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  • Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Kraftfulla alggifter bromsar musselodlingens framväxt2017Inngår i: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 86-88Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Sun, Da
    et al.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Liao, Qianfang
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ren, Hongliang
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Type-2 Fuzzy Modeling and Control for Bilateral Teleoepration System With Dynamic Uncertianties and Time-Varying Delays2018Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 447-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops data-driven Type-2 Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy modeling and control for bilateral teleoperation with dynamic uncertainties and timevarying delays. The Type-2 T–S fuzzy model identified based on input–output data samples describes the nonlinear teleoperation system by a weighted sum of a group of linear local models, which offers a platform to design robust control algorithms by means of mature linear theories. The fuzzy-model-based four-channel control laws are proposed to guarantee the motion synchronization and enhance the operator’s force perception for the environment when the time-varying delays and large dynamic uncertainties, especially the gravity of a heavy end effector of the slave, exist. Markov processes are applied to model the time delays. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functions. All the conditions are expressed as linear-matrix inequalities (LMI). By using the MATLAB LMI toolbox, the optimized control gains for each of the fuzzy rules are derived to achieve the optimal performance. Finally, experiments based on an experimental platform consisting of two haptic devices prove the superiority of the proposed strategy through comparison with previous work.

  • Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Lärande.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande, Lärande i teknikvetenskap.
    DISCOURSES OF PROGRAMMING TEACHING WITHIN COMPULSORY EDUCATION – FIXED OR CHANGEABLE?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge linked to programming has recently been extensively strengthened in curricula and syllabi in the Swedish compulsory school. The introduction of this new content requires that teachers have to be trained in programming and programming teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate what content and values that emerge as important in a professional development course and in the participating teachers’ teaching in their classrooms. Data was collected by observation of the teaching sessions within the course as well as in three of the teachers´ teaching, where notes were made continuously. By using a discourse analytical perspective, content and values that emerged as important within the teaching were identified. The findings show that the content knowledge in the teacher training course is taken for granted within the school context, as well as in itself. In addition, normative values and steering strategies have been identified within the teacher training course. In the classroom studies, similar values were identified among the teachers. A potential problem within the teaching practice was found in terms of a lack of progression of the content related to programming, as well as difficulties in relating the use of programming to relevant contexts.

  • Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Förödande algblomning drabbar hela Västerhavets ekosystem2017Inngår i: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 77-79Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Sun, Da
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Naghdy, Fazel
    Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Du, Haiping
    Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Neural Network-Based Passivity Control of Teleoperation System Under Time-Varying Delays2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, ISSN 2168-2267, E-ISSN 2168-2275, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 1666-1680Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel neural network (NN)-based four-channel wave-based time domain passivity approach (TDPA) is proposed for a teleoperation system with time-varying delays. The designed wave-based TDPA aims to robustly guarantee the channels passivity and provide higher transparency than the previous power-based TDPA. The applied NN is used to estimate and eliminate the system’s dynamic uncertainties. The system stability with linearity assumption on human and environment has been analyzed using Lyapunov method. The proposed algorithm is validated through experimental work based on a 3-DOF bilateral teleoperation platform in the presence of different time delays.

  • Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Algblomningar skapar rubriker2017Inngår i: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, s. 80-83Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande, Lärande i teknikvetenskap.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande, Lärande i teknikvetenskap.
    A project about materials as subject content within technology education2017Inngår i: The proceedings of the XVII IOSTE Symposium released in journal ‘Conexão Ciência’. Conexão Ci. | Formiga/MG, E-ISSN 1980-7058, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 8-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within technology education in compulsory school in Sweden, materials are part of the core contents. What kinds of materials, and which characteristics that should be highlighted is open to interpretation. The study includes three sub-studies: 1/ An analysis of classroom activities during two lessons about materials in primary school, 2/ A Delphi study (Osborne et al. 2003) with experts on materials to gather their thoughts about materials in elementary technology education, and 3/ A review of text books. The purpose of this study is to put light on the field of materials as a content area by investigating what aspects of materials are highlighted in the three contexts. Two teaching sessions were video recorded. The data analysis focused on the content highlighted by teachers and students. Results suggest that the teachers and students highlight different aspects of materials. Nine experts participated in the first round of the Delphi study. All data were coded reflexively and iteratively. Results indicate the following major categories of material-related subject content: materials’ usage, groups of materials, properties, creation and refinement, environmental aspects, and modern materials. The themes identified in the study could be seen as limited and concretized set of content, and thereby a guiding tool for technology teachers.

  • Peón-Quirós, Miguel
    et al.
    IMDEA Networks, Madrid, Spain .
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks, Madrid, Spain .
    Comite, Vincenzo
    La Sapienza University, Italy.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Lab, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Lab, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Khatouni, Ali Safari
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway, Oslo, Norway .
    Results from Running an Experiment as a Service Platform for Mobile Networks2017Inngår i: WiNTECH '17 Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation & CHaracterization, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, s. 9-16Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a selection from a vast range of experiments run with MONROE, our experiment as a service platform open to external researchers. We show that the platform can be used to benchmark network performance in a repeatable and controlled manner thanks to the collection of a rich set of geotagged metadata and the execution of discretionary user experiments. Indeed, with the sheer amount of data collected from 12 commercial mobile operators across Europe, MONROE offers an unprecedented opportunity to monitor, analyze and ultimately improve the status of current and future mobile broadband networks. We also show how flexibly the platform allows combining metadata and experimental data series during the experiments or by means of post-processing, and show results produced by our own experiments as well as by external research groups and developers that have been granted access to the platform

  • Liao, Qian-Fang
    et al.
    Nidec Research and Development Center, Singapore.
    Sun, Da
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. national university of singapore.
    Interaction Measures for Control Configuration Selection Based on Interval Type-2 Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model2018Inngår i: IEEE transactions on fuzzy systems, ISSN 1063-6706, E-ISSN 1941-0034Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction measure determines decentralized and parse control configurations for a multivariable process control. This paper investigates interval type-2 Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy (IT2TSF) model based interactionmeasures using two different criteria, one is controllability and observability gramians, the other is relative normalized gain array (RNGA). The main contributions are: first, a data-driven IT2TSF modeling method is introduced; econd, explicit formulas to execute the two measures based on IT2TSF models are given; third, two interaction indexes are defined from RNGA to select sparse control configuration; fourth, the calculations to derive sensitivities of the two measures with respect to parametric variations in the IT2TSF models are developed; and fifth, the discussion to compare the two measures is presented. Three multivariable processes are used as examples to show that the results calculated from IT2TSF models are more accurate than that from their type-1 counterparts, and compared to gramian-basedmeasure, RNGA selectsmore reasonable control configurations and is more robust to the parametric uncertainties.

  • Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning2017Inngår i: Västerhavet, ISSN 1104-3458, s. 4-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Häggström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Levda rum och beskrivna platser: former för landskapsidentitet2000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cultural discourse perspective is used to discuss how regional identities are constructed during the 1900s.The investigation examines how local history and culture are used in symbolic forms to articulate the province as an imagined community in varying periods, media, and social contexts. The study deals with two problem areas.The first is how ”space” is charged with symbolic and cultural meanings. The other how collective notions of fellowship and territorial belonging is created and changed.

    The study has a comparative set-up.Two provinces, Blekinge and Jämtland, form the empirical basis for the investigation. In Jämtland a strong regional mobilisation has taken place and the area’s history is used to construct an image of the province as a distinct national sub-culture. No such homogeneous regional identity has been articulated in Blekinge. Here a cultural polarisation within the province is emphasised instead.

    In the study those images of the provinces that are created by scientific discourses and in popular cultural depictions are examined. The exhibitions of the regional museums are discussed also, as are interviews, various festivals, and public rituals. Emphasis is placed on representation and narrativity.Two representation strategies have been especially in focus, ”stories of place” and ”stories of territory ”.These narratives are used partly to accentuate similarity and identity inwards toward ones own group, and partly to outwardly indicate symbolic borders to other groups or areas.

  • Ruuth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Murine B lymphocyte growth regulation: a study of host defence factors and their mimicry by Mycoplasma arginini1988Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune responses are the result of extended clonal growth and maturation of specific precursors preexisting in low frequencies. Clonal expansion is partly controlled by soluble factors, thus, their identification is essential for the understanding of the immune response regulation. I describe a T-T hybridoma (TUH-3) produced B cell growth factor (BCGF or B cell stimulating factor, BSF), distinct from T cell growth factor, supporting the growth of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preactivated B cell blasts. BCGF was unspecific with respect to Ag, MHC or Ig haplotypes and was poor in supporting the development of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) in B cell blast cultures. The producer hybrid was unstable. Later produced BCGF/BSF-secreting hybrids were shown to be contaminated with Mycoplasma arginini and the BCGF/BSF cosedimented with the microorganism. The M. arginini BSF-like activity fulfilled all of the above mentioned criteria of a lymphokine. Thus, a host-parasite relationship with M. arginini mimicking the effects of a BSF on B cells was recognized. In the thesis I adress questions concerning the identity of the hybridoma factor, the existence of growth factors for LPS-preactivated B cells and design experiments to define molecules on mycoplasma with lymphokine-like activity.

    Comparison of in vivo effects showed that M. arginini or TUH-3 conditioned medium (CM) differed in parameters as cell growth in bone marrow and spleen and antibody isotype expression. The TUH-3 factor is thus concluded to be distinct from the effect of the mycoplasma contamination.

    In studies of CM from concanavalin A stimulated murine spleen cells a factor supporting the growth of LPS-preactivated murine spleen B cells was found as a highly acidic B cell growth stimulatory activity. It was distinct from other known factors and interleukins (IL) based on its biochemical properties. Furthermore, it was shown that none of the recombinant DLs, alone or in combination, were able to support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells. Thus, we conclude that we have identified a growth factor specific for LPS-preactivated B cells.

    Mycoplasmas are a heterogeneous group of prokaryots causing a wide variety of diseases, amongst others, reumatical and autoimmune disorders. Since M. arginini induced a lymphokine-like effect it was hypothesized that this was due to molecular mimicry of a lymphokine. We have been able to isolate four membrane bound acyl proteins, which support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells. These proteins were shown to be distinct by peptide mapping and to have lipids attached. Since there are several other acyl proteins, which do not support the growth of LPS-preactivated B cells, it is concluded that these proteins show a previously undescribed specificity.

  • Helkkula, Anu
    et al.
    Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Høgskolen i Innlandet.
    Archetypes of Service Innovation: Implications for Value Cocreation2018Inngår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is a key source of competitive differentiation across firms and markets. Despite growing attention from practitioners and academics alike, systematic scholarly inquiry into service innovation’s diverse theoretical foundations has to date been limited. This article explores different approaches to service innovation and proposes a typology of four archetypes, each informed by a distinct theoretical perspective and by different underlying assumptions. Process-based and output-based archetypes focus on value-adding phases and output value, respectively. Experiential and systemic archetypes have attracted less attention but become central for firms seeking to cocreate phenomenologically determined value within the service ecosystem. The article also contributes to service innovation research and practice by bringing together the existing archetypes, which were previously treated separately. Juxtaposing these archetypes and emphasizing value and value cocreation, the article proposes an integrative view of how novel value cocreation can be enhanced in service innovations. Finally, we develop an agenda for future research, encouraging researchers and managers to plan service innovations systematically, deploying each archetype in value cocreation, and combining them within an integrative approach.

  • Smith, Ashley
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    The Archival Life of Home Movies: Regional Reflections and Negotiated Visions of a Shared Past2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the ways in which private home movies are transformed into curated archival objects. Through the concept of the archival home movie, it explores the impact of preservation and content description on access, use, and, thus, regional historiography. Additionally, it maps out the relationship between ordinary home-movie imagery and regional meaning making.

    Using material from the University of Mississippi’s Home Movie Collection as a case study, the dissertation centers on the practice of researching family films and the possibilities for their contemporary cultural relevance. In recent years, home movies and amateur film have become topics of interest in studies of non-theatrical film as sources for unofficial histories. This dissertation intervenes into these discussions of the cultural value of home movies as a hands-on and self-reflexive investigation into the archive itself, as well as an activation of the archive. This methodology includes stagings of the home movie in live screenings, through which the dissertation investigates modes of spectator engagement with the historical material.

    Chapter 1 assesses strategies for working with archival home movies that draw from areas such as the study of family photography and photo albums, as well as the study of diaries. The following chapters each move further away from the familial point of origin of the home movie and toward regional re-readings and archival reuses. Using “home” as a starting point, Chapter 2 engages with the domestic elements in a selection of home movies shot on a cotton plantation during the late 1930s and early 1940s. Through an expanded notion of home, it argues that work and free time, public and private, and family and nonfamily are intertwined—both onscreen and off. Chapter 3 positions a collection of archival home movies shot in the Mississippi Delta in the 1950s as mediated witness to the ever-presence and—at times—invisibility of institutionalized racism in the mid-century American South. Chapter 4 maps the creative treatment of one collection of archival home movies in contemporary documentaries, museum installations, and experimental films. Finally, Chapter 5 evaluates the activation of home movies as constructed regional reflections in a series of live screenings associated with Home Movie Day.

    Previous studies of family photographs and family film have pointed to the ways these media function to obscure discord and present a harmonious picture. Overall, this study of southern home movies demonstrates how a double logic of obfuscation is at work in these films. In addition to a vision of familial harmony, this dissertation argues that the southern home movie also puts forth a vision of racial harmony. This onscreen racial harmony, when presented during the Jim Crow years, should be understood as the result of a specifically white fantasy of racial togetherness that, at the same time, upholds traditional hierarchies.

  • Gustafsson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Structural and functional studies of proteins of medical relevance: Protein-ligand complexes in cancer and novel structural folds in bacteria2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray crystallography is a tool for determining the structures of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. In this thesis the method has been employed to study several proteins of medical relevance.

    Cancer is a terrible disease, severely impacting those affected, as well as their family and friends. Current cancer treatments involve a combination of cytostatic drugs, surgery and radiation treatment. Unfortunately many cytostatic drugs also kill healthy cells, which gives rise to serious side-effects. The discovery of treatments which selectively inhibit proteins essential for cancer cell survival but which are non-essential in normal cells, could reduce such side-effects.

    MTH1 is a protein that degrades oxidised nucleotides, which when incorporated into DNA cause mutations and subsequent cell death. Cancer cells have higher levels of reactive oxygen species, which create oxidised nucleotides.  In Paper I it was discovered that cancer cells are dependent on MTH1 for their survival. Crystal structures of MTH1 in complex with small molecules guided their development into potent MTH1 inhibitors, capable of killing cancer cells. Cells with increased amounts of oxidised nucleotides, or with induced hypoxia, were more susceptible to MTH1 inhibition, as shown in Paper II. In Paper III several MTH1 orthologues from organisms often used in pre-clinical studies were tested for MTH1 inhibition. Leucine 116 of mouse MTH1 was determined to be important for the lower inhibition of the developed inhibitors towards this enzyme. A virtual fragment screening study using commercial chemicals resulted in several potent MTH1 inhibitors, as shown in Paper IV. The crystal structures with the fragments or optimised inhibitors did in most cases agree with the docking pose determined from the virtual screening. In addition to the known function of MTH1 in the degradation of oxidised nucleotides, Paper V showed that MTH1 also degrades methylated nucleotides.

    MTHFD2 is responsible for providing one-carbon units for nucleotide synthesis in cancer cells. As MTHFD2 is present in cancer cells but not in healthy cells, targeting the enzyme would make it possible to selectively kill cancer cells. Paper VI presents the first structure of MTHFD2, along with the first inhibitor of the protein. This information provides a starting point for the development of potent and selective MTHFD2 inhibitors.

    The botulinum neurotoxin from the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum is the causative agent of the deadly disease botulism. The action of the botulinum neurotoxin on nerve cells results in paralysis, and is life-threatening if the patient is not helped with breathing support. However, low doses of the neurotoxin are used as a successful treatment for several medical conditions, such as involuntary spasms. In Paper VII the structure of two proteins, P47 and OrfX2, encoded in the gene cluster of a botulinum neurotoxin, were determined. The structures resembled tubular lipid-binding proteins, previously only found in eukaryotes. The proteins were also found to be able to bind lipids. This work gives new insight into the structure and function of this group of proteins, which help the deadly botulinum neurotoxins.

  • Anderson., D. M
    et al.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Preservatives and methods for algal cell enumeration2017Inngår i: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management / [ed] Anderson D. M., S. F. E. Boerlage, M. B. Dixon, Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, s. 509-517Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Danser de for traditionens skyld?: invandrere, kultur og samfund1987Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation is a contribution to the current Scandinavian debate on "the integration of immigrants". It is based on a case study of a group of labour migrants from Yugoslavia, the romanian speaking Wallachians who in the late 1960's and early 1970's settled on each side of the Öresund, the narrow strait dividing Denmark and Sweden. Here they have developed two different social patterns and form of integration in Danish and Swedish local communities.

    Departing from a concrete social situation - the celebration of the Yugoslav national day in a Danish provincial town - the study uses anthropological fieldwork, personal biographies of migrants and a sociological survey to analyze different strategies of integration among "Danish" and "Swedish" Wallachians. The analysis elucidates develop­ments within two fields of social life: work and public community life. Conflicts and developments in these two fields are analyzed in conjunction with conflicts in the Wallachian family.

    It is argued that an autonomous cultural development and organization among immigrants is crucial for their positive integration into society. In the concluding part of the book this is discussed in conjunction with the development of the welfare state and in relation to different political ideologies in Scandinavia and Western Europe.

  • Leffler, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Cadmium induced kidney dysfunction in rodents and its relevance to biomonitoring: experimental and environmental findings1996Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with how workers actively introduced a new technique to their own labour process. More specifically, it is concerned with how Swedish forest workers during the 1950s gradually replaced the manual one-man crosscut saw with the motor-driven saw.

    The workers’ own views and actions are of central importance to the analysis of this process of technical change. Therefore fifty elderly forest workers, who had worked in forests in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, were inter­viewed. The point of departure of the study is the fact that it was the forest workers themselves who financed and bought the chain saw.

    The study indicates that there were two main reasons for acquiring a chain saw. The forest workers hoped to lessen the physical work load and to improve their wages. The first workers to use the chain saw I called ”the pioneers”. They had made some, but rather little, acquaintance with the chain saw before they started to use it. They were often disappointed with the new tool. In the middle of the 1950s, the construction of the chain saws was improved and, as a result, the chain saw made its breakthrough in the second half of the 1950s. Those who bought the chain saw during this period were clearly more pleased with it than the pioneers had been.

    A few years into the 1960s, when almost all forest workers had bought a chain saw, unemployment slowly started to increase. Simultaneously, the piecework wage system began to change. The chain saws were by this time becoming very efficient, and the benefit could and would not go solely to the forest workers. Employers and forest owners were also to have a share and they manifested this will in the wage negotiations. The forest workers responded by increasing their work tempo, to make the salaries remain at a high level, at least for the most efficient workers. For others, the older and those who were less productive, things became harder.

    The increase in work intensity brought with it an increase in accidents and injuries. The workers’ satisfaction in their job deteriorated.

    The lesson the forest workers learned, and this guided their actions when new machines were introduced later, was that it was important to act as a collective. Equally important, however, was the insight that good working conditions and a positive wage development do not only depend on technology, but on the social order in which the technology is embedded.

  • Volgsten, Ulrik
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Musiken, medierna och lagarna: Musikverkets idéhistoria och etablerandet av en idealistisk musiksyn2017 (oppl. 2 (reviderad))Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the philosopher and music historian Lydia Goehr, a widespread view of the musical work as an object whose existence transcends both time and space was established at the turn from the 18th to the 19th century, a view Goehr claims is still valid today:

    “most of us tend, like Ho mann, to see works as objecti ed expressions of composers that prior to compositional activity did not exist. We do not treat works as objects just made or put together, like tables or chairs, but as original, unique products of a special, creative activity. We assume, further, that the tonal, rhythmic, and instrumental prop- erties of works are constitutive of structurally integrated wholes that are symbolically represented by composers in scores. Once created, we treat works as existing a er their creators have died, and whether or not they are performed or listened to at any given time” (Goehr, 1992, 2).

    Goehr claims further that this view of musical works gained support from the emerg- ing copyright laws of the time. In contrast to Goehr’s thesis, I claim that this view of music — which I choose to call an idealist view of music — which equates the musical work with a rei ed immaterial form, did not emanate until the second half of the 19th century. Whereas the abstract form of the individual work is conceptualized by writ- ers such as Hanslick and A. B. Marx (rather than by Ho mann, as Goehr claims), it is not until the emergence of the elementary communication model — sender (compos- er), message (work), receiver (listener) — that this abstract work becomes fully rei ed. is happens at the turn of the 20th century, as a result of telecommunication and the phonogram, i.e. approximately a hundred years later than Goehr would have us believe.

    Why the “idealistic” work concept did not, indeed could not, be conceived before this time is shown in the historical overview that takes as its point of departure the ancient views on inspiration, form and work of Plato and Aristotle. Although form becomes an issue in music theory during the 17th century, the Aristotelian heritage favours universality before originality. Not until Aristotelianism gives way to a mod- ernized Platonism can an idealistic work, along the lines described by Goehr, be fully conceived. Curious as it may seem, the nal development of this “idealistic” work con- cept is largely a result of copyright legislation. e law, not the aesthetics or theory of music, has had the last word in the ontological issue of the musical work — if we agree that a nal word has been uttered yet, that is. 

  • Hjelm, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Skogsarbetarna och motorsågen: en studie av arbetsliv och teknisk förändring1991Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with how workers actively introduced a new technique to their own labour process. More specifically, it is concerned with how Swedish forest workers during the 1950s gradually replaced the manual one-man crosscut saw with the motor-driven saw.

    The workers’ own views and actions are of central importance to the analysis of this process of technical change. Therefore fifty elderly forest workers, who had worked in forests in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, were inter­viewed. The point of departure of the study is the fact that it was the forest workers themselves who financed and bought the chain saw.

    The study indicates that there were two main reasons for acquiring a chain saw. The forest workers hoped to lessen the physical work load and to improve their wages. The first workers to use the chain saw I called ”the pioneers”. They had made some, but rather little, acquaintance with the chain saw before they started to use it. They were often disappointed with the new tool. In the middle of the 1950s, the construction of the chain saws was improved and, as a result, the chain saw made its breakthrough in the second half of the 1950s. Those who bought the chain saw during this period were clearly more pleased with it than the pioneers had been.

    A few years into the 1960s, when almost all forest workers had bought a chain saw, unemployment slowly started to increase. Simultaneously, the piecework wage system began to change. The chain saws were by this time becoming very efficient, and the benefit could and would not go solely to the forest workers. Employers and forest owners were also to have a share and they manifested this will in the wage negotiations. The forest workers responded by increasing their work tempo, to make the salaries remain at a high level, at least for the most efficient workers. For others, the older and those who were less productive, things became harder.

    The increase in work intensity brought with it an increase in accidents and injuries. The workers’ satisfaction in their job deteriorated.

    The lesson the forest workers learned, and this guided their actions when new machines were introduced later, was that it was important to act as a collective. Equally important, however, was the insight that good working conditions and a positive wage development do not only depend on technology, but on the social order in which the technology is embedded.

  • Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Willstrand Wranne, Anna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Distribution of cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea2017Inngår i: Marine and Fresh-Water Harmful Algae. / [ed] Proenca, L. A. O. and Hallegraeff, G., International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, s. 100-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Andersson, C.R
    Coyne, K.J.
    Kudela, R.
    Sellner, K.G.
    Anderson, D.M.
    Designing an observing system for early detection of harmful algal blooms2017Inngår i: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management / [ed] Anderson D. M., S. F. E. Boerlage, M. B. Dixon, Paris: IOC, UNESCO , 2017, s. 89-117Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Xing, Yuxin
    et al.
    School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Vincent, Timothy A.
    School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Cole, Marina
    School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Gardner, Julian W.
    School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Fan, Han
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mobile robot multi-sensor unit for unsupervised gas discrimination in uncontrolled environments2017Inngår i: IEEE SENSORS 2017: Conference Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, s. 1-3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a novel multi-sensor unit to detect and discriminate unknown gases in uncontrolled environments. The unit includes three metal oxide (MOX) sensors with CMOS micro heaters, a plasmonic enhanced non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) sensor, a commercial temperature humidity sensor, and a flow sensor. The proposed sensing unit was evaluated with plumes of gases (propanol, ethanol and acetone) in both, a laboratory setup on a gas testing bench and on-board a mobile robot operating in an indoor workshop. It offers significantly improved performance compared to commercial systems, in terms of power consumption, response time and physical size. We verified the ability to discriminate gases in an unsupervised manner, with data collected on the robot and high accuracy was obtained in the classification of propanol versus acetone (96%), and ethanol versus acetone (90%).

  • Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

  • Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Stockholm University.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

  • Schweitz, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Pressure in dark source flux cosmologyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A cosmological pressure concept is defined from virial equations for open systems undergoing Hubble expansion. A uniform dark source flux model is assumed, comprising non-relativistic baryonic and dark matter (‘dust’); relativistic radiation; and dark energy. The pressures thus derived are compared with corresponding pressures derived from the Friedmann equation in standard cosmology. The pressures are found to agree for non-relativistic matter and relativistic radiation, but differ for dark energy. The ‘exotic’ negative pressure of dark energy in standard cosmology is replaced by a more down-to-earth positive pressure in the present theory. The reason for this deviation is that the local energy conservation criterion, which is built into the field equation in general relativity, is replaced by a compelling consequence of Hubble’s law: the criterion for balanced expansion. In the choice between questionable energy conservation in an accelerating system on one hand, and the experimentally verified Hubble’s law on the other, the latter is chosen in the present analysis.

  • Wande, Erling ()
    Sverigefinska språknämnden.
    Kieliviesti 1999:41999Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
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