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  • Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi.
    Sociala rörelser, protester och politiskt våld – en forskningsöversikt2017Inngår i: Våldsbejakande extremism: en forskarantologi / [ed] Christofer Edling och Amir Rostami, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, 291-322 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den samtida forskningen om sociala rörelser erbjuder en rad insikter om politiskt motiverat våld: varför det uppkommer, vad som gör att våldsanvändning kan eskalera, men även vad som bidrar till att grupper inom en rörelse undviker eller slutar att använda våld. När man inom forskningen om sociala rörelser talar om radikalisering avser man vanligen de processer som leder till att grupper av aktivister inom en rörelse börjar använda våld eller trappar upp sitt användande av våld.

    Inom andra forskningsfält brukar radikalisering ofta relateras till sociala bakgrundsfaktorer, individuella omständigheter eller personlighetsdrag, vilka antas bidra till att enskilda individer börjar använda politiskt motiverat våld eller ansluter sig till grupper där våld används. En sådan förståelse av radikalisering har inte sällan legat till grund för myndighetsåtgärder för att förebygga eller bekämpa politiskt motiverad våldsbrottslighet.

    Utgångspunkten inom forskningen om sociala rörelser är i stället att de flesta individer som utför politiskt motiverade våldshandlingar redan är en del av en social rörelse. Det blir därmed relevant att undersöka de sociala processer inom en rörelse som kan leda till att vissa grupper inom en rörelse använder våld, samt hur dessa processer påverkas av interaktion med aktörer utanför rörelsen. Detta innebär också att forskningen inom detta fält mer sällan intresserar sig för de enskilda utövare av politiskt våld som agerar på egen hand och inte är knutna till en rörelse.

    Samtidigt har forskningen om sociala rörelser länge undersökt vilka individer som ansluter sig till rörelser och varför de gör det. I vissa studier har det även undersökts vilka individuella omständigheter som påverkar att rörelseaktivister börjar använda olagliga eller våldsamma metoder. Därmed kan den empiriska forskningen inom detta fält kasta nytt ljus över den förståelse av radikalisering som dominerat annan forskning och myndighetsåtgärder.

    I detta kapitel ges inledningsvis en övergripande bild av forskningsfältets framväxt och huvudsakliga kunskapsintressen. Därefter introduceras hur man inom detta fält har betraktat och undersökt fenomenet politiskt våld. Detta följs av en översikt över de faktorer som forskningen kunnat visa är betydelsefulla för att individer ansluter sig till sociala rörelser, samt för att vissa rörelseaktivister börjar använda våldsamma metoder. Därefter diskuteras forskningen om radikaliseringsprocesser, vilket här förstås som när grupper inom en social rörelse börjar använda politiskt motiverat våld. I fokus står de mekanismer på gruppnivå som vanligen är centrala för att grupper inom en social rörelse radikaliseras, något som även möjliggör insikter om hur dessa processer kan avbrytas. 

  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 31954Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Marionette prototyping for evaluating conceptual ubicomp applications in their context2015Inngår i: PIN-C 2015. Reframing Design. Proceedings of the 4th participatory innovation conference: reframing design / [ed] Rianne Valkenburg, Coen Dekkers and Janneke Sluijs, The Hague University of Applied Science /Syddansk Univeristet , 2015, 462-469 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many methods for the evaluation of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) applications. These evaluations usually require an autonomous system, or use scenarios or storyboards instead.

    We suggest Marionette Prototyping as a technique for ubicomp applications that can be used early in the design process. It allows participants to use a conceptual ubicomp application in a real-world context, followed by an evaluation that covers the participants understanding, experience and attitude with regard to the application. Marionette Prototyping is inspired by puppetry, especially the styles where the manipulator is in plain view. It combines principles from cardboard prototyping and Wizard-of-Oz and uses off-the-shelf tools and technology.

    We have used Marionette Prototyping in the evaluation of a ubicomp application. This evaluation has shown that Marionette Prototyping provides input on the understanding, experience and attitude of the user with regard to the ubicomp application in question. From this first step, we can continue to develop this method as a technique for early, in context evaluation of ubicomp applications. In this, Marionette Prototyping can overcome some of the issues with current evaluation methods for ubicomp applications 

  • Davoine, Celine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Khajeh, Khalil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Kidd, Brendan N.
    Kazan, Kemal
    Schenk, Peer M.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Nilsson, Ove
    Moritz, Thomas
    Björklund, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Functional metabolomics as a tool to analyze Mediator function and structure in plants2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, e0179640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator is a multiprotein transcriptional co-regulator complex composed of four modules; Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase. It conveys signals from promoter-bound transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II and thus plays an essential role in eukaryotic gene regulation. We describe subunit localization and activities of Mediator in Arabidopsis through metabolome and transcriptome analyses from a set of Mediator mutants. Functional metabolomic analysis based on the metabolite profiles of Mediator mutants using multivariate statistical analysis and heat-map visualization shows that different subunit mutants display distinct metabolite profiles, which cluster according to the reported localization of the corresponding subunits in yeast. Based on these results, we suggest localization of previously unassigned plant Mediator subunits to specific modules. We also describe novel roles for individual subunits in development, and demonstrate changes in gene expression patterns and specific metabolite levels in med18 and med25, which can explain their phenotypes. We find that med18 displays levels of phytoalexins normally found in wild type plants only after exposure to pathogens. Our results indicate that different Mediator subunits are involved in specific signaling pathways that control developmental processes and tolerance to pathogen infections.

  • Karlsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länsstyrelser, lst, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Inventering av grön flodtrollslända Ophiogomphus cecilia 2015 – metodiktest, förstudie och första provtillfälle inom biogeografisk uppföljning2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trollsländan Ophiogomphus cecilia grön flodtrollslända är endast känd i ett begränsat område i Sverige kring de norrbottniska älvarna Lule älv, Råne älv, Kalix älv och Torne älv. Arten är en av Sveriges fem arter av trollsländor som ingår i EU:s art- och habitatdirektiv och ingår i biogeografisk uppföljning – den nationella övervakningen för arter och naturtyper inom direktivet. Naturvårdsverket ansvarar för den biogeografiska uppföljningen och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland samordnar uppföljningen för delsystemet "Trollsländor och dykarskalbaggar". Sommaren 2015 genomfördes en inventering av grön flodtrollslända som syftade till att testa inventeringsmetodik och fungera som förstudie inför den biogeografiska uppföljningen av arten. Trollsländor inventeras vanligtvis genom att håva larver i vatten eller när vuxna sländor flyger. Att inventera larver av grön flodtrollslända är dock svårt och riskfyllt då den lever djupt i strömmande vatten. Att invänta varmt och soligt flygväder för trollsländorna är tidskrävande. En metod där trollsländans larvskinn räknas har därför testats. Sök av larvskinn bedöms vara den bästa metoden för att inventera arten. Lämplig strategi är att följa förekomst/icke förekomst av arten på ett urval lokaler där ca 20 lokaler, både med och utan förekomst, väljs ut som fasta stationer vilka återinventeras kontinuerligt. Genom att tomma lokaler i utkanterna av artens utbredningsområde ingår kan expansioner av artens utbredning upptäckas.

  • Sveriges friluftskommun 2017 enkätsvar2017Dataset
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätdata med underlag till rapport Sveriges friluftskommun 2017

  • Chatzittofis, Andreas
    et al.
    Savard, Josephine
    Arver, Stefan
    Görts Öberg, Katarina
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Nordström, Peter
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Interpersonal violence, early life adversity, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual men2017Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, nr 2, 187-193 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the role of childhood adversity, interpersonal violence, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual disorder (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal violence in hypersexual men compared with healthy volunteers and the experience of violence in relation to suicidal behavior. Methods: This case-control study includes 67 male patients with HD and 40 healthy male volunteers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used for assessing early life adversity and interpersonal violence in childhood and in adult life. Suicidal behavior (attempts and ideation) was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (version 6.0) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale - Self-rating. Results: Hypersexual men reported more exposure to violence in childhood and more violent behavior as adults compared with healthy volunteers. Suicide attempters (n = 8, 12%) reported higher KIVS total score, more used violence as a child, more exposure to violence as an adult as well as higher score on CTQ-SF subscale measuring sexual abuse (SA) compared with hypersexual men without suicide attempt. Discussion: Hypersexuality was associated with interpersonal violence with higher total scores in patients with a history of suicide attempt. The KIVS subscale exposure to interpersonal violence as a child was validated using the CTQ-SF but can be complemented with questions focusing on SA for full assessment of early life adversity. Conclusion: Childhood adversity is an important factor in HD and interpersonal violence might be related to suicidal behavior in hypersexual men.

  • Li, Zhen
    et al.
    De La Torre, Amanda R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.
    Sterck, Lieven
    Cánovas, Francisco M.
    Avila, Concepción
    Merino, Irene
    Antonio Cabezas, Jose
    Teresa Cervera, Maria
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Van de Peer, Yves
    Single-Copy Genes as Molecular Markers for Phylogenomic Studies in Seed Plants2017Inngår i: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, nr 5, 1130-1147 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic relationships among seed plant taxa, especially within the gymnosperms, remain contested. In contrast to angio-sperms, for which several genomic, transcriptomic and phylogenetic resources are available, there are few, if any, molecular markers that allow broad comparisons among gymnosperm species. With few gymnosperm genomes available, recently obtained transcriptomes in gymnosperms are a great addition to identifying single-copy gene families as molecular markers for phylogenomic analysis in seed plants. Taking advantage of an increasing number of available genomes and transcriptomes, we identified single-copy genes in a broad collection of seed plants and used these to infer phylogenetic relationships between major seed plant taxa. This study aims at extending the current phylogenetic toolkit for seed plants, assessing its ability for resolving seed plant phylogeny, and discussing potential factors affecting phylogenetic reconstruction. In total, we identified 3,072 single-copy genes in 31 gymnosperms and 2,156 single-copy genes in 34 angiosperms. All studied seed plants shared 1,469 single-copy genes, which are generally involved in functions like DNA metabolism, cell cycle, and photosynthesis. A selected set of 106 single-copy genes provided good resolution for the seed plant phylogeny except for gnetophytes. Although some of our analyses support a sister relationship between gnetophytes and other gymnosperms, phylogenetic trees from concatenated alignments without 3rd codon positions and amino acid alignments under the CAT + GTR model, support gnetophytes as a sister group to Pinaceae. Our phylogenomic analyses demonstrate that, in general, single-copy genes can uncover both recent and deep divergences of seed plant phylogeny.

  • Sahu, Sanjaya Kumar
    et al.
    Kumar, Manish
    Chakraborty, Sohini
    Banerjee, Srijon Kaushik
    Kumar, Ranjeet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.
    Gupta, Pushpa
    Jana, Kuladip
    Gupta, Umesh D.
    Ghosh, Zhumur
    Kundu, Manikuntala
    Basu, Joyoti
    MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a)/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBP beta regulate innate immune signaling, the polarization of macrophages and the trafficking of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to lysosomes during infection2017Inngår i: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 13, nr 5, e1006410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), macrophages tilt towards M1 polarization leading to the activation of transcription factors associated with the production of antibacterial effector molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At the same time, resolution of inflammation is associated with M2 polarization with increased production of arginase and cytokines such as IL-10. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that govern the balance between M1 and M2 polarization, and bacteria-containing processes such as autophagy and trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes, are incompletely understood. Here we report for the first time, that the transcription factor KLF4 is targeted by microRNA-26a (miR-26a). During Mtb infection, downregulation of miR-26a (observed both ex vivo and in vivo) facilitates upregulation of KLF4 which in turn favors increased arginase and decreased iNOS activity. We further demonstrate that KLF4 prevents trafficking of Mtb to lysosomes. The CREB-C/EBP beta signaling axis also favors M2 polarization. Downregulation of miR-26a and upregulation of C/ebpbeta were observed both in infected macrophages as well as in infected mice. Knockdown of C/ebpbeta repressed the expression of selected M2 markers such as Il10 and Irf4 in infected macrophages. The importance of these pathways is substantiated by observations that expression of miR-26a mimic or knockdown of Klf4 or Creb or C/ebpbeta, attenuated the survival of Mtb in macrophages. Taken together, our results attribute crucial roles for the miR-26a/KLF4 and CREB-C/EBP beta signaling pathways in regulating the survival of Mtb in macrophages. These studies expand our understanding of how Mtb hijacks host signaling pathways to survive in macrophages, and open up new exploratory avenues for host-targeted interventions.

  • Billqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länsstyrelser, lst, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Odonata, Media
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länsstyrelser, lst, Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Genomgång och digitalisering av trollsländor och dykarskalbaggar på Lunds Zoologiska museum2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samlingarna av ej tidigare registrerade och i många fall ej artbestämda trollsländor och dykare på Biologiska Museet, Lunds universitet, har gåtts igenom, och ur materialet har arter förekommande i art- och habitatdirektivet sorterats ut.

    Fem av de sex i Sverige påträffade arterna trollsländor listade i direktivet påträffades: grön mosaikslända Aeshna viridis (18 fynd registrerades), grön flodtrollslända Ophiogomphus cecilia (9), pudrad kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia albifrons (69), bred kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia caudalis (21) och citronfläckad kärrtrollslända Leucorrhinia pectoralis (39). (Den sjätte arten, sibirisk vinterflickslända Sympecma paedisca, är i Sverige endast påträffad tillfälligt och saknas därför i samlingarna.)

    Båda de eftersökta arterna dykarskalbaggar påträffades: bredkantad dykare Dytiscus latissimus (39) och bred paljettdykare Graphoderus bilineatus (33).

    Det finns ett mycket stort material så uppdraget har fokuserats på att registrera de fynd av de berörda arterna som härrör från olika lokaler och landskap, och de som ej tidigare registrerades av ArtDatabanken 1998 (Ragnar Hall 1998). Kollekterna bestod i olika typer av material; monterade trollsländor och dykare, trollsländor i konvolut, djur i sprit, larver och larvhudar. Den här studien begränsades till monterat material och material i konvolut. Djur i sprit, larver och larvhudar kan vid behov ses över. Samtliga kollekter som registrerats har också individmärkts med museets etiketter.

  • Ding, Ming
    et al.
    Huang, Tao
    Bergholdt, Helle K. M.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Ellervik, Christina
    Qi, Lu
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    North, Kari E.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Smith, Caren E.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Varbo, Anette
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    de Jonge, Ester A. L.
    Fumeron, Frederic
    Corella, Dolores
    Wang, Carol A.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Hernandez, Dena
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Linneberg, Allan
    Sandholt, Camilla Helene
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Schulz, Christina-Alexandra
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Chen, Tzu-An
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Allison, Mathew A.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Sorli, Jose V.
    Coltell, Oscar
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Eastwood, Peter R.
    Hofman, Albert
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Zillikens, MCarola
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Raitakari, Olli
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Mikkila, Vera
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wang, Yujie
    Tucker, Katherine L.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Province, Michael A.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Toft, Ulla
    Ericso, Ulrika
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study2017Inngår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 356, j1000Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. DESIGN Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable. SETTING CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. PARTICIPANTS Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized. RESULTS Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P<0.001) and was not associated with systolic blood pressure (0.31, 95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.68 mm Hg; P=0.09) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.27). Using LCT-13910 rs4988235 as the instrumental variable, genetically determined dairy consumption was not associated with systolic blood pressure (beta=1.35, 95% confidence interval -0.28 to 2.97 mm Hg for each serving/day) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.24). Moreover, meta-analysis of the published clinical trials showed that higher dairy intake has no significant effect on change in systolic blood pressure for interventions over one month to 12 months (intervention compared with control groups: beta=-0.21, 95% confidence interval -0.98 to 0.57 mm Hg). In observational analysis, each serving/day increase in dairy consumption was associated with -0.11 (95% confidence interval -0.20 to -0.02 mm Hg; P=0.02) lower systolic blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11). CONCLUSION The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.

  • Leino, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Popova, Svetlana
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk och experimentell patologi. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Transactive DNA Binding Protein 43 Rather Than Other Misfolded Proteins in the Brain is Associated with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide in Pancreas in Aged Subjects with Diabetes Mellitus2017Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 59, nr 1, 43-56 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A link between diabetes mellitus (DM) related islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related amyloid-beta (A beta) has been suggested in epidemiological and clinical studies. In 2017, proof for existing interaction between type 2 DM and AD on a molecular level was provided based on research carried out in experimental animal models. We assessed aging-related neurodegenerative lesions, i.e., misfolded proteins, associated with dementia such as hyperphosphorylated tau (HP tau), A beta, alpha-synuclein (alpha S), and phosphorylated transactive DNA binding protein 43 (pTDP43) seen in the brain and IAPP seen in the pancreas in subjects with and without DM applying immunohistochemical techniques. HP tau in the brain and IAPP in the pancreas were observed in most subjects. The prevalence and the extent of all misfolded proteins increased with age but this increase was not influenced by DM. Interestingly the extent of misfolded proteins in the brain was higher in non-diabetics when compared with diabetics in demented. A significant correlation was observed between HP tau, A beta, alpha S, and pTDP43, whereas IAPP showed no association with HP tau, A beta, and alpha S. In subjects with DM, the extent of pTDP43 in brain correlated with the extent of IAPP in pancreas. Thus, there is no evidence of a link between AD-related pathology and DM in humans, whereas an association was found between pTDP43 and IAPP in DM. TDP43 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs but whether TDP43 is phosphorylated in other organs in DM or whether the phosphorylation of TDP43 is influenced by glucose metabolism is yet unknown.

  • Löfstrand, Tord
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Fysiologisk kemi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Determination of gestational age and lung maturity: phospholipids, creatinine and phosphatase in amniotic fluid1976Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Boquist, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    The endocrine pancreas in the Chinese hamster: studies on non-diabetic, alloxan-treated, zinc-deficient, and spontaneously diabetic animals1969Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Zgela, Denis
    et al.
    CMA Research.
    Nilsson, Josefine
    CMA Research.
    Sveriges friluftskommun 20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunerna har en nyckelroll i att utveckla friluftslivet och många kommuner arbetar aktivt med friluftslivet till nytta och nöje för befolkningens välbefinnande och naturkontakt. Detta arbete vill Naturvårdsverket stimulera och genomför därför en undersökning av kommunernas friluftslivsarbete och delar ut priset till Sveriges friluftskommun. Priset delas ut av Naturvårdsverket i samarbete med Svenskt Friluftsliv och Sveriges Kultur- och Fritidschefers förening. I rapporten kan du läsa om hur de svenska kommunerna arbetar med friluftsliv i dag. Frågorna är fokuserade på planer för friluftsliv, information och samarbete kring friluftsliv samt aktiviteter inom friluftsliv. I år har vi en öppen fråga om vad som är kommunens tre bästa/viktigaste åtgärderna för att främja barn och ungas utevistelse i naturen i olika åldersgrupper. Undersökningen är genomförd de senaste sju åren och vi har jämfört resultaten mellan åren för att kunna se utvecklingen i arbetet. Det är många kommuner som visar stora förbättringar och många hamnar högt upp i poänglistan och det är väldigt glädjande. Vår förhoppning är att arbetet med Sveriges friluftskommun ska stimulera än fler att arbeta aktivt och planerat med friluftsliv.

  • Perris, Hjördis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    A multifactorial study of life events in depressed patients1982Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was an attempted elucidation of the possible pathogenic role of life events in the onset and development of depression. Although several authors seem to agree that the impact of life events should be seen in relation to the person experiencing them, no comprehensive studies have been published so far where life events have been analysed in relation to the vulnerability of the individual who becomes depressed. The present study was inspired by Freud’s concept of ”Ergänzungsreihe”, and was based on the general assumption that biological as well as psychological and social factors contribute greatly to modifying an individual’s vulnerability to external events.

    To test this hypothesis the occurrence of life events was studied by means of a semistructured interview in a consecutive series of 206 depressed patients of both sexes treated as in- or outpatients* and the results have been analysed in relation to a series of variables which could be assumed to be of importance in modifying the vulnerability of the patients. The main hypothesis was that the more vulnerable the individual was in relation to each of the investigated factors, the fewer events would be necessary to produce a depressive breakdown and the more negative would be the experience of such events. Biological, psychological and clinical variables were taken into account in different parts of the present study.

    The results support the view that the impact of life events should be seen idiosyncratically and in relation to the specific vulnerability of each individual. Furthermore the study illustrates a fruitful approach for further studies aimed at a closer understanding of the role of external events in the development of a depressive illness.

  • Olsen, Renate S.
    et al.
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nijm, Johnny
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Roland E.
    Department of Surgery, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Jan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Wågsäter, Dick
    Division of Drug Research, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Circulating inflammatory factors associated with worse long-term prognosis in colorectal cancer2017Inngår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 1007-9327, E-ISSN 2219-2840, Vol. 23, nr 34, 6212-6219 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate association of circulating inflammatory factors at the time of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery with survival.

    METHODS: Plasma levels from 174 CRC patients (69 females and 105 men), with median age 70 years (range 29-90), localized in the colon (n = 105) or rectum (n = 69), with stage I (n = 24), stage II (n = 54), stage III (n = 67) and stage IV (n = 29) were measured using commercially available Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Chemokine Panel 40-Plex, including 40 different chemokines, cytokines and interleukins. The prognostic association of each inflammatory factor was analysed as CRC-specific and total mortality.

    RESULTS: Out of 174 patients, 66 died during the follow-up, 40 because of CRC specific mortality. High tertile levels of 8 factors were significantly associated with increased CRC-specific mortality, of which CCL1, CCL20, CCL24, CX3CL1, IL-4 and TNF-α remained significant in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. High tertile levels of 14 factors were associated with increased total mortality, of which CCL1, CCL15, CCL20, CX3CL1, CXCL13, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 remained significant after adjustment for clinical covariates. For most of the inflammatory factors the association between higher tertile levels and an increased mortality in general appeared two years after surgery. High tertile levels of TNF-α and CCL24 were exclusively associated with CRC-specific mortality. The distribution of these factors were not associated with TNM stage with exception for CCL20.

    CONCLUSION: High plasma levels of inflammatory factors are associated with increased risk of mortality among CRC patients and could be potential biomarkers for revealing prognosis.

  • Näsman, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    The limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Alzheimer's disease1994Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunction of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis is a common finding in advanced dementia. In this study, the function of the LHPA axis at different levels was investigated in patients with dementia and in healthy elderly.

    A subtle disturbance in the feedback regulation of the LHPA axis was found in patients with early (i.e., mild to moderate) Alzheimer’s disease (AD). After 0.5 mg dexamethasone, serum cortisol levels were less suppressed in AD patients and plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels were lower as compared with healthy elderly. After stimulation with human corticotropin-releasing hormone a blunted ACTH response was found in AD patients while relative serum cortisol, déhydroépiandrostérone, and androstenedione responses were increased. Significant correlations were found between low plasma ACTH levels and temporal lobe atrophy and between low peak plasma ACTH levels and hippocampal atrophy measured with computer tomography. Patients with advanced AD and multi-infarct dementia had lower basal levels of déhydroépiandrostérone sulphate in combination with no difference in cortisol levels, resulting in a high cortisol/DHAS ratio. The difference persisted after adjustments for age and sex in a multivariate analysis. In patients with early AD, basal serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione were increased, and this increase was accentuated after stimulation with ACTH. Peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity was examined by skin vasoconstrictor blanching tests. Patients with AD and patients treated with glucocorticoids showed skin blanching at higher clobetasol concentrations than healthy elderly.

    These findings justify further investigations on the role of LHPA axis dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease and its possible importance for the pathophysiology of the disease.

  • Korsman, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Acidification trends in Swedish lakes: an assessment of past water chemistry conditions using lake sediments1993Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents temporal perspectives of lake acidification in Sweden. Sediment records have been used to study timing, trends and causes of acidification, and two different techniques for assessing past lake-water acidity are presented.

    A new technique for pH prediction, based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of surface sediments, is developed. This study shows that there is a pH related fraction of lake sediments that can be recorded by NIR analysis. Relationships between NIR spectra of surface sediment samples and measured lake-water pH values, and between NIR spectra of sediment cores and historical pH values inferred by diatom analysis, are modelled by partial least squares regression. The prediction errors of the models are comparable to those obtained by modelling of diatom and lake-water pH data. By further development NIR spectroscopy can become useful for inferring past pH, as well as several other lake-water parameters, from sediment cores.

    Diatom-based predictive models, using multivariate calibration methods, are developed for inferences of lake-water pH, alkalinity and colour. These models are used to provide a regional assessment of recent lake acidification in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, northern Sweden. The study shows that a pH decline has occurred in some southeastern lakes, but that most of the lakes have not faced significant changes in lake-water pH, alkalinity and colour. The inferred water chemistiy changes are discussed in relation to atmospheric deposition and land-use.

    In a study of eight acid-sensitive Swedish boreal-forest lakes a past-analogue approach is used to test whether contemporary expansion of conifers could cause lake acidification. Water chemistry changes associated with the natural pre-historic colonization and expansion of spruce in Sweden (—3000 years B.P.), at times of background atmospheric acidity, are inferred to evaluate the acidification ability of spruce per se on surface waters. This study shows that under natural, unpolluted conditions spruce colonization and expansion did not cause lake acidification.

    In a synthesis of palaeolimnological acidification research in Sweden a general model for pH- development for acid clear-water lakes in southern Sweden is presented. The pH-development from the last déglaciation to present time can be divided into four different periods; (i) a natural long-term acidification period (12000 B.P. - 2300 B.P., or later), with a gradual decrease in pH resulting from declining fluxes of base cations from catchment soils; (ii) a human induced alkalization period (2300 B.P. - 1900 A.D.), with a pH increase due to human activities in the catchments; (iii) the recent acidification period (about 1900 A.D. - present), when pH decreased towards 4.5 due to acid deposition and possibly ceased land-use; and (iv) the liming period (1970s - present), when pH often increases to values above 7 following lime treatment to counteract acidification. The implications of these past pH changes for the concept of contemporary lake acidification and for liming policy are outlined.

  • Bergman, Maud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Chemical and thermodynamic studies of dental gold alloys with special reference to homogenization, electrochemical corrosion and cluster formation1976Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Distribution of puumala virus in Sweden1997Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Puumala virus, belonging to the genus hantavirus, is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Puumala virus occurs endemically in Central and Northern Europe and Western Russia. In Sweden, NE is reported from the northern and central parts but virtually not at all from the southern part of the country. The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) is the main reservoir of Puumala virus and humans are infected by inhalation of aerosolized animal secreta. In northern Sweden, the density of the bank vole population varies cyclically in intervals of 3-4 years and the incidence of NE shows a covariation.

    The prevalence of serum antibodies to hantaviruses in northern Sweden was studied in a stratified and randomly selected adult population sample comprising 1538 subjects. As expected, the prevalence increased with age. There was no difference between men and women, which was unexpected based on a male:female ratio of > 2:1 in clinical reports. By use of an immunofiuorescent assay, a seroprevalence of 5.4% and by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein as antigen, a prevalence of 8.9% was recorded. This is about or more than ten times higher than what would be calculated from clinical reports.

    By use of the ELISA, an occupational risk of acquisition of Puumala virus infection was demonstrated. Serum samples from 910 farmers and 663 referent subjects living in various rural parts of Sweden were tested. Among farmers from the Puumala virus-endemic northern and central parts of the country, the seroprevalence (12.9%) was higher (p=0.01) than in referents (6.8%). In the southern part of Sweden, only 2/459 persons had antibodies. Only a limited number of children with NE had been previously reported. In a separate study, 32 children with Puumala virus infection were identified and the clinical picture of NE in children was found to be similar to that of adult cases.

    Variations in the prevalence of Puumala virus in the bank vole population within an endemic region are not well known. Here, a higher mean rodent density and a higher prevalence of Puumala virus-specific serum antibodies were recorded in the vicinity of households afflicted with NE than in rural control areas. The data indicated that the risk of exposure locally within an endemic region may vary widely and tentatively suggested that a threshold density of bank voles might be necessary to achieve before effective spread of Puumala virus within the rodent population may occur.

    There is no firm evidence of the occurrence of Puumala virus among wild living animals other than rodents. A study of Swedish moose, an animal which is ecologically well characterized, was performed. Convincing evidence of past Puumala virus infection was found in 5/260 moose originating from Puumala virus-endemic areas but in none of 167 animals from nonendemic areas. Based on the low seroprevalence recorded, moose seemed to serve as endstage hosts rather than being active parts of the enzootic circle of transmission.

    In conclusion, the present investigations confirmed that the exposure to Puumala virus is geographically well restricted in Sweden. Seroprevalence studies indicated that only a minor proportion of individuals infected with Puumala virus are clinically reported, with a bias in favour of men. NE was confirmed to occur in children, with a clinical picture similar to that of adults. An occupational risk was defined for acquisition of Puumala virus infection. Studies in rodents suggested that there may be wide local variations within a limited area in the risk of exposure to Puumala virus. The studies validated the usefulness of a newly developed ELISA based on recombinant nucleocapsid peptides of hantaviruses and finally, methodological progress was reached when Puumala virus was, for the first time, successfully isolated from a Scandinavian patient.

  • Edenborg, Emil
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Sörberg, Anna-Maria, 2017. Homo­nationalism. Stockholm: Leopard förlag.2017Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, nr 2, 338-341 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Dialysis Procedures Alter Metabolic Conditions2017Inngår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, nr 6, 548Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A progressive chronic kidney disease results in retention of various substances that more or less contribute to dysfunction of various metabolic systems. The accumulated substances are denominated uremic toxins. Although many toxins remain undetected, numerous newly defined toxins participate in the disturbance of food breakdown. In addition, toxic effects may downregulate other pathways, resulting in a reduced ability of free fatty acid breakdown by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL). Dialysis may even worsen metabolic functions. For LPL and HL, the use of heparin and low molecular weight heparin as anticoagulation during hemodialysis (HD) initiate a loss of these enzymes from their binding sites and degradation, causing a temporary dysregulation in triglyceride breakdown. This lack of function will cause retention of the triglyceride containing lipids for at least 8 h. In parallel, the breakdown into free fatty acids is limited, as is the energy supply by them. This is repeated thrice a week for a normal HD patient. In addition, dialysis will cause a loss of amino acids and disturb glucose metabolism depending on the dialysates used. The addition of glucose in the dialysate may support oxidation of carbohydrate and the retention of Amadori products and subsequent tissue alterations. To avoid these effects, it seems necessary to further study the effects of anticoagulation in HD, the extent of use of glucose in the dialysate, and the supplementation of amino acids.

  • Wilson, Max, L.
    et al.
    Tony, Russell-Rose,Birger, Larsen,Hansen, PrebenStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.Kristian, Norling,
    Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval2013Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Tedre, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Competing Claims to Computing as a Discipline (Invited talk)2015Inngår i: 15th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Helsinki , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Capability Driven Development of Context-aware Enterprise Applications – Challenges, Approach and Experiences2015Inngår i: 5th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, CIAO! Network , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprises are facing the need to adapt their businesses according to various situations in which their applications need to be used. To answer this challenge an EU FP7 project “Capability as a Service in digital enterprises” (CaaS) has been initiated. The aim of CaaS is to support the capture and analysis of changing business context in the design of information systems (IS) using the capability notion. Capability is seen as the ability and capacity that enables an enterprise to achieve a business goal in a certain context. The key rationale behind a capability driven approach is to capture the dependence of organizational and IS designs on application context and to provide explicit support for run-time adjustments according to changes in the application situation. The CaaS project is developing a methodology and a tool environment for capability driven development. We envision to further advance the service oriented paradigm and to develop context aware business capabilities by using Enterprise Modelling techniques as a starting point of the development process, capability design patterns for reuse of best practices, as well as composition of required capabilities and algorithms for run-time adjustment. This talk will address the main principles of the capability driven development methodology, as well as present the current experiences of capability design in three use case companies of the CaaS project – SIV AG (Germany) for business process outsourcing, Fresh T Limited (UK) for compliance management, and Everis (Spain) for capability management in e-government platforms.

  • Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of selective and combined activation of estrogen receptor α and β on reproductive organ development and sexual behaviour in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, e0180548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess estrogen exposure of avian embryos perturbs reproductive organ development in both sexes and demasculinizes the reproductive behaviors of adult males. We have previously shown that these characteristic effects on the reproductive organs also can be induced by exposure of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos to selective agonists of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha). In contrast, the male copulatory behavior is only weakly affected by developmental exposure to an ERa agonist. To further elucidate the respective roles of ER alpha and ER beta in estrogen-induced disruption of sexual differentiation, we exposed Japanese quail embryos in ovo to the selective ER alpha agonist 16 alpha-lactone-estradiol (16 alpha LE2), the selective ER beta agonist WAY-200070, or both substances in combination. The ERa agonist feminized the testes in male embryos and reduced cloacal gland size in adult males. Furthermore, anomalous retention and malformations of the Mullerian ducts/oviducts were seen in embryos and juveniles of both sexes. The ER beta agonist did not induce any of these effects and did not influence the action of the ERa agonist. Male copulatory behavior was not affected by embryonic exposure to either the ER alpha-or the ER beta-selective agonist but was slightly suppressed by treatment with the two compounds combined. Our results suggest that the reproductive organs become sexually differentiated consequent to activation of ER alpha by endogenous estrogens; excessive activation of ER alpha, but not ER beta, during embryonic development may disrupt this process. Our results also suggest that the demasculinizing effect of estrogens on male copulatory behavior is only partly mediated by ER alpha and ER beta, and may rather involve other estrogen-responsive pathways.

  • Jalali, Amin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Aspect-Oriented Business Process Management (Extended Abstract)2017Inngår i: Business Process Management, Robert Clarisó, Henrik Leopold , Jan Mendling , Wil van der Aalst , Akhil Kumar , Brian Pentland , Mathias Weske , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Separation of concerns has long been considered an effective and efficient strategy to deal with complexity in information systems. One sort of concern crosses over other concerns, which makes their management difficult. Aspect Orientation is a paradigm in information systems which aims to encapsulate cross-cutting concerns to overcome this problem. In the Business Process Management (BPM) area, Aspect Oriented Business Process Modeling aims to specify how this technique can support encapsulating cross-cutting concerns in process models. However, it is not clear how these models should be supported in the whole BPM lifecycle. Therefore, this thesis investigates how aspect orientation can be supported over the whole BPM lifecycle. This thesis has been carried out following the design science framework, and the result is presented as a set of artifacts (in the form of constructs, models, methods, and instantiations) and empirical findings. The artifacts support modeling, analysis, implementation/configuration, enactment, monitoring, adjustment, and mining cross-cutting concerns while supporting business processes using Business Process Management Systems. The use of these artifacts and their application shows that they can reduce the complexity of process models by separating different concerns.

  • Disputas: 2017-11-10 10:00 sal C (Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Electrum, kista
    Beaussant Törne, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Materialfysik, MF.
    Investigation of corrosion properties of metals for degradable implant applications2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedbrytbara metaller utgör en ny klass av biomaterial med potential attersätta permanenta material i tillfälliga applikationer. Detta för att minskarisken för långvariga biverkningar. I den pågående forskningen för att utvecklanya nedbrytbara metaller är screening av nya material genom in vitro testmetoderett attraktivt alternativ för att undvika onödiga, tidskrävande ochdyrbara djurstudier.Denna avhandling fokuserar på in vitro-testning av zink- och magnesiumbaserademetaller. Inverkan av faktorer såsom sammansättningen av testlösningen,buffersystemet, belastning samt mikrostruktur hos legeringar undersöktes.Genom att använda elektrokemiska in situ tekniker såsom impedansspektroskopi(EIS) är det möjligt att studera gränssnittet mellan metall ochlösning och karakterisera egenskaperna hos den korroderande ytan. Ex situytkaraktäriseringstekniker som svepelektronmikroskopi och infraröd spektroskopianvändes sedan för att komplettera resultaten av de elektrokemiskamätningarna.Korrosionen av zink i Ringer’s lösning fanns vara närmare in vivo korrosionän korrosionen i fosfatbuffrad saltlösning (PBS). Ringers lösning är därför denföredragna testmiljön för långsiktig utvärdering av zinkbaserade metallerDet biologiska buffersystemet (CO2/H2CO3) bör företrädesvis användasför att stabilisera pH-värdet på testlösningen vid magnesiumnedbrytning. NärHEPES användes för att stabilisera pH ökade korrosionshastigheten på grundav bildning av mindre skyddande skikt av korrosionsproduktMöjligheten att använda helblod och plasma som mer kliniskt relevantatestmiljöer utvärderades och befanns producera reproducerbara resultat.Bildning av ett korrosionsskikt bestående av både organiskt och oorganisktmaterial detekterades på zink i både plasma och helblod.När zink prover i helbod utsattes för belastning förhindrade korrosionsskiktetbildningen av mikrosprickor och förtidigt brott av provet. Det varvidare möjligt att detektera tidig sprickbildning på grund av belastning avMagnesium AZ61-legering med EIS.Adsorption av organiska species på zinkytan under anodisk polariseringökar yttäckningen av Zn-joner i helblod. Den ökade yttäckningen leder sedantill utfällningen av ett skyddande skikt av zinkfosfater och en minskadkorrosionshastighet vid högre potentialer.Korrosion av Zn-Mg och Zn-Ag legeringar i Ringers lösning befanns skevia selektiv upplösning. Lokal utfällning av korrosionsprodukter och bildningav ett poröst, mindre skyddande skikt av korrosionsprodukter hittades påZn-Mg legeringar. Den selektiva upplösningen av Zn-Ag legering orsakade enanrikning av AgZn3 vilket kan påverka biokompatibiliteten av ett implantatmed tiden.

  • Pittino, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Visintin, Francesca
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Lenger, Tamara
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Sternad, Dietmar
    University of Udine, Italy.
    Are high performance work practices really necessary in family SMEs?: An analysis of the impact on employee retention2016Inngår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, nr 2, 75-89 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the adoption of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in family versus non-family firms, and evaluates the effect of such practices on the retention of valuable employees in light of different family contingencies. The analysis is carried out on a sample of 232 companies with more than 10 and less than 250 employees, operating in Austria and Hungary. The results indicate that the relational mechanisms originating from the family social capital may act as substitutes of formal practices aimed at fostering employee involvement and commitment and that those mechanisms depend on the extent family involvement in the governance of the business.

  • Stackelberg, Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Soder Sjukhuset, Dept Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eliasson, Ken
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Surg, Sect Vasc Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Hellberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Bersztel, Adam
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wanhainen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi.
    Björck, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Kärlkirurgi.
    Lifestyle and Risk of Screening-Detected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men2017Inngår i: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, nr 5, e004725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Modifiable lifestyle-related factors associated with risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rarely investigated with a prospective design. We aimed to study possible associations among such factors and comorbidities with mean abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) and with risk of AAA among men screened for the disease. Methods and Results-Self-reported lifestyle-related exposures were assessed at baseline (January 1, 1998) among 14 249 men from the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men, screened for AAA between 65 and 75 years of age (mean 13 years after baseline). Multivariable prediction of mean AAD was estimated with linear regression, and hazard ratios (HRs) of AAA (AAD >= 30 mm) with Cox proportional hazard regression. The AAA prevalence was 1.2% (n=168). Smoking, body mass index, and cardiovascular disease were associated with a larger mean AAD, whereas consumption of alcohol and diabetes mellitus were associated with a smaller mean AAD. The HR of AAA was increased among participants who were current smokers with >= 25 pack-years smoked compared with never smokers (HR 15.59, 95% CI 8.96-27.15), those with a body mass index >= 25 versus <25 ( HR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.22-2.93), and those with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.13-2.77), and hypercholesterolemia (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.34). Walking or bicycling for >40 minutes/day (versus almost never) was associated with lower AAA hazard (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.97) compared with almost never walking or bicycling. Conclusions-This prospective study confirms that modifiable lifestyle-related factors are associated with AAD and with AAA disease.

  • Mutie, Pascal M.
    et al.
    Giordano, Giuseppe N.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Univ Oxford, Radcliff Dept Med.
    Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?2017Inngår i: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 15, 171Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  • Mohammadi, Soheila
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH). Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Carlbom, Aje
    Malmo Univ, Fac Hlth & Soc, Malmo, Sweden..
    Taheripanah, Robabeh
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, IRHRC, Tehran, Iran..
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Experiences of inequitable care among Afghan mothers surviving near-miss morbidity in Tehran, Iran: a qualitative interview study2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, 121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing equitable maternal care to migrants is a seriously challenging task for hosting countries. Iran, the second-most accessed country for refugees from Afghanistan, has achieved maternal health improvement. However, Afghan women with near-miss morbidity faced pre-hospital delays and disparity in maternal care at hospitals. This study explores experiences of maternal care among Afghan women surviving near-miss morbidity to increase insight into healthcare improvements for migrants.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted at university hospitals in Tehran, from April 2013 to May 2014. A total of 11 Afghan women and 4 husbands were interviewed when women recovered from near-miss morbidity that occurred around the childbirth period. Mothers were identified prospectively using the WHO maternal near-miss approach. Thematic analysis was used along with a data-driven approach to organize data guided by the 'three delays model' theoretical framework.

    Results: Mistreatment in the form of discrimination and insufficient medical attention were key experiences. Participants commonly perceived poor women-professional communication and delays in recognizing obstetric complications despite repeated care-seeking. Financial constraints, costly care, lack of health insurance, and low literacy were experienced barriers to accessing care to a lesser extent. Non-somatic consequences of near-miss morbidity affected mothers and families for extended periods.

    Conclusions: Near-miss survivors' experiences provided remarkable insights into maternal care of Afghans in Iran. The challenge for the health system and professionals is to provide equitable care with dignity and improve communication skills with caring attitudes toward ethnic minorities. Antenatal visits provide the best and most appropriate opportunities to tackle health illiteracy in Afghan women.

  • Disputas: 2017-12-01 10:00 T1 Emmy Rappesalen, Huddinge
    Schmidt, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Samarbete mellan kund och företagshälsovård: Mekanismer av betydelse för förebyggande arbetsmiljöarbete2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt arbetsmiljölagen ska arbetsgivare när det saknas kunskap och kompetens i det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet (SAM) anlita en företagshälsovård (FHV) eller liknande resurs. Detta bygger på en programteori där FHV förväntas vara den externa resurs som behövs för arbetsgivare och arbetsplatser i arbetsmiljöarbetet. Samarbetet och FHVs stöd ska generera god arbetsmiljö och hälsa hos kunderna. Forskning om hur detta samarbete fungerar är begränsad.

     

    Avhandlingens syfte är att utforska om FHV fungerar som stöd i kundens förebyggande arbetsmiljö-arbete och att identifiera mekanismer som har betydelse för samarbetet mellan FHV och kund. Mer precist har avhandlingen syftat till att öka kunskap och förståelse för om lagens intention uppfylls.

     

    Datainsamlingen i de fyra kvalitativa fallstudierna utfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade och tematiska intervjuer, telefonintervjuer och gruppintervjuer. Empirin samlades in i små- och stora företag samt inom den offentliga sektorn och fokuserade även på vilken betydelse avtalet har för samarbetet. Intervjuerna har genomförts med ledning, chefer och skyddsombud samt HR-personal i deltagande verksamheter samt FHV professioner i kundens FHV. Intervjuerna har analyserats med kvalitativ innehållsanalys och det sammanlagda resultatet analyserades med hjälp av realistisk utvärdering. 

     

    Resultatet visar att samarbete och FHVs stöd i förebyggande SAM brister. Förändrade styrformer i offentlig sektor; New Public Management och HR transformationen identifieras som kontextuella förutsättningar som påverkar samarbetet. I den realistiska utvärderingen identifierades mekanismer som positivt eller negativt påverkar samarbetet mellan FHV och kund.

     

    Mekanismer som påverkar samarbete positivt är; att det finns en fungerande samverkan och SAM hos kunden och att FHV får information och tillgång till kundens inre processer. Att FHV har en oberoende ställning med kontakter på flera nivåer i verksamheten är andra mekanismer som påverkar samarbete positivt. Att ledningen är engagerad i samarbetet med FHV och att avtalen stöder samarbetet bidrar också positivt till ett framgångsrikt samarbete. Ytterligare mekanismer som gynnsamt påverkar samarbete är att det finns kontinuerliga uppföljningar där tjänster och service kontinuerligt stäms av och anpassas efter kundens behov. En viktig mekanism som påverkar samarbetet positivt är att HR stöder samverkan och SAM i kundföretaget. 

     Identifierade mekanismer som påverkar samarbete negativt är att SAM och samverkan på arbetsplatsen mellan arbetsgivare och arbetstagare brister. Andra mekanismer som negativt påverkar är att ledningen inte är engagerad i samarbetet och att FHV inte får ta del av kundens SAM. Samarbetet påverkas även negativt när HR definierar avtalsinnehåll och är enda kontakt med FHV. En ytterligare mekanism som påverkar samarbetet negativt är att kunden upplever ett bristande förtroende; att FHV saknar kompetens.

     Ett antal mekanismer har även identifierats som påverkar samarbete negativt mellan FHV och småföretag.  Bland annat saknas samverkan mellan arbetsgivare och arbetstagare i stor utsträckning och småföretagen arbetar inte systematiskt med sin arbetsmiljö. Detta innebär att FHV inte fungerar som stöd i SAM utan de tjänster som används består framför allt av hälsoundersökningar.

     Samma mekanismer som påverkar samarbetet negativt framkommer i den offentliga sektorn; när samverkan och SAM saknas på arbetsplatsen, används FHV främst till individuella hälsofrämjande tjänster och rehabilitering. Andra mekanismer som påverkar samarbetet negativt i den offentliga sektorn är bristen på kunskap om samverkan och SAM hos både HR och skyddsombud. Det finns en otydlighet kring varandras roller som påverkar samarbetet negativt. Även kundens föreställning om FHV; att de uppfattas sakna kompetens och vara en efterhjälpande resurs, påverkar samarbetet negativt.

     Slutsatserna från avhandlingen visar att samarbetet mellan FHV och kund i stor utsträckning inte stöder förebyggande SAM. I analysen identifieras ett antal mekanismer som påverkar samarbetet mellan FHV och kund, både positivt och negativt. Framför allt kunskap om arbetsmiljö, en fungerande samverkan och SAM identifieras som viktiga mekanismer som på ett positivt sätt bidrar till att nå ett framgångsrikt samarbete.

  • Loeb, Stacy
    et al.
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. Division of Experimental Oncology, Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Salonia, Andrea
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (PDE5Is) and Risk of Melanoma2017Inngår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 109, nr 8, djx086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the need to evaluate the association between PDE5is and melanoma. We performed a meta-analysis on the association between PDE5i and melanoma using random effects models and examined whether it met Hill's criteria for causality. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 to 2016 identified three case-control studies and two cohort studies, including a total of 866 049 men, of whom 41 874 were diagnosed with melanoma. We found a summary estimate indicating an increased risk of melanoma in PDE5i users (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.23). However, there was no difference in risk between men with low and high exposure to PDE5i, and risk was higher for in situ melanoma than localized and high-risk melanoma, suggesting a lack of dose response and biological gradient. PDE5i use was also associated with basal cell cancer, suggesting a lack of specificity and likely confounding by ultraviolet exposure. Thus, although this meta-analysis found a statistically significant association between PDE5i and melanoma, it did not satisfy Hill's criteria for causality.

  • Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Digitaliseringen och näringslivet2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Högdin, Sara
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Wigforss-gruppen.
    Samverkan kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck: En studie av projektet Kärleken är fri 2014-20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för den här studien har varit att ett projekt som bygger på samverkan mellan ett stort antal olika aktörer kring en så konfliktfylld fråga som hedersrelterat våld och förtryck, vilket projektet Kärleken är fri gör, oundvikligen påverkas av den polariserade debatten och oenigheten som råder på fältet. Projektet bygger på samverkan mellan ett stort antal aktörer med olika agendor och utgångspunkter i sitt arbete. Det övergripande syftet med studien har varit att öka kunskaperna om vilka utmaningar och möjligheter det finns för att samverka i arbetet med att metodutveckla socialverksamhet kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck. Studien tar avstamp i tidigare forskning , vilket även inkluderar den offentliga debatten (Larsson & Englund 2004; Grutzky och Åberg 2013; Ekström 2009) och olika perspektiv på HRV som har lyfts fram i tidigare kunskapsöversikter (NCK 2009). Därtill har målet varit att undersöka skolans möjligheter att förebygga HRV och de motsättningar som det kan innebära för skolans likabehandlingsarbete (Darvishpour, Lahdenperä & Lorentz 2010; Lövkrona & Rejmer 2016; Högdin 2007). Andra utgångspunkter för studien är civilsamhällets möjligheter att driva metodutveckling (Bauböck 1996) och teoretiska utgångspunkter som möjliggör samverkan mellan ett stort antal aktörer (Danermark 2004).

  • Skjelvik, John Magne
    et al.
    Erlandsen, Anne Maren
    Haavardsholm, Oscar
    Environmental impacts and potential of the sharing economy2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The various sharing initiatives seen in the Nordic countries over the last years within transportation, housing/accommodation, sharing/renting of smaller capital goods and personal services could yield considerable benefits for consumers due to better quality and/or lower prices of the services. They also have a potential for emissions reductions of CO2 and local pollutants. However, savings from lower prices could lead to increased emissions from increased demand of the services (particularly transport) and increased spending on other goods and services. Depending on how consumers spend their savings, these changes could partly, wholly or more than offset the initial emission reductions. The impacts on overall CO2 emissions depend on whether the emissions are taxed, part of the emissions trading system EU ETS or not regulated at all.

  • Vaiciukynas, Evaldas
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Verikas, Antanas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab). Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Gelzinis, Adas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bacauskiene, Marija
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Detecting Parkinson's disease from sustained phonation and speech signals2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 10, e0185613Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates signals from sustained phonation and text-dependent speech modalities for Parkinson’s disease screening. Phonation corresponds to the vowel /a/ voicing task and speech to the pronunciation of a short sentence in Lithuanian language. Signals were recorded through two channels simultaneously, namely, acoustic cardioid (AC) and smart phone (SP) microphones. Additional modalities were obtained by splitting speech recording into voiced and unvoiced parts. Information in each modality is summarized by 18 well-known audio feature sets. Random forest (RF) is used as a machine learning algorithm, both for individual feature sets and for decision-level fusion. Detection performance is measured by the out-of-bag equal error rate (EER) and the cost of log-likelihood-ratio. Essentia audio feature set was the best using the AC speech modality and YAAFE audio feature set was the best using the SP unvoiced modality, achieving EER of 20.30% and 25.57%, respectively. Fusion of all feature sets and modalities resulted in EER of 19.27% for the AC and 23.00% for the SP channel. Non-linear projection of a RF-based proximity matrix into the 2D space enriched medical decision support by visualization. © 2017 Vaiciukynas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • Gren, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Orientalia Suecana: Volume 11952Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Ferrando, Carlos
    et al.
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Carolina
    Consorci Hosp Gen Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Tusman, Gerardo
    Hosp Privado Comunidad Mar Del Plata, Dept Anesthesiol, Mar De Plata, Argentina..
    Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Hedenstiernalaboratoriet. Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain..
    Canet, Jaume
    Hosp Badalona Germans Trias & Pujol, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Badalona, Spain..
    Dosda, Rosa
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Valls, Paola
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villena, Abigail
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Serralta, Ferran
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Jurado, Ana
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Carrizo, Juan
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Navarro, Jose
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Parrilla, Cristina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Dept Radiol, Valencia, Spain..
    Romero, Jose E.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, ITACA Inst, Grp IBIME, Valencia, Spain..
    Pozo, Natividad
    INCLIVA Clin Res Inst, Valencia, Spain..
    Soro, Marina
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    Villar, Jesus
    Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBER Enfermedades Resp, Madrid, Spain.;Hosp Univ Dr Negrin, Res Unit, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Belda, Francisco Javier
    Hosp Clin Univ Valencia, Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Valencia, Spain..
    The accuracy of postoperative, non-invasive Air-Test to diagnose atelectasis in healthy patients after surgery: a prospective, diagnostic pilot study2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, e015560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) while breathing room air for 5 min (the 'Air-Test') in detecting postoperative atelectasis. Design Prospective cohort study. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring the agreement between the index test and the reference standard CT scan images. Setting Postanaesthetic care unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Participants Three hundred and fifty patients from 12 January to 7 February 2015; 170 patients scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia who were admitted into the postsurgical unit were included. Intervention The Air-Test was performed in conscious extubated patients after a 30 min stabilisation period during which they received supplemental oxygen therapy via a venturi mask. The Air-Test was defined as positive when SpO(2) was >= 96% and negative when SpO(2) was >= 97%. Arterial blood gases were measured in all patients at the end of the Air-Test. In the subsequent 25 min, the presence of atelectasis was evaluated by performing a CT scan in 59 randomly selected patients. Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was assessment of the accuracy of the Air-Test for detecting postoperative atelectasis compared with the reference standard. The secondary outcome was the incidence of positive Air-Test results. Results The Air-Test diagnosed postoperative atelectasis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.98) with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 87.8%. The presence of atelectasis was confirmed by CT scans in all patients (30/30) with positive and in 5 patients (17%) with negative Air-Test results. Based on the Air-Test, postoperative atelectasis was present in 36% of the patients (62 out of 170). Conclusion The Air-Test may represent an accurate, simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method for diagnosing postoperative atelectasis.

  • Pettersson, Lars B.
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Sjöström, Caroline
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Biogeografisk uppföljning 2015 av dagfjärilar inom habitatdirektivet2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar fjärilsinventeringar utförda under 2015 inom Biogeografisk uppföljning som drivs av Naturvårdsverket. Detta var andra året med skarpa inventeringar efter flera års eftersök av dagfjärilar i fjällen och en säsongs utprovning av inventeringsmetodik. Trots kallt och ostadigt väder kunde 24 ytor inventeras och totalt noterades 12 högnordiska blåvingar på 6 ytor och 4 dvärgpärlemorfjärilar på 3 ytor. Inventeringen gav dessvärre inget fynd av fjällsilversmygare detta år. Svartfläckig blåvinge sågs med 180 individer på 26 inventerade lokaler och tillsammans med data från Svensk Dagfjärilsövervakning täcktes en stor del av artens utbredningsområde. Brun gräsfjäril inventerades på 33 lokaler i Dalarna, Värmland och Västra Götaland och resulterade i totalt 392 observerade individer. Asknät- och väddnätfjäril inventeras med räkning av larvkolonier i augustiseptember. På 55 lokaler som inventerades inom Biogeografisk Uppföljning noterades 2602 larvkolonier av väddnätfjäril. Asknätfjäril inventerades på en lokal i Uppsala län, 11 områden i Örebro län samt 21 lokaler i Stockholm med totalt 912 noterade kolonier. Mnemosynefjäril inventerades på 36 lokaler i Blekinge, Stockholm, Uppsala och Västernorrlands län med totalt 366 noterade individer. Under 2015 har också inventeringar av violett guldvinge genomförts i Jämtland där 57 individer observerades på 11 lokaler.

  • Lenhard, Fabian
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Andersson, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Serlachius, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Healthcare Serv, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomised controlled trial2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, e015246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. Design Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnosis of OCD. Interventions Either a 12-week, therapist-guided ICBT intervention or a wait list condition of equal duration. Primary outcome measures Cost data were collected at baseline and after treatment, including healthcare use, supportive resources, prescription drugs, prescription-free drugs, school absence and productivity loss, as well as the cost of ICBT. Health outcomes were defined as treatment responder rate and quality-adjusted life years gain. Bootstrapped mixed model analyses were conducted comparing incremental costs and health outcomes between the groups from the societal and healthcare perspectives. Results Compared with waitlist control, ICBT generated substantial societal cost savings averaging US$-144.98 (95% CI -159.79 to -130.16) per patient. The cost reductions were mainly driven by reduced healthcare use in the ICBT group. From the societal perspective, the probability of ICBT being cost saving compared with waitlist control was approximately 60%. From the healthcare perspective, the cost per additional responder to ICBT compared with waitlist control was approximately US$78. Conclusions The results suggest that therapist-guided ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and results in societal cost savings, compared with patients who do not receive evidence-based treatment. Since, at present, most patients with OCD do not have access to evidence-based treatments, the results have important implications for the increasingly strained national and healthcare budgets. Future studies should compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with regular face-to-face CBT.

  • Persson, Emilia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Christian
    Nordström, Fredrik
    Sohlin, Maja
    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn
    Petruson, Karin
    Rintelä, Niina
    Hed, Kristoffer
    Blomqvist, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Siversson, Carl
    Jonsson, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    MR-OPERA: a multicenter/multivendor validation of magnetic resonance imaging–only prostate treatment planning using synthetic computed tomography images2017Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 99, nr 3, 692-700 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy and clinical robustness of a commercially available software for magnetic resonance (MR) to synthetic computed tomography (sCT) conversion, in an MR imaging–only workflow for 170 prostate cancer patients.

    Methods and Materials: The 4 participating centers had MriPlanner (Spectronic Medical), an atlas-based sCT generation software, installed as a cloud-based service. A T2-weighted MR sequence, covering the body contour, was added to the clinical protocol. The MR images were sent from the MR scanner workstation to the MriPlanner platform. The sCT was automatically returned to the treatment planning system. Four MR scanners and 2 magnetic field strengths were included in the study. For each patient, a CT-treatment plan was created and approved according to clinical practice. The sCT was rigidly registered to the CT, and the clinical treatment plan was recalculated on the sCT. The dose distributions from the CT plan and the sCT plan were compared according to a set of dose-volume histogram parameters and gamma evaluation. Treatment techniques included volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and conventional treatment using 2 treatment planning systems and different dose calculation algorithms.

    Results: The overall (multicenter/multivendor) mean dose differences between sCT and CT dose distributions were below 0.3% for all evaluated organs and targets. Gamma evaluation showed a mean pass rate of 99.12% (0.63%, 1 SD) in the complete body volume and 99.97% (0.13%, 1 SD) in the planning target volume using a 2%/2-mm global gamma criteria.

    Conclusions: Results of the study show that the sCT conversion method can be used clinically, with minimal differences between sCT and CT dose distributions for target and relevant organs at risk. The small differences seen are consistent between centers, indicating that an MR imaging–only workflow using MriPlanner is robust for a variety of field strengths, vendors, and treatment techniques.

  • Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    The shared-memory interferences of Erlang/OTP built-ins2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Erlang, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Erlang is a concurrent functional language based on the actor modelof concurrency. In the purest form of this model, actors are realizedby processes that do not share memory and communicate witheach other exclusively via message passing. Erlang comes quiteclose to this model, as message passing is the primary form of interprocesscommunication and each process has its own memoryarea that is managed by the process itself. For this reason, Erlangis often referred to as implementing “shared nothing” concurrency.Although this is a convenient abstraction, in reality Erlang’s mainimplementation, the Erlang/OTP system, comes with a large numberof built-in operations that access memory which is shared byprocesses. In this paper, we categorize these built-ins, and characterizethe interferences between them that can result in observabledifferences of program behaviour when these built-ins are usedin a concurrent setting. The paper is complemented by a publiclyavailable suite of more than one hundred small Erlang programsthat demonstrate the racing behaviour of these built-ins.

  • Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Lystig Fritchie, Scott
    VMware, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Testing And Verifying Chain Repair Methods For CORFU Using Stateless Model Checking2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Corfu is a distributed shared log that is designed to be scalable and reliable in the presence of failures and asynchrony. Internally, Corfu is fully replicated for fault tolerance, without sharding data or sacrificing strong consistency. In this case study, we present the modeling approaches we followed to test and verify, using Concuerror, the correctness of repair methods for the Chain Replication protocol suitable for Corfu. In the first two methods we tried, Concuerror located bugs quite fast. In contrast, the tool did not manage to find bugs in the third method, but the time this took also motivated an improvement in the tool that reduces the number of traces explored. Besides more details about all the above, we present experiences and lessons learned from applying stateless model checking for verifying complex protocols suitable for distributed programming.

  • Kindström, Merit
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundin, Assar
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Glimskär, Anders
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Universitet, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Inventering och utveckling för hällmarksnaturtyper, alvar och svämängar 20162016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogeografisk uppföljning ska följa upp areal och utbredning av naturtyper inom art- och habitatdirektivet samt dess viktiga strukturer, funktioner och typiska arter. I rapporten beskrivs resultat från arbete med biogeografisk uppföljning av några naturtyper med sparsam eller aggregerad fördelning i landskapet. Rapporten presenterar resultat för naturtypen 8230 Hällmarkstorräng samt metodiktester och förslag till uppföljning för naturtyperna 6280 Alvar, 6110 Basiska berghällar, 8240 Karsthällmarker och 6450 Svämängar. En mindre förstudie om möjligheten att utveckla metodik för sandmarker (6120, 2320, 2330) och slåtterängar (6510, 6520, 6530) har också genomförts och redovisas i rapporten.

  • Rösblad, Birgit
    Visual and proprioceptive control of arm movements: studies of development and dysfunction1994Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation was to examine the role of sensory information for control of goal-directed arm movements in children. The role of visual and proprioceptive information on the target for end point accuracy was examined in normal 4- to 12-year- old children (Study I), and in children with motor impairments (Study II). Accuracy in pointing with the unseen hand was found to improve rapidly during the age period tested, with the most pronounced development taking place in the preschool years. Visual specification of the target was superior to proprioceptive specification for all age groups tested. The performance of children with motor impairments was more variable than that of the non-impaired children, and this effect was most pronounced when visual information about the target was unavailable. The importance of visual information for controlling the transport and handling part of reaching movements were examined in normal 6- to 8-year-old children (Study III), and in children with developmental coordination disorders (Study IV). Object handling required visual information on both target and hand. For the transport phase of the movement visual information on target was sufficient, and sight of hand did not improve performance. The young children were relatively more impaired than the older children when lacking adequate visual information. The children with developmental coordination disorders responded to the withdrawal of visual information in a similar way to that of the normally developed children. A discontinuity at 7 years of age in the development of perceptual control of pointing movements, observed in Study I, was further investigated and confirmed in study V. In this study the ability to control movements visually and prorioceptively was also investigated and found to develop in parallel rather than one being a prerequisite for the other.

  • Nilsson, Per A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. International Office.
    The Swedish Experience of International Student Mobility2017Inngår i: On the verge of a new era: value, viability and visibility of international education / [ed] Riikka Vanhanen, Jyrki Holappa, Jyväskylä: JAMK University of Applied Sciences Library , 2017, 25-31 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The internationalisation of education started in the late 1970s when the wording in the Swedish Higher Education Act was changed, emphasising that higher education institutions (HEI) should promote understanding of other countries and of international circumstances. This also opened the door for other changes in Swedish regulations, such as the study aid system, allowing more students to study abroad. However, the greatest boost to international student mobility was when Sweden entered the Erasmus Programme in 1992 (Lundgren & Nilsson, 2009).

    It is clear that there are political ambitions when it comes to international student mobility. Politicians set the roles for mobility through political decisions about studying in a foreign country, regulations for migration, student loans, recognition for foreign degrees, etc. There is also a global education market being developed outside Sweden. More countries have an interest in the business of international education and the commodification of education due to a decrease of public HEI funding (Knight, 2012). This means that market solutions have entered the global scene, which countries around the world have to adjust to, including Sweden. The aim with this article is to highlight some of the Swedish experiences in regard to international student mobility.

  • Niklasson, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Spectral analysis of the heart rate variability: a methodological study1993Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate and other cardiovascular variables are not steady but fluctuate over time. The evolution of computer technology the last 2 decades has made detailed analysis of the fluctuations possible and has focused the attention to the information content of the variability.

    Autonomic nervous influence on the heart can be assessed by measuring the heart rate variability from R-R intervals in the electrocardiogram. Applications have been developed in many fields where the pathophysiological features of the patients include autonomic dysfunction.

    This thesis is based on clinical studies and model studies compared with results from healthy volunteers. Two patient groups, with familial amyloidosis and with myotonic dystrophy, were evaluated using simple indexes of heart rate variability. Signs of autonomic dysfunction which is a dominant clinical feature in familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy was confirmed by abnormal heart rate variability indexes. In myotonic dystrophy heart rate variability was normal but recumbent and standing plasma catecholamines were elevated. Reassessment of the heart rate variability with spectral analysis confirmed the results.

    The integral pulse frequency modulation (IPFM) model can be used as a simple analogy of the interface between autonomic activity and the cardiac pacemaker. Computer simulations using the IPFM model revealed marked differences in the estimated modulating variability depending on whether the intervals between simulated beats or the frequency of beats was analyzed. Comparison with data from healthy volunteers indicated that the IPFM model was valid and that heart rate should be preferred instead of R-R intervals for variability measurements.

    Beat-by-beat heart rate can be viewed as an irregular sample of the underlying autonomic activity. Spectral analysis of simulated heart rate variability data using the IPFM model showed attenuation of high frequency variability with decreasing mean heart rate and with increasing variability mean frequency. Application of these results on data from healthy volunteers suggest that the effects can be significant in actual variability measurements.

    Cholinergic blockade resulted in reduced heart rate variability at all spectral frequencies. Adrenergic beta-blockade reduced high-frequency variability in standing position indicating that high-frequency variability might partly be sympathetically mediated.