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  • Chris, Mays
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Monash University.
    Bevitt, Joseph
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Research Office, Lucas Heights, Australia.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants2017Inngår i: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, nr 3, 1-12 s., 20.3.57AArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is an increasingly popular technique for the non-destructivestudy of fossils. Whilst the science of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has greatlymatured since its first fossil applications in the early 1980s, the applications and limitationsof neutron tomography (NT) remain relatively unexplored in palaeontology. Thesehighest resolution neutron tomographic scans in palaeontology to date were conductedon a specimen of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae (Ettingshausen) Mays and Cantrillrecovered from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian; ~100–94 Ma) strata of the ChathamIslands, eastern Zealandia. Previously, the species has been identified with in situ fossilresin (amber); the new neutron tomographic analyses demonstrated an anomalouslyhigh neutron attenuation signal for fossil resin. The resulting data provided astrong contrast between, and distinct three-dimensional representations of the: 1) fossilresin; 2) coalified plant matter; and 3) sedimentary matrix. These data facilitated ananatomical model of endogenous resin bodies within the cone axis and bract-scalecomplexes. The types and distributions of resin bodies support a close alliance withSequoia Endlicher (Cupressaceae), a group of conifers whose extant members areonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NTas a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils.Herein, we make specific recommendations regarding: 1) the suitability of fossil preservationstyles for NT; 2) the conservation of organic specimens with hydrogenous consolidantsand adhesives; and 3) the application of emerging methods (e.g., neutronphase contrast) for further improvements when imaging fine-detailed anatomical structures.These findings demonstrate that we are still far from reaching the conceptuallimits of NT as a means of virtually extracting fossils, or imaging their internal anatomyeven when embedded within a rock matrix.

  • Yrgård, Anders
    Geomorf ologisk kartläggning för naturvärdesbedömning och planering: En flygbildsmetodisk studie i syd- och mellansvensk terräng1980Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1970-talet har inte minst från SNV:s forskningsnämnds sida betydande satsningar gjorts för att finna metoder att förbättra underlaget för den fysiska planeringen genom heltäckande naturresursinventeringar och naturvärdesbedömningar. Den Naturgeografiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet har främst medverkat genom att utveckla inventeringsmetodik baserad på flygbildsteknik för geomorfologiska kartläggning och översiktlig vegetationskartering.

    Professor Gunnar Hoppe initierade 1969 metodstudier avseende geomorfologisk kartering av fjällkedjan i skala 1:250 000. Det första resultatet, angivet som provisoriskt, förelåg två år senare i form av en geomorfologisk karta över nordvästra Dalarna framtagen av Dieter Soyez. Metodstudierna följdes efter fortsatt utvecklingsarbete av en tillämpad kartläggning av hela den svenska fjällkedjan under Gunnar Hoppes ledning och på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket. Projektet, som nu står inför sin fullbordan, omfattar kartblad med beskrivningar och naturvärdesbedömningar.

  • Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Monash University.
    Cantrill, David
    Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Private Bag 2000, South Yarra, VIC 3141, Australia.
    Bevitt, Joseph J.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia.
    Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous globalhothouse2017Inngår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 45, nr 12, 1119-1122 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several highly effective fire-adaptive traits first evolved among modern plants duringthe mid-Cretaceous, in response to the widespread wildfires promoted by anomalously highatmospheric oxygen (O2) and extreme temperatures. Serotiny, or long-term canopy seedstorage, is a fire-adaptive strategy common among plants living in fire-prone areas today,but evidence of this strategy has been lacking from the fossil record. Deposits of abundantfossil charcoal from sedimentary successions of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, recordwildfires in the south polar regions (75°–80°S) during the mid-Cretaceous (ca. 99–90 Ma).Newly discovered fossil conifer reproductive structures were consistently associated withthese charcoal-rich deposits. The morphology and internal anatomy as revealed by neutrontomography exhibit a range of serotiny-associated characters. Numerous related fossils fromsimilar, contemporaneous deposits of the Northern Hemisphere suggest that serotiny was akey adaptive strategy during the high-fire world of the Cretaceous.

  • Rafstedt, Thomas
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars
    Flgbildstolkning av myrvegetation: En metodstudie för översiktlig kartering1981Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Ihse, Margareta
    Flygbildstolkningar av vegetation i syd- och mellansvensk terräng: - en metodstudie för översiktlig kartering1978Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten grundar sig på arbetem utförda med ekonomisk stöd från forskningsnämnden vid staten naturvårdsverk.

  • Carlborg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi.
    On Service Innovation and Realization in Manufacturing Firms2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is increasingly becoming a basis for manufacturing firms to reach and sustain competitive advantages. While traditional product innovation typically includes how new technology can be utilized in new products, service innovation spans a broader area that is not exclusively focused on new technology, but rather how resources can be developed into value propositions and then integrated in the customer’s process in order to support customer value creation through realization. However, manufacturing firms that infuse services struggle with service innovation; this becomes especially evident in the realization phase.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers discussing different aspects of service innovation realization and the inherited challenges. The study builds upon empirical data from four Swedish manufacturing firms that infuse services and develop new value propositions that include both products and services to support customer processes.

    The thesis illustrates realization as a phase in service innovation where the firm interacts with its customer in order to adjust, revise and further find new ways of improving the customer’s processes through for example customer training. Realization is characterized by a deployment phase and a post-deployment phase that represent the ongoing relationship between the customer and the firm.

    Depending on who has the competencies or ability to integrate the resources that are needed for service innovation, different interaction patterns are identified. Through indirect interaction, the firm facilitates the customer’s value creation through, for example, preventive maintenance, while through direct interaction the firm acts as a co-creator in the service innovation process and hence work jointly together with the customer in order to improve customer value creation.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by characterizing service innovation realization and by increasing the understanding for different interaction patterns in the service innovation process.

  • Andersson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Gamma Emission Tomography of LOCA-transient test rods2017Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Bengtsson, Göran
    et al.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Herrmann, Jan
    Nilsson, Ingvar N.
    Svensson, Björn S.
    Öbiogeografisk teori och bildning av naturreservat1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturreservat kan betraktas som ekologiska öar i en alltmer påverkad omgivning och därmed bedömas utifrån öbiogeografisk teori. Innebörden av denna teori, som beskriver bl a sambandet mellan ö-storlek och artantal med utgångspunkt från invandrings- resp. utdöendehastigheter presenteras i föreliggande rapport, liksom den debatt som uppstått kring teorin. Analyser demonstrerar ö-teorins giltighet för o lika organismgrupper (fiskar, skalbaggar, kärlväxter) i Sverige. De teoretiska konsekvenserna av förändringar av reservat ytor för antalet fågelarter diskuteras, samt den konflikt som råder mellan intressen företrädande dag ens produktionslandskap och ur ö-teoretisk synvinkel önskvärd reservatavsättning. Det aktuella antalet svenska reservat och deras yta, storleksfördelning, former och lokalisering är f n i ringa samstämmighet med ö-teorin. För att i framtiden ha kvar ett så varierat växt- och djurliv som möjligt måste de n totala reservat ytan öka. Man bör avsätta fler större reservat än små, och minska avstånden till andra reservat genom att skapa nya småreservat eller biotopkorridorer. Reservat bör ha så liten omkrets i förhållande till yta som möjligt och vidare, ej nödvändigtvis vara anpassade till aktuella ägogränser.

  • Granath, Lars
    Flygbildstolkning av vegetation i skärgårdsterräng: - en metodstudie för kartering på översiktlig och detaljerad nivå1981Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets målsättning är att klarlätgga möjligheterna att med hjälp av flygbilder, framför allt IR- färgbilder, kartlägga vegetation i skärgårdsområden. genom jämförelser av tolkningar med fältdata särskiljs tolkningsmöjligheterna i olika bildmaterial. Fyra olika bildmaterial, varav två IRfärg, har prövats.

    För kartering på översiktlig nivå kan IR-färgfilm i skala 1:50 000 utnyttjas om bilderna tolkas i goda tolkningsinstrument. För kartering på detaljerad nivå bör bildskalan ökas till 1:20 000. Hedovisning av kartering från flygbilder kan göras i form av vegetationskartor. På översiktlig nivå bör kartskalan ej vara mindre än 1:30 000. I annat fall går landskapets karaktär förlorad . På detaljerad nivå bör redovisningsskalan ej understiga 1:15 000.

  • Antonova, Rika
    et al.
    Robotics Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Rai, Akshara
    Robotics Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Atkeson, Christopher G.
    Robotics Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Sample efficient optimization for learning controllers for bipedal locomotion2016Inngår i: IEEE-RAS 16th International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), 2016, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning policies for bipedal locomotion can be difficult, as experiments are expensive and simulation does not usually transfer well to hardware. To counter this, we need algorithms that are sample efficient and inherently safe. Bayesian Optimization is a powerful sample-efficient tool for optimizing non-convex black-box functions. However, its performance can degrade in higher dimensions. We develop a distance metric for bipedal locomotion that enhances the sample-efficiency of Bayesian Optimization and use it to train a 16 dimensional neuromuscular model for planar walking. This distance metric reflects some basic gait features of healthy walking and helps us quickly eliminate a majority of unstable controllers. With our approach we can learn policies for walking in less than 100 trials for a range of challenging settings. In simulation, we show results on two different costs and on various terrains including rough ground and ramps, sloping upwards and downwards. We also perturb our models with unknown inertial disturbances analogous with differences between simulation and hardware. These results are promising, as they indicate that this method can potentially be used to learn control policies on hardware.

  • Nordahl, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Persson, Marie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Detection of Residents' Abnormal Behaviour by Analysing Energy Consumption of Individual Households2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), IEEE, 2017, 729-738 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As average life expectancy continuously rises, assisting the elderly population with living independently is of great importance. Detecting abnormal behaviour of the elderly living at home is one way to assist the eldercare systems with the increase of the elderly population. In this study, we perform an initial investigation to identify abnormal behaviour of household residents using energy consumption data. We conduct an experiment in two parts, the first to identify a suitable prediction algorithm to model energy consumption behaviour, and the second to detect abnormal behaviour. This approach allows for an initial step for the elderly care that has a low cost, is easily deployable, and is non-intrusive.

  • Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    VTI.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    VTI.
    Hållbara turistresor: En fallstudie av destinationerna Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med vidareutveckling av destinationer och transportsystem är turisternas önskemål ochbehov avgörande för vilka åtgärder och förändringar som kan leda till ett mer hållbart resande.Resmöjligheterna för resan till och från destinationer har stor betydelse, men även tillgängligheten, imeningen geografisk tillgänglighet, till olika besökspunkter inom destinationer. God tillgänglighetutan egen bil inom destinationen kan även påverka färdmedelsvalet för resan till och fråndestinationen.Syftet med den studie som avrapporteras här är att analysera olika kategorier av turisters resbehov,resmönster och önskemål avseende resandet till och från samt inom fyra utvalda svenska destinationer:Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby. Avsikten är att fördjupa kunskaperna om faktorer som kan ha eninverkan på möjligheterna att öka turistresors hållbarhet. Det empiriska material som ligger till grundför analysen är inhämtat genom enkäter till besökare på plats i destinationerna.Rapporten visar att turismen ser olika ut och har olika ekonomisk potential för olika destinationer. Detfinns stora skillnader mellan såväl resmönster (färdmedelsval) som ekonomisk effekt (mätt somgästnattskonsumtion) mellan olika kategorier av turister, olika typer av destinationer och mellan olikasäsonger.En central generell slutsats från studien är att turisterna önskar tillgänglighet till många olika besökspunkterinom destinationerna. Destinationens utformning eller fysiska struktur, det vill säga lokaliseringenav boende och besökspunkter, har alltså stor betydelse för tillgängligheten och resbehovetinom destinationen. Både destinationens fysiska struktur och tillgången till olika alternativa färdmedelär därmed viktiga för möjligheterna att öka turistresandets hållbarhet. Det innebär att god kännedomom den geografiska tillgängligheten för turister behövs för planering och utveckling av hållbaradestinationer och turistresor, liksom god kännedom om turisternas beteende och önskemål.

  • van Chien, Trinh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Resource Allocation for Max-Min Fairness in Multi-Cell Massive MIMO2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) is considered as an heir of the multi-user MIMO technology and it has recently gained lots of attention from both academia and industry. By equipping base stations (BSs) with hundreds of antennas, this new technology can provide very large multiplexing gains by serving many users on the same time-frequency resources and thereby bring significant improvements in spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) over the current wireless networks. The transmit power, pilot training, and spatial transmission resources need to be allocated properly to the users to achieve the highest possible performance. This is called resource allocation and can be formulated as design utility optimization problems. If the resource allocation in Massive MIMO is optimized, the technology can handle the exponential growth in both wireless data traffic and number of wireless devices, which cannot be done by the current cellular network technology.

    In this thesis, we focus on two resource allocation aspects in Massive MIMO: The first part of the thesis studies if power control and advanced coordinated multipoint (CoMP) techniques are able to bring substantial gains to multi-cell Massive MIMO systems compared to the systems without using CoMP. More specifically, we consider a network topology with no cell boundary where the BSs can collaborate to serve the users in the considered coverage area. We focus on a downlink (DL) scenario in which each BS transmits different data signals to each user. This scenario does not require phase synchronization between BSs and therefore has the same backhaul requirements as conventional Massive MIMO systems, where each user is preassigned to only one BS. The scenario where all BSs are phase synchronized to send the same data is also included for comparison. We solve a total transmit power minimization problem in order to observe how much power Massive MIMO BSs consume to provide the requested quality of service (QoS) of each user. A max-min fairness optimization is also solved to provide every user with the same maximum QoS regardless of the propagation conditions.

    The second part of the thesis considers a joint pilot design and uplink (UL) power control problem in multi-cell Massive MIMO. The main motivation for this work is that the pilot assignment and pilot power allocation is momentous in Massive MIMO since the BSs are supposed to construct linear detection and precoding vectors from the channel estimates. Pilot contamination between pilot-sharing users leads to more interference during data transmission. The pilot design is more difficult if the pilot signals are reused frequently in space, as in Massive MIMO, which leads to greater pilot contamination effects. Related works have only studied either the pilot assignment or the pilot power control, but not the joint optimization. Furthermore, the pilot assignment is usually formulated as a combinatorial problem leading to prohibitive computational complexity. Therefore, in the second part of this thesis, a new pilot design is proposed to overcome such challenges by treating the pilot signals as continuous optimization variables. We use those pilot signals to solve different max-min fairness optimization problems with either ideal hardware or hardware impairments.

  • Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Competition and festival failure: Societal costs and benefits related to the rise and fall of Swedish music festivals2017Inngår i: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Book of abstract, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Zhang, Kewei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsnät.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsnät.
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsnät.
    Detection and Exclusion RAIM Algorithm against Spoofing/Replaying Attacks2015Inngår i: International Symposium on GNSS, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Hryniewicz, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa.
    Amano, Kazutaka
    Department of Geoscience, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata.
    Jenkins, Robert
    School of Natural System, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa .
    Kiel, Steffen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Thyasirid bivalves from Cretaceous and Paleogene cold seeps2017Inngår i: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 62, nr 4, 705-728 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a systematic study of thyasirid bivalves from Cretaceous to Oligocene seep carbonates worldwide. Eleven species of thyasirid bivalves are identified belonging to three genera: Conchocele, Maorithyas, and Thyasira. Two species are new: Maorithyas humptulipsensis sp. nov. from middle Eocene seep carbonates in the Humptulips Formation, Washington State, USA, and Conchocele kiritachiensis sp. nov. from the late Eocene seep deposit at Kiritachi, Hokkaido, Japan. Two new combinations are provided: Conchocele townsendi (White, 1890) from Maastrichtian strata of the James Ross Basin, Antarctica, and Maorithyas folgeri (Wagner and Schilling, 1923) from Oligocene rocks from California, USA. Three species are left in open nomenclature. We show that thyasirids have Mesozoic origins and appear at seeps before appearing in “normal” marine environments. These data are interpreted as a record of seep origination of thyasirids, and their subsequent dispersal to non-seep environments. We discuss the age of origination of thyasirids in the context of the origin of the modern deep sea fauna and conclude that thyasirids could have deep sea origins. This hypothesis is supported by the observed lack of influence of the Cretaceous and Paleogene Oceanic Anoxic Events on the main evolutionary lineages of the thyasirids, as seen in several other members of the deep sea fauna.

  • Pashkevich, Volha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning. Linnaeus University.
    Hafrot, Darek
    Linnaeus University.
    Pashkevich, Natallia
    Linnaeus University.
    Swedish Information Economy : A Preliminary Account2017Inngår i: Dilemmas 2015 Papers from the 18th Annual International Conference Dilemmas for Human Services: Organizing, Designing and Managing / [ed] Sisse Finken, Christina Mörtberg, Anita Mirijamdotter, Vaxjo, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent developments and adoptions of digital technologies give rise to the growth of information economies, understood as an aggregate of economic activities that produce informational outputs. Several key characteristics of an information economy differ to the conventional economic wisdom derived from the industrial age, which may impose governmental policy implications and therefore constitutes a key question: how to govern the newly emerged information economy with the thinking of the industrial age economy. Resolving this problem requires, among others, comprehensive understanding of information economies. To that end, Sweden is among the most advanced adopters of digital technologies and represents therefore a suitable empirical base for the investigation of an information economy. This paper offers preliminary results from a first ever account of the Swedish information economy in terms of its value created, jobs and wages; this account shows that the Swedish economy is dominated by its information economy, which requires a careful attention of policy makers.

  • Pashkevich, Volha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Haftor, Darek
    Linnaeus University.
    Pashevich, Natallia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning. Linnaeus University.
    The Swedish Information Economy: Current Evidence and Key Government Policy Implications2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Society and Information Technologies (ICSIT 2017), Orlando, USA, 2017, 23-28 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that most of the largest economies in the world are becoming information economies (understood as an aggregate of economic activities that produce information outputs) in terms of value added (GNP) and jobs. Sweden is among the most advanced adopters of ICT and represents therefore a suitable empirical base for the investigation of an information economy. The data reveal that the largest part of the Swedish economy in terms of GNP value added is constituted by information services. This study presents some surprising economic structures never before uncovered, which are discussed here and then contextualized in terms of implications for public policy making. 

  • Berglez, Peter
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Smileys Without Borders: A Critique of Transboundary Interaction Between Politicians, Journalists and PR practitioners on Social Media2018Inngår i: TripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 16, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to contribute a critical theoretical understanding of cross-professional relations on social media, focusing on politicians, journalists and PR practitioners. It is well known that these professional groups establish personal and close relations in offline contexts, but more attention needs to be paid to the role of social media. Here, it is argued that in the context of digital media use, semi-private chatting, humour, and mutual acknowledgment, including the use of likes, smileys, heart symbols, etc., are evidence of a ‘neoliberalisation’ of cross-professional relations. The underlying idea is that the common practice of self-branding undermines representations of professional belonging and exacerbates the blurring of professional boundaries. The critical conceptualisation of such ‘transboundary’ interaction between politicians, journalists and PR practitioners, which is guided by a culturalmaterialist approach, includes the presentation of examples deriving from the Swedish Twittersphere, and suggestions for empirical research.

  • Pashkevich, Natallia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning.
    Haftor, Darek M.
    Linnaeus University.
    Software Programmer Productivity: A Complementary-Based Research Model2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems, Guimarães, Portugal, 2017, 2755-2766 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of the factors that condition a software programmer’s productivity remains a key challenge for both scholars and practitioners. While a number of studies have focused on the impact of one or a few particular factors, the way these factors jointly condition programmer productivity is still unknown. This paper presents a conceptual model aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the factors that complement each other to govern the productivity of a software programmer. The model is based on complementarity theory and its systems approach and addresses an individual worker’s productivity, which accounts for cognitive, technological, and organizational characteristics. The analyzed factors are organized into a system of complementarities, offering two propositions that specify the conditions of a programmer’s productivity. The model’s key contribution lies in its unique configuration of two systems of complementarities, which have the potential to add to the literature on the productivity of software programmers. The proposed model can be employed as a guidance for the design of empirical investigations of the conditions of individual software programmers’ productivity as well as information worker productivity in general.

  • Augustsson, Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap. Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sandberg, Åke m.fl., På jakt efter framtidens arbete: utmaningar i arbetets organisering och forskning. Stockholm: Tankesmedjan Tiden, 20162017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 245-246 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Lundgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Squatrito, Theresa
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stability and change in international policy-making: A punctuated equilibrium approach2017Inngår i: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    International organizations (IOs) have developed into important policy venues beyond the state. Yet our understanding of the broader dynamics of IO policy-making is limited. This article offers the first comparative analysis of macro patterns in IO policy-making. Theoretically, we draw on punctuated equilibrium theory to develop hypotheses about stability and change in the orientation of IO policy agendas. Empirically, we examine novel data on the policy output of five general-purpose IOs between 1980 and 2015, combining statistical analysis and comparative case illustrations. The analysis yields two central results. First, the policy agendas of all five IOs display patterns of punctuated equilibria, with longer periods of stability interrupted by shorter periods of dramatic change. Second, the level of institutional friction in decision-making contributes to variation in punctuations across IOs and within IOs over time. The results suggest four broader implications: (1) punctuated equilibrium theory applies to a broader empirical domain than previously thought; (2) patterns of change in IOs are more complex than conventionally expected; (3) institutional friction matters for IOs’ responsiveness to societal demands and problem pressures; and (4) deeper integration of punctuated equilibrium theory into the study of IOs can pave the way for a promising IR research agenda.

  • Bjuggren, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Domeij, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Horn, Anna
    IPQ IP Specialists.
    Swedish Patent Litigation Survey of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises2017Inngår i: Nordic Intellectual Property Review, ISSN 0027-6723, nr 3, 234-248 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the opinions of small and medium-sized enterprises with experience of Swedish patent litigation? We offer description and analysis from a 2016 inter-view survey of nine small and medium-sized enterprises that had been involved in Swedish patent litigation on infringement and/or invalidity. Our results show that the companies are of the opinion that the proceedings were too slow and costly. They financed the litigation mainly with their own resources. Insur-ance played only a minor role. We also find that the proceedings seem to have affected their position in the market in terms of customers, suppliers and banks. Half the small and medium sized companies after the litigation had a reduced propensity to patent and almost all are less inclined to engage in future Swedish patent litigation.

  • Disputas: 2018-02-02 10:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Lü, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nano- and mesoscale morphology evolution of metal films on weakly-interacting surfaces2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films are structures consisting of one or several nanoscale atomic layers of material that are used to either functionalize a surface or constitute components in more complex devices. Many properties of a film are closely related to its microstructure, which allows films to be tailored to meet specific technological requirements. Atom-by-atom film growth from the vapor phase involves a multitude of atomic processes that may not be easily studied experimentally in real-time because they occur in small length- (≤ Å) and timescales (≤ ns). Therefore, different types of computer simulation methods have been developed in order to test theoretical models of thin film growth and unravel what experiments cannot show. In order to compare simulated and experimental results, the simulations must be able to model events on experimental time-scales, i.e. on the order of microseconds to seconds. This is achievable with the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method.

    In this work, the initial growth stages of metal deposition on weakly-interacting substrates is studied using both kMC simulations as well as experiments whereby growth was monitored using in situ probes. Such film/substrate material combinations are widely encountered in technological applications including low-emissivity window coatings to parts of microelectronics components. In the first part of this work, a kMC algorithm was developed to model the growth processes of island nucleation, growth and coalescence when these are functions of deposition parameters such as the vapor deposition rate and substrate temperature. The dynamic interplay between these growth processes was studied in terms of the scaling behavior of the film thickness at the elongation transition, for both continuous and pulsed deposition fluxes, and revealed in both cases two distinct growth regimes in which coalescence is either active or frozen out during deposition. These growth regimes were subsequently confirmed in growth experiments of Ag on SiO2, again for both pulsed and continuous deposition, by measuring the percolation thickness as well as the continuous film formation thickness. However, quantitative agreement with regards to scaling exponents in the two growth regimes was not found between simulations and experiments, and this prompted the development of a method to determine the elongation transition thickness experimentally. Using this method, the elongation transition of Ag on SiO2 was measured, with scaling exponents found in much better agreement with the simulation results. Further, these measurement data also allowed the calculation of surface properties such as the terrace diffusion barrier of Ag on SiO2 and the average island coalescence rate.

    In the second part of this thesis, pioneering work is done to develop a fully atomistic, on-lattice model which describes the growth of Ag on weakly-interacting substrates. Simulations performed using this model revealed several key atomic-scale processes occurring at the film/substrate interface and on islands which govern island shape evolution, thereby contributing to a better understanding of how 3D island growth occurs at the atomic scale for a wide class of materials. The latter provides insights into the directed growth of metal nanostructures with controlled shapes on weakly-interacting substrates, including twodimensional crystals for use in catalytic and nano-electronic applications.

  • Tyrstrup, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    van der Velden, Alike
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engstrom, Sven
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Primary Care Research and Development Unit, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Goderis, Geert
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Academic Center for General Practice, Leuven, Belgium.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Verheij, Theo
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Coenen, Samuel
    Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care (ELIZA), Center for General Practice, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adriaenssens, Niels
    Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care (ELIZA), Center for General Practice, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden: use of European quality indicators2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, nr 1, 10-18 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines.

    DESIGN: A retrospective observational database study.

    SETTING: Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consultation incidences for these diagnoses and APQI values (a) the percentages of patients receiving an antibiotic per diagnosis, (b) the percentages prescribed first-choice antibiotics and (c) the percentages prescribed quinolones.

    RESULTS: The consultation incidence for respiratory tract infection was much higher in Belgium than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Most of the prescribing percentage indicators (a) were outside the recommended ranges, with Belgium deviating the most for URTI and bronchitis, Sweden for tonsillitis and the Netherlands for cystitis. The Netherlands and Sweden prescribed the recommended antibiotics (b) to a higher degree and the prescribing of quinolones exceeded the proposed range for most diagnoses (c) in Belgium. The interpretation of APQI was found to be dependent on the consultation incidences. High consultation incidences were associated with high antibiotic prescription rates. Taking into account the recommended treatments from national guidelines improved the results of the APQI values for sinusitis in the Netherlands and cystitis in Sweden.

    CONCLUSION: Quality assessment using European disease-specific APQI was feasible and their inter-country comparison can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Their interpretation, however, should take consultation incidences and national guidelines into account. Differences in registration quality might limit the comparison of diagnosis-linked data between countries, especially for conditions such as cystitis where patients do not always see a clinician before treatment. Key points The large variation in antibiotic use between European countries points towards quality differences in prescribing in primary care.  • The European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) provide insight into antibiotic prescribing, but need further development, taking into account consultation incidences and country-specific guidelines.  • The incidence of consultations for respiratory tract infections was almost twice as high in Belgium compared to the Netherlands and Sweden.  • Comparison between countries of diagnosis-linked data were complicated by differences in data collection, especially for urinary tract infections.

  • Hjorth, Elisabeth
    Konstfack, Institutionen för Konst (K).
    Förtvivlade läsningar: Litteratur som motstånd och läsning som etik2015Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two aims and addresses two areas of investigation. The first aim is to examine, in four novels and their textual worlds, what role is played by collective self-images and essentialist identities in maintaining power structures in regard to gender, class, norms for mental functions, and ethnicity. Whether, and if so, how, the novel’s deconstruction of language and images can function as resistance to hegemonic oppression? What does the encounter between the privileged collective and the marginalized look like in the novel, and what happens in this encounter?

    The project’s second aim is to probe what criticism of, and what strategies for resistance to, various power structures reading can provide. To what extent is it possible to speak of responsibility for, and in, the reading of fictional works? What role is played by the (un)expected and the conditionality in the poetical novel’s ethical demands on the reader? What might reading as an ethical practice mean and entail? The dual aim situates this dissertation in an interdisciplinary field between ethics, literary studies and aesthetics.

    In this study despair is the fundament on which the ethical reader stands to approach literature. Rather than discovering meanings, finding examples, or experiencing empathy, it is being engaged in the conditions determined by suffering and injustice that constitutes ethical reading.

    The novels Drömfakulteten (The Dream Faculty) by Sara Stridsberg, Hevonen häst (Hevonen Horse) by Annika Korpi, Montecore by Jonas Hassen Khemiri, and Personliga pronomen (Personal Pronouns) by Daniel Sjölin comprise the material for the study. They are analysed in terms of deconstructive hermeneutics. Theories brought to bear are primarily Gayatri Spivak’s post-colonial and Emmanuel Levinas’ phenomenological thinking about ethics, together with ideas from, among others, Derek Attridge, Judith Butler, and Sara Ahmed.

    The readings of the novels are done via four points of entry: identity, the body, the human, and the post-political, as part of the project’s work process, with each reading leading to new questions and critical interventions.

    The analysis points to a responsibility in relation to identity, a practice where oneself is shifted and transformed. This responsibility also encompasses accountability for the normative orders that need to be changed. Literary projects per se cannot achieve this, but they can be read as a stab at resistance, material for the reader to elaborate upon. This responsibility is an ethical practice that is not completed, that has uncertainty inscribed in its very essence, and that is reinvigorated with each new reading.

  • Disputas: 2018-02-05 14:00 FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Lindén, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Mechanisms of Anion Reactions from the lab to ionospheres2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of heavy neutral and ionic molecules have been discovered by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer in the ionosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan. However, only three cyano anions were explicitly identified there, namely CN-, C3N- and C5N-.  The identity of the heavier anions, which show an abundance maximum at m/z 1000, could, however, not be elucidated and   there is, so far, no clear explanation how these were generated.

    We investigated the reaction of the cyanide anion with methyl iodide using a velocity map imaging spectrometer setup and ab initio calculations. The data indicate a dominant direct rebound mechanism and a high internal excitation of the neutral product. According to the ab initio calculation two possible reaction pathways were expected, but in the experiment the two channels turned out to be indistinguishable due to low resolution.

    We also studied the reaction between C3N- and acetylene using three different experimental setups: a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer, and the ''CERISES'' guided ion beam apparatus.

    The reaction showed three primary reaction pathways leading to C2H-, CN-, and C5N-. The production of C2H- could either happen via proton transfer or via formation of an adduct. The appearance of CN- could be explained by a reaction sequence involving an intermediate adduct but also via collision induced dissociation. Even though ab initio calculations predict two exoergic pathways leading to CN- and C5N-, all products are only accessible via energy barriers above 1 eV.

    In addition, we investigated the reaction between C5N- and acetylene. Also in this case the experimental and theoretical studies revealed that all reaction pathways proceed via energy barriers well above 1 eV. The sole exoergic pathway leading to C7N- has an energy barrier of 1.91 eV.  Since the chemistry in dark interstellar clouds and planetary ionospheres is restricted to exoergic reactions with energy barriers less than 20 meV or proceed in a barrier-less manner (Vuitton et al. Planetary and Space Science 57, 1558-1572 (2009)), none of the observed pathways are feasible growth mechanism in those environments.

    We also performed investigations of reactions between charged clusters with and without barriers using electrostatic models.  This led to the development of both approximate and exact expressions, which describe the sphere-sphere interaction and the electron transfer from a (neutral or charged) dielectric sphere to another charged dielectric sphere.  The exact solutions include sums that describe polarization effects to infinite orders. However, we have shown that these infinite sums can be simplified, and that these approximations can be applied to calculate the charge transfer cross-sections and Langevin-type cross-sections.

     

  • Vachon, François
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Marois, Alexandre
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Lévesque-Dion, Michaël
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Legendre, Maxime
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Saint-Aubin, Jean
    École de psychologie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, CA.
    Can ‘Hebb’ Be Distracted? Testing the Susceptibility of Sequence Learning to Auditory Distraction2018Inngår i: Journal of Cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 1, nr 1, 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence learning plays a key role in many daily activities such as language and skills acquisition. The present study sought to assess the nature of the Hebb repetition effect - the enhanced serial recall for a repeated sequence of items compared to random sequences - by examining the vulnerability of this classical sequence-learning phenomenon to auditory distraction. Sound can cause unwanted distraction by either interfering specifically with the processes involved in the focal task (interference-by-process), or by diverting attention away from a focal task (attentional capture). Participants were asked to perform visual serial recall, in which one to-be-remembered sequence was repeated every four trials, while ignoring irrelevant sound. Whereas both changing-state (Experiment 1) and deviant sounds (Experiment 2) disrupted recall performance compared to steady-state sounds, performance for the repeated sequence increased across repetitions at the same rate regardless of the sound condition. Such findings suggest that Hebbian sequence learning is impervious to environmental interference, which provides further evidence that the Hebb repetition effect is an analogue of word-form learning.

  • Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Recension av Soilikki Vettenranta: Krig og katastrofer i media: de unges møte med brutale nyheter 2017Inngår i: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 39, nr 2, 117-120 s.Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    eNursing - IT-stöd i omvårdnadsteamets arbete: FoU - Bidrag & behov (eNursing WP4)2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Weil, Tobias
    et al.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Med Sci, Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Inst Biomed, iBiMED, Aveiro, Portugal.;Fdn E Mach, Res & Innovat Ctr, San Michele Alladige, Iran..
    Santamaria, Rodrigo
    Univ Salamanca, Dept Comp Sci, Salamanca, Spain..
    Lee, Wanseon
    European Bioinformat Inst, European Mol Biol Lab, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, England.;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Roosvelt Dr, Oxford, England..
    Rung, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. European Bioinformat Inst, European Mol Biol Lab, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, England.
    Tocci, Noemi
    Fdn E Mach, Res & Innovat Ctr, San Michele Alladige, Iran..
    Abbey, Darren
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Genet Cell Biol & Dev, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Bezerra, Ana R.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Med Sci, Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Inst Biomed, iBiMED, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Carreto, Laura
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Med Sci, Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Inst Biomed, iBiMED, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Moura, Gabriela R.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Med Sci, Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Inst Biomed, iBiMED, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Bayes, Monica
    Ctr Nacl Anal Genom, Parc Cient, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gut, Ivo G.
    Ctr Nacl Anal Genom, Parc Cient, Barcelona, Spain..
    Csikasz-Nagy, Attila
    Fdn E Mach, Res & Innovat Ctr, San Michele Alladige, Iran.;Kings Coll London, Randall Div Cell & Mol Biophys, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Inst Math & Mol Biomed, London, England..
    Cavalieri, Duccio
    Fdn E Mach, Res & Innovat Ctr, San Michele Alladige, Iran..
    Berman, Judith
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Mol Microbiol & Biotechnol, Ramat Aviv, Israel..
    Santos, Manuel A. S.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Med Sci, Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Inst Biomed, iBiMED, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Adaptive Mistranslation Accelerates the Evolution of Fluconazole Resistance and Induces Major Genomic and Gene Expression Alterations in Candida albicans2017Inngår i: MSPHERE, ISSN 2379-5042, Vol. 2, nr 4, e00167-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole. Genome sequencing, array-based comparative genome analysis, and gene expression profiling revealed that during the course of evolution in fluconazole, the range of mutational and gene deregulation differences was distinctively different and broader in the hypermistranslating strain, including multiple chromosome duplications, partial chromosome deletions, and polyploidy. Especially, the increased accumulation of loss-ofheterozygosity events, aneuploidy, translational and cell surface modifications, and differences in drug efflux seem to mediate more rapid drug resistance acquisition under mistranslation. Our observations support a pivotal role for adaptive mistranslation in the evolution of drug resistance in C. albicans. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant fungi are an increasing threat to public health because of the high mortality rates and high costs associated with treatment. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance is of crucial interest for the medical community. Here we investigated the role of regulated protein mistranslation, a characteristic mechanism used by C. albicans to diversify its proteome, in the evolution of fluconazole resistance. Such codon ambiguity is usually considered highly deleterious, yet recent studies found that mistranslation can boost adaptation in stressful environments. Our data reveal that CUG ambiguity diversifies the genome in multiple ways and that the full spectrum of drug resistance mechanisms in C. albicans goes beyond the traditional pathways that either regulate drug efflux or alter the interactions of drugs with their targets. The present work opens new avenues to understand the molecular and genetic basis of microbial drug resistance.

  • Edblom, Mats ()
    Kungl. Konsthögskolan.
    Johansson, Anders E ()
    Kungl. Konsthögskolan.
    Gustavsson, Bengt ()
    Kungl. Konsthögskolan.
    Tessinskolan Läsåret 1994-95: Elevrapport Karlskronas infarter1995Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Motorvägens möte med staden är temat för tessinskolans första läsår.Som tillämpning valdes karlskronas infarter från E22 ca 4 km norr om staden och in till den klassiska örlogsstaden på Trossö. Tanken var att det högklassiska offentliga byggandetför marinen, som genomfördes i samband med stadens grundande, skulle visa sig på ett möjligt förhållningssätt även vid väg- och brobyggande. 

    Studiernas främsta mål har varit att försöka förstå och bearbeta konsekvenserna av såväl förbifart som infarter. Efter en inledande inventeringsperiod på plats i karlskronaföljde en andra period som främst behandlade infartens villkor och de trafikplatser som infarten förutsätter. den tredje perioden behandlade infarterna och med dem förbundna detaljproblem. De avslutande perioderna har inneburit dels individuella fördjupningar och dels sammanställningar till den utställning som här visas. 

  • Knudsen, Kati
    et al.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Högman, Marieann
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jan
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    How anaesthesiologists understand difficult airway guidelines: an interview study2018Inngår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the practice of anaesthesia, clinical guidelines that aim to improve the safety of airway procedures have been developed. The aim of this study was to explore how anaesthesiologists understand or conceive of difficult airway management algorithms.

    Methods: A qualitative phenomenographic design was chosen to explore anaesthesiologists’ views on airway algorithms. Anaesthesiologists working in three hospitals were included. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted.

    Results: Four different ways of understanding were identified, describing airway algorithms as: (A) a law-like rule for how to act in difficult airway situations; (B) a cognitive aid, an action plan for difficult airway situations; (C) a basis for developing flexible, personal action plans for the difficult airway; and (D) the experts’ consensus, a set of scientifically based guidelines for handling the difficult airway.

    Conclusions: The interviewed anaesthesiologists understood difficult airway management guidelines/algorithms very differently.

  • Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Näringslivsdynamik, städer och agglomerationsekonomier – forskningsöversikt och agenda2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH.
    Betydelsen av socialt kapital för entreprenörskap: Regional utveckling i en polariserad tid2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Lunds universitet.
    Närhet och nätverk: Urbaniseringens roll utanför storstäderna2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-01-26 10:15 KEY1, Hus KEY, Linköping
    Gustavsson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Characterising Needs in Health Care Priority Setting2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is needs in the context of health care priority setting. The notion of needs has a strong standing in health care policy; however, how the idea should be understood more specifically and how it should guide decisions about priority setting remain contentious issues. The aim of this thesis is to explore how needs should be characterised in health care priority setting. This matter is approached by, first, exploring and developing the conceptual structure of health care needs, and second, discussing and suggesting solutions to normative questions that arise when needs are characterised as a distributive principle.

    In the first article, the conceptual structure of needs in general and health care needs in particular is explored, and it is argued that a specific characterisation of health care needs is required.

    In the second article, the notion of health care needs is explored in relation to preferences for health care within the context of shared decision-making. The paper further discusses a number of queries that arise in the intersection between what the patient needs and what the patient wants.

    The third article discusses how a principle of need should handle questions about interpersonal aggregation. The paper characterises a principle of need which strikes a reasonable balance between giving priority to the worst off and the distribution of benefits with regard to interpersonal aggregation.

    The fourth article discusses how a principle of need should account for the fact that patients often are badly off due to several conditions rather than one single condition. It is argued that how badly off patients are should be understood as a function of how badly off these patients are when all of their conditions (for which they need health care) are considered.

    The frame story provides the terminological, theoretical, contextual, and methodological background for the discussion undertaken in this thesis. The conclusions of the articles are brought together and the discussion extended in the concluding discussion by sketching a number of conditions of adequacy for the concept and principle of need relevant for health care priority setting.  

  • Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Juth, Niklas
    LIME, Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis.2017Inngår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

  • Olsson, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Matematikdidaktik. Umeå universitet.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet.
    Dynamic Software, Task Solving With or Without Guidlines, and learning outcomes2018Inngår i: Technology, Knowledge and Learning, ISSN 2211-1662, E-ISSN 2211-1670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Psykologin i framkant för öppen vetenskap2017Inngår i: Psykologtidningen, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppmärksamheten kring tvivelaktig forskning har lett till ökade krav på transparens genom hela forskningsprocessen. Psykologin har tagit ledningen för att genomdriva förändringar, skriver forskarna Rebecca Willén och Gustav Nilsonne, som ger en introduktion till öppen vetenskap (open science) och sammanfattar de främsta kraven som nu börjat ställas på vetenskaplig kvalitet.

  • Hollander, Ernst
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Conscious Use, Collaborative Research and 'Interdisciplinarities'2017Inngår i: Consuming the Environment / [ed] Eva Åsén Ekstrand, Gävle, 2017, 29-30 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conscious Use, Collaborative Research and 'Interdisciplinarities'

    The spark for my paper is a Chinese doll coming to a Swedish day care centre. The doll was conceived in a Vinnova research project related to the toxic contamination of our environments.[1] My part dealt with i.a. political economy and methods.

    The proposed paper focuses on how the sustainability research community need to integrate the process of doing the research with what used to be called ‘the communication phase’ of the research.

    A conclusion in my part of the Vinnova research project was that a number of 'interdisciplinarities' must be used, constructed and/or confronted in order to create images for a political economy of the Environment.

    My strategy was and is to confront widely different knowledge interests. One of the many families of knowledge interests which emerge through such exercises can be illustrated by today's quest for 'social union environmentalism'. A precursor was visible in Sweden of the 1970s. We can thus understand the contradictions facing 'social union environmentalism' today and imagine a landscape where new patterns of consumption might be created. Such a vision is needed in spite of the fact that success has as yet been limited.

    In the proposed paper I try to find methods which provide more room for i.a. 'interdisciplinarity, boundary-spanning, and transparent multiple partisanships’.

    Interdisciplinarity is of course an accepted concept. It has been an ideal of the academic wing of the environmental movement ever since the dawn of the new environmental consciousness. But many attempts have failed. Fear that immersion in conceptual problems will delay projects, have made research teams reluctant to devote the time needed for 'translating'.

    Boundary-spanning and the importance of boundary-spanning individuals have been discussed in many disciplines. But the intricacies of bringing boundary-spanning into academia have been poorly understood specifically in the more positivist oriented sciences.

    Transparent multiple partisanships is a worthy aim for practioneers turned academics. Accepting such hybrids might help bringing the academic community into more fruitful dialogues with other actors who want to contribute to a reversal of the global ecological degradation.

    My submission relates to Stream D1 Media and Public Understanding

    [1] Hollander, E. (2011): The Doll, the Globe and the Boomerang – Chemical Risks in the Future Introduced by a Chinese Doll Coming to Sweden - University of Gävle, (Research report 2) Sweden 2011. Many concepts used in this abstract are developed there. Important references are also provided.

  • Franck, Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Editorial Nordidactica 2017:42017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, i-ii s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Malama, Mia
    UNICEF Finland.
    Student teachers’ viewpoints of the current RE solution and how RE should be profiled in the future in Finland2017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, 70-86 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on Finnish student teachers’ viewpoints of the current RE model and their views on how RE should be profiled in the future. The idea of this article is to formulate possible models to organize RE in Finland based on the data gathered by student teachers. The topic is very timely and urgent as Religious Education (hence RE) has been fiercely debated in different European countries. There have also been debates about the function and profile of, and the most suitable model for, RE in Finland. The data of this study consist of 149 essays written by 35 student teachers studying in a class-teacher program and 114 teacher students studying in a subject-teacher program. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main research questions are: 1. What kinds of strengths and challenges do student teachers see in the current RE solution? 2. What kinds of RE-models would they prefer in the future? 3. According to them, what kinds of model scenarios could be formulated? Many student teachers prefer a model where RE is taught both according to an individual’s faith as well as collectively, irrespective of the individual students’ faiths. Could this kind of combination model take into account the strengths of both models (the current and joint models) and at the same time correct the problems associated with these models?

  • Nørgaard Kristensen, Niels
    et al.
    Ålborg University.
    Solhaug, Trond
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU.
    Party choice and family influence in the age of late modernity: Students`reflections as first-time voters in a Norwegian parliamentary election2017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, 48-69 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how young first-time voters reflect their sources of influence on when considering a choice of party as they approached the 2013 parliamentary elections in Norway. Party identification has traditionally been regarded as resulting from social (class) identity, occupation or professional belonging and family influence. This view led to the much tested hypothesis of transfer of political orientations from one generation to another (Jennings & Niemi, 1974). Later, scholars like Giddens (1991) and Beck (1986) argued that social and political orientations are first and foremost characterized by reflexivity. Based on this we hypothesize that young people’s choice of party is characterized by a search for their political selves. Analysing interviews of 28 students, we found considerable support for both hypotheses where the majority voiced a strong family influence. Both groups also emphasise their independence and need for self-reflections on their choices. What characterises most of these young voter’s process of finding a political party is self-reflection on influence from either family upbringing and/or influence from peers, media or school. We therefore propose that the hypotheses should be regarded as complementary rather than rival.

  • Blanck, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Lödën, Hans
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Med samhället i centrum – Medborgarskapsutbildningen och samhällskunskapsämnets relevans2017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, 28-47 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to suggest "society" and "social analytical thinking" as the core concepts for the social science (Swedish: samhällskunskap) subject. Thus, the article contributes to the ongoing research debate on social science education by exploring the question whether social science is at risk of losing its position as the central citizenship subject in Swedish school. This risk is problematized and discussed. The authors argue that the relevance of the social science subject matter would be clarified and strengthened by making "society" and "social analytical thinking" into the core concepts of the subject. The proposal means that the scientific disciplines (i.e., political science, sociology, economics and law) that contribute to the social sciences subject by relating to these concepts can clarify the discipline-specific knowledge and perspectives that are considered crucial for a society to be formed and survive. The article also discusses community engagement and what may be a relevant level of ambition for compulsory citizenship education, from the perspective of the citizen as "a reflective spectator". The possibilities to develop the pupils' community, or social, engagement is illustrated by means of current Swedish classroom research on teachers' use of concepts and social analytical thinking in teaching.

  • Johansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Samhällskunskap i den nya ämneslärarutbildningen: Samhällskunskapens innehåll och ämnesdidaktik vid 14 lärosäten i Sverige mellan 2009-20152017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, 1-27 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract: Syftet med artikeln är att analysera samhällskunskapsämnets innehåll i ämnes­lärarutbildningen vid lärosäten i Sverige. Avsikten är att analysera hur man vid olika lärosäten utformat ämnesinnehåll och ämnesdidaktisk integrering i kursplaner. Studien besvarar fyra frågor; I vilken omfattning det förekommer lärandemål i samhällskunskap om (1) faktuell kunskapsöverföring, vetenskaplig metodologi, granskande undersökningar; (2) normativt innehåll; (3) ämnesdiscipliner respektive flervetenskapliga tematiseringar samt (4) ämnesdidaktik. Kursplaner i samhällskunskap från 14 lärosäten har analyserats vid två tillfällen, 2009 och 2015, dvs. före och efter den senaste lärarutbildningsreformen i Sverige. Resultaten visar att det totala antalet lärandemål i samhällskunskapskurserna ökat med 21 % och att detta i hög grad betingas av att statsmakten lagt in fler lärandemål i examensförordningen jämfört med tidigare. Analysen visar (1) att inslagen av ämnesdidaktisk integrering ökat i kursplanerna, (2) att andelen flervetenskapliga tematiseringar minskat, (3) att mängden ämnesteoretiska lärandemål varit oförändrade men fått fler inslag av normativt färgade problemställningar samt (4) att inslagen av vetenskaplig metodologi varit oförändrade. Analysen av kursplanerna indikerar behov av ytterligare analys och ämnesdidaktisk forskning om samhällskunskapsämnet möjligheter gällande bl.a. tvärvetenskaplig integrering, vetenskaplig metodologi samt betydelsen av normativa ansatser.

  • Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    ADV.k600.CO2.CH42018Dataset
  • Heydarian Pashakhanlou, Arash
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Taktikavdelningen (TA), Luftsektionen (Luft).
    The Past, Present and Future of Realism2018Inngår i: Realism in Practice: An Appraisal / [ed] Davide Orsi, J. R. Avgustin & Max Nurnus, Bristol: E-International Relations Publising , 2018, 29-42 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-02-02 09:00 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Čančer, Matko
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Neuroonkologi.
    From Genes to Therapy: Modeling and Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Brain Tumors2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and is molecularly divided into four subgroups – WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4. Two thirds of medulloblastoma patients survive, but survivors often suffer from severe, lifelong side-effects. The MYCN oncogene is deregulated in many medulloblastoma patients. Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of about one year. Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor where targeted therapy has, so far, not been successful and most glioblastoma patients unfortunately die.

    In our first study we developed three novel humanized models of MYCN-driven SHH medulloblastoma. Histologically and molecularly these models closely resembled the infant class of SHH tumors. Further, we identified a set of clinically relevant genes that had prognostic significance among patients. mTOR signaling pathway was identified as a major contributor to invasion and dissemination, and we showed that mTOR specific inhibition suppressed migration and viability in vitro.

    In the second study we performed a forward genetic screen of retrovirally-induced murine PDGFB-driven gliomas and identified more than fifty candidate cancer-causing genes, of which many were mutated or deregulated in glioblastoma. One of the genes identified in this screen was PPFIBP1, found to be differentially expressed from obstructive retroviral integrations in PDGFB-driven glioma clones. Lower PPFIBP1 expression significantly decreased survival of mice and was found to be suppressed in glioblastoma patients. We propose PPFIBP1 to be a novel tumor suppressor gene that contributes to glioblastoma development.

    In the last study we used a panel of 19 patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines and identified a characteristic expression signature that predicts sensitivity to BET inhibition. BET inhibition resulted in apoptosis and senescence, cell cycle arrest and modulation of DNA damage response. The inhibitory effects of BET inhibition were further enhanced in combination with temozolomide, suggesting a promising future therapy for distinct subgroups of glioblastoma patients.

    This thesis addresses novel molecular findings in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma development, presents clinically relevant brain tumor models, and promising therapeutic approaches that can be used in future clinical trials in malignant pediatric and adult brain tumors.

  • Erichsen Andersson, Annette
    et al.
    Frödin, Maria
    Dellenborg, Lisen
    Wallin, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg; Karolinska Institutet.
    Hök, Jesper
    Gillespie, Brigid M
    Wikström, Ewa
    Iterative co-creation for improved hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room: experiences from the safe hands study2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, nr 1, 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential preventives in combating hospital-acquired infections. However, implementation of these strategies in the operating room remains suboptimal. There is a paucity of intervention studies providing detailed information on effective methods for change. This study aimed to evaluate the process of implementing a theory-driven knowledge translation program for improved use of hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room.

    METHODS: The study was set in an operating department of a university hospital. The intervention was underpinned by theories on organizational learning, culture and person centeredness. Qualitative process data were collected via participant observations and analyzed using a thematic approach.

    RESULTS: Doubts that hand-hygiene practices are effective in preventing hospital acquired infections, strong boundaries and distrust between professional groups and a lack of psychological safety were identified as barriers towards change. Facilitated interprofessional dialogue and learning in "safe spaces" worked as mechanisms for motivation and engagement. Allowing for the free expression of different opinions, doubts and viewing resistance as a natural part of any change was effective in engaging all professional categories in co-creation of clinical relevant solutions to improve hand hygiene.

    CONCLUSION: Enabling nurses and physicians to think and talk differently about hospital acquired infections and hand hygiene requires a shift from the concept of one-way directed compliance towards change and learning as the result of a participatory and meaning-making process. The present study is a part of the Safe Hands project, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02983136 ). Date of registration 2016/11/28, retrospectively registered.