: Forslag til økt mobilitet og integrasjon mellom de nordiske landene2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten inneholder 16 forslag fra Norges tidligere ambassadør til Danmark, Ingvard Havnen, om hvordan man kan øke mobiliteten og integrasjonen i Norden.

    Forslagene handler om nordisk identitet og språk, digitalisering, næringsliv, arbeidsliv, utdanning, lovgivning, transport og helse. Et forslag handler om strukturen for Nordisk ministerråds arbeid med mobilitet og integrasjon.

    Havnen trekker spesielt frem et forslag om elektronisk ID, som vil kunne legge til rette for at man kan bruke sin nasjonale elektroniske ID i alle de nordiske landene. Det kan bli like viktig for det nordiske samarbeidet som passunionen i sin tid.

    Målet med forslagene er å frigjøre potensialet for enkeltpersoner og næringslivet som enda ikke er realisert. Rapporten skal også gi et bidrag til diskusjonen om hvordan vi kan styrke samarbeidet og mobiliteten i Norden.

  • Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förbättrat lärande i utredningsmetodik2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt var att öka förståelsen för hur vi i undervisningen kan stötta studenternas lärande i utredningsmetodik.

    Efter att inledningsvis studerat litteratur om utredningsmetodik, interv-juades representanter för olika avdelningar på LiU, där studenterna arbe-tar med utredningsprojekt som ligger inom ramen för ovanstående be-skrivning. Intervjuer på 45-90 minuter genomfördes med representanter för sju avdelningar, från tre av LiUs institutioner. En specificering av res-pondenterna finns i bilaga 1. Intervjuerna spelades in med respondenter-nas samtycke.

    Utifrån intervjuerna valdes en kurs ut som case för djupare studier. Denna kurs följdes under projektets gång genom diskussioner med exami-nator och andra involverade lärare, samt genom enkäter riktade till kurs-deltagarna. Upplevda problem med kursen identifierades, förändringar genomfördes och följdes upp under två kursgenomföranden.

  • Mindus, Patricia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Cuono, Massimo
    Università di Torino.
    Legal Theory for the Age of Migration? An Outline of a Theory of Arbitrary Lawmaking: Verso una teoria del diritto per l’età delle migrazioni di massa Una tipologia del potere arbitrario2018In: Rivista di Filosofia del Diritto, ISSN 2280-482X, Vol. 1, p. 11-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a typology of forms of arbitrariness, as related to political power, is sketched out and applied specifically to the analysis of citizenship policies and border-control techniques. The paper offers a basic typology of forms of arbitrariness making possible a hopefully clarifying differentiation among forms of abuse: (a) illegal practices, (b) irrational policies, and (c) discriminatory statuses.

  • Cunningham, Una
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    King, Jeanette
    University of Canterbury.
    Language, Ethnicity, and Belonging for the Children of Migrants in New Zealand2018In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The children of migrants grow up with influence from at least two cultures, and they must negotiate their path to adulthood through one or more ethnicities and one or more language varieties that may set them apart from the majority population. We asked how teenagers born to migrant parents in an English-speaking context appeal to the cultures and/or ethnicities they identify with to explain their language choices and perceptions of belonging. More than 50 interviews were carried out with teenagers who identified as speakers of the minority language of their parents (Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Korean, or Spanish), and one or both parents of such young people. The focus of the interviews was the minority language, but they became narratives of belonging. Thematic analysis of the transcribed and (where necessary) translated interviews revealed patterns in the perceptions of the teens and their parents. The reported self-perceived proficiency of the teenagers in the minority language, their perception of their ethnicity (particularly but not exclusively for the Chinese and Korean teens) and the culture of the host country, diasporic, and home country communities- were factors in when and how the teens chose to use the minority language, and in how they identified as, for example, Dutch. More than 160 languages are spoken in New Zealand; 25% of the population was born elsewhere, yet the country is one of the most monolingual in the world. This study reveals tensions affecting the willingness of New Zealand–born young people to openly identify with their parents’ ethnicity and to use their languages. Lessons learned from those who raised bilingual children in New Zealand in the face of minimal official support and overwhelming pressure from English will be valuable to other parents and caregivers in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  • Björkvall, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det värdefulla skräpet: ”Upcycling” och värdeökningens semiotik2018In: Grammatik, kritik, didaktik: Nordiska studier i systemisk-funktionell lingvistik och socialsemiotik / [ed] Inga-Lill Grahn, Hans Landqvist, Benjamin Lyngfelt, Andreas Nord, Lena Rogström, Barbro Wallgren Hemlin, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018, Vol. 34, p. 55-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Nehme, Ralda
    et al.
    Zuccaro, Emanuela
    Ghosh, Sulagna Dia
    Li, Chenchen
    Sherwood, John L.
    Pietilainen, Olli
    Barrett, Lindy E.
    Limone, Francesco
    Worringer, Kathleen A.
    Kommineni, Sravya
    Zang, Ying
    Cacchiarelli, Davide
    Meissner, Alex
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Haggarty, Stephen
    Madison, Jon
    Muller, Matthias
    Arlotta, Paola
    Fu, Zhanyan
    Feng, Guoping
    Eggan, Kevin
    Combining NGN2 Programming with Developmental Patterning Generates Human Excitatory Neurons with NMDAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission2018In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 2509-2523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcription factor programming of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has emerged as an approach to generate human neurons for disease modeling. However, programming schemes produce a variety of cell types, and those neurons that are made often retain an immature phenotype, which limits their utility in modeling neuronal processes, including synaptic transmission. We report that combining NGN2 programming with SMAD and WNT inhibition generates human patterned induced neurons (hpiNs). Single-cell analyses showed that hpiN cultures contained cells along a developmental continuum, ranging from poorly differentiated neuronal progenitors to well-differentiated, excitatory glutamatergic neurons. The most differentiated neurons could be identified using a CAMK2A::GFP reporter gene and exhibited greater functionality, including NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We conclude that utilizing single-cell and reporter gene approaches for selecting successfully programmed cells for study will greatly enhance the utility of hpiNs and other programmed neuronal populations in the modeling of nervous system disorders.

  • Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustavsson, MariaLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.Fejes, AndreasLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Book of Abstracts: 3rd International ProPEL Conference 2017, 14-16 June 2017, Hosted by Linköping University, Sweden2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Hammarström, Anne
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden. Methods: The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups. Results: Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed that the social determinants included in the model accounted for 43-51% of the inequalities among youths, 42-98% of the inequalities among adults and 60-65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course. Conclusions: The health gap between employed and unemployed was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from this study corroborate that much of the mental health inequality in the Swedish labour market is socially and politically produced and potentially avoidable. Greater attention from researchers, policy makers on unemployment and public health should be devoted to the social and economic deprivation of unemployment from a life course perspective to prevent mental health inequality.

  • Libby, Eric
    et al.
    Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, 87501, USA.
    Driscoll, William W.
    Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55108, USA.
    Ratcliff, William C.
    School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.
    Programmed cell death can increase the efficacy of microbial bet hedging2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. While PCD plays a key role in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, explaining why single-celled organisms would evolve to actively commit suicide has been far more challenging. Here, we explore the potential for PCD to act as an accessory to microbial bet-hedging strategies that utilize stochastic phenotype switching. We consider organisms that face unpredictable and recurring disasters, in which fitness depends on effective phenotypic diversification. We show that when reproductive opportunities are limited by carrying capacity, PCD drives population turnover, providing increased opportunities for phenotypic diversification through stochastic phenotype switching. The main cost of PCD, providing resources for growth to a PCD(−) competitor, is ameliorated by genetic assortment in spatially structured populations. Using agent -based simulations, we explore how basic demographic factors, namely bottlenecks and local dispersal, can generate sufficient spatial structure to favor the evolution of high PCD rates.

  • Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Xu, Liguo
    May, Ross
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    A review of reinforcement learning methodologies on control systems for building energy2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of energy directly leads to a great amount of consumption of the non-renewable fossil resources. Exploiting fossil resources energy can influence both climate and health via ineluctable emissions. Raising awareness, choosing alternative energy and developing energy efficient equipment contributes to reducing the demand for fossil resources energy, but the implementation of them usually takes a long time. Since building energy amounts to around one-third of global energy consumption, and systems in buildings, e.g. HVAC, can be intervened by individual building management, advanced and reliable control techniques for buildings are expected to have a substantial contribution to reducing global energy consumptions. Among those control techniques, the model-free, data-driven reinforcement learning method seems distinctive and applicable. The success of the reinforcement learning method in many artificial intelligence applications has brought us an explicit indication of implementing the method on building energy control. Fruitful algorithms complement each other and guarantee the quality of the optimisation. As a central brain of smart building automation systems, the control technique directly affects the performance of buildings. However, the examination of previous works based on reinforcement learning methodologies are not available and, moreover, how the algorithms can be developed is still vague. Therefore, this paper briefly analyses the empirical applications from the methodology point of view and proposes the future research direction.

  • Sörme, Louise
    et al.
    SCB.
    Eklund, Veronica
    SCB.
    Mietala, Johanna
    SCB.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Skårman, Tina
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mapping of emissions from reporting point sources and Estimation of emission factors from reporting waste water treatment plants2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to EC Regulation 166/2006 the operator is responsible for the quality of the information they report. The competent authority is responsible, however, to assess whether the reported infor-mation is complete, consistent and credible. Sweden has reported data to the E-PRTR (European Pol-lutant Release and Transfer Register) since the year 2007. However, there has been no general survey of the reporting point sources with respect to which substances that are reported by the companies in a particular industry, neither which method that has been used to report the emissions.

    Earlier work has shown that only a few organic compounds were reported from very few waste water treatment plants (WWTP) in SMP, e.g. DEHP, alkylphenols, nonylphenol and PAHs. Earlier studies had also shown that there seems to be a huge under-reporting of the emissions of organic substances.

    For alkylphenols and APEs, DEHP, nonylphenol, octylphenol and PAH it is estimated that, the amounts reported for Sweden should increase by 204, 202, 2288, 823 and 300% respectively if all WWTPs reported. It is also difficult to measure substances in the effluent (outgoing water from WWTP) and therefore there is a need to find other ways, such as use of emission factors to estimate releases to water. An aid to calculate the emissions could provide a more complete reporting from WWTP in the future.

    The project had two sub-projects:

    The purpose of the first sub-project was to map the data reported for 2011 to the E-PRTR (re-leases to water and air and as off-site transfers to WWTP), for all reported E-PRTR pollutants and all industry sectors in Sweden. With mapping is here meant to sort, organize and group the emissions data and methodology for the development of emission data for facilities in the same industry sector

    The purpose of the second sub-project was to develop emission factors for estimating emis-sions to water from municipal WWTP, for 18 substances / substance groups1. These emission factors could be used by WWTP in the reporting of emissions data in the emission declara-tions in the annual environmental report which in turn are used to the E-PRTR reporting.

    1 nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylate, polybrominated dinfenylethers(PBDEs) phthalate (DEHP), tetrachlorethylene (per), tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride) Trichlorobenzenes, 1,2-Dichloroethane, Trichloroethylene (tri) dichloromethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), PAH (total 4) anthracene, flouranten, benzo (g, h, i) perylene, chloroalkanes (C10-13), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), isodrin.

    In the first subproject, emission data from the Swedish Portal for Environmental Reporting (SMP) were studied regarding releases year 2011 for receiving media: air, water and off-site transfers of pol-lutants to WWTP from PRTR classified facilities. For the receiving media air, totally 666 facilities reported emissions year 2011. The corresponding numbers for releases to water and as off-site trans-fers to waste water were 331 respectively 157.

    The mapping of emissions from reporting point sources was performed for each receiving media. Data was compiled for each pollutant and E-PRTR activity. For each E-PRTR activity and pollutant, emis-sion data was presented as a percentage of the total number of PRTR classified facilities reporting emissions to the receiving media. The results were presented as percentage below and above the threshold values to E-PRTR. Further, a compilation of determination methods used for reporting re-lease data to SMP were performed. The methods used were divided into measured (M), calculated (C) 6

    and estimated (E) and compiled for each receiving media and pollutant. For the organic substances, it was further investigated if the use of release determination methods could be presented per receiving media, pollutant and E-PRTR activity.

    The result showed that generally, for all the receiving media and pollutants, there was higher percent-age of reported releases below the thresholds values to E-PRTR compared to releases above the thresholds. The results from this project indicated that the thresholds to E-PRTR, in many cases, may be too high. Emissions of all pollutants are not expected to occur from all sectors. There was however some examples of sectors missing expected release data, for instance, releases of CH4 and N2O to air from sector 7 (Intensive livestock production and aquaculture). Out of all the facilities within sector 7 only one reported emissions of N2O below the E-PRTR threshold and none above. None of them re-port any values neither below nor above the E-PRTR threshold for CH4. Organic substances as a group was rarely reported except for release of dioxins and PAH to air, AOX to water and phenols and TOC/CODCr to water and as off-site transfer to waste water. If reported, the emissions generally were below the thresholds to E-PRTR.

    The use of determination methods (C, M, E) for reporting releases to air, water and as off-site transfer to waste water varied with different pollutants and receiving media. For many of the pollutants, lack of data made it difficult to compare and map the methods to report the releases. Generally, measurement methods were more frequently used and the estimation methods were used less often.

    In the second subproject two different methods were used to try to develop emission factors; previous measurements and modelling. By using previous measurements of the substances in the effluent from WWTP and in sewage sludge a factor could be estimated. Data were retrieved from a report (Petters-son and Wahlberg, 2010) and from national environmental monitoring. For the modelling, a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) model that calculates how a substance is distributed between air, water, sewage sludge and biodegradation was used. The model selected for this purpose is called STP-EX and was developed by Seth et al. (2008). The model includes the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which is a measure of how a substance / group of substances are distributed between water and fat. The more hydrophobic the substances are, the more they bind to particles, such as the sewage sludge. The approach is to use the distribution between the different media and the known amount of sewage sludge produced in the WWTP and then estimate the amount (or concentration) of the substance in the effluent.

    Looking at the entire dataset from previous measurements, 110 of totally 132 reported data on release to water were below the detection limit for the analyses. The corresponding numbers for sludge were 39 of 164. A ratio (total amount of chemical in water/total amount chemical in sludge) was calculated for the substances and WWTPs when both the sludge and effluent water data were available. Due to a large number of values below the detection limit, ratios could only be developed for 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol. The ratios for 4-tert-ocylphenol varied between 0.06 and 0.52 for the different WWTPs, with an average of 0.11. The ratios for 4-nonylphenol, branched varied between 0.02 and 23 with an average value of 4.4.The ratios vary between the different WWTP, which may depend on both the normal variance due to different load, size and technical properties of the WWTPs.

    The results from the modelling showed that the predicted chemical distribution differs between chemi-cals as well as between the different WWTPs, but the general pattern is that hydrophobic compounds, will mainly end up in the sludge and VOCs will mainly biodegrade or evaporate. Other compounds of intermediate hydrophobicity and reactivity, such as e.g. fluoranthene, will partly biodegrade and partly 7

    end up in the sludge. Most substances included in the study had a ratio of 0,1 or less which means that only a minor part will end up in the effluent. A ratio above 1 implies that on an annual basis, larger amounts of chemical are predicted to be released with effluent water than with sludge. An emission factor (total amount of chemical in water/total amount chemical in sludge) of about one or above was estimated for tetrachlorethylene, tetrachloromethane, trichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloro-ethylene, dichloromethane and trichloromethane. The results showed that the ratios for individual substances differ between the included WWTPs, by up to a factor of 30 (for trichloroethylene. The water/sludge ratio differs not only between chemicals and different WWTPs, but may also vary between years. TSS (Total Suspended Solids) in the effluent water and the volume of incoming water (influences the hydraulic retention time and thus biodegradation) and its properties were parameters that had a high influence on the factor for the included substances. These two factors are prabably also an explanation for the large variations in factors calculated by measurements.

    Both methods (measurements and modelling) illustrate a large variation between different WWTPs, and an inappropriateness of using one common substance specific ratio for emission calculations. This leads to the recommendation that WWTP specific ratios should be derived that can be used to estimate emissions with outgoing water from sewage sludge data. There are relatively few WWTPs that have to report to E-PRTR and for those WWTP’s modelling is the preferred method, since it proved to be difficult to measure most substances in the low concentration that is needed. It is also important to pay attention to changing conditions between years in the WWTP, as they influence the fate of the chemi-cals. To evaluate the applicability of the suggested model assessment methodology for Swedish WWTPs it is desirable to conduct empirical monitoring studies in selected WWTPs and for selected substances to investigate how well the model agrees with measurements. Even though the model has shown good results compared to measured data in earlier studies, it has not been evaluated for Swed-ish conditions, which in some cases deviate, for example due to the common practice of chemical precipitation, biological nitrogen removal and sludge digestion, that are actually not included in the model. Therefore, a reliable empirical ratio requires regular monitoring in sludge and water (to cover variations in water flow and TSS-content) as well as sampling and analytical methods that are sensi-tive enough for detection both in water and sludge.

    The results from the STP(Sewage Treatment Plant) model also indicated that there were only a few substances that are close to or above the emission threshold for reporting; DEHP, nonylphenols, octyl-phenols, PBDE, PAH and chloroalkanes. This is important information for the WWTPs. In a previous study, 17 substances were identified to be of potential concern, largely based on concentrations below the detection limits. This study limited the number of substances or groups to six.

  • Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Batty, G. David
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Kuosma, Eeva
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Theorell, Töres
    Vuoksimaa, Eero
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK; Population-based Epidemiologic Cohort Unit, UMS 011, Inserm, Villejuif, France.
    Jokela, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals2018In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 601-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Higher midlife body mass index (BMI) is suggested to increase the risk of dementia, but weight loss during the preclinical dementia phase may mask such effects. Methods: We examined this hypothesis in 1,349,857 dementia-free participants from 39 cohort studies. BMI was assessed at baseline. Dementia was ascertained at follow-up using linkage to electronic health records (N = 6894). We assumed BMI is little affected by preclinical dementia when assessed decades before dementia onset and much affected when assessed nearer diagnosis. Results: Hazard ratios per 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI for dementia were 0.71 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.77), 0.94 (0.89-0.99), and 1.16 (1.05-1.27) when BMI was assessed 10 years, 10-20 years, and >20 years before dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The association between BMI and dementia is likely to be attributable to two different processes: a harmful effect of higher BMI, which is observable in long follow-up, and a reverse-causation effect that makes a higher BMI to appear protective when the follow-up is short. 

  • Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Wierup, Nils
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Effects of GIP on regional blood flow during normoglycemia and hyperglycemia in anesthetized rats2018In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e13685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects -cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60ng/kg*min) for 30min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused exvivo with GIP (10(-6)-10(-12)mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded. The highest dose of GIP potentiated insulin secretion during hyperglycemia, but had no effect in normoglycemic rats. The highest GIP concentration decreased blood perfusion of whole pancreas, pancreatic islets, duodenum, colon, liver and kidneys. The decrease in blood flow was unaffected by ganglion blockade or adenosine receptor inhibition. In contrast to this, in single perfused islets GIP induced a dose-dependent arteriolar dilation. Thus, high doses of GIP exert a direct dilatory effect on islet arterioles in isolated islets, but induce a generalized vasoconstriction in splanchnic organs, including the whole pancreas and islets, invivo. The latter effect is unlikely to be mediated by adenosine, the autonomic nervous system, or endothelial mediators.

  • Ueckert, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Modeling Composite Assessment Data Using Item Response Theory2018In: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology, ISSN 2163-8306, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 205-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite assessments aim to combine different aspects of a disease in a single score and are utilized in a variety of therapeutic areas. The data arising from these evaluations are inherently discrete with distinct statistical properties. This tutorial presents the framework of the item response theory (IRT) for the analysis of this data type in a pharmacometric context. The article considers both conceptual (terms and assumptions) and practical questions (modeling software, data requirements, and model building).

  • Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Bjork, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kvarnstrom, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wahren-Herlenius, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transcription profiling of peripheral B cells in antibody-positive primary Sjogren's syndrome reveals upregulated expression of CX3CR1 and a type I and type II interferon signature2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 87, no 5, article id UNSP e12662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to analyse the transcriptome of CD19+ B cells from patients with pSS and healthy controls to decipher the B cell-specific contribution to pSS. RNA from purified CD19+ B cells from 12 anti-SSA antibody-positive untreated female patients with pSS and 20 healthy blood donors was subjected to whole transcriptome sequencing. A false discovery rate corrected significance threshold of <0.05 was applied to define differential gene expression. As validation, gene expression in B cells from 17 patients with pSS and 16 healthy controls was analysed using a targeted gene panel. RNA-sequencing identified 4047 differentially expressed autosomal genes in pSS B cells. Upregulated expression of type I and type II interferon (IFN)-induced genes was observed, establishing an IFN signature in pSS B cells. Among the top upregulated and validated genes were CX3CR1, encoding the fractalkine receptor involved in regulation of B-cell malignancies, CCL5/RANTES and CCR1. Increased expression of several members of the TNF superfamily was also identified; TNFSF4/Ox40L, TNFSF10/TRAIL, TNFSF13B/BAFF, TNFRSF17/BCMA as well as S100A8 and -A9/calprotectin, TLR7, STAT1 and STAT2. Among genes with downregulated expression in pSS B cells were SOCS1 and SOCS3, CD70 and TNFAIP3/A20. We conclude that B cells from patients with anti-SSA antibody-positive pSS display immune activation with upregulated expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors and a prominent type I and type II IFN signature, while suppressors of cytokine signalling are downregulated. This adds insight into the autoimmune process and suggests potential targets for future functional studies.

  • Östergren, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006–20092018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 5, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands. Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education.

    Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35–64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006–2009. The final population comprised 2.3 million individuals, 6.2 million person-years and 14,362 deaths. Income was modeled using splines in order to allow variation in the functional form of the association across educational categories. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used.

    The curvilinear shape of the association between income and mortality was more pronounced among those with a low education. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in premature mortality tended to be larger at low levels of income. The greatest income differences in mortality were observed for those with a low education and the smallest for the highly educated.

    Education and income interact as predictors of mortality. Education is a more important factor for health when access to material resources is limited.

  • Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Technical knowledge in Industrial-technology program as it emerges from three vocational teachers’ life stories2017In: Education: Opole University annual, ISSN 2450-7121, Vol. 2, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the focus is on three vocational teachers’ stories of their lives and teaching experiences. The research method that I use in this study is life story and the teachers are Johnny, Oscar and Omed. From the teachers stories emerge the technical knowledge that they believe that their students should learn during their Industrial-technology education.

    In terms of analytical method I focused on the stories content and I chose to do a thematic analysis of the stories, and through a holistic approach to see the different patterns which emerge from the stories. Based on Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s stories about their lives and teaching experiences, various themes of knowledge which their students should learn, became apparent. These themes are: knowledge about being a good citizen, knowledge of technology, knowledge about coping with life as an adult, knowledge which can be used in real life and knowledge which can lead to employment. In the article, I even discuss how these prominent aspects of knowledge can be understood in relation to Aristotle’s definition of the concept of knowledge Episteme, Techne and Phronesis. 

    Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s life stories show even an important thing. It shows that the technical knowledge that teachers believe that their students should learn are contractions. In these contractions, technical knowledge “creates” in the interaction between teachers, students and their environment. In addition, in this interaction teachers’ life experiences even have certain significance.