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  • Ingemann, Christine
    A scoping review: Well-being among indigenous children and youth in the Arctic – with a focus on Sami and Greenland Inuit2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young people from the Inuit and Sami populations in the Nordic countries can be identified as a vulnerable group. Young Sami and Inuit experience a higher degree of violence, abuse, suicidal thoughts and suicide rates compared to their peers in the majority populations in the Nordic countries. Their living conditions are in most cases influenced by a limited access to welfare benefits such as the healthcare system, social services and educational opportunities. Career prospects in the Arctic region are also narrow compared to the more densely populated and central regions in the Nordic countries. In order to understand and act upon the challenges the populations face, an in-depth and systematic review of the existing literature and experiences of children’s and youth’s well-being and their existing living conditions in the Arctic Region is essential.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-14 09:00 A1:111a
    Umer, Husen Muhammad
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Beräkningsbiologi och bioinformatik.
    Computational Modelling of Gene Regulation in Cancer: Coding the noncoding genome2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have enabled quantification of processes within and around us. The information stored within our body converts into petabytes of data. Processing and learning from such data requires comprehensive computational programs and software systems. We developed software programs to systematically investigate the process of gene regulation in the human genome. Gene regulation is a complex process where several genomic elements control expression of a gene through recruiting many transcription factor (TF) proteins. The TFs recognize specific DNA sequences known as motifs. DNA mutations in regulatory elements and particularly in TF motifs may cause gene deregulation. Therefore, defining the landscape of regulatory elements and their roles in cancer and complex diseases is of major importance.

    We developed an algorithm (tfNet) to identify regulatory elements based on transcription factor binding sites. tfNet identified nearly 144,000 regulatory elements in five human cell lines. Investigating the elements we identified TF interaction networks and enrichment of many GWAS SNPs. We also defined the regulatory landscape for other conditions and species. Next, we investigated the role of regulatory elements in cancer. Cancer is initiated and developed by genetic aberrations in the genome. Genetic changes that are present in a cancer genome are obtained through whole genome sequencing technologies. We analyzed somatic mutations that had been detected in 326 whole genomes of liver cancer patients. Our results indicated 907 candidate mutations affecting TF motifs. Genome wide alignment of the mutated motifs revealed a significant enrichment of mutations in a highly conserved position of the CTCF motif. Gene expression analysis exhibited disruption of topologically associated domains in the mutated samples. We also confirmed the mutational pattern in pancreatic, gastric and esophagus cancers. Finally, enrichment of cancer associated gene sets and pathways suggested great role of noncoding mutations in cancer.

    To systematically analyze DNA mutations in TF motifs, we developed an online database system (funMotifs). Publicly available datasets were collected for thousands experiments. The datasets were integrated using a logistic regression model. Functionality annotations and scores for motifs of 519 TFs were derived. The database allows for identification of variants affecting functional motifs in a selected tissue type. Finally, a comprehensive analysis was performed to identify mutations overlapping functional TF motifs in 37 cancer types. Somatic mutations from a pan-cancer cohort of 2,515 cancer whole genomes were investigated. A significant enrichment of mutations in the CpG site of the CEBPB motif was identified. Overall, 10,806 mutated regulatory elements were identified including 406 highly recurrent ones. Genes associated to the mutated elements were highly enriched for cancer-related pathways. Our analyses provide further insights onto the role of regulatory elements and their impacts on cancer development.

  • Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, s. 279-293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

  • Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences; Linköping University, ehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation and Department of Medical and Health Sciences .
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Linköping University, Physiotherapy, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Neck-specific exercises with internet-based support compared to neck-specific exercises at a physiotherapy clinic for chronic whiplash-associated disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled multicentre trial.2017Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Globally, neck pain is the fourth most common condition associated with longer periods of living withdisability. Annually, approximately 0.3% of the population of Western countries undergo whiplash trauma, and half ofthose individuals will develop chronic problems with highcosts for the individual and society. Evidence for chronicwhiplash-associated disorders (WAD) treatment is scarce, though neck-specific training at a physiotherapy clinic twice aweek for 12 weeks has demonstrated good results. More efficient, flexible rehabilitation with reduced waiting times andlower costs is needed, ideally replacing lengthy on-site treatment series by healthcare providers. Internet-based care hasbeen shown to be a viable alternative for a variety of diseases and interventions, but studies are lacking on Internet-basedinterventions for individuals with chronic neck problems. The aim of the trial described here is to compare the effects ofan Internet-based neck-specific exerciseprogrammetothesameexercisesperformed at a physiotherapy clinic in regardsto self-reported and clinical measures, as well as cost-effectiveness.

    Methods:This prospective, randomized controlled trial will involve 140 participants. Measurements will be made atbaseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 15 months (12 months after end of intervention) and will include ratings ofpain, disability, satisfaction with care, work ability, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness.

    Discussion:The study results may contribute to the development of a more effective rehabilitation, flexible and equalcare, shorter waiting times, increased availability, and lower costs for healthcare and society.

    Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: NCT03022812, initial release 12/20/2016.

  • Staffas, Kjell
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Signaler och System.
    Evaluation of Transformative Learning Circles: A learning model2017Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-07 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Fu, Qiliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Wood Nanotechnologies for Transparency, Fire Retardancy and Liquid Separation2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, wood nanotechnologies for transparent, fire-retardant and hydrophobic/lipophilic wood have been developed. There are two main parts; wood template preparation/processing concepts and materials design using these templates.

    In the wood template processing part, highly porous nanostructured wood templates are prepared. Relationships between processes and material structures are studied. Three chemical treatment methods are used. Lignin and/or chromophores are removed from cell wall, so that nanoscale pores are formed in the cell wall. For preparation of transparent wood, a lignin-retaining method improves physical properties of the template. The pore structures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption measurement of specific surface area. The compositions of the templates are characterized. Compared with native wood, these templates have nanoscale porosity which provides opportunity for new types of wood modification.

    In the materials design part, wood nanotechnologies are used for transparent wood as well as for hydrophobic/lipophilic and fire-retardant wood. Two main strategies are used: i) nanoparticles are embedded inside the cell wall; ii) polymers are impregnated in lumen space, and sometimes also inside the cell wall. The transparent wood is prepared by MMA monomer/oligomer impregnation of lumen space. MMA has similar refractive index to the delignified template, so that scattering is reduced and transparent wood with favorable optical and mechanical properties is obtained. The structure and functional properties are studied. Laminated transparent plywood is designed to modify mechanical properties. Transparent wood and transparent plywood are demonstrated in applications combining loading-bearing properties with optical performance such as luminescent properties.

    The highly porous wood template cell walls are also impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay or epoxy/amine solutions to modify the cell wall and form nanostructured biocomposites. The structure and properties of the two materials are investigated; wood/clay hybrids for flame-retardancy and wood/epoxy biocomposites for oil/water separation.

  • Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    A clip-on electroosmotic pump for oscillating flow in microfluidic cell culture devices2018Inngår i: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4982, E-ISSN 1613-4990, Vol. 22, nr 3, artikkel-id 27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in microfluidic devices put a high demand on small, robust and reliable pumps suitable for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a compact, low-cost, directly attachable (clip-on) electroosmotic pump that couples with standard Luer connectors on a microfluidic device. The pump is easy to make and consists of a porous polycarbonate membrane and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The soft electrode and membrane materials make it possible to incorporate the pump into a standard syringe filter holder, which in turn can be attached to commercial chips. The pump is less than half the size of the microscope slide used for many commercial lab-on-a-chip devices, meaning that these pumps can be used to control fluid flow in individual reactors in highly parallelized chemistry and biology experiments. Flow rates at various electric current and device dimensions are reported. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the pump for biological experiments by exposing endothelial cells to oscillating shear stress (up to 5 dyn/cm2) and by controlling the movement of both micro- and macroparticles, generating steady or oscillatory flow rates up to ± 400 μL/min.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    EvaLuation Using Cardiac Insertable Devices And TelephonE in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (ELUCIDATE HCM) – rationale and design: a prospective observational study on incidence of arrhythmias in Sweden2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 12, artikkel-id e019541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous disease associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) mainly due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation even though life-threatening bradycardia occurs. Risk stratification takes several variables into consideration including non-sustained VT (NSVT). An implantable cardioverter defibrillator effectively prevents SCD. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common among patients with HCM and warrants anticoagulation even without conventional risk factors according to European guidelines. Routinely, the evaluation of arrhythmias using a 48-hour ambulatory external monitor takes place every 6-24 months if patients do not report palpitations. The remaining time the potential burden arrhythmia is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess NSVT and AF incidence during 18 months by an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM).

    Methods: Adult patients, aged 18-65 years, with a validated diagnosis of HCM are eligible for the study. The study sample is planned to include 30 patients. A Confirm Rx is implanted at the level of the fourth rib on the left side subcutaneously after local anaesthesia. The application for monitoring is installed in the patients' smartphone and symptoms registered by the patient activation and VT detection programmed as 160 bpm during >= 8 intervals. An AF episode is recorded based on >= 2 min duration. Bradycardia is recorded at <= 40 bpm or pause >= 3.0 s. The patients are followed during 18 months before explant.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study was approved by The Regional Ethical Committee in Umea (protocol number 2017/13-31). The study protocol, including variables and prespecified research questions, the study was registered at Clinical Trial Registration NCT03259113. Each patient is informed about the study in both oral and written form by a physician and included after written consent.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm, Sweden
    Khan, Abdullah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Towards the enhanced applicability of cold mix asphalt:: An experimental study focusing on surface free energies and the breaking and coalescence of bitumen emulsions2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental, social and economic sustainability of our infrastructure network is clearly of paramount importance to the road-engineering sector as well to society at large. Sustainable road materials and reduced transport of those materials therefore play a significant role. Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology could be one of the better options for the road industry to explore more thoroughly. Given its lower start-up and equipment installation costs, lower energy consumption and reduced environmental impact, CMA should offer a reliable alternative to some of the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) or Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) options. As CMA is not a new technology, there are many reasons why this material is not currently being used as extensively as it might be. Though risk adverseness of the market may be partly to blame for this, a number of technical challenges and uncertainties related to material behavior are certainly responsible. This thesis has addressed some of the important technical challenges, aiming to provide more guidance in material selection and design, and prediction of the behavior of emulsion-based CMAs. To do so, this research has focused on aspects of the correct formulation of the bitumen emulsions, how to select the correct combinations of material components, and how to control the breaking and coalescence processes in bitumen emulsions better, resulting in usable and predictable adhesive and cohesive bond strengths. Though most of the laboratory and modeling choices that were made in this thesis are based on theoretical considerations, the main contribution is the test protocol development. The systematic surface free energy measurements of the material components, combined with the test set-up to monitor controllably the breaking and coalescence behavior of bitumen droplets in an emulsified environment, gives a new way to approach the design of CMA. It is recommended that future research is focused on taking the developed protocols as a basis for enhanced mix design and making a direct link to validated long-term mechanical properties on the asphalt mixture scale.

  • Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden; Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lindvert, Markus
    Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Utländska uppköp: hot eller möjlighet?2017Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 41-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Disputas: 2018-03-15 13:00 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Diabetes2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to further advance the field of diabetes research there is a great need for establishing validated non-invasive quantitative techniques to study the pancreas and other tissues of importance for blood glucose regulation. The general aim of this thesis was to explore magnetic resonance techniques and positron emission tomography as such tools.

    In paper I pancreatic perfusion under basal conditions and in response to glucose in nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic individuals was studied with [15O]H2O PET/CT. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were found to have reduced basal pancreatic perfusion and a severely impaired pancreatic and splanchnic perfusion response to intravenous glucose stimulation.

    In paper II four groups of subjects at different stages of type 2 diabetes development and a control group of individuals without diabetes were examined with PET/CT and MRI. The [11C]5-HTP uptake in pancreas was hypothesized to correlate with remaining functional capacity of the β-cells. The progressive loss of β-cell function indicated by metabolic testing was not mirrored by a decrease in [11C]5-HTP tracer accumulation in the pancreas. This provides evidence of retained islet mass despite decreased β-cell function, indicating that β-cell dysfunction or dedifferentiation, and not necessarily endocrine cell loss, constitutes a major cause of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes.

    In paper III the feasibility of using ex-vivo MR spectroscopy for assessment of viability of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation was studied. It was found that 31P-MRS may provide quantitative parameters for evaluating graft viability ex vivo, and is a promising tool for objective non-invasive assessment of the quality of human pancreas grafts.

    In paper IV the Imiomics method for automatic image analysis was validated in whole-body [18F]-FDG PET/MR images in subjects with varying degree of insulin resistance. Imiomics was found to provide association screening and timesaving analysis of whole-body data and detected differences in glucose uptake and tissue composition between subjects on voxel-level. However, it did not show complete correlation with traditional volume of interest based tissue analysis in a small cohort.

  • Azevedo, Thales
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Engelund, Oluf Tang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Teoretisk fysik.
    Ambitwistor formulations of R2 gravity and (DF)2 gauge theories2017Inngår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, nr 11, artikkel-id 052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider D-dimensional amplitudes in R-2 gravities (conformal gravity in D = 4) and in the recently introduced (DF)(2) gauge theory, from the perspective of the CHY formulae and ambitwistor string theory. These theories are related through the BCJ double-copy construction, and the (DF)(2) gauge theory obeys color-kinematics duality. We work out the worldsheet details of these theories and show that they admit a formulation as integrals on the support of the scattering equations, or alternatively, as ambitwistor string theories. For gravity, this generalizes the work done by Berkovits and Witten on conformal gravity to D dimensions. The ambitwistor is also interpreted as a D-dimensional generalization of Witten's twistor string (SYM + conformal supergravity). As part of our ambitwistor investigation, we discover another (DF)(2) gauge theory containing a photon that couples to Einstein gravity. This theory can provide an alternative KLT description of Einstein gravity compared to the usual Yang-Mills squared.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-15 13:00 A1:107a, Uppsala
    Klaesson, Axel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Development of DNA-based methods for analysis of protein interactions2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a method for detection of protein interactions, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and individual proteins that allows information about their localization in a cell or tissue to be extracted. The method is based on oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies (proximity probes) that upon binding of two epitopes in close proximity give rise to an amplifiable DNA circle. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is used to create a DNA bundle of over a thousand repeats to which fluorescently labeled detection oligonucleotides are hybridized. This thesis is focused on improving the existing in situ PLA method and on developing new approaches for detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and PTMs in situ in cells and tissues.

    In paper I, a new enzyme-independent method capable of in situ detection of protein-protein interactions was developed. The method combined the proximity requirement of in situ PLA and the amplification of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) creating a proximity-dependent initiation of hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR). Circumventing the need for enzymes resulted in a cost-efficient method that is less sensitive to storing conditions.

    Paper II addresses the problem of irregularly formed RCA products that can appear to be split into several fluorescent objects. A compaction oligonucleotide system was designed to crosslink the DNA bundle with itself and thereby reduce the size and increase the brightness of each individual RCA product.

    In paper III, the conventional in situ PLA was redesigned to increase the detection efficiency of protein interactions and PTMs in situ. The new set of proximity probes was designed to have circularization oligonucleotides incorporated that were unfolded through enzymatic digestion. The UnFold in situ PLA was able to generate more signals and had a higher sensitivity than the conventional in situ PLA.

    In paper IV, an oligonucleotide system able to generate signals for individual proteins (A or B) and their interaction (A and B) in a molecular Boolean (MolBoolean) protein analysis was designed. The MolBoolean design was able to generate signals detecting both individual proteins and their interaction in situ.  

  • Khan, Abdullah
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Redelius, Per
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Bro- och stålbyggnad.
    Effects of surfactants and adhesion promoters on the bitumen-minerals interfacial bond during breaking of bitumen emulsionsInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology has been the subject of research for many decades due to its proven environmental and economic benefits. However, issues relating to its mechanical performance still need to be investigated in order to understand the breaking mechanisms of bitumen emulsions and the surface chemistry involved. Bitumen emulsions are designed to break in a controlled manner to achieve the required level of performance for producing good quality cold asphalt mixtures. In this work, experiments on the coalescence of two bitumen droplets were carried out on a selected grade of Nynas bitumen. In an emulsion environment, the cohesion between bitumen droplets as well as their adhesion to a mineral surface was investigated. The cohesion and adhesion properties were analyzed by varying selected surfactant types and adhesion promoters in the water phase. The research showed that the presence of emulsifiers (with concentrations above the critical micelle concentration) in the water phase inhibits the adhesion of bitumen droplets to the mineral surface. However, a very small addition (0.02%) of adhesion promoter reverses the situation completely, and adhesion is dominant rather than cohesion. Moreover, the kinetics of the coalescence process is strongly controlled by the water phase temperature.

  • Khan, Abdullah
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Redelius, Per
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Bro- och stålbyggnad.
    Investigating effects of salts on the coalescence process in bitumen emulsionsInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The breaking and coalescence process in bitumen emulsions during their application strongly influences the resulting long-term mechanical performance of the cold mix asphalt. This phase separation process is affected by physico-chemical changes at the bitumen/water interface. This paper describes the effects of addition of different salts on the destabilization of bitumen emulsions. This study is limited mainly to cationic rapid setting (CRS) bitumen emulsions and salts which are very commonly added to these emulsions as a stabilizer. However, a few samples with non-ionic emulsifiers were also prepared and analyzed comparatively to understand the electrostatic force balance with varying concentrations of selected salts. The experimental part includes a bitumen droplet relaxation test, droplet size distribution measurement, microscopy, and evaluation of physico-chemical properties of prepared soap solutions e.g. interfacial tension and density measurements. Some experiments on the effect of selected water-soluble organic solvents on the coalescence process were also carried out. The results showed that coalescence was delayed after the addition of salts, while the water soluble organic solvents proved not to affect the emulsion significantly. 

  • Khan, Abdullah
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitekturteknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Bro- och stålbyggnad.
    Redelius, Per
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Bro- och stålbyggnad.
    Modelling coalescence process during breaking of bitumen emulsions2016Inngår i: / [ed] International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), 2016, s. 1-12, artikkel-id Paper 61Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold mix bitumen emulsion technology is getting a lot of focus by the road industries since a few decades due to the diminished environmental impacts and reduced energy associated with it. The durability and mechanical performance of cold asphalt mixtures very much depend on the breaking, coalescence and phase separation processes in bitumen emulsions; however, the exact nature of the breaking mechanism of bitumen emulsion is not completely understood today. During coalescence or relaxation process, two bitumen droplets are completely fused into a unique spherical droplet and their kinetic is usually recorded in terms of time, denoted as relaxation time or τrelaxation.  In this work, a two dimensional Phase Field model was used to simulate the coalescence process of two bitumen droplets in water phase. The numerical model is based on Finite Element Method and solves Navier-Stokes system of equations coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation. The model predictions are validated by direct comparison with the experimental measurements performed in our previous work. Moreover, the study was extended to the small size (order μm) bitumen droplets which are difficult to produce and handle via experimental methods.  

  • Hjelm, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bard, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Apelqvist, Jan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    A qualitative study of developing beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant African women with gestational diabetes living in Sweden2018Inngår i: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with health risks for both mother and child, and is particularly relevant to migrant women and women of African origin. With todays extensive global migration, contact with the new society and health system confronts the migrants culture of origin with the culture of the host country. The question is whether immigrants patterns of beliefs about health, illness, and health-related behaviour change over time, as no previous studies have been found on this topic. The purpose was to explore development over time, during and after pregnancy, of beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant women with GDM born in Africa living in Sweden, and study the influence on self-care and care seeking. Methods: Qualitative prospective study. Semi-structured interviews, with 9 women (23-40 years), on three different occasions: during pregnancy (gestational weeks 34-38), and 3 and 14 months after delivery managed at an in-hospital diabetes specialist clinic in Sweden. Results: Beliefs were rather stable over time and mainly related to individual and social factors. GDM was perceived as a transient condition as health professionals had informed about it, which made them calm. None, except one, expressed worries about relapse and the health of the baby. Instead women worried about being unable to live an ordinary life and being bound to lifestyle changes, particularly diet, developing diabetes and needing insulin injections. Over time knowledge of appropriate diet improved, although no advice was experienced given by the clinic after delivery. The healthcare model was perceived as well functioning with easy access but regular follow-ups were requested as many (decreasing over time) were unsure whether they still had GDM and lacked information about GDM and diet. During pregnancy information was also requested about the healthcare system before/after delivery. Conclusions: Beliefs changed to a limited extent prospectively, indicated low risk awareness, limited knowledge of GDM, irrelevant worries about future health, and being unable to live a normal life, associated with problematic lifestyle changes. Beliefs about the seriousness of GDM in health professionals influenced patients beliefs and health-related behaviour. The healthcare organisation urgently needs to be improved to deliver appropriate and timely information through competent staff.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bua, John
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Waiswa, Peter
    Makumbi, Fred
    Atuyambe, Lynn
    Ajeani, Judith
    George, Asha
    Mutebi, Aloysuis
    Kakaire, Ayub
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Paina, Ligia
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Maternal and neonatal implementation for equitable systems: a study design paper2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1346925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence on effective ways of improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes is widely available. The challenge that most low-income countries grapple with is implementation at scale and sustainability. Objectives: The study aimed at improving access to quality maternal and neonatal health services in a sustainable manner by using a participatory action research approach.

    Methods: The study consisted of a quasi-experimental design, with a participatory action research approach to implementation in three rural districts (Pallisa, Kibuku and Kamuli) in Eastern Uganda. The intervention had two main components; namely, community empowerment for comprehensive birth preparedness, and health provider and management capacity-building. We collected data using both quantitative and qualitative methods using household and facility-level structured surveys, record reviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. We purposively selected the participants for the qualitative data collection, while for the surveys we interviewed all eligible participants in the sampled households and health facilities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data, while the difference in difference analysis was used to measure the effect of the intervention. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.

    Conclusions: This study was implemented to generate evidence on how to increase access to quality maternal and newborn health services in a sustainable manner using a multisectoral participatory approach.

  • Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    et al.
    Akulume, Martha
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Bua, John
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Balancing the cost of leaving with the cost of living: drivers of long-term retention of health workers: an explorative study in three rural districts in Eastern Uganda2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1345494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health worker retention in rural and underserved areas remains a persisting problem in many low and middle income countries, and this directly affects the quality of health services offered.

    Objective: This paper explores the drivers of long-term retention and describes health worker coping mechanisms in rural Uganda.

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study explored the factors that motivated health workers to stay, in three rural districts of Uganda: Kamuli, Pallisa, and Kibuku. In-depth interviews conducted among health workers who have been retained for at least 10 years explored factors motivating the health workers to stay within the district, opportunities, and the benefits of staying.

    Results: Twenty-one health workers participated. Ten of them male and 11 female with the age range of 33-51 years. The mean duration of stay among the participants was 13, 15, and 26 years for Kamuli, Kibuku, and Pallisa respectively. Long-term retention was related to personal factors, such as having family ties, community ties, and opportunities to invest. The decentralization policy and pension benefits also kept workers in place. Opportunities for promotion or leadership motivated long stay only if they came with financial benefits. Workload reportedly increased over the years, but staffing and emoluments had not increased. Multiple job, family support, and community support helped health workers cope with the costs of living, and holding a secure pensionable government job was valued more highly than seeking uncertain job opportunities elsewhere.

    Conclusion: The interplay between the costs of leaving and the benefit of staying is demonstrated. Family proximity, community ties, job security, and pension enhance staying, while higher costs of living and an unpredictable employment market make leaving risky. Health workers should be able to access investment opportunities in order to cope with inadequate remuneration. Promotions and leadership opportunities only motivate if accompanied by financial benefits.

  • Cossu, Rosa Maria
    et al.
    Casola, Claudio
    Giacomello, Stefania
    Vidalis, Amaryllis
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Section of Population Epigenetics and Epigenomics, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Ecology and Genetics: Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden; Uppsala Multidisciplinary Center for Advanced Computational Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zuccolo, Andrea
    LTR Retrotransposons Show Low Levels of Unequal Recombination and High Rates of Intraelement Gene Conversion in Large Plant Genomes2017Inngår i: Genome Biology and Evolution, ISSN 1759-6653, E-ISSN 1759-6653, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 3449-3462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulat on and removal of transposable elements (TEs) is a major driver of genome size evolution in eukaryotes. In plants, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) represent the majority of TEs and form most of the nuclear DNA in large genomes. Unequal recombination (UR) between LTRs leads to removal of intervening sequence and formation of solo-LTRs. UR is a major mechanism of LTR-RT removal in many angiosperms, but our understanding of LTR-RT-associated recombination within the large, LTR-RT-rich genomes of conifers is quite limited. We employ a novel read based methodology to estimate the relative rates of LTR-RT-associated UR within the genomes of four conifer and seven angiosperm species. We found the lowest rates of UR in the largest genomes studied, conifers and the angiosperm maize. Recombination may also resolve as gene conversion, which does not remove sequence, so we analyzed LTR-RT-associated gene conversion events (GCEs) in Norway spruce and six angiosperms. Opposite the trend for UR, we found the highest rates of GCEs in Norway spruce and maize. Unlike previous work in angiosperms, we found no evidence that rates of UR correlate with retroelement structural features in the conifers, suggesting that another process is suppressing UR in these species. Recent results from diverse eukaryotes indicate that heterochromatin affects the resolution of recombination, by favoring gene conversion over crossing-over, similar to our observation of opposed rates of UR and GCEs. Control of LTR-RT proliferation via formation of heterochromatin would be a likely step toward large genomes in eukaryotes carrying high LTR-RT content.

  • Asnicar, Davide
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ašmonaitė, Giedrė
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Birgersson, Lina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Matematikens didaktik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sturve, Joachim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sand Goby: An Ecologically Relevant Species for Behavioural Ecotoxicology2018Inngår i: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Locomotion-based behavioural endpoints have been suggested as suitable sublethal endpoints for human and environmental hazard assessment, as well as for biomonitoring applications. Larval stages of the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) possess a number of attractive qualities for experimental testing that make it a promising species in behavioural ecotoxicology. Here, we present a study aimed at developing a toolkit for using the sand goby as novel species for ecotoxicological studies and using locomotion as an alternative endpoint in toxicity testing. Exposure to three contaminants (copper (Cu), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was tested in the early life stages of the sand goby and the locomotion patterns of the larvae were quantified using an automatic tracking system. In a photo-motor test, sand goby larvae displayed substantially higher activity in light than in dark cycles. Furthermore, all tested compounds exerted behavioural alterations, such as hypo- and hyperactivity. Our experimental results show that sand goby larvae produce robust and quantifiable locomotive responses, which could be used within an ecotoxicological context for assessing the behavioural toxicity of environmental pollutants, with particular relevance in the Nordic region. This study thus suggests that sand goby larvae have potential as an environmentally relevant species for behavioural ecotoxicology, and as such offer an alternative to standard model species.

  • Askelöf, Ulrica
    et al.
    Andersson, Ola
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Fasth, Anders
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Pettersson, Karin
    Westgren, Magnus
    Wiklund, Ingela E.
    Götherström, Cecilia
    Wait a minute?: An observational cohort study comparing iron stores in healthy Swedish infants at 4 months of age after 10-, 60-and 180-second umbilical cord clamping2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 12, artikkel-id e017215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable stem cell source used for transplantation. Immediate umbilical cord (UC) clamping is widely practised, but delayed UC clamping is increasingly advocated to reduce possible infant anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate an intermediate UC clamping time point and to evaluate iron status at the age of 4 months in infants who had the UC clamped after 60 s and compare the results with immediate and late UC clamping.

    Design: Prospective observational study with two historical controls.

    Setting: A university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, and a county hospital in Halland, Sweden.

    Methods: Iron status was assessed at 4 months in 200 prospectively recruited term infants whose UC was clamped 60 s after birth. The newborn baby was held below the uterine level for the first 30 s before placing the infant on the mother's abdomen for additional 30 s. The results were compared with data from a previously conducted randomised controlled trial including infants subjected to UC clamping at <= 10 s (n= 200) or >= 180 s (n= 200) after delivery.

    Results: After adjustment for age differences at the time of follow- up, serum ferritin concentrations were 77, 103 and 114 mu g/L in the 10, 60 and 180 s groups, respectively. The adjusted ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the 60 s group compared with the 10 s group (P=0.002), while the difference between the 60 and 180 s groups was not significant (P=0.29).

    Conclusion: In this study of healthy term infants, 60 s UC clamping with 30 s lowering of the baby below the uterine level resulted in higher serum ferritin concentrations at 4 months compared with 10 s UC clamping. The results suggest that delaying the UC clamping for 60 s reduces the risk for iron deficiency.

  • Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen, UCFS. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Taxes and Household Labor Supply: Estimating Distributional Effects of Nonlinear Prices on Multidimensional Choice2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for distributional regression of joint multidimensional choice on nonlinear prices departing from a household model of labor supply that focuses on tax policy effects. Our distribution functions are derived under minimal theoretical assumptions and have a simple structure. We allow distribution-free estimation, collective decisionmaking, and identification based on tax reforms. In our empirical application on U.S. panel data from 1980 to 2006, we provide a deepened understanding of how the configuration of the tax system affects the distribution of transitions between combinations of spouse labor supply. We also quantify biases from commonly imposed restrictions.

  • Janson, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Analys och sannolikhetsteori.
    Warnke, Lutz
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Math, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Univ Cambridge Peterhouse, Cambridge CB2 1RD, England..
    On the critical probability in percolation2018Inngår i: Electronic Journal of Probability, ISSN 1083-6489, E-ISSN 1083-6489, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For percolation on finite transitive graphs, Nachmias and Peres suggested a characterization of the critical probability based on the logarithmic derivative of the susceptibility. As a first test-case, we study their suggestion for the Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n,p), and confirm that the logarithmic derivative has the desired properties: (i) its maximizer lies inside the critical window p = 1/n + Theta(n(-4/3)), and (ii) the inverse of its maximum value coincides with the Theta(n(-4/3))-width of the critical window. We also prove that the maximizer is not located at p = 1/n or p = 1/(n - 1), refuting a speculation of Peres.

  • Song, Jie
    et al.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    TGFβ activates PI3K-AKT signaling via TRAF62017Inngår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, nr 59, s. 99205-99206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Andrén, Peter
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Wahlman, Thomas
    Ramböll.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Ekdahl, Peter
    Ramböll.
    Ny teknik för vägytemätning: tvärprofil och spårdjup2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige och Finland mäts tillståndet på det statliga belagda vägnätet årligen. Mättekniken har varit densamma under en lång tid vilket har sina fördelar. I och med att mätningarna utförs med samma mätteknik bibehålls trender och mätserier utan störningar. Den nuvarande tekniken är dessutom driftsäker och kan handlas upp till en prisnivå som genom åren snarare sjunkit än ökat. Det huvudsakliga användningsområdet för tillståndsmätningen är att förse underhållsverksamheten med ett objektivt underlag för beläggningsplaneringen, men när det visar sig att nuvarande objektiva tillståndsdata endast kan förklara mellan 40 och 75 procent (beroende av trafikklass) av de åtgärder som verkligen görs på vägnätet, måste det övervägas om denna ska kompletteras med nya tillståndsdata. Den information som saknas tros vara information om ytskador och sprickor. Detta kräver ny mätteknik.

    Om ny teknik ska börja anammas, för insamling av tillståndsdata, måste först de grundläggande mätstorheternas tillförlitlighet säkerställas, innan nya möjligheter och mätstorheter undersöks. Denna studie är därför endast inriktad på tvärprofilmätning och mått för ojämnhet i tvärled (spårdjup och spårrygg).

    I studien har två av de ledande nya teknikerna som arbetar med skannande laser undersökts, LCMS från Pavemetrics och PPS från Fraunhofer. Resultatet av studien visar att tekniken är bra, noggrannhet och repeterbarhet går att jämföra med de nuvarande punktlasersystemen. Kriterier och krav för upphandling av mättjänster där den nya tekniken används bedöms också kunna bibehållas.

  • Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bua, John
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Namazzi, Gertrude
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Waiswa, Peter
    Effect of a participatory multisectoral maternal and newborn intervention on birth preparedness and knowledge of maternal and newborn danger signs among women in Eastern Uganda: a quasi-experiment study2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1362826Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and adequate birth preparedness (BP) are critical for improving maternal services utilization.

    Objectives: This study assessed the effect of a participatory multi-sectoral maternal and newborn intervention on BP and knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in Eastern Uganda.

    Methods: The Maternal and Neonatal Implementation for Equitable Systems (MANIFEST) study was implemented in three districts from 2013 to 2015 using a quasi-experimental pre-post comparison design. Data were collected from women who delivered in the last 12 months. Difference-in-differences (DiD) and generalized linear modelling analysis were used to assess the effect of the intervention on BP practices and knowledge of obstetric danger signs.

    Results: The overall BP practices increased after the intervention (DiD = 5, p < 0.05). The increase was significant in both intervention and comparison areas (7-39% vs. 7-36%, respectively), with a slightly higher increase in the intervention area. Individual savings, group savings, and identification of a transporter increased in both intervention and comparison area (7-69% vs. 10-64%, 0-11% vs. 0-5%, and 9-14% vs. 9-13%, respectively). The intervention significantly increased the knowledge of at least three obstetric danger signs (DiD = 31%) and knowledge of at least two newborn danger signs (DiD = 21%). Having knowledge of at least three BP components and attending community dialogue meetings increased the odds of BP practices and obstetric danger signs' knowledge, respectively. Village health teams' home visits, intervention area residence, and being in the 25+ age group increased the odds of both BP practices and obstetric danger signs' knowledge.

    Conclusions: The intervention resulted in a modest increase in BP practices and knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Multiple strategies targeting women, in particular the adolescent group, are needed to promote behavior change for improved BP and knowledge of obstetric danger signs.

  • Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Paina, Ligia
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Mutebi, Aloysius
    Jane, Pacuto
    Tumuhairwe, Juliet
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Makerere University School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.
    'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda2017Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1347311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health.

    Objectives: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups.

    Methods: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically.

    Results: Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution.

    Conclusions: Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  • Stensen, Katarina
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Tengdelius Brunell, Johanna
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Andersson, Elinor
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Eklund, Anna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Vattentemperaturer och is i Mälaren Beräkningar för dagens och framtidens klimatförhållanden2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Schöld, Sofie
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Ivarsson, Cajsa-Lisa
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Nerheim, Signild
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Södling, Johan
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Beräkning av högsta vattenstånd längs Sveriges kust2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten redovisas hur en metod framtagits för att kunna skatta de allra högsta havsvattenstånd som kan uppträda vid de mätstationer för havsvattenstånd som finns längs Sveriges kust. Metoden är generell och principerna kan därför tillämpas på mätdataserier från olika platser. För att kunna tillämpa metoden måste dock mätdataserien ha en viss minimilängd och tidsupplösning. Resultaten som tas fram är empiriska, vilket betyder att de baseras på tillgängliga mätdata.

    I analysen delades data upp i två delar; det genomsnittliga vattenståndet före en högvattenhändelse och nettohöjningen under en högvattenhändelse. Dessa delar benämns havsnivå före storm respektive nettohöjning, i enlighet med:

    stormflod = havsnivå före storm + nettohöjning

    Nivån på stormfloden är det högsta uppmätta havsvattenståndet under respektive högvattenhändelse. I analysen har även högvattenhändelser som inte förknippas med stormar inkluderats. Många av de högsta stormfloderna har inträffat när havsnivån före storm är förhöjd jämfört med medelvattenståndet, framförallt i stora delar av Östersjön. I analysen ingår samtliga högvattenhändelser från vilka det finns tillgänglig mätdata, även sådana som startat från ett lågt utgångsläge.

    I analysen indelades mätstationerna i olika kustområden och samvariationen mellan mätstationerna undersöktes. För varje enskild station, där havsvattenstånd observeras, har högsta havsnivå före storm och högsta nettohöjning framtagits. Den högsta havsnivån före storm som uppmätts inom kustområdet bedömdes gälla för alla mätstationer inom området. Det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet definierades som kustområdets högsta havsnivå före storm plus mätstationens högsta nettohöjning.

    Tidvatteneffekten har inte beaktats särskilt, utan är i viss mån inkluderad i nettohöjningen. Denna förenkling beskrivs närmare i Schöld m fl. (2017).

    Analysen visade att:

    • samvariationen inom kustområden är mycket hög för vanligt förekommande vattenstånd.
    • högvattenhändelser förekommer oftare i vissa kustområden.
    • de högsta vattenstånden kan variera mycket, även mellan stationer inom samma kustområde.
    • havsnivån före storm är en mer betydande stormflodskomponent i Östersjön och mindre betydande i Skagerrak-Kattegatt.
    • havsnivån före storm behöver identifieras så att den inte är påverkad av själva stormhändelsen.
    • det är lämpligt att uppdatera det högsta beräknade havsvattenståndet regelbundet,särskilt efter att nya rekordhöga stormfloder inträffat.

    Vi valde att definiera havsnivån före storm som ett medelvärde över sju dygn, 48 timmar före stormflodens maximum. Metodiken avser nivåer ovanpå ett gällande medelvattenstånd. Framtida förändringar av medelvattenståndet orsakade av den globala klimatförändringen behandlas inte i denna rapport. Tillämpningen av metoden i ett framtida klimat beskrivs i Nerheim m fl. (2017).

  • Hagenbjörk, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kväveoxid-och kvävedioxidhalter i Umeå: sammanställning av mätningar gjorda med diffusionsprovtagare mellan november 2009 och december 20172018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mätning av kvävedioxid (NO2) och kväveoxider (NOx) har utförts med diffusionsprovtagare vid två tillfällen (sommartid respektive vintertid) på 41 platser i Umeå tätort under 2017. Två veckomätningar har gjorts varje år på dessa platser sedan 2009 och totalt sjutton mätningar har utförts på samma sätt över åren. Mätplatsernas geografiska läge kan ha varierat något över tid, provtagare har ibland plockats ned av förbipasserande varför alla mätplatser inte har maximalt antal mätningar. Det finns 25 mätplatser där mätningar har gjorts vid alla sjutton tillfällen.

    De högsta halterna har uppmätts på trafikerade platser under vinterhalvåret p.g.a. större utsläpp och stillastående luft, s.k. inversion. Vid mätningarna 2017 uppmättes de högsta halterna NO2 både sommartid och vintertid vid en husfasad belägen på Västra Esplanaden, centralt i Umeå (21 μg/m3 respektive 51 μg/m3). NOx-halten vintertid var högst vid samma mätpunkt på Västra Esplanaden (134 μg/m3) medan halten vid sommarmätningen var högst vid Östra Kyrkogatan, mittemot simhallen Navet (56 μg/m3).

  • Varsani, A.
    et al.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Sergeev, V. A.
    St Petersburg State Univ, Earths Phys Dept, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Owen, C. J.
    UCL, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking, Surrey, England..
    Petrukovich, A. A.
    RAS, Space Res Inst, Moscow, Russia..
    Yao, Z.
    Space Sci Technol & Astrophys Res Inst, Liege, Belgium..
    Nakamura, T. K. M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Kubyshkina, M. V.
    St Petersburg State Univ, Earths Phys Dept, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Sotirelis, T.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Baltimore, MA 21218 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Genestreti, K. J.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Vörös, Z.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria.;Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Phys, Graz, Austria..
    Andriopoulou, M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP, EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Coffey, V. N.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Heliophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP, EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Ergun, R.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Simultaneous Remote Observations of Intense Reconnection Effects by DMSP and MMS Spacecraft During a Storm Time Substorm2017Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, nr 11, s. 10891-10909Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During a magnetic storm on 23 June 2015, several very intense substorms took place, with signatures observed by multiple spacecraft including DMSP and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). At the time of interest, DMSP F18 crossed inbound through a poleward expanding auroral bulge boundary at 23.5 h magnetic local time (MLT), while MMS was located duskward of 22 h MLT during an inward crossing of the expanding plasma sheet boundary. The two spacecraft observed a consistent set of signatures as they simultaneously crossed the reconnection separatrix layer during this very intense reconnection event. These include (1) energy dispersion of the energetic ions and electrons traveling earthward, accompanied with high electron energies in the vicinity of the separatrix; (2) energy dispersion of polar rain electrons, with a high-energy cutoff; and (3) intense inward convection of the magnetic field lines at the MMS location. The high temporal resolution measurements by MMS provide unprecedented observations of the outermost electron boundary layer. We discuss the relevance of the energy dispersion of the electrons, and their pitch angle distribution, to the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer. The results indicate that the underlying magnetotail magnetic reconnection process was an intrinsically impulsive and the active X-line was located relatively close to the Earth, approximately at 16-18 R-E.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 13:00 MA 624, Huddinge
    Kuflu, Rahel
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Historia.
    Bröder emellan: Identitetsformering i det koloniserade Eritrea2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation study examines individual and collective identity formation in Eritrea during the first period of Italian colonialism (1890-1916). Drawing on an African-centered theoretical framework, my analysis of identity formation centers on the interplay between colonial and patriarchal structures, in relations formed between African evangelical reformists and Swedish missionaries. The study is African-centered in the sense that it mainly focuses on African agency, while at the same time acknowledging the local context. Additionally, the theoretical framework is heavily informed by theories of black diasporic identity formation. While this means that I rely on contemporary theoretical formulations to examine the past, I argue that the afro-diasporic concepts that I draw on, are not always necessarily time and place bound, and thus allow for the exploration of black/African identity, in ways that have the capacity to advance theory-building in the present.

    The source materials consist of reports and minutes written by Swedish missionaries in the field, as well as letters written by members of the mission board in Stockholm. These sources include a multitude of accounts of verbal exchanges and actions carried out by Africans whom these writers encountered, and are therefore used (solely) for this purpose of accessing this information. Other sources used are letters penned by African evangelists hired by the Swedish missionaries. Thus, the letters are rather unique as the evangelists speak directly to their white supervisors in these letters.

    The findings of this study show that both colonial and local patriarchal structures influenced the identity formation of the evangelists and other Africans who attended Swedish missionary schools. While focusing on maintaining their masculinity, most men ended up being trapped within the dualistic worldview of colonialism.

  • Brandhorst, Heide
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England..
    Johnson, Paul R. V.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.;Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Brandhorst, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Surg Sci, Oxford, England.;Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England..
    Quantifying the Effects of Different Neutral Proteases on Human Islet Integrity2017Inngår i: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 1733-1741Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient islet release from the pancreas requires the combination of collagenase, neutral protease (cNP), or thermolysin (TL). Recently, it has been shown that clostripain (CP) may also contribute to efficient islet release from the human pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these proteases on human islet integrity in a prospective approach. Islets were isolated from the pancreas of 10 brain-dead human organ donors. Purified islets were precultured for 3 to 4 d at 37 degrees C to ensure that preparations were cleared of predamaged islets, and only integral islets were subjected to 90 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in Hank's balanced salt solution supplemented with cNP, TL, or CP. The protease concentrations were calculated for a pancreas of 100 g trimmed weight utilizing 120 dimethyl-casein units of cNP, 70,000 caseinase units of TL, or 200 benzoyl-Larginine- ethyl-ester units of CP (1x). These activities were then increased both 5 x and 10 x. After subsequent 24-h culture in enzyme-free culture medium, treated islets were assessed and normalized to sham-treated controls. Compared with controls and CP, islet yield was significantly reduced by using the 5 x activity of cNP and TL, inducing also fragmentation and DNA release. Viability significantly decreased not until adding the 1 x activity of cNP, 5 x activity of TL, or 10 x activity of CP. Although mitochondrial function was significantly lowered by 1 x cNP and 5 x TL, CP did not affect mitochondria at any concentration. cNP-and TL-incubated islets significantly lost intracellular insulin already at 1 x activity, while the 10 x activity of CP had to be added to observe a similar effect. cNP and TL have a similar toxic potency regarding islet integrity. CP also induces adverse effects on islets, but the toxic threshold is generally higher. We hypothesize that CP can serve as supplementary protease to minimize cNP or TL activity for efficient pancreas digestion.

  • Hannestad, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanometer-scale molecular organization in lipid membranes studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.2018Inngår i: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikkel-id 03B408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of lipid membranes plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes at different length scales. Herein, the authors present a procedure based on time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to characterize the nanometer-scale ordering of lipids in lipid membrane structures on surfaces. While ToF-SIMS is a powerful tool for label-free analysis of lipid-containing samples, its limited spatial resolution prevents in-depth knowledge of how lipid properties affect the molecular assembly of the membrane. The authors overcome this limitation by measuring the formation of lipid dimers, originating in the same nanometer-sized primary ion impact areas. The lipid dimers reflect the local lipid environment and thus allow us to characterize the membrane miscibility on the nanometer level. Using this technique, the authors show that the chemical properties of the constituting lipids are critical for the structure and organization of the membrane on both the nanometer and micrometer length scales. Our results show that even at lipid surface compositions favoring two-phase systems, lipids are still extracted from solid, gel phase, domains into the surrounding fluid supported lipid bilayer surrounding the gel phase domains. The technique offers a means to obtain detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and organization of lipid membranes with potential application in systems where labeling is not possible, such as cell-derived supported lipid bilayers.

  • Hjalmarsson, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Nikolaidou, Zoe
    Södertörns högskola, Svenska.
    Sköldvall, Kajsa
    Södertörns högskola, Svenska.
    Eklund Heinonen, Maria
    Uppsala universitet.
    "Fan va grymma vi är" - effekter av ämnesintegrerad undervisning i akademiskt skrivande2017Inngår i: Språk och norm. Language and norms: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21-22 april 2016. Papers from the ASLA Symposium at Uppsala University 21-22 April, 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard; Ulla Melander Marttala; Maria Westman, Uppsala: ASLA: Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap , 2017, s. 37-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Hjalmarsson, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Humlesjö, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Ett lärande bibliotek – och dess möjligheter2009Inngår i: En bok om böcker och bibliotek: tillägnad Louise Brunes / [ed] Erland Jansson, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2009, s. 121-131Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Grönvall, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Hjalmarsson, Jan
    Södertörns högskola, Södertörns högskolebibliotek.
    Bildning för vår tids bibliotek2014Inngår i: Att växa som människa: om bildningens traditioner och praktiker / [ed] Anders Burman, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, s. 301-319Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Karltun, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Industriell organisation och produktion.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Industriell organisation och produktion.
    Rydell, Martin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Industriell organisation och produktion.
    New legislation on organizational and social work environment: A case study2017Inngår i: Conference Proceedings: 48th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, 12th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Organizing for High Performance, July 31-August 3, 2017, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2017, s. 109-114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    NHC,P- and N,P-Iridium Catalysts for Hydrogenations and Hydrogen Transfer Reactions2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on hydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions using iridium catalysts. The first part concerns the use of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes in alkylation reactions (Chapters 2 and 3) and the hydrogenation of ketones (Chapter 4). A number of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes have been prepared and evaluated as catalysts for C-N bond formation of amides using alcohols as the electrophile. This catalytic system can be used with a wide range of substrates at low catalyst loading (only 0.5 mol%) to furnish the desired products in up to 98% isolated yield. The achiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were also found to catalyze the methylation of ketones with methanol under mild conditions to afford the mono-methylated products in up to 98% isolated yield with low catalyst loading (1.0 mol%). Additionally, several chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were synthesized and evaluated in asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones. The reactions were carried out at room temperature under base-free conditions to obtain the chiral alcohols in up to 96% ee in 30 minutes.

    The second part of this thesis (Chapter 5) details the preparation of new N,P-iridium complexes which were found to be highly efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of challenging tetrasubstituted olefins. This catalytic system results in optically active compounds of high enantiomeric excess (up to 98% ee) as the single diasteroisomer.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 13:00 Hörsal 7, Hus D, Stockholm
    Nilsson Mohammadi, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Forskarskolan i kulturhistoriska studier (FoKult).
    Den stora gruvstrejken i Malmfälten: En muntlig historia2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores how the miners’ strike in the Norrbotten ore fields 1969–70 has been made meaningful. For a long time, this strike has been a centre of debates and reflections on society, culture, and history in Sweden. The popular support for the miners’ strike was high, and a solidarity movement comprising loosely organised individual and collective initiatives was formed. Journalists, documentary film-makers, playwrights, scholars, and others within this movement documented the strike. Following the strike, actors within the solidarity movement expressed concerns that the experiences from the strike would be scattered and forgotten. Therefore, the strike has been depicted many times and in many genres. The authors of these depictions have commonly used the participants’ voices to narrate the strike.

    Through the miners’ strike, consecutive depictions of it, and memories from its participants, this dissertation studies the relationships between memories from individual actors, shared memory processes on a societal level, and history-writing. The central concept is meaning-making, which in this dissertation stands for people’s ever ongoing work to make themselves, others, and shared situations comprehensible. Meaning-making is studied through the more empirically oriented concepts memory and narrative. A combination of what historian Alistair Thomson has called ‘a popular memory approach to oral history’ and Gérard Genette’s narratology is put to use in the studies. The focus is thus how the participants in the strike and actors in the solidarity movement have made stories out of their memories, and how they then relate to existing accounts. This leads to a discussion on how voices from actors can be used in order to produce knowledge and/or change.

    On an empirical level, the dissertation contributes with knowledge on how the strike has been made meaningful through time, but also about the strike as an event in the past. The most important material is a new collection of oral history interviews with participants in the strike and people who took part in the solidarity movement, but the dissertation also studies books, articles and dramas that depicts the strike. In the first empirical chapter, constructions and discussions of the miners’ voices in texts by actors within the solidarity movement during the period 1968–2009 is discussed. The second empirical chapter explores how two persons that reported from the strike describes and discusses their journeys to the strike as well as their texts about the strike. The third empirical chapter analyses the different stories about the strike that the collection of oral history interviews contains, and shows how the strike has been made into an event. The fourth empirical chapter shows how participants relate to existing stories about the strike when the mediate their memories of it in the oral history interviews.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Lokatt, Cristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Auditors’ Constitution of Performance: a study on the duality of performance in the auditing profession2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, the auditing profession has been under scrutiny, due in part to its close association with a business rationale. This has led to some to call for de-professionalization, where accountability, control, and commerce would threaten auditing’s autonomy. Yet auditing is regarded as a principle of social organization and control, wherein it produces trust and legitimacy to society. By focusing on the individual auditor and the micro-level dynamics in the auditor’s organizational context, this dissertation challenges traditional notions of professionalism and commercialism as dichotomies. Based on documents, observations, and in-depth interviews with auditors holding different levels of experience, performance was targeted as a central concept for auditors’ understanding of auditing as a social and organizational phenomenon. Accordingly, by critically appraising the significance of performance in the professional-organizational context of Big Four firms, this dissertation engages with auditors’ reasoning and everyday work activities. Here, performance is suggested to hold a central role in how auditors manage and reconcile conflicting institutional logics — as well as accountability demands — in their everyday work. By theorizing on the mediating role of performance, this dissertation explores how performance is enacted in both structure (control, rituals and norms) and agency (reflexive monitoring and rationalization). Drawing on structuration theory, performance is shown to constitute modalities in actors’ use of structure, a process in which conflicting institutional logics are replicated, revised, and rejected. The findings further pinpoint the active role of auditors in mobilizing and defining legitimate performances within particular local settings. In this, a previously neglected interplay between bureaucratic and social performance practices that is performed by auditors is recognized as essential in exploring auditing as defined in the local professional-organizational settings. This interplay suggests a need to further attend how auditing is performed by practitioners in micro-level, everyday work. To conclude, this dissertation indicates that auditors’ reasoning on and mobilization of performance define the evolving auditing profession, one where rules and accountability regimes dominate. As a consequence, the influence of individual agency, professional communities, and social interaction are emphasized as key components for our understanding of the continuously developing professional field of auditing and the maintenance of a strong professional ethos.

  • Disputas: 2018-03-16 09:30 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Winkens, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Estimating children’s exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly stable, surface active chemicals, which are water- and oil/stain-repellent. Because of their unique properties, PFASs are widely used in consumer products. Their application ranges from personal-care products, food packaging and textiles to interior materials, thus leading to a continuous human exposure to PFASs in every-day life. Possible exposure pathways are the ingestion of food, drinking water and dust; the inhalation of fine dust and air; as well as dermal absorption after contact with the products and dust.

    Despite the increasing number of monitoring studies, including measurement of concentrations in human exposure media and blood, childhood exposure is poorly understood.

    The state of current knowledge on childhood exposure was investigated in paper I, by reviewing existing PFAS literature on exposure media, on daily intakes via different exposure pathways and on levels in blood and serum. Subsequently, recommendations for future research needs were made and implications presented on the regulation and assessment of PFASs. For paper II, III and IV, a cohort of background-exposed Finnish children was followed throughout childhood. Indoor air and floor dust samples of their bedrooms were taken at the age of 10.5 years in 2014/2015 and analysed for a wide range of PFASs (paper II and III). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) via these two media were calculated in paper III. The EDIs revealed that dust ingestion and air inhalation are of similar importance for the intake of single perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), if the metabolism of PFAA precursors to PFAAs was included. The metabolism of precursors contributed considerably to the total intake of PFAAs via the inhalation of air (e.g. 38 % for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 90 % for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) and to the total intake of PFOS via the ingestion of dust (69 %; median values at the intermediate exposure scenario). In paper IV, the internal exposure during childhood was monitored by measuring serum concentrations, which were decreasing with age; and by calculating body burdens at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age, which were constant or increasing, depending on the respective PFAS. These results demonstrated that it is crucial to account for growth dilution when studying exposure trends and PFAS intakes during childhood.

    This thesis contributes to a better understanding of children’s exposure to PFASs, especially the internal exposure during childhood and the relative importance of both, indoor exposure pathways, as well as individual PFASs.

  • Frode Blomberg, Agneta ()
    Linköpings universitet, Universitetsförvaltningen.
    Årsredovisning 2017: Linköpings universitet2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings universitet (LiU) har hög kvalitet i utbildningarna och i den senaste utvärderingen som Universitetskanslersämbetet genomförde var Linköpings universitet näst bäst av flerfakultetsuniversiteten. Att nå och behålla hög kvalitet i utbildningarna är den viktigaste förutsättningen för att rekrytera de studenter som är bäst lämpade.

    Utbildningsutbudet har förändrats genom att nya utbildningar startat vid LiU under hösten 2017. Som exempel kan nämnas ett nytt kandidatprogram i samhällsplanering och en masterutbildning i design. Projektet Digitala resurser för lärande spelar en viktig roll i ljuset av förberedelserna för den snabba och omfattande digitaliseringen av det svenska samhället.

    Med anledning av de senaste årens ökade antal nyanlända har universitetet tillsammans med andra aktörer arbetat aktivt med att skapa möjligheter för de nyanlända att snabbare komma ut på arbetsmarknaden eller kunna påbörja en utbildning. LiU har exempelvis genomfört kompletterande utbildning för personer med avslutad biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning, en introduktionsutbildning för läkare med utländsk legitimation, en arbetsmarknadsutbildning för arabisktalande nyanlända lärare och förskollärare samt kompletterande utbildning för lärare med utländsk examen.

    Linköpings universitet bedriver flera olika insatser som syftar till en breddad studentrekrytering. Arbetet följs årligen upp i LiU:s handlingsplan för Lika villkor och kunskap om Lika villkor sprids också bland studenter som deltar i studentrekryteringsaktiviteter.

    Under 2017 har LiU visat mycket god förmåga att attrahera externa medel och därigenom kunnat fortsätta bygga starka och fokuserade forskningsmiljöer. Antalet vetenskapliga publikationer författade av forskare från LiU ökar ständigt och trots en allt hårdare internationell konkurrens klarar sig universitetet också väl i olika rankningar.

    Det framgångsrika arbetet med att etablera viktiga forskningssamarbeten med såväl universitet som industri och omgivande samhälle fortsätter, både nationellt och internationellt. Ett exempel på detta är arbetet inom Wallenberg Autonomous Systems and Software Program, WASP, som är landets enskilt största forskningsprogram och som mötts av ett stort intresse från industrin med många ansökningar till platserna som industridoktorander.

    Under det gångna året har en rad utvecklingsprojekt ytterligare stärkt LiU:s samverkansförmåga och tydliggjort det breda nyttiggörande som lärosätets forskning och utbildning bidrar till. En stor del av verksamheten har även fokuserat på framtida utmaningar där LiU tillsammans med ett antal andra svenska lärosäten formulerat grunden för de Vinnovafinansierade strategiska utvecklingsprojekt som startat under senare delen av året.

    Genom en utvecklad dialog och spetsforskning i nära samverkan med samhälle och näringsliv, regionalt, nationellt och internationellt, bidrar LiU till en samhällsutveckling baserad på kunskap. Under det gångna året har en rad exempel på forskningens nyttiggörande och samhälleliga genomslag tagits fram i form av såväl skrivna som filmatiserade fallstudier, så kallade ”impact case studies”.

    LiU har etablerat förinkubatorn LiU Impact Factory som är inriktad på studenters sociala och hållbara innovationer. Studenterna erbjuds rådgivning, verifieringsarbete och tillgång till lokaler på Campus Valla och Campus Norrköping. Alla projekt under 2017 handlade om de globala hållbarhetsmålen. Webbportalen studentuppdrag.se har lanserats i en ny version. Där kan kursansvariga vid LiU synliggöra projektkurser där man söker externa uppdrag som studenterna kan jobba med under sin utbildning.

    Under året har Linköpings universitet fortsatt sitt arbete med att stärka och utveckla de utomeuropeiska kontakterna, framför allt inom ramen för de strategiskt utvalda länderna/regionerna Brasilien, sydöstra Kina samt sydöstra Afrika. Under året har fokus legat på intern kommunikation, nätverksbyggande samt kartläggning av befintliga samarbeten och utbyten mellan LiU och länder i Afrika inom både utbildning och forskning. Utöver satsningarna på de strategiskt utvalda länderna/regionerna, har året präglats av nationella internationaliseringssamarbeten.

    De huvudsakliga rekryteringsaktiviteterna till masterprogram på engelska för avgiftsskyldiga studenter sker via digitala kanaler, som exempelvis portaler och webbinarier. LiU har, i samarbete med andra svenska lärosäten och Svenska Institutet, deltagit i rekryteringsaktiviteter på plats i Brasilien, Kina, Sydkorea och Indonesien.

    Under året har LiU erhållit flera stora anslag som har en stark miljökoppling. Det gäller till exempel forskning om nästa generations organiska solceller respektive bränsleceller i papper och kring en ny typ av material som lämpar sig för bland annat solceller och lysdioder. Ytterligare forskning som får stöd handlar om att bidra med kunskap och stöd till implementeringen av FN:s globala mål.

    När det gäller arbetet med jämställdhet har insatser för att motverka förekomst av kränkande behandling varit prioriterade. En handlingsplan för jämställdhetsintegreringen vid LiU, Equitas, har tagits fram och beslutats.

    Linköpings universitet har ett fortsatt stort behov av att rekrytera kärnkompetens och därför har det under året varit fortsatt fokus på LiU:s förmåga att attrahera och rekrytera lärare och forskare så att det blir möjligt att nå målen kring excellent utbildning och forskning. Ett annat angeläget arbete syftar till att behålla och utveckla kompetensen hos universitetets anställda samt att arbeta för att kunna erbjuda ett gott arbetsklimat och möjligheter till utveckling i det egna arbetet.

    Det ekonomiska resultatet för 2017 uppvisar ett överskott om 38 mnkr, se tabell 1.1. Utbildningen visar ett överskott på 47 mnkr medan forskningen visar ett underskott på 9 mnkr.

  • Rodriguez-Cancio, Marcelino
    et al.
    University of Rennes 1.
    Baudry, Benoit
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS.
    White, Jules
    Vanderbildt University.
    Images of Code: Lossy Compression for Native Instructions2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers can use lossy compression on images and many other artifacts to reduce size and improve network transfer times. Native program instructions, however, are typically not considered candidates for lossy compression since arbitrary losses in instructions may dramatically affect program output. In this paper we show that lossy compression of compiled native instructions is possible in certain circumstances. We demonstrate that the instructions sequence of a program can be lossily translated into a separate but equivalent program with instruction-wise differences, which still produces the same output. We contribute the novel insight that it is possible to exploit such instruction differences to design lossy compression schemes for native code. We support this idea with sound and unsound program transformations that improve performance of compression techniques such as Run-Length (RLE), Huffman and LZ77. We also show that large areas of code can endure tampered instructions with no impact on the output, a result consistent with previous works from various communities.

  • Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain..
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stora, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gillingwater, Thomas H.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    MacCallum, Malcolm
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Luis Arsuaga, Juan
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Geol, Dept Paleontol, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England.;Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Archaeol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Archaeol & Hist, Bundoora, Vic 3086, Australia..
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Nat Sci & Psychol, Res Ctr Evolutionary Anthropol & Palaeoecol, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 3AF, Merseyside, England..
    Genomic Analyses of Pre-European Conquest Human Remains from the Canary Islands Reveal Close Affinity to Modern North Africans2017Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, nr 21, s. 3396-3402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5th century BCE [1-3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6-8]. These results are in agreement with some linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological data indicating an origin from a North African Berber-like population [1, 4, 9]. However, to date there are no published Guanche autosomal genomes to help elucidate and directly test this hypothesis. To resolve this, we generated the first genome-wide sequence data and mitochondrial genomes from eleven archaeological Guanche individuals originating from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Five of the individuals (directly radiocarbon dated to a time transect spanning the 7th-11th centuries CE) yielded sufficient autosomal genome coverage (0.21x to 3.93x) for population genomic analysis. Our results show that the Guanches were genetically similar over time and that they display the greatest genetic affinity to extant Northwest Africans, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a Berber-like origin. We also estimate that the Guanches have contributed 16%-31% autosomal ancestry to modern Canary Islanders, here represented by two individuals from Gran Canaria.

  • Skogman, Barbro Hedin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning Dalarna.
    Lager, M.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Lab Med, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Henningsson, A. J.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Clin Microbiol, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Tjernberg, I.
    Kalmar Cty Council, Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Kalmar, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    The recomBead Borrelia antibody index, CXCL13 and total IgM index for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children2017Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, nr 11, s. 2221-2229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For laboratory diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the recomBead Borrelia antibody index (AI) assay has shown promising results in a mixed age population, but has not previously been evaluated with specific focus on paediatric patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the recomBead Borrelia AI assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the laboratory diagnosis of LNB in children. We also wanted to explore whether early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and/or total IgM index could be useful as complementary diagnostic tools. Children being evaluated for LNB in a Swedish Lyme endemic area were included in the study (n = 146). Serum and CSF were collected on admission. Patients with other specific diagnoses were controls (n = 15). The recomBead Borrelia AI assay and the recomBead CXCL13 assay (Mikrogen) were applied together with total IgM index. The overall sensitivity for recomBead Borrelia AI (IgM and IgG together) was 74% and the specificity was 97%. However, the highest sensitivity (91%) at an acceptable level of specificity (90%) was obtained by recomBead Borrelia AI together with CXCL13 and total IgM index, showing a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 95%. Thus, the recomBead Borrelia AI assay performs with moderate sensitivity and high specificity in paediatric LNB patients. The major advantage seems to be increased sensitivity in the possible LNB group compared to the IDEIA assay. The diagnostic sensitivity may be further increased by using a combination of early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and total IgM index.

  • Bergbom, Ingegerd
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad - grundnivå.
    Ringdal, Mona
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Developing and evaluating an instrument to measure Recovery After INtensive care: the RAIN instrument2018Inngår i: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 17, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and evaluating patients' recovery, following intensive care, is essential for assessing their recovery process. By using a questionnaire, which includes spiritual and existential aspects, possibilities for identifying appropriate nursing care activities may be facilitated. The study describes the development and evaluation of a recovery questionnaire and its validity and reliability.

  • Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicinsk epidemiologi.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicinsk epidemiologi.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicinsk epidemiologi.
    Housing Type and Neighbourhood Safety Behaviour Predicts Self-rated Health, Psychological Well-being and Frequency of Recent Unhealthy Days: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of the General Population in Sweden2017Inngår i: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 444-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at analysing associations among housing type, neighbourhood safety behaviour, self-rated health (SRH), psychological well-being and unhealthy days in the general population. From 2004 to 2013, 90,845 Swedes completed a questionnaire about their health, number of days with poor health, psychological well-being, housing type, and whether they refrained from going out based on perception of neighbourhood safety. People not living in private housing and those who did not go out for safety reasons reported lower SRH and psychological well-being and higher frequency of recent unhealthy days and days without work capacity due to poor health.