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  • Gustafsson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Rostami, Jinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nordström, Eva
    BioArct AB, Stockholm.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Bergström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Alpha-synuclein oligomer-selective antibodies reduce intracellular accumulation and mitochondrial impairment in alpha-synuclein exposed astrocytes2017In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, ISSN 1742-2094, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 14, article id 241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to its neurotoxic properties, oligomeric alpha-synuclein (α-syn) has been suggested as an attractive target for passive immunization against Parkinson’s disease (PD). In mouse models of PD, antibody treatment has been shown to lower the levels of pathogenic α-syn species, including oligomers, although the mechanisms of action remain unknown. We have previously shown that astrocytes rapidly engulf α-syn oligomers that are intracellularly stored, rather than degraded, resulting in impaired mitochondria.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate if the accumulation of α-syn in astrocytes can be affected by α-syn oligomer-selective antibodies. Co-cultures of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes were derived from embryonic mouse cortex and exposed to α-syn oligomers or oligomers pre-incubated with oligomer-selective antibodies.

    Results: In the presence of antibodies, the astrocytes displayed an increased clearance of the exogenously added α-syn, and consequently, the α-syn accumulation in the culture was markedly reduced. Moreover, the addition of antibodies rescued the astrocytes from the oligomer-induced mitochondrial impairment.

    Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that oligomer-selective antibodies can prevent α-syn accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured astrocytes.

  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Solving ill-posed control problems by stabilized finite element methods: an alternative to Tikhonov regularization2018In: Inverse Problems, ISSN 0266-5611, E-ISSN 1361-6420, Vol. 34, no 3, article id 035004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tikhonov regularization is one of the most commonly used methods for the regularization of ill-posed problems. In the setting of finite element solutions of elliptic partial differential control problems, Tikhonov regularization amounts to adding suitably weighted least squares terms of the control variable, or derivatives thereof, to the Lagrangian determining the optimality system. In this note we show that the stabilization methods for discretely illposed problems developed in the setting of convection-dominated convection-diffusion problems, can be highly suitable for stabilizing optimal control problems, and that Tikhonov regularization will lead to less accurate discrete solutions. We consider some inverse problems for Poisson's equation as an illustration and derive new error estimates both for the reconstruction of the solution from the measured data and reconstruction of the source term from the measured data. These estimates include both the effect of the discretization error and error in the measurements.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Université Mohamed Premier, Faculté des Sciences; LPTPM, Oujda.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Petar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael U.F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sales De Bruin, Pedro H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva.
    Measurement of the Drell-Yan triple-differential cross section in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 12, article id 059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a measurement of the triple-differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process Z/γ * + where is an electron or a muon. The measurement is performed for invariant masses of the lepton pairs, m ℓℓ , between 46 and 200 GeV using a sample of 20.2 fb−1 of pp collisions data at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2012. The data are presented in bins of invariant mass, absolute dilepton rapidity, |y ℓℓ|, and the angular variable cos θ * between the outgoing lepton and the incoming quark in the Collins-Soper frame. The measurements are performed in the range |y ℓℓ | < 2.4 in the muon channel, and extended to |y ℓℓ | < 3.6 in the electron channel. The cross sections are used to determine the Z boson forward-backward asymmetry as a function of |y ℓℓ | and m ℓℓ . The measurements achieve high-precision, below the percent level in the pole region, excluding the uncertainty in the integrated luminosity, and are in agreement with predictions. These precision data are sensitive to the parton distribution functions and the effective weak mixing angle.

  • Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Nature Conservancy, Delmont, NJ USA..
    King, Katie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lacombe, Guillaume
    Int Water Management Inst, Viangchan, Laos..
    Assessing hydrologic changes across the Lower Mekong Basin2017In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 12, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: In this study, 33 catchments across the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia are examined to detect historical changes in their hydrological response via a model-based methodology.

    Study focus: Intensive development over the past half century across Southeast Asia's Lower Mekong Basin has inevitably affected natural resources. Large areas have been converted from forests for subsistence and commercial agriculture, and urban development. We implement an innovative approach to screen hydrologic data for detecting impacts of such large-scale changes on hydrological response. In a first step, temporal changes in the rainfall-runoff relationship were assessed using the parsimonious, two-parameter GR2M hydrological model. In a second step, a distribution-free statistical test was applied to detect whether significant changes have occurred in the wet season (high flow) and dry season (low flow) conditions.

    New hydrological insights for the region: Our results indicate that the majority of catchments (64% of those considered) with sufficiently long data records exhibited no discernable trends in hydrological response. Those catchments that did exhibit significant trends in hydrological response were fairly evenly split between increasing trends (between 21% and 24%) and decreasing trends (between 15% and 12%) with time. There was a lack of evidence that these changes where brought about by shifts in precipitation or potential evapotranspiration; however, catchments exhibiting significant increasing trends in hydrological behavior were found to have different land cover compositions (lower percentage of forest coverage and subsequently higher paddy rice coverage) than those exhibiting significant decreasing trends. The approach presented here provides a potentially valuable screening method to highlight regions for further investigation of improved mechanistic understanding. Without this connection, we might be blind to future hydrological shifts that can have significant impact on development.

  • Al Ansari, A.
    et al.
    Strachan, K.
    Hashim, S.
    Otoom, S.
    Analysis of psychometric properties of the modified SETQ tool in undergraduate medical education2017In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effective clinical teaching is crucially important for the future of patient care. Robust clinical training therefore is essential to produce physicians capable of delivering high quality health care. Tools used to evaluate medical faculty teaching qualities should be reliable and valid. This study investigates the psychometric properties of modification of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) instrument in the clinical years of undergraduate medical education.

    Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in four teaching hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two-hundred ninety-eight medical students were invited to evaluate 105 clinical teachers using the SETQ instrument between January 2015 and March 2015. Questionnaire feasibility was analyzed using average time required to complete the form and the number of raters required to produce reliable results. Instrument reliability (stability) was assessed by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total scale and for each sub-scale (factor). To provide evidence of construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify which items on the survey belonged together, which were then grouped as factors.

    Results: One-hundred twenty-five medical students completed 1161 evaluations of 105 clinical teachers. The response rates were 42% for student evaluations and 57% for clinical teacher self-evaluations. The factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was composed of six factors, explaining 76.7% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.94 or higher for the six factors in the student survey; for the clinical teacher survey, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88. In both instruments, the item-total correlation was above 0.40 for all items within their respective scales.

    Conclusion: Our modified SETQ questionnaire was found to be both reliable and valid, and was implemented successfully across various departments and specialties in different hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

  • Rozman Grinberg, Inna
    et al.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Hasan, Mahmudul
    Crona, Mikael
    Rao Jonna, Venkateswara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Loderer, Chrishtoph
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Markova, Natalia
    Borovok, Ilya
    Berggren, Gustav
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Logan, Derek T.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Novel ATP-cone-driven allosteric regulation of ribonucleotide reductase via the radical-generating subunit2018In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 7, article id e31529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are key enzymes in DNA metabolism, with allosteric mechanisms controlling substrate specificity and overall activity. In RNRs, the activity master-switch, the ATP-cone, has been found exclusively in the catalytic subunit. In two class I RNR subclasses whose catalytic subunit lacks the ATP-cone, we discovered ATP-cones in the radical-generating subunit. The ATP-cone in the Leeuwenhoekiella blandensis radical-generating subunit regulates activity via quaternary structure induced by binding of nucleotides. ATP induces enzymatically competent dimers, whereas dATP induces non-productive tetramers, resulting in different holoenzymes. The tetramer forms by interactions between ATP-cones, shown by a 2.45 A crystal structure. We also present evidence for an (MnMnIV)-Mn-III metal center. In summary, lack of an ATP-cone domain in the catalytic subunit was compensated by transfer of the domain to the radical-generating subunit. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of transfer of an allosteric domain between components of the same enzyme complex.

  • Mcelhinney, L. M.
    et al.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Marston, D. A.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Pounder, K. C.
    Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Goharriz, H.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Wise, E. L.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Jennings, D.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Johnson, N.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Civello, A.
    APHA, Dept Pathol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Nunez, A.
    APHA, Dept Pathol, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Brooks, T.
    Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Publ Hlth England, Rare & Imported Pathogens Lab, Salisbury, Wilts, England..
    Breed, A. C.
    APHA, Dept Epidemiol Sci, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Dept Agr & Water Resources, Epidemiol & Hlth Sect 1, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Lawes, J.
    APHA, Dept Epidemiol Sci, Weybridge, Surrey, England..
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Featherstone, C. A.
    APHA, Thirsk Vet Invest Ctr, Thirsk, England..
    Fooks, A. R.
    Anim & Plant Hlth Agcy, Dept Virol, Weybridge, Surrey, England.;Univ Liverpool, HPRU Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    High prevalence of Seoul hantavirus in a breeding colony of pet rats2017In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 145, no 15, p. 3115-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.

  • Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel
    et al.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Calle-Espinosa, Jorge
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Mori, Matteo
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Phys, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Latorre, Amparo
    Univ Valencia, Dept Genet, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, CSIC, Inst Integrat Syst Biol, Valencia, Spain..
    Montero, Francisco
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Quim, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 1, Madrid, Spain..
    Pereto, Juli
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, Inst Integrat Syst Biol, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol, Valencia, Spain..
    Determinism and Contingency Shape Metabolic Complementation in an Endosymbiotic Consortium2017In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 8, article id 2290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins. A well-known case of metabolic complementation is provided by the cedar aphid Cinara cedri that harbors two co-primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola BCc and Ca. Serratia symbiotica SCc, and in which some metabolic pathways are partitioned between different partners. Here we present a genome-scale metabolic network (GEM) for the bacterial consortium from the cedar aphid iBSCc. The analysis of this GEM allows us the confirmation of cases of metabolic complementation previously described by genome analysis (i.e., tryptophan and biotin biosynthesis) and the redefinition of an event of metabolic pathway sharing between the two endosymbionts, namely the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate. In silico knock-out experiments with iBSCc showed that the consortium metabolism is a highly integrated yet fragile network. We also have explored the evolutionary pathways leading to the emergence of metabolic complementation between reduced metabolisms starting from individual, complete networks. Our results suggest that, during the establishment of metabolic complementation in endosymbionts, adaptive evolution is significant in the case of tryptophan biosynthesis, whereas vitamin production pathways seem to adopt suboptimal solutions.

  • Wange, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anan, Intissar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ericzon, Bo-Göran
    Pennlert, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Pilebro, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wixner, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Atrial Fibrillation and Central Nervous Complications in Liver Transplanted Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients2018In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 102, no 2, p. e59-e66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Central nervous system (CNS) complications are increasingly noted in liver transplanted (LTx) hereditary transthyretin amyloid (ATTRm) amyloidosis patients; this suggests that the increased survival allows for intracranial ATTRm formation from brain synthesized mutant TTR. However, atrial fibrillation (AF), a recognised risk factor for ischemic CNS complications, is also observed after LTx. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of CNS complications and AF in LTx ATTRm amyloidosis patients. Methods. The medical records of all LTx ATTRm amyloidosis patients in the county of Vasterbotten, Sweden, were investigated for information on CNS complications, AF, anticoagulation (AC) therapy, hypertension, cardiac ischemic disease, hypertrophy, and neurological status. Results. Sixty-three patients that had survived for 3 years or longer after LTx were included in the analysis. Twenty-five patients had developed 1 or more CNS complications at a median of 21 years after onset of disease. AF was noted in 21 patients (median time to diagnosis 24 years). Cerebrovascular events (CVE) developed in 17 (median time to event 21 years). CVEs occurred significantly more often in patients with AF (P < 0.002). AC therapy significantly reduced CVEs, including bleeding in patients with AF (P = 0.04). Multivariate analysis identified AF as the only remaining regressor with a significant impact on CVE (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-9.5; P = 0.029). Conclusions. AF is an important risk factor for CVE in LTx ATTRm amyloidosis patients, and AC therapy should be considered. However, the increased bleeding risk with AC therapy in patients with intracranial amyloidosis should be acknowledged.

  • Panaliappan, Tamilarasan K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Wittmann, Walter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Jidigam, Vijay K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Mercurio, Sara
    Bertolini, Jessica A.
    Sghari, Soufien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Bose, Raj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Patthey, Cedric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Nicolis, Silvia K.
    Gunhaga, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Sox2 is required for olfactory pit formation and olfactory neurogenesis through BMP restriction and Hes5 upregulation2018In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 145, no 2, article id dev153791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcription factor Sox2 is necessary to maintain pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and to regulate neural development. Neurogenesis in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium persists from embryonic stages through adulthood. The role Sox2 plays for the development of the olfactory epithelium and neurogenesis within has, however, not been determined. Here, by analysing Sox2 conditional knockout mouse embryos and chick embryos deprived of Sox2 in the olfactory epithelium using CRISPR-Cas9, we show that Sox2 activity is crucial for the induction of the neural progenitor gene Hes5 and for subsequent differentiation of the neuronal lineage. Our results also suggest that Sox2 activity promotes the neurogenic domain in the nasal epithelium by restricting Bmp4 expression. The Sox2-deficient olfactory epithelium displays diminished cell cycle progression and proliferation, a dramatic increase in apoptosis and finally olfactory pit atrophy. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation data show that Sox2 directly binds to the Hes5 promoter in both the PNS and CNS. Taken together, our results indicate that Sox2 is essential to establish, maintain and expand the neuronal progenitor pool by suppressing Bmp4 and upregulating Hes5 expression.

  • Stokke, Caroline
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Diagnost Phys, Oslo, Norway..
    Gabina, Pablo Minguez
    Gurutzeta Cruces Univ Hosp, Dept Med Phys & Radiat Protect, Baracaldo, Spain..
    Solny, Pavel
    Czech Tech Univ, Dept Dosimetry & Applicat Ionizing Radiat, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Cicone, Francesco
    Sapienza Univ Rome, St Andrea Hosp, Dept Surg & Med Sci & Translat Med, Nucl Med, Rome, Italy..
    Sandström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen
    Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden..
    Chiesa, Carlo
    Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Nucl Med Div, Milan, Italy..
    Spezi, Emiliano
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Engn, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales..
    Paphiti, Maria
    Pammakaristos Hosp, Dept Med Phys, Athens, Greece..
    Konijnenberg, Mark
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Aldridge, Matt
    UCL Inst Nucl Med, Nucl Med Radiotherapy Phys, London, England.;UCL Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    Tipping, Jill
    Christie NHS Fdn Trust, Nucl Med, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Wissmeyer, Michael
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Dept Nucl Med, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Brans, Boudewijn
    Univ Hosp, Dept Nucl Med, Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Hosp, PET Ctr, Ghent, Belgium..
    Bacher, Klaus
    Univ Ghent, Div Med Phys, Dept Basic Med Sci, Ghent, Belgium..
    Kobe, Carsten
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Dept Nucl Med, Cologne, Germany..
    Flux, Glenn
    Royal Marsden Hosp, Joint Dept Phys, Sutton, Surrey, England.;Inst Canc Res, Sutton, Surrey, England..
    Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force2017In: EJNMMI Physics, ISSN 2197-7364, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 4, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom) mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  • Lynøe, Niels
    et al.
    Rosén, Måns
    Elinder, Göran
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Sundgren, Pia
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Pouring out the dirty bathwater without throwing away either the baby or its parents: commentary to Saunders et al.2018In: Pediatric Radiology, ISSN 0301-0449, E-ISSN 1432-1998, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 284-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Persson, Bengt
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lärarutbildning och vetenskaplighet2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Godskesen, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Andersson, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    How to counter undeserving authorship2018In: Insights: the UKSG journal, E-ISSN 2048-7754, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average number of authors listed on contributions to scientific journals has increased considerably over time. While this may be accounted for by the increased complexity of much research and a corresponding need for extended collaboration, several studies suggest that the prevalence of non-deserving authors on research papers is alarming. In this paper a combined qualitative and quantitative approach is suggested to reduce the number of undeserving authors on academic papers: 1) ask scholars who apply for positions to explain the basics of a random selection of their co-authored papers, and 2) in bibliometric measurements, divide publications and citations by the number of authors.

  • Glimelius, Bengt
    et al.
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Enblad, Gunilla
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Beskow, Anna
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Birgisson, Helgi
    Björ, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Hansson, Tony
    Helleday, Thomas
    Hellman, Per
    Henriksson, Kerstin
    Hesselager, Göran
    Hultdin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Häggman, Michael
    Höglund, Martin
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Larsson, Chatarina
    Lindman, Henrik
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Mindus, Stephanie
    Nygren, Peter
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    Stenling, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Stålberg, Karin
    Stålberg, Peter
    Sundström, Christer
    Thellenberg Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Westermark, Bengt
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Sjöblom, Tobias
    U-CAN: a prospective longitudinal collection of biomaterials and clinical information from adult cancer patients in Sweden2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umea Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population.

    Material and Methods: Patients with cancer of selected types who are treated at one of the participating hospitals are eligible for inclusion. The healthcare-integrated sampling scheme encompasses clinical data, questionnaires, blood, fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, diagnostic slides and radiology bioimaging data.

    Results: In this ongoing effort, 12,265 patients with brain tumors, breast cancers, colorectal cancers, gynecological cancers, hematological malignancies, lung cancers, neuroendocrine tumors or prostate cancers have been included until the end of 2016. From the 6914 patients included during the first five years, 98% were sampled for blood at diagnosis, 83% had paraffin-embedded and 58% had fresh frozen tissues collected. For Uppsala County, 55% of all cancer patients were included in the cohort.

    Conclusions: Close collaboration between participating hospitals and universities enabled prospective, longitudinal biobanking of blood and tissues and collection of multidisciplinary clinical data from cancer patients in the U-CAN cohort. Here, we summarize the first five years of operations, present U-CAN as a highly valuable cohort that will contribute to enhanced cancer research and describe the procedures to access samples and data.

  • Gustafsson, Christian
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Korhonen, Juha
    Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Nucl Med, Helsinki 00290, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Radiol, Helsinki 00290, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Cent Hosp, Dept Radiat Therapy, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Helsinki 00290, Finland..
    Persson, Emilia
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol Oncol & Radiat Phys, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Med Radiat Phys, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Registration free automatic identification of gold fiducial markers in MRI target delineation images for prostate radiotherapy2017In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 5563-5574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The superior soft tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) has urged the integration of MRI and elimination of CT in radiotherapy treatment (RT) for prostate. An intraprostatic gold fiducial marker (GFM) appears hyperintense on CT. On T2-weighted (T2w) MRI target delineation images, the GFM appear as a small signal void similar to calcifications and post biopsy fibrosis. It can therefore be difficult to identify the markers without CT. Detectability of GFMs can be improved using additional MR images, which are manually registered to target delineation images. This task requires manual labor, and is associated with interoperator differences and image registration errors. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an automatic method for identification of GFMs directly in the target delineation images without the need for image registration.

    Methods: T2w images, intended for target delineation, and multiecho gradient echo (MEGRE) images intended for GFM identification, were acquired for prostate cancer patients. Signal voids in the target delineation images were identified as GFM candidates. The GFM appeared as round, symmetric, signal void with increasing area for increasing echo time in the MEGRE images. These image features were exploited for automatic identification of GFMs in a MATLAB model using a patient training dataset (n = 20). The model was validated on an independent patient dataset (n = 40). The distances between the identified GFM in the target delineation images and the GFM in CT images were measured. A human observatory study was conducted to validate the use of MEGRE images.

    Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the automatic method and the observatory study was 84%, 74%, 81% and 98%, 94%, 97%, respectively. The mean absolute difference in the GFM distances for the automatic method and observatory study was 1.28 1.25 mm and 1.14 +/- 1.06 mm, respectively.

    Conclusions: Multiecho gradient echo images were shown to be a feasible and reliable way to perform GFM identification. For clinical practice, visual inspection of the results from the automatic method is needed at the current stage.

  • Söderström, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bankmän, förtroende och stabilitet: Om könsfördelning i bankstyrelser2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Finansiella företag, och särskilt banker, har en mindre jämn könsfördelning i styrelserna jämfört med andra företag. Forskning visar att kvinnliga styrelseledamöter har högre närvaro, mindre problem med att lägga tid på styrelsearbetet och att kvinnor påverkar hela styrelsen till ökat engagemang. Närvaro, tid och engagemang när det gäller övervakning och kontroll är centrala för hur väl en styrelse övervakar riskerna i ett företag och styr den löpande verksamheten. Detta är särskilt viktigt i finansiella företag och inte minst i banker. Styrningen av enskilda banker kan få återverkningar i hela det finansiella systemet. De nya regleringarna som antagits efter finanskrisen 2008 syftar till att upprätthålla förtroende och stabilitet. Bland annat finns i lagstiftningen numera en begränsning på antalet styrelseuppdrag en och samma person får inneha i finansiella företag. Även de personliga, administrativa sanktioner som införts motledningspersoner i kreditinstitut och värdepappersbolag syftar till ökat ansvarstagande för styrelseledamöter och verkställande direktörer. Artikeln diskuterar mot denna bakgrund könsfördelningen i bankstyrelser och kopplar forskningen kring kvinnors styrelsearbete till regleringssyftena förtroende och stabilitet.

  • Odland, Maria Lisa
    et al.
    Membe-Gadama, Gladys
    Kafulafula, Ursula
    Jacobsen W, Geir
    Kumwenda, James
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. NTNU.
    The Use of Manual Vacuum Aspiration in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortions: A Descriptive Study from Three Public Hospitals in Malawi2018In: International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malawi has a high maternal mortality rate, of which unsafe abortion is a major cause. About 140,000 induced abortions are estimated every year, despite there being a restrictive abortion law in place. This leads to complications, such as incomplete abortions, which need to be treated to avoid further harm. Although manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a safe and cheap method of evacuating the uterus, the most commonly used method in Malawi is curettage. Medical treatment is used sparingly in the country, and the Ministry of Health has been trying to increase the use of MVA. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment of incomplete abortions in three public hospitals in Southern Malawi during a three-year period. All medical files from the female/gynecological wards from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. In total, information on obstetric history, demographics, and treatment were collected from 7270 women who had been treated for incomplete abortions. The overall use of MVA at the three hospitals during the study period was 11.4% (95% CI, 10.7–12.1). However, there was a major increase in MVA application at one District Hospital. Why there was only one successful hospital in this study is unclear, but may be due to more training and dedicated leadership at this particular hospital. Either way, the use of MVA in the treatment of incomplete abortions continues to be low in Malawi, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Malawi Ministry of Health.

  • Axemo, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Wijwardena, Kumudu
    Department of Community Medicine Health, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Colombo.
    Fonseka, Ruvani
    Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health, University of California, San Diego/San Diego State University, United States of America.
    Cooray, Sharika
    United Nations Population Fund, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Training university teachers and students in Sri Lanka on Gender Based Violence: testing of a participatory training program2018In: MedEdPublisher, ISSN 2312–7996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In all societies, violence is a social problem and violation of human rights. Changing attitudes and behaviors, which accept violence atindividual and societal levels are key components in prevention strategies.

    The aim of this study was to produce educational material on Gender Based Violence (GBV). A participatory study design including educators and university students was used to create four teaching modules. The teaching was evaluated by descriptive surveys before andafter the training and focus group discussions followed the training session. The questionnaire covered attitudes to gender, violence and laws. One hundred eleven teachers and 25 students representing different faculties and universities participated in separate workshops in three Sri Lankan universities. The students lacked knowledge of the meaning of GBV, consequences and existing laws. Women held more gender-equitable attitudes. Both women and men favoured equal participation of work and decision in the households. Male undergraduates showed less accepting attitudes toward rape or blaming women for rape Three categories emerged after the FGDs; Maketraining module compulsory and teacher led; Mind your own business; What can be done.

    The newly prepared and context specific material was well-received by educators and students and they provided valuable inputs, which improved the educational modules.

  • Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Competing Claims to Computing as a Discipline (Invited talk)2015In: 15th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Helsinki , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Capability Driven Development of Context-aware Enterprise Applications – Challenges, Approach and Experiences2015In: 5th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, CIAO! Network , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprises are facing the need to adapt their businesses according to various situations in which their applications need to be used. To answer this challenge an EU FP7 project “Capability as a Service in digital enterprises” (CaaS) has been initiated. The aim of CaaS is to support the capture and analysis of changing business context in the design of information systems (IS) using the capability notion. Capability is seen as the ability and capacity that enables an enterprise to achieve a business goal in a certain context. The key rationale behind a capability driven approach is to capture the dependence of organizational and IS designs on application context and to provide explicit support for run-time adjustments according to changes in the application situation. The CaaS project is developing a methodology and a tool environment for capability driven development. We envision to further advance the service oriented paradigm and to develop context aware business capabilities by using Enterprise Modelling techniques as a starting point of the development process, capability design patterns for reuse of best practices, as well as composition of required capabilities and algorithms for run-time adjustment. This talk will address the main principles of the capability driven development methodology, as well as present the current experiences of capability design in three use case companies of the CaaS project – SIV AG (Germany) for business process outsourcing, Fresh T Limited (UK) for compliance management, and Everis (Spain) for capability management in e-government platforms.

  • Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    Årsberättelse 2017 Högskolebiblioteket BTH2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bölte, S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahdi, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, D.
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gau, S. S. -F
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Holtmann, M.
    University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, S.
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, F.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Rohde, L. A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Segerer, W.
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland.
    de Vries, P. J.
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Selb, M.
    ICF Research Branch a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifcations in Germany (at DIMDI), Nottwil, Switzerland.
    Standardised assessment of functioning in ADHD: consensus on the ICF Core Sets for ADHD2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health—child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set—these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0–5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6–16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • Lindström, Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Bartosova, Alena
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Uppehållstider i ytvatten i relation tillvattenkvalitetNET, ett generellt uppskalningsverktyg2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    NET är ett verktyg för uppskattning av vattenburen transport av olika ämnen i punkter där detsaknas mätningar. Verktyget togs ursprungligen fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Climatechange and the Environmental Objectives” (CLEO, Munthe et al., 2014 och 2016). Tanken äratt NET ska vara generellt, och kunna användas för simulering av olika ämnen, men endastberäkna medelvärden över tiden av mängder och koncentrationer. Ofta är det mängder som ärslutmålet för en beräkning, varför det i vissa situationer kan finnas mycket att vinna på attanvända en enkel och snabb beräkningsmodell. Inom CLEO simulerades flöden av totalkväve,total-fosfor och totalt organiskt kol.

  • Tedre, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Competing Claims to Computing as a Discipline (Invited talk)2015In: 15th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Helsinki , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Capability Driven Development of Context-aware Enterprise Applications – Challenges, Approach and Experiences2015In: 5th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, CIAO! Network , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprises are facing the need to adapt their businesses according to various situations in which their applications need to be used. To answer this challenge an EU FP7 project “Capability as a Service in digital enterprises” (CaaS) has been initiated. The aim of CaaS is to support the capture and analysis of changing business context in the design of information systems (IS) using the capability notion. Capability is seen as the ability and capacity that enables an enterprise to achieve a business goal in a certain context. The key rationale behind a capability driven approach is to capture the dependence of organizational and IS designs on application context and to provide explicit support for run-time adjustments according to changes in the application situation. The CaaS project is developing a methodology and a tool environment for capability driven development. We envision to further advance the service oriented paradigm and to develop context aware business capabilities by using Enterprise Modelling techniques as a starting point of the development process, capability design patterns for reuse of best practices, as well as composition of required capabilities and algorithms for run-time adjustment. This talk will address the main principles of the capability driven development methodology, as well as present the current experiences of capability design in three use case companies of the CaaS project – SIV AG (Germany) for business process outsourcing, Fresh T Limited (UK) for compliance management, and Everis (Spain) for capability management in e-government platforms.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 10:00 KBC-huset, Lilla Hörsalen, KB.E3.01, Umeå
    Wang, Zhao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Recalcitrance of wood to biochemical conversion: feedstock properties, pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentability2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulose is an inexpensive and abundant renewable resource that can be used to produce advanced biofuels, green chemicals, and other bio-based products. Pretreatment and efficient enzymatic saccharification are essential features of bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. The aims of the research were to achieve a better understanding of the recalcitrance of woody biomass to bioconversion, to explore different pretreatment techniques that can be used to decrease the recalcitrance of the biomass and improve the digestibility of the cellulose, and to investigate by-products of acid pretreatment that cause enzymes and microorganisms to work less efficiently.

    The recalcitrance of wood from aspen, birch, and spruce was investigated before and after acid pretreatment. Before pretreatment, birch exhibited the highest recalcitrance, which was attributed to structural factors. After pretreatment, spruce showed the highest recalcitrance, which was attributed to chemical factors, such as high lignin content. Deacetylation of hybrid aspen in planta by a CE5 acetyl xylan esterase decreased the recalcitrance, and the glucose yield of enzymatic saccharification of non-pretreated wood increased with 27%.

    Pretreatment options based on ionic liquids and steam explosion were further explored. The effects of the anionic constituents of a series of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on pretreatment of aspen and spruce were investigated. [HSO4]− was efficient only for aspen, which was attributed to acid degradation of xylan. [MeCO2]− was efficient for both aspen and spruce, which was attributed to its capability to create a disordered cell wall structure rather than to removal of lignin and hemicellulose. A comparison was made between using sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide for pretreatment of spruce. Although sulfur dioxide resulted in a pretreatment liquid that was more inhibitory to both enzymes and yeast, it was still superior to pretreatment with sulfuric acid, a phenomenon that was attributed to the particle size of the pretreated material.

    In a comparison of microbial inhibitors in pretreatment liquids from steam explosion of spruce, formaldehyde was found to be the most important inhibitor of yeast. Enzyme inhibition by catalytically non-productive adsorption to lignins and pseudo-lignin was investigated using quantitative proteomics. The results indicate that protein adsorption to pseudo-lignin can be as extensive as adsorption to real lignin. 

  • Koffert, Jukka P.
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Southwest Finland Hosp Dist, Turunmaa Hosp, Dept Gastroenterol, Turku, Finland..
    Mikkola, Kirsi
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Virtanen, Kirsi A.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Andersson, Anna-Maria D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Faxius, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Hallsten, Kirsti
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Heglind, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Biomed, Dept Clin & Med Genet, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Guiducci, Letizia
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Pham, Tam
    Silvola, Johanna M. U.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Virta, Jenni
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Abo Akad Univ, Dept Biosci, Turku, Finland..
    Kauhanen, Saila P.
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Div Digest Surg & Urol, Turku, Finland..
    Saraste, Antti
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Heart Ctr, Turku, Finland..
    Enerback, Sven
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Biomed, Dept Clin & Med Genet, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Iozzo, Patricia
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Turku Univ, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Turku, Finland..
    Gomez, Maria F.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden..
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    Univ Turku, Turku PET Ctr, PL52, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, Turku, Finland..
    Metformin treatment significantly enhances intestinal glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results from a randomized clinical trial2017In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 131, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Metformin therapy is associated with diffuse intestinal F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in clinical diagnostics using routine FDG-PET imaging. We aimed to study whether metformin induced glucose uptake in intestine is associated with the improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we compared the effects of metformin and rosiglitazone on intestinal glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial, and further, to understand the underlying mechanism, evaluated the effect of metformin in rats.

    Methods: Forty-one patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to metformin (1 g, b.i.d), rosiglitazone (4 mg, b.i.d), or placebo in a 26-week double-blind trial. Tissue specific intestinal glucose uptake was measured before and after the treatment period using FDG-PET during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. In addition, rats were treated with metformin or vehicle for 12 weeks, and intestinal FDG uptake was measured in vivo and with autoradiography.

    Results: Glucose uptake increased 2-fold in the small intestine and 3-fold in the colon for the metformin group and associated with improved glycemic control. Rosiglitazone increased only slightly intestinal glucose uptake. In rodents, metformin treatment enhanced intestinal FDG retention (P = 0.002), which was localized in the mucosal enterocytes of the small intestine.

    Conclusions: Metformin treatment significantly enhances intestinal glucose uptake from the circulation of patients with type 2 diabetes. This intestine-specific effect is associated with improved glycemic control and localized to mucosal layer. These human findings demonstrate directs effect of metformin on intestinal metabolism and elucidate the actions of metformin.

  • Tan, He
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Adlemo, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Johansson, Mats E.
    Saab AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Evaluation of an Application Ontology2017In: The Joint Ontology Workshops / [ed] Stefano Borgo, Oliver Kutz, Frank Loebe, Fabian Neuhaus, Kemo Adrian, Mihailo Antović, Valerio Basile, Martin Boeker, Diego Calvanese, Tommaso Caselli, Giorgio Colombo, Roberto Confalonieri, Laura Daniele, Jérôme Euzenat, Antony Galton, Dagmar Gromann, Maria M. Hedblom, Heinrich Herre, Inge Hinterwaldner, Andrea Janes, Ludger Jansen, Kris Krois, Antonio Lieto, Claudio Masolo, Rafael Peñaloza, Daniele Porello, Daniele P. Radicioni, Emilio M. Sanfilippo, Daniel Schober, Rossella Stufano, Amanda Vizedom, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen * Lehrstuhl Informatik V , 2017, Vol. 2050Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper demonstrates an evaluation procedure for a real-life application ontology, coming from the avionics domain. The focus of the evaluation has specifically been on three ontology quality features, namely usability, correctness and applicability. In the paper, the properties of the three features are explained in the context of the application domain, the methods and tools used for the evaluation of the features are presented, and the evaluation results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the three quality features are significant in the evaluation of our application ontology, that the proposed methods and tools allow for the evaluation of the three quality features and that the inherent quality of the application ontology can be confirmed.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-21 13:30 hörsal F3, Stockholm
    Li, Nan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Smart Cooperation with Network Coding in Hierarchical Wireless Networks2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve more dynamic, efficient and intelligent use of the scarce wireless spectrum resource, the concept of cooperation has been formalized into several hierarchical network models in future mobile networks. Cooperative communications, such as relaying, can potentially increase communication efficiency and spectrum utilization due to the broadcast nature of wireless networks, and may lead to a better support for diverse communication modes with flexible spectrum sharing. In this thesis, we investigate the cooperation between users with different priorities in hierarchical wireless networks. Especially, by coinciding the idea of relaying and network coding, we explore cooperation schemes from several aspects.

    First we discuss orthogonal time-frequency access for cooperation between primary and secondary users in a cognitive radio network, where two binary network coding schemes are developed. We analyze the transmission process and propose a novel methodology for performance evaluation. Second we propose a selective cooperation mechanism for intelligent resource sharing. By evaluating the system throughput with the approxiamtion method, we further discuss the spectrum sharing strategy by formulating an optimization problem to maximize the secondary system throughput. Besides, we extend our model to larger cognitive radio networks with multiple primary/secondary users. Finally we investigate non-orthogonal multiple access combined with orthogonal multiple access with hierarchical users. We define and study two cooperation schemes, where we derive the achievable rate regions with diverse communication modes supported. We formulate a problem jointly optimizing the strategy on time sharing and transmit power allocation at transmitters.

    Throughout the thesis we progressively reveal the importance of smart cooperation in hierarchical wireless networks, through rendering our models more realistic with smart strategies.

  • Svensson, Robin J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Aarnoutse, Rob E
    Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Diacon, Andreas H
    DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research and MRC Centre for TB Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.; TASK Applied Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dawson, Rodney
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.; The Lung Institute, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gillespie, Stephen H
    School of Medicine, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews Fife, UK.
    Boeree, Martin J
    Department of Lung Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.; University Centre for Chronic Diseases Dekkerswald, Groesbeek, the Netherlands.
    Simonsson, Ulrika S H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    A Population Pharmacokinetic Model Incorporating Saturable Pharmacokinetics and Autoinduction for High Rifampicin Doses2017In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence suggests that increasing doses of rifampicin may shorten tuberculosis treatment. The PanACEA HIGHRIF1 trial assessed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antimycobacterial activity of rifampicin at doses up to 40 mg/kg. Eighty-three pulmonary tuberculosis patients received 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40 mg/kg rifampicin daily over 2 weeks, supplemented with standard doses of isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in the second week. This study aimed at characterizing rifampicin pharmacokinetics observed in HIGHRIF1 using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. The final population pharmacokinetic model included an enzyme turnover model accounting for time-dependent elimination due to autoinduction, concentration-dependent clearance, and dose-dependent bioavailability. The relationship between clearance and concentration was characterized by a Michaelis–Menten relationship. The relationship between bioavailability and dose was described using an Emax relationship. The model will be key in determining exposure–response relationships for rifampicin and should be considered when designing future trials and when treating future patients with high-dose rifampicin.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 N460, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Hagman, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Co-firing complex biomass in a CFB boiler: ash transformation, corrosion control and materials selection2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of greenhouse gas net emissions on global warming, stricter legislation on waste handling, and the pursuit of ever cheaper heat- and power production are all important factors driving the introduction of complex fuels in incineration plants. However - without fundamental knowledge regarding ash transformation, corrosion control, and materials selection – this introduction of potentially economically and environmentally beneficial fuels, might instead cause economic loss and environmentally adverse effects.

    The present work is a contribution to the transition from today's CO2 net generating energy conversion system, to a more environmentally friendly and cost-efficient one. This is done using scientific methods to generate knowledge concerning mechanisms of ash transformation, corrosion control, and materials selection, in a co-fired industrial scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, using a novel and biomass-based fuel mix, rich in Na, K, Cl, N, S, P, Ca and Si. Fuel fractions, ashes, flue gas, deposits, and construction material samples have been collected and analyzed using various techniques, including scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The experimental results have been evaluated and interpreted using chemical equilibrium calculations.

    The results of this work include:

    1) An analysis of; the failure and preventive maintenance statistics of the industrial scale CFB boiler at hand; the elemental composition of boiler ashes and deposits, the flue gas composition and elemental composition of a multitude of fuel fractions; correlations between boiler design, operational parameters, elemental composition of deposits and boiler availability; a boiler elemental mass balance revealing details regarding deposit buildup mechanisms; properties of the fly ash relevant to flue gas filter design; and findings regarding the nitrogen chemistry of the novel and nitrogen-rich fuel mix.

    2) Speciation and description of the overall ash transformation and fireside alloy interaction, enabling the implementation of on-line corrosion control which significantly inhibits superheater and dew-point corrosion in the boiler; and, an equation describing the sulfation potential of the fuel mix, as a result of the direct and indirect interactions between all major ash-forming elements.

    3) A literature review relevant for the co-fired CFB cyclone vortex finder alloy selection and corrosion at 880 °C; An alloy selection study including long term exposures of several commercially available alloys identifying materials that are more than twice as cost-efficient as the often used alloy 253MA; a suggestion of novel methods for both systematic comparison of heavily degraded alloys, and for alloy service-life estimations; a detailed analysis of heavily degraded alloys 310S, 800H/HT and 600, identifying the driving corrosion mechanisms of the VF alloy degradation, including aspects of how the alloy internal mass transport and fireside surface interaction develops over time.

    The knowledge gained during this project has been used in the improvement work of the Perstorp 50 MWth CFB boiler, improving the boiler availability with 7 %, reducing the overall energy conversion costs with around 1.7 MEUR/year.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 09:00 12 B 252, Karlstad
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards Improving Transparency, Intervenability, and Consent in HCI2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency of personal data processing is enforced by most Western privacy laws, including the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which will be effective from May 2018. The GDPR specifies that personal data shall be processed lawfully, fairly, and in a transparent manner. It strengthens people's rights for both ex-ante and ex-post transparency and intervenability. Equally important is the strict legal requirements for informed consent established by the GDPR.

    On the other hand, the legal privacy principles have Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) implications. People should comprehend the principles, be aware of when the principles may be used, and be able to use them. Transparent information about personal data processing should be concise, intelligible, and provided in an easily accessible form, pursuant to the GDPR. Nonetheless, the answer to the question about how HCI implications can be addressed depends on the attempts to decrease the gap between legal and user-centric transparency, intervenability, and consent. Enhancing individuals' control in a usable way helps people to be aware of the flow of their personal information, control their data, make informed decisions, and finally preserve their privacy.

    The objective of this thesis is to propose usable tools and solutions, to enhance people's control and enforce legal privacy principles, especially transparency, intervenability, and informed consent. To achieve the goal of the thesis, different ways to improve ex-ante transparency and informed consent are investigated by designing and testing new solutions to make effective consent forms. Moreover, ex-post transparency and intervenability are improved by designing a transparency enhancing tool and investigating users' perceptions of data portability and transparency in the tool. The results of this thesis contribute to the body of knowledge by mapping legal privacy principles to HCI solutions, unveiling HCI problems and answers when aiming for legal compliance, and proposing effective designs to obtain informed consent.    

  • Andersen, Vibeke
    et al.
    Chan, Simon
    Luben, Robert
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Kaaks, R.
    Grip, Olof
    Bergmann, M. M.
    Boeing, H.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Overvad, Kim
    Oldenburg, Bas
    Opstelten, Jorrit
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Carbonnel, Franck
    Racine, Antoine
    Key, Timothy
    Masala, Giovanna
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, R.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Riboli, Elio
    Hart, Andrew
    Fibre intake and the development of inflammatory bowel disease: A European prospective multi-centre cohort study (EPIC-IBD)2018In: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, ISSN 1873-9946, E-ISSN 1876-4479, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Population-based prospective cohort studies investigating fibre intake and development of inflammatory bowel disease are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the association between fibre intake and the development of Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] in a large European population.

    Methods: In total, 401 326 participants, aged 20-80 years, were recruited in eight countries in Europe between 1991 and 1998. At baseline, fibre intake [total fibres, fibres from fruit, vegetables and cereals] was recorded using food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Each case was matched with four controls and odds ratios [ORs] for the exposures were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses according to smoking status were computed.

    Results: In total, 104 and 221 participants developed incident CD and UC, respectively. For both CD and UC, there were no statistically significant associations with either quartiles, or trends across quartiles, for total fibre or any of the individual sources. The associations were not affected by adjusting for smoking and energy intake. Stratification according to smoking status showed null findings apart from an inverse association with cereal fibre and CD in non-smokers [Quartile 4 vs 1 OR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.02-0.75, p = 0.023, OR trend across quartiles = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.29-0.86, p = 0.017].

    Conclusion: The results do not support the hypothesis that dietary fibre is involved in the aetiology of UC, although future work should investigate whether there may be a protective effect of specific types of fibre according to smoking status in CD.

  • Bygdéus, Pia
    Lund University.
    Medierande verktyg i körledarpraktik: en studie av arbetssätt och handling i körledning med barn och unga2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, approximately 5 % of the population sing in a choir or a singing group which means that about 500 000 people plus a number of choral conductors regularly meet in choir related practices. The aim of the present study is to describe, verbalize and make visible the mediating tools used by choir directors working with children and youth. The study is qualitative in character: four choir directors were observed closely while working with their children and youth choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individual interviews, focus conversations, videotapes and stimulated recall interviews.The results demonstrate that the role of the choir director is complex. When working with a choir, choir directors often use several aspects of their professional role. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points at eight categories of working approaches: (a) A listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; (b) a variation in ways of working with the choir; (c) the use of musical routines; (d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musical expression with the group; (e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive commands and instructions; (f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; (g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and (h) the use of target images expressed as visions, goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. These categories are generated through the analysis of the choir directors’ actions and activities in their work with the choirs. This is situated in choir singing as a social and cultural practice. The participants display great individual variation in their choices of strategies for communication and in their decision-making when working with children’s and youth choirs. A large variety of cultural and mediating tools are used. The working approaches and mediating tools become available in a social, situated and cultural practice. In conclusion, choral conducting with children and youth involves a great variety of negotiations and renegotiations of working approaches and mediating tools.

  • Peeters, Jeroen
    et al.
    Papworth, Nigel
    Glaser, Pernilla
    Collevecchio, Carla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Betancour, Ana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Trotto, Ambra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. RISE Interactive.
    No Man is an Island. Situated Design Research and Wicked Impact2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S3354-S3367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the research-through-design process that led to the realization of the interactive exhibition Charged Utopia that took place in August 2016 at the Norrbyskars Museum. The design leveraged embodiment and active perception: visitors could activate the content by physically engaging with the space. These interactions were intended to trigger personal reflections on social coexistence, its paradoxes and challenges. The paper guides through the research-through- design process, from initial design direction and their theoretical grounding, to the design process and final event. The paper contributes with a reflection on the "wicked impact" of the event, suggesting that it is of relevance for design researchers that deal with societal issues, to discuss and expose the effects of their practice beyond immediate results.

  • Bygdéus, Pia
    Lund University.
    Uttryck genom handling: Medierande verktyg i körledararbete med barn och unga2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the choir leader is a complex one. When working with a choir, choir leaders often use several aspects of their professional role. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe, verbalise and make visible the mediating tools that choir directors working with children and youth choirs use. In a longitude study, four choir leaders were observed closely while working with their choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individualinterviews, focus conversations and videotapes. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points to eight groups of mediating tools: a) a listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; b) a variation in ways of working with the choir, where a variety of physical tools are used; c) the use of musical routines; d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musicalexpression with the group; e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive instructions; f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and h) the use of target images expressed as visions, small/big goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. The choir directors who participated in the study use a variety of approaches and ways of working as a strategy for communicating and working with child and youth choirs.

  • Nilfyr, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Dokumentationssyndromet: En interaktionistisk och socialkritisk studie av förskolans dokumentations- och bedömningspraktik2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to contribute with knowledge about preschool documentation and assessment practice. The starting point is the interaction taking place in situations where teachers and/or children simultaneously conduct some form of documentation. The focus lies on the way this interaction and, consequently, these situations can be perceived from a socialinteractionist and social-critical perspective.

    Goffman’s social interaction theory has been used to analyze and interpret the interaction arising in documentation situations. Reed’s concept of maximal interpretation with a utopian referent has also been useful in the analyses. The empirics consist of video observations of everyday documentation situations comprising interaction between teacher and child. The primary interaction theory concepts used in the analysis include definition of a situation, framing and secondary adaptation.

    The analysis shows that, on the basis of different interaction patterns, teachers and children make different definitions and framings of documentation situations. Teacher definitions seem task-oriented, including a predetermined goal and the expected result of the activity. Children appear more spontaneously driven and seem to act on the assumption that the activity tends to change. The analysis also indicates that the teacher largely tries to make children share her definition by speaking in questions. Maintaining the activity as such and hence its definition seems to be an overarching aim among the teachers. In cases when the expected outcome does not harmonize with the actual one but results in a performance gap, a transformation takes place in that things are reinterpreted into something else. What also emerges from the result is that both teachers and children seem to adapt to current institutional documentation and assessment practice expectations and demands. Teachers’ adaptation is expressed in that they seem to act as though there is no performance gap between the predetermined and the actual result. This gives rise to an as if practice. The children on their part seem to adapt by directing their performance to harmonize with what seems to be expected by the teacher.

    To create meaning in what is said or done in the specific activity, the aim of the situation must be clarified by the participant. In other words, teachers and children need to arrive at a mutual definition of what is going on or what is intended to go on. The result indicates that no clarification has been made of what a documentation situation can or should mean. Both parties seem to interact on the basis of implicit or taken-for-granted definitions of what is or is supposed to be going on in the situation. The vulnerability of reaching a mutual framing of the situations and of different adaptations indicates the necessity of considering what learning or what other aspects can be made visible through the documentations taking place in the analyzed situations and in what ways preschool documentation and assessment practice may promote or restrain children’s lifelong urge to learn.

  • Sabde, Yogesh
    et al.
    Chaturvedi, Sarika
    Randive, Bharat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Environment, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India.
    Sidney, Kristi
    Salazar, Mariano
    De Costa, Ayesha
    Diwan, Vishal
    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0189364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 +/- 0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03 +/- 0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual's characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the level of emergency obstetric care functionality in public obstetric care facilities will allow more optimal utilization of facilities for childbirth under the JSY program thereby leading to better outcomes for mothers.

  • Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, R
    Uppsala University.
    Compliance to intraoperative basic hygiene in the operating theatre and patient safety culture in Mozambique2016In: Journal of Prevention and Infection Control., Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgical site infections are commonly occurring within healthcare, especially in Africa. Good hygiene is the most effective way in which to reduce and prevent infection. However, compliance is often low or insufficient.

    Objective: To assess intraoperative compliance to basic hygiene in the operating theatre and the staffs’ views on patient safety and to assess whether adherence to hand hygiene is related to patient safety culture in a developing country. Methods: The design was a structured observation in order to gathered information on compliance to basic intraoperative hygiene routines in operating theatres in Mozambique. Theatre staff was also asked to complete a survey on patient safety culture.

    Results: The study reveals that none of the work elements were performed in complete compliance to WHO’s guidelines at all times. The theatre staff’s views on patient safety culture showed the highest percentage of positive responses was within “Teamwork Within Hospital Units” and the dimensions with the least positive response was “Nonpunitive Response To Error” and “Staffing”. A medium relation was found between compliance to basic hygiene and the results of the patient safety culture survey.

    Conclusion: This study shows that compliance to basic hygiene during the intraoperative phase in theatre was insufficient. There was a medium relation between the views of the staff on patient safety and their compliance to basic hand hygiene. This implies that working with the attitudes of the staff concerning patient safety could be one way of improving hygiene compliance which would be expected to reduce the number of surgical site infections.

  • Stoner, Marie C. D.
    et al.
    Edwards, Jessie K.
    Miller, William C.
    Aiello, Allison E.
    Halpern, Carolyn T.
    Julien, Aimée
    Selin, Amanda
    Hughes, James P.
    Wang, Jing
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    MacPhail, Catherine
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of the Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Pettifor, Audrey
    Effect of schooling on age-disparate relationships and number of sexual partners among young women in rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 0682017In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 76, no 5, p. E107-E114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attending school may have a strong preventative association with sexually transmitted infections among young women, but the mechanism for this relationship is unknown. One hypothesis is that students who attend school practice safer sex with fewer partners, establishing safer sexual networks that make them less exposed to infection.

    Setting: We used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial of young women aged 13-20 years in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa, to determine whether the percentage of school days attended, school dropout, and grade repetition are associated with having a partner 5 or more years older (age-disparate) and with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months.

    Methods: Risks of having an age-disparate relationship and number of sexual partners were compared using inverse probability of exposure weighted Poisson regression models. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures.

    Results: Young women who attended fewer school days (<80%) and who dropped out of school were more likely to have an age-disparate relationship (risk difference 9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9% to 16.0%; risk difference (%) dropout 17.2%, 95% CI: 5.4% to 29.0%) and those who dropped out reported having fewer partners (count difference dropout 0.343, 95% CI: 0.192 to 0.495). Grade repetition was not associated with either behavior.

    Conclusion: Young women who less frequently attend school or who drop out are more likely to have an age-disparate relationship. Young women who drop out have overall more partners. These behaviors may increase the risk of exposure to HIV infection in young women out of school.

  • Persson de Fine Licht, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Chalmers Univ Technol, Res Inst Sweden RISE, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Coping with second home tourism: responses and strategies of private and public service providers in western Sweden2017In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second homes have increasingly gained academic attention, not least within tourism research. Nevertheless, most studies have addressed the topic from the perspective of the second home owners, highlighting issues such as motivation for second home ownership, use patterns, geographical location, and meanings of second homes. Even the impacts of second homes have mainly been addressed as the accumulated outcome of their owners’ decisions. Hence, second homes have mainly been conceptualized as personal/family projects. Relatively little research has been done on the ways local communities cope with second home tourism. This is the departure point for this paper, with the purpose of analysing coping strategies among public and private stakeholders regarding second home tourism. It is argued that communities have various ways of coping, ranging from resistance to resource utilization. The proposed conceptual framework is empirically applied to the case of the Swedish West Coast. In an interview survey of public and private service providers, different strategies are identified. The results of the survey indicate that second home owners are increasingly seized on as a resource that can be utilized for business development. Ultimately, institutional preconditions imply that second homes remain a challenge for local municipalities.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    De Bruin, Pedro Sales
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for new high-mass phenomena in the dilepton final state using 36 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 10, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search is conducted for new resonant and non-resonant high-mass phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states. The search uses 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data, collected at s=13" role="presentation">s√=13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Upper limits at 95% credibility level are set on the cross-section times branching ratio for resonances decaying into dileptons, which are converted to lower limits on the resonance mass, up to 4.1 TeV for the E6-motivated Z χ . Lower limits on the qqℓℓ contact interaction scale are set between 2.4 TeV and 40 TeV, depending on the model.

  • Jonsson, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Two Problems in non-linear PDE’s with Phase Transitions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is in the field of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE), focusing on problems which show some type of phase-transition. A single phase Hele-Shaw flow models a Newtoninan fluid which is being injected in the space between two narrowly separated parallel planes. The time evolution of the space that the fluid occupies can be modelled by a semi-linear PDE. This is a problem within the field of free boundary problems. In the multi-phase problem we consider the time-evolution of a system of phases which interact according to the principle that the joint boundary which emerges when two phases meet is fixed for all future times. The problem is handled by introducing a parameterized equation which is regularized and penalized. The penalization is non-local in time and tracks the history of the system, penalizing the joint support of two different phases in space-time. The main result in the first paper is the existence theory of a weak solution to the parameterized equations in a Bochner space using the implicit function theorem. The family of solutions to the parameterized problem is uniformly bounded allowing us to extract a weakly convergent subsequence for the case when the penalization tends to infinity.

    The second problem deals with a parameterized highly oscillatory quasi-linear elliptic equation in divergence form. As the regularization parameter tends to zero the equation gets a jump in the conductivity which occur at the level set of a locally periodic function, the obstacle. As the oscillations in the problem data increases the solution to the equation experiences high frequency jumps in the conductivity, resulting in the corresponding solutions showing an effective global behaviour. The global behavior is related to the so called homogenized solution. We show that the parameterized equation has a weak solution in a Sobolev space and derive bounds on the solutions used in the analysis for the case when the regularization is lost. Surprisingly, the limiting problem in this case includes an extra term describing the interaction between the solution and the obstacle, not appearing in the case when obstacle is the zero level-set. The oscillatory nature of the problem makes standard numerical algorithms computationally expensive, since the global domain needs to be resolved on the micro scale. We develop a multi scale method for this problem based on the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) framework and using a finite element (FE) approach to capture the macroscopic variations of the solutions at a significantly lower cost. We numerically investigate the effect of the obstacle on the homogenized solution, finding empirical proof that certain choices of obstacles make the limiting problem have a form structurally different from that of the parameterized problem.

  • Larsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Planering, progression, profession: hur studenter blir planerare2017In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De kunskaper som utvecklas med stöd i de nationella examensmålen för värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt är de som ligger närmast den professionella identiteten. Denna kunskapskategori ges begränsat utrymme i de förväntade studieresultat som examineras inom samhällsplanerarprogrammet vid Umeå universitet. Trots detta får studenterna anställning som planerare, ofta kort efter att de tagit sin kandidatexamen. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka hur kunskapsmässig progression underbyggs avseende värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt i en planerarutbildning med kulturgeografi som huvudområde. I denna artikel redovisas en analys av samhällsplanerarprogrammet. De kurser i kulturgeografi som ingår i programmet analyseras utifrån förväntade studieresultat, läraktiviteter och examinationsformer i syfte att spåra den planerade progressionen. Särskild uppmärksamhet ägnas kunskapskategorin värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån en modell för att förstå vilka typer av kunskaper som används vid avvägningar och beslut i planeringsprofessionen. Analysen visar att samhällsplanerarprogrammets planerade progression följer principen att först ge studenterna breda ämneskunskaper, därefter utveckla metodfärdigheter och mot slutet utveckla mer komplexa och handlingsinriktade kunskaper. Den visar också att den planerade progressionen är begränsad i att underbygga normativa aspekter av studenternas värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt.

  • Ahlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Embretsen-Varro, Elin
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Lund, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Oncol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    High expression of cyclin D1 is associated to high proliferation rate and increased risk of mortality in women with ER-positive but not in ER-negative breast cancers2017In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 164, no 3, p. 667-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclin D1 has a central role in cell cycle control and is an important component of estrogen regulation of cell cycle progression. We have previously shown that high cyclin D expression is related to aggressive features of ER-positive but not ER-negative breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to validate this differential ER-related effect and furthermore explore the relationship between cyclin D overexpression and CCND1 gene amplification status in a node-negative breast cancer case-control study. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of cyclin D1 (n = 364) and amplification of the gene CCND1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (n = 255) was performed on tissue microarray sections from patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer. Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. The primary event was defined as breast cancer death. Breast cancer-specific survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariable models using conditional logistic regression. Expression of cyclin D1 above the median (61.7%) in ER breast cancer was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer death (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.5-6.8) also when adjusted for tumor size and grade (OR 3.1). No significant prognostic impact of cyclin D1 expression was found among ER-negative cases. Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated to high expression of the proliferation markers cyclins A (rho 0.19, p = 0.006) and B (rho 0.18, p = 0.003) in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative cases. There was a significant association between CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression (p = 0.003), but CCND1 amplification was not statistically significantly prognostic (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.4). We confirmed our previous observation that high cyclin D1 expression is associated to high proliferation and a threefold higher risk of death from breast cancer in ER-positive breast cancer.

  • Islam, Md. Koushikul
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Strand, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Baranczewski, Pawel
    Artursson, Per
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Anti-Rift Valley fever virus activity in vitro, pre-clinical pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of benzavir-2, a broad-acting antiviral compound2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2. In vitro, benzavir-2 efficiently inhibited RVFV infection, viral RNA production and production of progeny viruses. In vitro, benzavir-2 displayed satisfactory solubility, good permeability and metabolic stability. In mice, benzavir-2 displayed oral bioavailability with adequate maximum serum concentration. Oral administration of benzavir-2 formulated in peanut butter pellets gave high systemic exposure without any observed toxicity in mice. To summarize, our data demonstrated potent anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 in vitro together with a promising pre-clinical pharmacokinetic profile. This data support further exploration of the antiviral activity of benzavir-2 in in vivo efficacy models that may lead to further drug development for human use.

  • Öst, Elin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Nisell, Margret
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Burgos, Carmen Mesas
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Health-related quality of life in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia2018In: Pediatric surgery international (Print), ISSN 0179-0358, E-ISSN 1437-9813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    METHODS: Between 1993 and 2003, a total of 102 children born with CDH were treated at Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital in Stockholm. In 2012, long-term survivors (n = 77) were asked to participate in the present study, which resulted in a 46% (n = 35) response rate. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was used for measuring HRQoL and a detailed review of medical records was performed.

    RESULTS: The study participants did not differ from the non-participants in terms of prenatal diagnosis, gender, side of lesion, method of surgical repair, time to intubation, need for ECMO support, or way of discharge from the hospital. Children born with CDH considered themselves to have a good HRQoL, as good as healthy Swedish children. There were only a few significant HRQoL differences within the group of children with CDH, although several median scores in ECMO-treated patients were somewhat lower. Correlations between child and parent scores on HRQoL were low.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life in children born with CDH is good overall, however, a correlation between the severity of the malformation and HRQoL cannot be excluded.

  • Bremner, Craig
    et al.
    Charles Sturt Univ, Design, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.
    Bernadet, Laura
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    The Museum of the Future: a sedimentary cloud2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. S3560-S3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking our cue from the impact of Joseph Kosuth’s 1965 conceptual artwork One and Three Chairs, there has always been one and three museums-the cosmos is the museum of light, the city is the museum of space and given the job of the museum is to indefinitely accumulate time the museum today is the museum of time. In this paper we present a fourth-the museum of the future. The museum and the department store were concurrent designs of industrialization; one-the store-collected the here-and-now and sold it as what-might-become while the other-the museum-collected what-was and projected it as what-we-have-become. However, the manifest crises of the planet illustrate the limits of our capacity to persuade ourselves we can imagine a future in which we want to live, and cast urgency on the long-term design project of being together. And the project of being together in the urban age is driving us to change the entire terrain of thought and action. Where once ideas drove change, change now appears to be split between two projects whose temporal dimensions govern the notion of ‘future’. One is the busy sharing of digital records of the as-found, and counter to this digital archive is the revival of designs of what-might-become illustrated in the boom in digital imagery of fantasy futures. In order to now imagine a future it has become necessary to navigate the competing time frames of the digital archiving of the past and the digital reproduction of the future. But for Jacques Derrida the question of the archive is not a question of the past but a question of the future, the very question of the future, of a response, of a promise and of a responsibility for tomorrow. According to him “the archive-if we want to know what this will have meant we will only know tomorrow.” And Hal Foster disconnects the archive from the museum when he questions “Might visual culture rely on techniques of information to transform a wide range of mediums into a system of image-text-a database of digital terms-an archive without museums?” In this paper we propose this temporal disjuncture-archive and future-can be bridged by the design of what we call the Museum of the Future whose windows open onto the permanent present. The Museum of the Future is not a location for the sentimental accumulation of time in the form of tasteful objects. According to Cedric Price “neither knowledge nor value can be stored and contained in a particular place” therefore “the museum of the future initiates a process of constant revision that assures the contingency and non-solidity of a building”. Following from Price we propose the Museum of the Future is a continuous interior whose form, stretched to compass the cumulous cloud of digital sentimentality and reproduction, functions as a sedimentary layer for our imaginings of increasingly populous and proximate future relations.