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  • Wickberg, Adam
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Pellucid Paper: Poetry and Bureaucratic Media in Early Modern Spain2018Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adam Wickberg's Pellucid Paper is an interdisciplinary study of the materiality of Early Modern poetry and its relation to political power, memory and subject constitution. The book explores the broad media history in which some of the most canonical Spanish Golden Age poetry was produced. It departs from the intersection of media theory, historiography and materiality of Early Modern culture in a radical rethinking of the nature of the relationship between the imaginary and the real using the concept of cultural techniques. Working with the operative sequences of the material and the symbolic of epistemological configurations of art, literature and power relations, it demonstrates how media and materiality were a crucial part of both the political and the aesthetic already in Early Modernity. It studies these operations in Early Modern Spain in the reign from Philip II to Philip IV. The development of a paper based bureaucracy as a means of sustaining large-scale power relations bridging distances in space and time forms the locus of the book. Pellucid Paper is informed by German Media theory and specifically the more recent developments of Cultural Techniques, which enables a fresh and imaginative take on Early Modern culture. The book offers a radical account of the dynamic relationship between the death oriented aesthetics of vanitas, techniques and media of storage and a form of mediated presence that permeates the inseparable spheres of the political and the aesthetic.

  • Boström, Lena
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Berg, Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Läroplansimplementering och korstryck i fritidshemmets arbete2018Inngår i: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, nr 2, s. 107-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    I svenska fritidshem pågår i en daglig verksamhet för cirka en halv miljon barn. Den präglas av en komplexitet omfattande exempelvis förändringar av styrdokument, brist på en accentuerad pedagogik och en förändrad profession. Mot denna bakgrund fokuserar denna studie på fritidspedagogers uppfattningar om läroplansimplementering och eventuell genomslagskraft i den fritidspedagogiska praktiken. Empirin består av individuella intervjuer, fokusgrupper och fältstudier. I studien flätas teorier om läroplansdidaktik och organisationsteori samman. Som analytiska begrepp används läroplansimplementering och korstryck. Resultatet visar att värden och uppgifter som pedagogerna betonar i relation till styrdokumenten är sociala färdigheter, professionell ambivalens samt fritidshemmets status. Strategier personalen använder är hög ledarskapsstruktur, reaktiv bekräftelse av läroplansskrivningar samt traditionella fritidshemsverksamheter. Begränsningar är fritidshemsverksamhetens låga status i jämförelse med traditionell skolverksamhet, brist på tid för implementering, ”skolifiering” samt oklarheter i styrdokumentens innehållsbeskrivningar. Därmed upplevs flera stressande korstryck i olika bemärkelser i arbetet, vilket försvårar realisering av läroplanens intentioner.

  • Holgersson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Finans och Existens: Tolkning av vardagslivets finansialisering2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to inquire into the relationship between human beings and financial markets. In this inquiry the author wishes to emphasize two aspects. Firstly, the act of creation of scientific knowledge, and secondly, the ubiquitous relationship that seems to interweave our everyday lives with financial markets. These two aspects highlight the main conversations to which this book wants to contribute. These are interpretative and hermeneutic research within social science in general and business administration in particular, as well as the growing literature on financialization. The more precise problem discussed concerns the insecurity and uncertainty that seem to surround our relationship with financial markets, or, as put in the literature: “the uncertain subjects of financialization”. Inspired by the ethnographic tradition, the author observed a gathering of thousands of people under the topic of making money from money in a spectacular building. The experience of this event worked as a catalyst for an interpretation of not only the specific meeting but also of our relationship to financial markets more generally. With the help of an elaborated analogy, it is suggested that we live (within) a spirit of finance capitalism, a spirit that has an ever-increasing presence in our lives. The author argues that our relationship to financial markets – and the financialization of daily life – is an existential dilemma as much as a financial one. Differently put, we can read the widespread uncertainty surrounding financial markets as doubt about the existence that we – more or less, for better or worse – appear unable to escape in a capitalistic society where finance is omnipresent. The interpretation contributes to the literature on financialization in two distinct ways. First, it integrates several themes recognized in the literature – such as opportunity, power, education and community – under one umbrella. Second, it accomplishes this by drawing on the tradition of sociology of religion and thereby highlighting the existential aspect of finance as an essential part of the human condition in a capitalist society.

  • Pettersson, Theresia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Utredande text2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Disputas: 2018-12-20 10:00 C326, Sundsvall
    Ziaei, Reza
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Prevalence and Correlates of Health Risk Behaviors among High School Adolescents in Iran: With focus on Water-pipe Smoking, Suicide Ideation, Physical Activity and Nutrition2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood into adulthood and many habits, with long-term implications for health, from this period of life can continue into adulthood. Identifying risk factors related to health risk behaviors is therefore an important part of health promotion. The main aim of this thesis was to analyze the prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviors among 15-17 year old high school adolescents in Iran. The risk behaviors explored in Papers I–IV include waterpipe smoking, suicide ideation, physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, and nutritional habits.

    Methods: Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select representative high schools and classes in the Iranian city of Tabriz. At the first stage, high schools were selected with a probability proportional to the enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected, and all students in these selected classes were eligible to participate in the study. Overall, thirty high schools, including sixteen girls’ and fourteen boys’ high schools, ninety classes (grades 9 to 11) and 1,517 students, including 727 boys (47.9%) and 790 (52.1 %) girls participated in the study. The participants’ (students’) response rate was 84.27 %. A reliable, valid and anonymous self-administered Persian Version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical methods used were Chi- square test, Fisher exact and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

    Results:

    Water pipe smoking: Overall, 21.6 % of students were classified as ever WP smokers and 9.7% as current smokers. Ten percent of students had started WP smoking when younger than 12. Ninety-one percent of current WP smokers smoked one session per day, 49% smoked at a café (Ghahvekhaneh). Ninety- five percent of students reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Ninety-one students out of 147 reported that they did not notice any health warning on the WP tobacco packages. Seven percent of students out of 1,517 participants reported that they would accept a WP if offered by their friends. Being in the third grade of high school, having experienced cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs, and accepting a WP offered by close friends showed significant odds ratios for ‘ever WP smokers’. Accepting a WP offered by close friends and gender (female) showed significant odds ratios for current WP smokers.

    Suicide ideation: Four percent of students had seriously considered attempting suicide in the past 12 months. Thirteen point two percent of students reported that they wanted to use alcohol or other drugs when they were worried. The results also revealed that 8.8% of students had been sexually abused. Also, 20.6% declared that they had been bullied in the past 30 days.

    Being worried, being a current cigarette smoker, consuming alcohol or other drugs and being sexually abused were significantly associated with suicide ideation.

    Physical activity/inactivity and sedentary behavior: The prevalence of physical inactivity (<5 days/Weeks) was 72.2% and sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3 h or more) 71.4%. Being female, having a higher BMI (being overweight or obese), walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, sedentary behavior, low vegetable intake, being the victim of bullying, lack of parental support, peer support, and parental connectivity (protective factors) were directly associated with physical inactivity. Walking/cycling to or from school on 5-7 days was negatively associated with physical inactivity.

    Walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, being physically inactive, inadequate fruit intake, and being bullied were positively associated with sedentary behavior.

    Fruit and vegetable intake: The prevalence of fruit intake was 76.1% (≥ 2 times/daily) and vegetable intake 23% (≥ 3 times /d). Low fruit consumption was associated with being an 11th grade student, sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3h/d), low intake of vegetables (intake < 3 daily), low or lack of parental support, low or lack of peer support, and the lack of enough food (hunger) at home. Low vegetable consumption was associated with higher BMI (overweight or obese), low consumption of fruit (< 2 daily), lack of peer support, and physical inactivity.

    Conclusion: Identified correlated factors (risk factors) should be taken into consideration by public health authorities in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at promoting health among students in the related areas.

  • Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Gross, James
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Kildehöj, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    A Proposal for Wireless Control of Submodules in Modular Multilevel Converters2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter is one of the most preferred converters for high-power conversion applications. Wireless control of the submodules can contribute to its evolution by lowering the material and labor costs of cabling and by increasing the availability of the converter. However, wireless control leads to many challenges for the control and modulation of the converter as well as for proper low-latency high-reliability communication. This paper investigates the tolerable asynchronism between phase-shifted carriers used in modulation from a wireless control point of view and proposes a control method along with communication protocol for wireless control. The functionality of the proposed method is validated by computer simulations in steady state.

  • Hu, Lung-Lung
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Kinesiska.
    Truth Does Not Matter: Legal Storytelling in the Japanese Drama “Legal High 2”2018Inngår i: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, ISSN 0952-8059, E-ISSN 1572-8722, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People expect that the truth can be revealed in a trial and the decision then is made based on the truth. However, such expectation is a fantasy because the truth has disappeared since the moment when an incident occurred. What are left about this incident are merely fragments (witnesses and evidences) that need further interpretations. Interpretations are open to possibilities; possibilities mean different stories. That is to say: there is no truth (or there are many truths) but stories; truth actually does not matter in law. Law is asked to re-construct the truth logically, based on facts, and without being affected by what outside the law, and then a fair and just legal decision can be made. The idea of storytelling, from the perspective of literature—literary narrative, on the other end is opposite to legal narrative that: a story does not need to be true or real; a story can be as bizarre as it can get as long as it is explainable and acceptable when the story comes to law. In a Japanese drama “Legal High 2” a black widow spider woman is accused of murdering her fiancée and his daughter. Since this woman is the only suspect and has been involved in many marriage fraudulent cases, the prosecutor proves that she is the murder based on the motivation and evidences found (the poison she bought from internet) in the crime scene. However, the defense attorney for getting this woman acquitted tells a story absolutely different from the prosecutor’s based on the same evidences. Therefore, in this present paper I am going to discuss that: how literary narrative and legal narrative in a law drama create both legit but opposite stories that challenges the idea that law and its language is a tool used to pursue the truth based on logics and facts. And, I will compare the similarity and the difference between literary narrative and legal narrative, from the both sides of legal theory and literary theory about language, to examine the idea of “truth” in law and in literature about law.

  • Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Applying a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2018Inngår i: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of the most appropriate window and blind design is a challenging task due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Resolving these conflicts relies on a trade-off window and blind design. This research applied a decision-making framework to select a trade-off window and blind design for an office room in Sweden. The decision-making framework was developed based on integrating the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and the analytical hierarchy process. The first step in the application of the framework was to generate a model of the office room using EnergyPlus. Six types of window and four types of blind; an internal venetian blind, an internal roller curtain, an external venetian blind and an external overhang panel, were modelled in EnergyPlus. The second step was to run an optimisation using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. For this purpose, various window and blind design variables were specified in modeFRONTIER platform. The third and last step in the application of the decision-making framework was to select a trade-off window and blind design using analytical hierarchy process. The results show the strength of the decision-making framework in selecting a trade-off design, and thereby the ability to resolve conflicts through intelligent use of simulation in analyzing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Since, the computation and processing power for performing simulations is constantly increasing, architects and designers can exploit the decision-making framework and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time.

  • Öhrner, Annika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Konstvetenskap.
    Niki de Saint Phalle Playing with the Feminine in the Male Factory: Hon - en katedral2018Inngår i: Stedelijk Studies, ISSN 2405-7177, nr 7, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    HON – en katedral (SHE – a cathedral, June 4–September 4, 1966) at Moderna Museet in Stockholm, was structured as a giant, reclining woman filling the entire space of the museum’s largest room, more or less to its edges (fig. 1). She was painted white with patterns of clear colors over parts of her body. Entering HON – en katedral (hereafter simply Hon) through its vagina, the audience found themselves walking and climbing in something that has been referred to as a kind of amusement park. The image of the invasive, female body placed directly into the heart of the museum institution served to disturb power relations within artistic networks and cultural life at a time when both the representation of women and gender positions in the arts were being challenged.

  • Zulkafli, Zed
    et al.
    Perez, Katya
    Vitolo, Claudia
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Dewulf, Art
    De Bièvre, Bert
    Clark, Julian
    Hannah, David M.
    Shaheed, Simrita
    User-driven design of decision support systems for polycentric environmental resources management2017Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 88, s. 58-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and decentralized technologies such as the Internet provide increasing opportunities to create knowledge and deliver computer-based decision support for multiple types of users across scales. However, environmental decision support systems/tools (henceforth EDSS) are often strongly science-driven and assuming single types of decision makers, and hence poorly suited for more decentralized and polycentric decision making contexts. In such contexts, EDSS need to be tailored to meet diverse user requirements to ensure that it provides useful (relevant), usable (intuitive), and exchangeable (institutionally unobstructed) information for decision support for different types of actors. To address these issues, we present a participatory framework for designing EDSS that emphasizes a more complete understanding of the decision making structures and iterative design of the user interface. We illustrate the application of the framework through a case study within the context of water-stressed upstream/downstream communities in Lima, Peru.

  • Kostera, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Durham University, UK ; Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    On work and peace2018Inngår i: M@n@gement, ISSN 1286-4692, E-ISSN 1286-4692, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 1103-1104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Petersson, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Erlingsdóttir, Gudbjörg
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Open Notes in Swedish Psychiatric Care (Part 1): Survey Among Psychiatric Care Professionals2018Inngår i: JMIR Mental Health, E-ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id e11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: When the Swedish version of Open Notes, an electronic health record (EHR) service that allows patients online access, was introduced in hospitals, primary care, and specialized care in 2012, psychiatric care was exempt. This was because psychiatric notes were considered too sensitive for patient access. However, as the first region in Sweden, Region Skåne added adult psychiatry to its Open Notes service in 2015. This made it possible to carry out a unique baseline study to investigate how different health care professionals (HCPs) in adult psychiatric care in the region expect Open Notes to impact their patients and their practice. This is the first of two papers about the implementation of Open Notes in adult psychiatric care in Region Skåne.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe, compare, and discuss how different HCPs in adult psychiatric care in Region Skåne expect Open Notes to impact their patients and their own practice.

    METHODS: A full population Web-based questionnaire was distributed to psychiatric care professionals in Region Skåne in late 2015. The response rate was 28.86% (871/3017). Analyses show that the respondents were representative of the staff as a whole. A statistical analysis examined the relationships between different professionals and attitudes to the Open Notes service.

    RESULTS: The results show that the psychiatric HCPs are generally of the opinion that the service would affect their own practice and their patients negatively. The most striking result was that more than 60% of both doctors (80/132, 60.6%) and psychologists (55/90, 61%) were concerned that they would be less candid in their documentation in the future.

    CONCLUSIONS: Open Notes can increase the transparency between patients and psychiatric HCPs because patients are able to access their EHRs online without delay and thus, can read notes that have not yet been approved by the responsible HCP. This may be one explanation as to why HCPs are concerned that the service will affect both their own work and their patients. © Lena Petersson, Gudbjörg Erlingsdóttir.

  • Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goal Models: a Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most widespread motivation models within education research. Strong empirical support exists for the trichotomous model, comprising mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. However, research also indicate problems with model transferability between contexts. In this study, based on questionnaire data from 4201 students, we use confirmatory factor analysis to compare the factor structures of students’ achievement goals in two culturally distinct countries. Factor structures for Grades 5–11 within the two countries were also compared. Results show that the separation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals differs between the two countries, and that this difference is consistent over the grades. Hence, results indicate that the model is not freely transferable between countries. The results are discussed in relation to differences in national culture and other proposed explanations such as age, perceived competence, and questionnaire characteristics.

  • Westberg, Erik ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Arctic Male Voices: Life – premiärkonsert2018Kunstnerisk output (Ogranskad)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsert i Umeå stads kyrka den 18 november 2018 med den nybildade manskören Arctic Male Voices. Kören bildades på initiativ av Erik Westberg efter möjligheten att samarbeta i en workshop med The King´s Singers.

  • Westberg, Erik ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Amor Vita Mors2018Kunstnerisk output (Ogranskad)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fonogrammet Amor Vita Mors släpptes 18 oktober 2018 och innehåller över två timmar vokalmusik. Amor Vita Mors släppte endast digitalt men till fonogrammet producerades även en bok med texter, verkkommentarer och konceptkonst.

  • Westberg, Erik ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Förklädd gud: Sverige möter Israel2018Kunstnerisk output (Ogranskad)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turné genom Israel 27 juni – 7 juli i samarbete med trombonisten tillika dirigenten Christan Lindberg och Israel Netanya Kibbutz Orchestra.

  • Westberg, Erik ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Vind virvlar till musik: Jubileumskonert – Erik Westbergs Vokalensemble 25 år2018Kunstnerisk output (Ogranskad)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turné 18-20 oktober 2018 med konserter i Acusticum (Piteå) Eric Ericsonhallen (Stockholm) och Allhelgonakyrkan (Lund). Framträdandet i Eric Ericsonhallen gjordes i samarbete med Eric Ericson International Choral Centre som en del av deras uppmärksammande av 100 år sedan Eric Ericsons födelse. Konserten i Allhelgonakyrkan gjordes i samarbete med Musik i Syd som en del av festivalen Lund Choral Festival och spelades även in av Sveriges Radio P2.

  • Marklund, Einar
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket. Utförare miljöövervakning, Länsstyrelser, lst, Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands län. Botaniska Föreningen i Västmanlands län.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Naturvårdsverket. Utförare miljöövervakning, Länsstyrelser, lst, Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands län. Botaniska Föreningen i Västmanlands län.
    Floraväkteriet i Västmanlands län 20182018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Kumar, TK Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Andersson, Charlotte
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Dahlin, Anders
    LKAB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Investigation of Magnetite Oxidation Kinetics at the Particle Scale2019Inngår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The induration of magnetite pellets is a complex physico-chemical process that involves oxidation, sintering, and heat transfer. The thermal- and gas-composition profile that is experienced by the pellet in an induration reactor could result in the formation of a homogenous or heterogeneous pellet structure, which could affect the pellet quality. The oxidation kinetics of magnetite pellets from sintering studies have been studied at two levels, namely, the pellet scale and at the particle scale, and the findings of the latter are presented here. The rate of oxidation of the magnetite concentrate depends primarily on temperature, oxygen content in the oxidizing gas, and particle size. These factors are investigated in this study. It was found that the oxidation of the magnetite concentrate is comprised of two distinct stages, a primary stage with high rates followed by a secondary stage where rates decrease significantly. The isothermal oxidation behavior as analyzed by the Avrami kinetic model was found to fit better than the shrinking-core model. The partially oxidized particles were examined microstructurally to supplement the experimental and model results. The Avrami kinetic model for isothermal oxidation was extended to non-isothermal profiles using the superposition principle, and the model was validated experimentally.

  • Holgersen, Ståle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Stoppa projektism! En essä om klass, stad och politik.2018Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Segregation, fattigdom, och arbetslöshet är reella problem i svenska städer som inte verkar vilja försvinna av sig självt. Därför kommer politikerna med ständigt nya förslag till hur detta ska förändras; gärna i form av ett innovativt och nytänkande projekt som backas upp av ”ny forskning” eller sista trenden inom offentlig förvaltning. När det ena projektet är slut, börjar nästa. 

    Det finns en tydlig distinktion i dagens stadspolitik: medan rika människor, företag och kapital attraheras genom en kontinuerlig politik, ska fattiga människor och utsatta områden hjälpas genom olika ”projekt”. Denna essä vill diskutera detta i relation till stadspolitikens klasskaraktär.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Wadi, Amer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Bro- och stålbyggnad.
    Soil-Steel Composite Bridges: Research advances and application2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil-steel composite bridges are considered competitive structures being an economical alternative to similar span concrete bridges. This frequently stimulates practitioners to push their design limits and expand the different areas of application including their performance in sloping terrain. This also implies that most design methods are continuously being developed to address new market challenges and at the same time to seek for better design and construction.

    This thesis compiles the recent research efforts to advance the knowledge on the structural performance of soil-steel composite bridges (SSCB). The first part of the thesis investigates the performance of SSCB in sloping terrain, where numerical simulations are used to predict the behaviour of three case studies. This includes structural response under sloped soils and also avalanche loads (Paper I and Paper II). The research enabled to realize the importance of soil configuration around the wall conduit and its influence on the structural response. While the presence of surface slopes emphasizes the susceptibility of SSCB with low depths of soil cover, higher covers may help in reducing the influence of steep slopes and avalanche loads. It was also found that the downhill soil configuration has substantial effects on the flexural response. The findings of the study were also used to provide methods for preliminary estimates of normal forces under sloped soils and avalanches.

    To better understand the load bearing capacity of SSCB, the second part of this thesis deals with the behaviour of large-span structures. It includes the use of finite element method simulations (FEM) for the analysis and the prediction of a previous full-scale loading-to-failure test (Paper III). The study also presents response predictions on the ultimate capacity of a large-span structure pertaining to its ongoing preparation for a full-scale field test (Paper IV). The thesis also includes discussions and possible refinements on current design equations concerning buckling calculations and live load effects. The results of the study have allowed to realize the major role of the soil load effects on the subsequent formation of yield areas and failure loads. It is found that the load position has a direct influence on the ultimate capacity especially for large-span structures. The study also highlighted the variations in the distribution of the live load sectional forces in both the circumferential and the transverse directions of the corrugations. Furthermore, possible refinements are proposed on current design equations of which are believed closely relevant on the path for the design development of large-span structures.

  • Henriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Siverskog, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Johannesen, Kasper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Thérèse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Tröskelvärden och kostnadseffektivitet: innebörd och implikationer för ekonomiska utvärderingar och beslutsfattande i hälso- och sjukvården2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten från hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar redovisas oftast som en inkrementell kostnadseffektivitetskvot (ICER efter engelskans incremental cost-efectiveness ratio) vilken anger kostnaden per uppnådd effektenhet för den åtgärd som utvärderas. En åtgärd kan vara ett preventionsprogram, en diagnostisk metod eller en behandling i form av ett kirurgiskt ingrepp eller ett läkemedel (vi använder fortsättningsvis begreppet interventioner som ett samlingsnamn för alla dessa åtgärder). Vanligtvis används ett hälsorelaterat mått såsom kvalitetsjusterade levnadsår (QALYs) som effektmått. För att en ICER på ett meningsfullt sätt skall kunna tolkas och tillämpas i beslutsfattande krävs att vi har en uppfattning om vad resultaten representerar och vad de kan jämföras med. Inte sällan anges ett gräns-värde för när en intervention kan anses vara kostnadseffektiv i litteraturen, ett så kallat tröskelvärde för kostnadseffektivitet. Ambitiösa försök att skatta detta värde har nyligen presenterats och bidrar med ny kunskap på området. I ljuset av denna forskning är det också tydligt att det finns olika tolkningar av tröskelvärdet, vilket kan bidra till otydlighet i både beslutsfattande och diskussioner om vad som kan anses vara en rimlig gräns för kostnadseffektivitet. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att beskriva olika tolkningar av tröskelvärdet, sammanfatta vilken empirisk kunskap vi har om detta värde idag och slutligen diskutera vidare forskning i en svensk kontext.

    I rapporten illustreras de två huvudsakliga definitionerna av tröskelvärde som återfinns i litteraturen.

    Konsumtionsvärdet av hälsa kan tänkas representera vad individer på marginalen är villiga att ge upp i konsumtion för att erhålla ytterligare en QALY. I den internationella litteraturen har detta värde kommit att benämnas v.

    Marginalproduktiviteten i hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn kan tänkas representera kostnaden för att generera ytterligare en QALY på marginalen i hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn. Tröskelvärdet med denna tolkning bör utgöra kostnaden per QALY för den minst kostnadseffektiva interventionen som återfinns inom hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn. I den internationella litteraturen benämns detta värde k.

    I rapporten diskuteras implikationerna av att använda de olika definitionerna i beslutsfattande samt hur de hänger ihop med alternativkostnader i olika delar av samhället. När en intervention tar resurser i anspråk som annars skulle ha använts till sjukvård är alternativkostnaden förlorad hälsa. Denna alternativkostnad kan representeras av marginalproduktiviteten i hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn, k. När en intervention tar resurser i anspråk som annars skulle ha använts för privat konsumtion är alternativ-kostnaden istället förlorad konsumtion, vilken kan representeras av konsumtionsvärdet av hälsa, v. Vilket perspektiv som anses relevant samt i vilken sektor konsekvenserna av olika interventioner upp-står bör därmed vara avgörande för vilken eller vilka definitioner av tröskelvärdet som kan behöva beaktas.

    Empiriska studier har i större utsträckning försökt skatta konsumtionsvärdet av hälsa (v) jämfört med marginalproduktiviteten i hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn (k). Kunskapen om båda storheterna är begränsad ur ett svenskt perspektiv. En större studie från England utgör det första och mest ambitiösa försöket att explicit skatta tröskelvärdet ur ett marginalproduktivitetsperspektiv med hjälp av större data-material. I den studien skattades tröskelvärdet till en kostnad per QALY motsvarande ungefär 150 000 kronor. I ett försök att översätta dessa skattningar till tröskelvärden i andra länder redovisas en kostnad per QALY i intervallet 170 000 till 210 000 kronor för Sverige. Skattningarna får anses vara behäftade med en hög grad av osäkerhet. Nyligen publicerade studier från Australien och Spanien redovisar skattningar motsvarande 185 00 och 250 000 kronor per QALY. I studier som undersökt konsumtions-värdet av hälsa redovisas skattningar på 30 000 till flera miljoner kronor per QALY.

    En stor del av variationen i resultaten kan troligtvis hänföras till metodologiska aspekter. Studierna varierar i flera dimensioner; praktisk undersökningsmetod (online, intervjuer eller pappersenkäter), utformning av svarsalternativ, statistiska metoder för att analysera data, typ av hälsoförändring som värderats (enbart livskvalitet, enbart livslängd eller en kombination), om värderade hälsoförändringar uppnås med säkerhet eller med en viss sannolikhet samt om hälsoförändringen som värderas tillfaller respondenten själv eller någon annan. Få studier med data från svenska individer där generella hälso-förändringar värderats av ett urval från allmänheten har identifierats. Den enda studien som vi identifierat i referentgranskade tidskrifter redovisar skattningarna för Sverige i intervallet 150 000 till 350 000 kronor. I en relativt ny svensk rapport som finns tillgänglig på Institutet för Hälso- och Sjukvårds-ekonomis (IHE) hemsida redovisas skattningar på 2,4 miljoner kronor per QALY.

    En slutsats i vår rapport är att det behöver tydliggöras hur valet av perspektiv faktiskt påverkar vilken eller vilka definitioner av tröskelvärdet som bör vara relevanta när hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar används som underlag vid beslutsfattande inom hälso- och sjukvården. Om ett bredare samhällsperspektiv anses relevant kan både konsumtionsvärdet av hälsa (v) och marginalproduktiviteten i hälso- och sjukvården (k) behöva beaktas.

    En annan slutsats är att oavsett vilken definition av tröskelvärde som anses relevant så har vi mycket begränsad kunskap om både marginalproduktiviteten i hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn och konsumtions-värdet av hälsa i en svensk kontext. Statistisk modellering av befintliga datakällor kan vara en fram-komlig väg för att skatta marginalproduktiviteten medan välgjorda experiment eller metoder för att studera individers värderingar av hälsa via faktiska beslut och ageranden i icke-experimentella situationer kan vara en framkomlig väg för att studera konsumtionsvärdet av hälsa.

  • Melén Hånell, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What geographical scope works best for rapidly internationalizing SMEs?Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore the benefits of a regional internationalization strategy and investigate how a rapidly internationalizing SME’s development of market knowledge relates to this strategy.

    Design/methodology/approach

    After a brief overview of the literature on international SMEs, the internalization approach and the IP-approach, a case study is introduced and analyzed.

    Findings

    The case findings illustrate that market knowledge steers the investigated firm to follow a regional approach of operations. The regional strategy lessens perceived risks, saves costs and generates sufficient knowledge about one market at a time.

    Practical implications

    It is important for managers in rapidly internationalizing SMEs and for policymakers to recognize the benefits of supporting regional orientation initiatives for enhancing these firms’ internationalization.

    Originality/value

    This paper presents a longitudinal case study that contributes to further the understanding and insights into the operations of born regionals. By probing deeper into the ideas provided by the internalization approach, the IP-approach and research about international SMEs, the study contributes with a unified framework for understanding the benefits for rapidly internationalizing SMEs to operate on a regional scope.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-21 13:15 Humanistiska teatern, Uppsala
    Schumann, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Vilken mening!?: En blandad metodstudie i religionspsykologi av meningsskapandets betydelse för skolungdomar2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the role of religion in the development of a meaning system among Swedish adolescents by examining the interactions of their: sense of coherence (SOC), identity process (U-MICS), moral development (SRM-SF), and views on existential and religious questions.

    The study used a Mixed Methods Design, with a Sequential Explanatory Strategy consisting of quantitative and qualitative parts. In the quantitative part of the study, 90 students in 8th grade, 50 girls and 40 boys, participated. The qualitative part of the study consisted of 24 semi-structured interviews drawn from the original group.

    According to the results, there was a relation between SOC and the following variables in the identity process (U-MICS): commitment to school and reconsideration of commitment to friends, and commitment to school and perception of the importance of religion. The SOC value among girls was significantly lower than among boys. The results did not indicate a significant relationship between moral development, SOC values, and the religious variables.

    In the qualitative interview results, the participants in the commitment phase relating to school expressed more satisfaction with their school situations and relationships than those who were predominantly in the reconsideration of commitment phase. Those with a higher level of commitment to school were also more likely to express the view that religion was important in life. Interview material showed that those young people who expressed the belief that religion was important in life today or believed that religion constituted a potential future source of strength dominated the group with higher SOC. The results served to reinforce theoretical perspectives on the meaning-making function of religion. The study results suggest that safe and trustful relationships with peers and adults related closely to SOC values among these adolescents and were singled out as their most important sources of strength and support in life.

  • Skublov, Sergei
    et al.
    Krasotkina, Anna
    Makayev, Aleksandr
    Rizvanova, Nailya
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    The first data on the U-Pb age (TIMS and LA-ICP-MS) of rutile from the Ichetju polymineral occurrence, The Middle Timan2018Inngår i: Journal of Mining Institute, Vol. 232, s. 357-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study on the U-Pb age of rutile from the Ichetju polymineral occurrence has been done for the first time by LA-ICP-MS and TIMS methods. It was established that rutile originates from various sources with different ages (presumably, ca. 1000, 1660, 1860 and 1980 Ma), but all the rutile types have undergone a common thermal event at ca. 580 Ma. Obtained results are consistent with U-Pb zircon data for the Ichetju occurrence and the Pizhemskoe deposit. According to modern concepts, the closure temperature for the U-Pb system in rutile is higher than 500 С, which suggests fairly high-temperature conditions of the rutile hydrothermal transformation during the formation of the deposits in Riphean. Obviously, a placer hypothesis of formation of titanium deposits of the Middle Timan which is supported by a number of researchers does not explain such temperature of rutile alteration.

  • Ronström, Owe
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Revival in retrospect: The folk music and folk dance revival1998Inngår i: ECTC Bulletin, ISSN 1219-8315, nr 4, s. 39-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Glykou, Aikaterini
    et al.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Storå, J.
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Intra- and inter-tooth variation in strontium isotope ratios from prehistoric seals by laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry2018Inngår i: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 32, s. 1215-1224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in modern‐day marine environments are considered to be homogeneous (~0.7092). However, in the Baltic Sea, the Sr ratios are controlled by mixing seawater and continental drainage from major rivers discharging into the Baltic. This pilot study explores if variations in Sr can be detected in marine mammals from archaeological sites in the Baltic Sea.               

    Methods

    87Sr/86Sr ratios were measured in tooth enamel from three seal species by laser ablation multi‐collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA‐MC‐ICP‐MS). The method enables micro‐sampling of solid materials. This is the first time that the method has been applied to marine samples from archaeological collections.               

    Results

    The analyses showed inter‐tooth 87Sr/86Sr variation suggesting that different ratios can be detected in different regions of the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, the intra‐tooth variation suggests possible different geographic origin or seasonal movement of seals within different regions in the Baltic Sea through their lifetime.               

    Conclusions

    The method was successfully applied to archaeological marine samples showing that: (1) the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in marine environments is not uniform, (2) 87Sr/86Sr differences might reflect differences in ecology and life history of different seal species, and (3) archaeological mobility studies based on 87Sr/86Sr ratios in humans should therefore be evaluated together with diet reconstruction.

  • Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ancient Microbial Activity in Deep Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones within the Forsmark Target Area for Geological Nuclear Waste Disposal, Sweden2018Inngår i: Geosciences, Vol. 8, nr 211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies reveal that organisms from all three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and even Eukarya—can thrive under energy-poor, dark, and anoxic conditions at large depths in the fractured crystalline continental crust. There is a need for an increased understanding of the processes and lifeforms in this vast realm, for example, regarding the spatiotemporal extent and variability of the different processes in the crust. Here, we present a study that set out to detect signs of ancient microbial life in the Forsmark area—the target area for deep geological nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. Stable isotope compositions were determined with high spatial resolution analyses within mineral coatings, and mineralized remains of putative microorganisms were studied in several deep water-conducting fracture zones (down to 663 m depth), from which hydrochemical and gas data exist. Large isotopic variabilities of δ13Ccalcite (−36.2 to +20.2‰ V-PDB) and δ34Spyrite (−11.7 to +37.8‰ V-CDT) disclose discrete periods of methanogenesis, and potentially, anaerobic oxidation of methane and related microbial sulfate reduction at several depth intervals. Dominant calcite–water disequilibrium of δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr precludes abundant recent precipitation. Instead, the mineral coatings largely reflect an ancient archive of episodic microbial processes in the fracture system, which, according to our microscale Rb–Sr dating of co-genetic adularia and calcite, date back to the mid-Paleozoic. Potential Quaternary precipitation exists mainly at ~400 m depth in one of the boreholes, where mineral–water compositions corresponded.

  • Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sob o arco-íris: Migracão, precariedade e poder popular na África do sul pós-apartheid2018Inngår i: REMHU - Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, ISSN 1980-8585, Vol. 26, nr 54, s. 115-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [pt]

    O artigo discute a precariedade como um ponto de convergênciapara a resistência, assim como uma condição social ligada à transição daelite na África do Sul pós-apartheid. Concentrando-se nas forças sistêmicasque impulsionam pobreza, desigualdade e meios de subsistência precários,o artigo aborda a transformação da força de trabalho da África do Sul e seusistema migratório desde uma gestão centralizada de trabalho não-livrepela burocracia estatal do apartheid para um Estado de precariedade pósapartheidmovido pela “flexploitation”. O nexo entre o trabalho precário euma fratura da cidadania é visto como um “dualismo da flexibilidade” queliga práticas de emprego e controle do trabalho a áreas como benefíciossociais, status de cidadania, participação política e meios de subsistênciainformais. Isso é aplicável tanto aos migrantes como aos nativos, sendoos migrantes particularmente “flexíveis”. O autor conecta a questão daprecariedade com a política da xenofobia, vista como um estratagemapara a manutenção de uma hegemonia política pós-apartheid noenfrentamento das desafiadoras lutas laborais e uma cidadania insurgentedos pobres.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-21 13:15 Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Blomqvist, Björn Rune Helmer
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Gaussian process models of social change2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Social systems produce complex and nonlinear relationships in the indicator variables that describe them. Traditional statistical regression techniques are commonly used in the social sciences to study such systems. These techniques, such as standard linear regression, can prevent the discovery of the complex underlying mechanisms and rely too much on the expertise and prior beliefs of the data analyst. In this thesis, we present two methodologies that are designed to allow the data to inform us about these complex relations and provide us with interpretable models of the dynamics.

    The first methodology is a Bayesian approach to analysing the relationship between indicator variables by finding the parametric functions that best describe their interactions. The parametric functions with the highest model evidence are found by fitting a large number of potential models to the data using Bayesian linear regression and comparing their respective model evidence. The methodology is computationally fast due to the use of conjugate priors, and this allows for inference on large sets of models. The second methodology is based on a Gaussian processes framework and is designed to overcome the limitations of the first modelling approach. This approach balances the interpretability of more traditional parametric statistical methods with the predictability and flexibility of non-parametric Gaussian processes.

    This thesis contains four papers where we apply the methodologies to both real-life problems in the social sciences as well as on synthetic data sets. In paper I, the first methodology (Bayesian linear regression) is applied to the classic problem of how democracy and economic development interact. In paper II and IV, we apply the second methodology (Gaussian processes) to study changes in the political landscape and demographic shifts in Sweden in the last decades. In paper III, we apply the second methodology on a synthetic data set to perform parameter estimation on complex dynamical systems.

  • Cubas, Miriam
    et al.
    University of York, York, UK; Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain.
    Peyroteo Stjerna, Rita
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Människans evolution. University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fontanals-Coll, Maria
    University of York, York, UK.
    Llorente-Rodríguez, Laura
    Universiteit Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Lucquin, Alexandre
    University of York, York, UK.
    Craig, Oliver Edward
    University of York, York, UK.
    Colonese, André Carlo
    University of York, York, UK.
    Long-term dietary change in Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberia with the introduction of agriculture: a stable isotope perspective2018Inngår i: Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, ISSN 1866-9557, E-ISSN 1866-9565, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neolithic expansion in the Iberian Peninsula is marked by the introduction of livestock and domesticated crops which modified subsistence strategies in an unprecedented manner. Bulk collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis has been essential to track these changes, which have largely been discussed in relation to particular geographic areas or single case studies. This paper reviews the available isotope literature to provide a regional, long-term synthesis of dietary changes associated with the expansion of the Neolithic and the establishment of farming economy in the Iberian Peninsula. Bulk collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of 763 human individuals and 283 faunal remains from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic period in Iberia (ca. 8000–3000 cal BC) were collated and analysed using a Bayesian mixing model. The results show that Mesolithic diets were isotopically diverse in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions of the Iberian Peninsula, and that a significant decrease in variability happened with the Neolithisation, culminating with the establishment of farming economies and reliance on terrestrial resources in the Late Neolithic.

  • Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Shrestha, Amendra
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Berggren, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Obaidi, Milan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cohen, Katie
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Assessment of risk in written communication: Introducing the Profile Risk Assessment Tool (PRAT)2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Cekaite, Asta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Disa, Bergnehr
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Affectionate touch and care: Embodied intimacy, compassion and control in early childhood education2018Inngår i: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relational care, interpersonal intimacy and emotional attunement are crucial for children’s development and wellbeing in ECEC. The present study examines how they are enacted in a Swedish preschool (for 1–5-year-olds) through recurrent adult-child physical conduct, i.e. affectionate and affectionate-controlling touch. The data consist of 24 hours of video-recorded observations of everyday activities. The study shows that educators’ Affectionate-Comforting touch was used for emotion regulation as compassionate response to children’s distress; Amicable touch engaged children in spontaneous affection; and, Affectionate-Controlling touch was used to mildly control and direct the child’s bodily conduct and participation in preschool activities, or to mitigate the educators’ verbal disciplining. The study demonstrates the emotional complexity of ECEC enacted through the practices of haptic sociality. It supports the holistic policies arguing that embodied relational care should be integrated in ECEC, contrary to ideas that connect professionalism with emotional distance and lack of physical contact.

  • Bergnehr, Disa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Cekaite, Asta
    Linköpings universitet.
    Adult-initiated touch and its functions at a Swedish preschool: Controlling, affectionate, assisting and educative haptic conduct.2018Inngår i: International Journal of Early Years Education, ISSN 0966-9760, E-ISSN 1469-8463, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 312-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines adult–child touch and its functions in a Swedish preschool (for 1 to 5-year-old children). The data are naturalistic observations and video-recorded data of everyday preschool activities. The study describes the frequently occurring functions of educators’ haptic conduct (control, affectionate, affectionate-control, assisting and educative touch), discussing them in relation to the children's age, gender and type of the preschool activity. It reveals the complexity of touch, demonstrating that physical contact is used for a variety of purposes in the educators’ daily work. The educators employed touch without force, and the children did not respond with explicit and forceful resistance (such as pushing back or otherwise protesting). Adult-initiated haptic behaviour served a continuum of social purposes – from social–relational work, such as establishing and building affectively positive, caring, social relations, to practical and educative organisational efforts to manage the complex and busy preschool life. The distribution of adult–child touch categories brings attention to the bodily aspects of the early childhood educational setting and highlights some of the ways in which the requirements of the Swedish curriculum for Preschool and its focus on educare are actualised in the educators’ embodied conduct.

  • Blomgren, Johannes
    et al.
    Strandell, Erika
    Jull, Gwendolen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering. Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia..
    Vikman, Irene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Effects of deep cervical flexor training on impaired physiological functions associated with chronic neck pain: a systematic review2018Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Neck pain is a major health issue with high rates of recurrence. It presents with a variety ofaltered sensorimotor functions. Exercise is a cornerstone of rehabilitation and many training methods areused. Exercise is evaluated in most randomized controlled trials on its pain relieving effects. No review hasassessed the effect of exercise on the altered physiological functions or determined if there are differentialeffects of particular training methods. This review investigated the effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF)training, a training method commonly used for patients with neck pain, and compared it to other trainingmethodsornotrainingonoutcomesofcervicalneuromuscular function, muscle size, kinematics and kinetics.Methods:Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed were searched from inception until January 2018. Twelverandomized controlled trials were included that compared DCF training as sole intervention to other trainingor no interventions in persons with neck pain. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the methodquality. All outcome measures were analysed descriptively and meta-analyses were performed for measuresevaluated in three or more studies.Results:DCF training was compared to cervical endurance, strength, proprioception and mobility training,muscle stretching, and no intervention control groups. Physiological outcome measures includedneuromuscular co-ordination (craniocervical flexion test), functional tasks, muscle fatigability, muscle size,kinematics (joint position sense, posture and range of motion) and kinetics (strength, endurance andcontraction accuracy). Strong evidence was found for effectiveness of DCF training on neuromuscularcoordination, but it had no or small effects on strength and endurance at higher loads. DCF trainingimproved head and cervical posture, while evidence was limited or contradictory for other measures.Conclusions:DCF training can successfully address impaired neuromuscular coordination, but not cervicalflexor strength and endurance at higher contraction intensities. A multimodal training regime is proposedwhen the aim is to specifically address various impaired physiological functions associated with neck pain

  • Lempiäinen-Avci, Mia
    et al.
    Lundström, Maria
    Huttunen, Sanna
    Leino, Matti W.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Swedish Museum of Cultural History, Sweden.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Archaeological and Historical Materials as a Means to Explore Finnish Crop History2018Inngår i: Environmental Archaeology, ISSN 1461-4103, E-ISSN 1749-6314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Northern Europe, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been cultivated for almost 6000 years. Thus far, 150-year-old grains from historical collections have been used to investigate the distribution of barley diversity and how the species has spread across the region. Genetic studies of archaeobotanical material from agrarian sites could potentially clarify earlier migration patterns and cast further light on the origin of barley landraces. In this study, we aimed to evaluate different archaeological and historical materials with respect to DNA content, and to explore connections between Late Iron Age and medieval barley populations and historical samples of barley landraces in north-west Europe. The material analysed consisted of archaeological samples of charred barley grains from four sites in southern Finland, and historical material, with 33 samples obtained from two herbaria and the seed collections of the Swedish museum of cultural history.

    The DNA concentrations obtained from charred archaeological barley remains were too low for successful KASP genotyping confirming previously reported difficulties in obtaining aDNA from charred remains. Historical samples from herbaria and seed collection confirmed previously shown strong genetic differentiation between two-row and six-row barley. Six-row barley accessions from northern and southern Finland tended to cluster apart, while no geographical structuring was observed among two-row barley. Genotyping of functional markers revealed that the majority of barley cultivated in Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was late-flowering under increasing day-length, supporting previous findings from northern European barley.

  • Grazioli, Davide
    et al.
    Zadin, Vahur
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Strukturkemi.
    Simone, Angelo
    Electrochemical-mechanical modeling of solid polymer electrolytes: Stress development and non-uniform electric current density in trench geometry microbatteries2018Inngår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of mechanical stresses arising in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion (Li-ion) solid-state batteries. Time-dependent finite element analyses of interdigitated plate cells during a discharge process are performed with a constitutive model that couples ionic conduction within the SPE with its deformation field. Due to the coupled nature of the processes taking place in the SPE, the non-uniform ionic concentration profiles that develop during the discharge process induce stresses and deformations within the SPE; at the same time the mechanical loads applied to the cell affect the charge conduction path. Results of a parametric study show that stresses induced by ionic redistribution favor ionic transport and enhance cell conductivity—up to a 15% increase compared to the solution obtained with a purely electrochemical model. We observe that, when the contribution of the mechanical stresses is included in the simulations, the localization of the electric current density at the top of the electrode plates is more pronounced compared to the purely electrochemical model. This suggests that electrode utilization, a limiting factor for the design of three-dimensional battery architectures, depends on the stress field that develops in the SPE. The stress level is indeed significant, and mechanical failure of the polymer might occur during service.

  • Grazioli, Davide
    et al.
    Verners, Osvalds
    Zadin, Vahur
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Strukturkemi.
    Simone, Angelo
    Electrochemical-mechanical modeling of solid polymer electrolytes: Impact of mechanical stresses on Li-ion battery performance2018Inngår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of mechanical stresses arising in a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) on the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte component of a lithium ion battery. The SPE is modeled with a coupled ionic conduction-deformation model that allows to investigate the effect of mechanical stresses induced by the redistribution of ions. The analytical solution is determined for a uniform planar cell operating under galvanostatic conditions with and without externally induced deformations. The roles of the polymer stiffness, internally-induced stresses, and thickness of the SPE layer are investigated. The results show that the predictions of the coupled model can strongly deviate from those obtained with an electrochemical model—up to +38% in terms of electrostatic potentialdifference across the electrolyte layer—depending on the combination of material properties and geometrical features. The predicted stress level in the SPE is considerable as it exceeds the threshold experimentally detected for irreversible deformation or fracture to occur in cells not subjected to external loading. We show that stresses induced by external solicitations can reduce the concentration gradient of ions across the electrolyte thickness and prevent salt depletion at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  • Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Labour market measures in in Sweden 2008–13: the crisis and beyond2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Bellander, Theres
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Karlsson, Anna-Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Nikolaidou, Zoe
    Södertörns högskola.
    Blogging as a Health Literacy Practice.: Identity construction and knowledge-building in the writing of parents of children with heart defect2018Inngår i: Explorations in Ethnography, Language and Communication: Capturing Linguistic and Cultural Diversities.: Text- och samtalsstudier från Södertörns högskola 7. / [ed] Hållsten, Stina och Nikolaidiu, Zoe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2018, s. 127-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Bellander, Theres
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Landqvist, Mats
    Becoming the expert constructing health knowledge in epistemic communities online2018Inngår i: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From a discourse analytic framework, the article analyses health blogs and patient’s forum discussions in which parents to children with congenital heart defects recontextualize medical professional knowledge and share their own experiences. The study show how the two types of online media may serve as a means for parents to attain expert status in their own case by sharing lay knowledge expressed as an amalgamation of the two key perspectives – professional and experienced – as an indivisible unit. Monological discourses, such as narrating, in blogs and more direct and immediate responses in forum discussions are noted as examples of differences in how medical facts are explained and negotiated, how advice is provided and how patient expertise is created. The study also show how blogs and especially forum discussions are used to problematize the validity of actions and opinions of medical staff. The role of developing patient expertise in epistemic communities online may therefore come with a risk of spreading misrepresentation of medical cases.

  • Wirdenäs, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Bellander, Theres
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Den 80-årige bloggkungen: En studie av språkliga konstruktioner av äldre i förhållande till IT2018Inngår i: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, ISSN ISSN 1402-1501, Vol. 14, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we show and discuss the results from an empirical study with a social constructivist perspective, where we explore the combination of two socially and interactively constructed categories: senior citizens and young persons. In the study the paradoxical discourse that surrounds beliefs about usage of ICT in the two different stages of life is highlighted. The data is collected from a blog of a senior citizen and from media interviews with the blogger. The analysis points to the beliefs and expectations that are expressed regarding the use of digital information and interaction technology, and contributes to the discussion of the place and role of senior citizens in today’s society.

  • Tajbakhsh, Mohammad
    et al.
    Regional Water Authority, Zan Blvd., Kermanshah, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparative study of multi-station method and Hershfield’sapproaches for PMP determination: (case study: Northeast of Iran)2018Inngår i: Sustainable Water Resources Management, ISSN 2363-5037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum daily rainfall values for 36 homogeneous stations in the northeast of Iran were adopted to estimate the appropriate Probable annual Maximum Precipitation 1-day precipitation (PMP 24) values. PMP24 was found as 128.2–284.2, 62.7–160.2 and 124 mm for Hershfield 1, Hershfield 2 and multi-station approach, respectively. The ratio of PMP 24

    to the highest observed 1-day rainfall was consistent for the second approach of Hershfield. It was in harmony with the multi-station method, but varied widely for Hershfield 1. This may be the result of different record length effect on Hershfield 1 approach. Finally, the map of PMP 24 isochrones was prepared for the second approach of Hershfield for over northeast of Iran.

  • Holmberg, Mats
    et al.
    Ambulanssjukvården i Södermaland.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Winge, Karin
    Ambulanssjukvården Södra Älvsborgssjukhus.
    Lundberg, Camilla
    Ambulanssjukvården Södra Älvsborgssjukhus.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska akademin vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Association between the reported intensityof an acute symptom at first prehospital assessment and the subsequent outcome:a study on patients with acute chest painand presumed acute coronary syndrome2018Inngår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 18:216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To decrease the morbidity burden of cardiovascular disease and to avoid the development ofpotentially preventable complications, early assessment and treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) areimportant. The aim of this study has therefore been to explore the possible association between patients’ estimatedintensity of chest pain when first seen by the ambulance crew in suspected ACS, and the subsequent outcomebefore and after arrival in hospital.

    Methods: Data was collected both prospectively and retrospectively. The inclusion criteria were chest pain raisingsuspicion of ACS and a reported intensity of pain ≥4 on the visual analogue scale.

    Results: All in all, 1603 patients were included in the study. Increased intensity of chest pain was related to: 1) moreheart-related complications before hospital admission; 2) a higher proportion of heart failure, anxiety and chest painafter hospital admission; 3) a higher proportion of acute myocardial infarction and 4) a prolonged hospitalisation.However, there was no significant association with mortality neither in 30 days nor in three years. Adjustment forpossible confounders including age, a history of smoking and heart failure showed similar results.

    Conclusion: The estimated intensity of chest pain reported by the patients on admission by the ambulance team wasassociated with the risk of complications prior to hospital admission, heart failure, anxiety and chest pain after hospitaladmission, the final diagnosis and the number of days in hospital.

  • Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources EngineeringGreen University of Al QasimBaghdadIraq.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Faculty of EngineeringLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Chloride, Calcium Carbonate and Total Soluble Salts Contents Distribution for An-Najaf and Al-Kufa Cities’ Soil by Using GIS2018Inngår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to create geotechnical maps for three soil chemical properties in An-Najaf and Kufa cities’ soil by utilizing of GIS tools. This properties are the chloride concentration, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and total soluble salts where they affect the durability of reinforced structural elements. This paper provides an easy accurate way to represent soil properties levels for different depths of soil and create reliable database that will help engineers and decision makers. The data included in this paper were collected for (464) boreholes with depths up to 35 m distributed on residential areas in all of An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Arc-Map of GIS 10.2.1 was used to produce the maps. It has been concluded that chloride content in the soil of the study area range from - 0.01 to 0.99% and with an average of 0.5. The maximum value found in at depth 4–6 m while the minimum value found in location at depth 4–6, 8–10 and 14–16 m. The chloride content in most of An-Najaf province has exceeded the permissible limit and for all, this required taking percussions to protect foundations. While calcium carbonate content in the soil of the study area range from 53 to 0.18 and with an average of 26.6. The maximum and the minimum values found at depth 4–6 m. Calcium carbonate content is within the permissible limits in most locations except in some locations.

  • Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Birch, Karina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Äta insekter: nyttigt och hållbart, eller?2018Inngår i: nutritionsfakta.seArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för insekter som mat är stort, inte minst därför att de anses vara både nyttiga och klimatsmarta. Trots dessa argument är de allra flesta, främst i västerländska kulturer, tveksamma till att stoppa dem i munnen. Enligt svensk lagstiftning är de hittills förbjudna att använda som mat, åtminstone kommersiellt.

  • Liao, Qinghua
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Kulkarni, Yashraj
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Sengupta, Ushnish
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Petrovic, Dusan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Biokemi.
    Mulholland, Adrian J.
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    van der Kamp, Marc W.
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Strodel, Birgit
    Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.
    Kamerlin, Shina C. Lynn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Biokemi.
    Loop Motion in Triosephosphate Isomerase Is Not a Simple Open and Shut Case2018Inngår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, s. 15889-15903Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformational changes are crucial for the catalytic action of many enzymes. A prototypical and well-studied example is loop opening and closure in triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), which is thought to determine the rate of catalytic turnover in many circumstances. Specifically, TIM loop 6 “grips” the phosphodianion of the substrate and, together with a change in loop 7, sets up the TIM active site for efficient catalysis. Crystal structures of TIM typically show an open or a closed conformation of loop 6, with the tip of the loop moving ∼7 Å between conformations. Many studies have interpreted this motion as a two-state, rigid-body transition. Here, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations, with both conventional and enhanced sampling techniques, to analyze loop motion in apo and substrate-bound TIM in detail, using five crystal structures of the dimeric TIM from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that loop 6 is highly flexible and samples multiple conformational states. Empirical valence bond simulations of the first reaction step show that slight displacements away from the fully closed-loop conformation can be sufficient to abolish most of the catalytic activity; full closure is required for efficient reaction. The conformational change of the loops in TIM is thus not a simple “open and shut” case and is crucial for its catalytic action. Our detailed analysis of loop motion in a highly efficient enzyme highlights the complexity of loop conformational changes and their role in biological catalysis.

  • Käihkö, Ilmari
    Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen.
    War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military profession2018Inngår i: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 2242-3524, E-ISSN 1799-3350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.

  • Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Metoder för att testa dukar och membran i tunnlar och bergrum2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel and rock lining systems are used for drainage and icing protection. These systems can consist of any combination of concrete, metal, plastic or textile. The report summaries the available methods, both for testing and for installation. The large variation in both systems and test methods often make it difficult for constructors or designer to understand the importance of different methods. The report gives indication of what type of linings exists and how to ensure the fire safety of such systems. Fire safety properties can be verified in three different ways: #1 Full systems can be tested in full scale fire tests, #2 a section of the system can be tested in standardized furnace tests, or #3 plastic and/or textile membrane can be tested with regards to requirements on fire spread. It is suggested to require that a fire should not be able to propagate in the system. This can be verified with #3 above requiring class B, C or D according to EN 13501-1. If the lining system offers structural fire protection, it can be verified suing #2 above.

  • Jonsson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Towards semantic language processing2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the field of natural language processing is to facilitate the communication between humans and computers, and to help humans with natural language problems such as translation. In this thesis, we focus on semantic language processing. Modelling semantics – the meaning of natural language – requires both a structure to hold the semantic information and a device that can enforce rules on the structure to ensure well-formed semantics while not being too computationally heavy. The devices used in natural language processing are preferably weighted to allow for comparison of the alternative semantic interpretations outputted by a device.

    The structure employed here is the abstract meaning representation (AMR). We show that AMRs representing well-formed semantics can be generated while leaving out AMRs that are not semantically well-formed. For this purpose, we use a type of graph grammar called contextual hyperedge replacement grammar (CHRG). Moreover, we argue that a more well-known subclass of CHRG – the hyperedge replacement grammar (HRG) – is not powerful enough for AMR generation. This is due to the limitation of HRG when it comes to handling co-references, which in its turn depends on the fact that HRGs only generate graphs of bounded treewidth.

    Furthermore, we also address the N best problem, which is as follows: Given a weighted device, return the N best (here: smallest-weighted, or more intuitively, smallest-errored) structures. Our goal is to solve the N best problem for devices capable of expressing sophisticated forms of semantic representations such as CHRGs. Here, however, we merely take a first step consisting in developing methods for solving the N best problem for weighted tree automata and some types of weighted acyclic hypergraphs.