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  • Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Grillo, Claudia A.
    Univ South Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol Physiol & Neurosci, Columbia, SC 29208 USA..
    Insulin Resistance as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 215Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in animals and humans has shown that type 2 diabetes and its prodromal state, insulin resistance, promote major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Worrisomely, dysregulated amyloid beta (A beta) metabolism has also been shown to promote central nervous system insulin resistance; although the role of tau metabolism remains controversial. Collectively, as proposed in this review, these findings suggest the existence of a mechanistic interplay between AD pathogenesis and disrupted insulin signaling. They also provide strong support for the hypothesis that pharmacologically restoring brain insulin signaling could represent a promising strategy to curb the development and progression of AD. In this context, great hopes have been attached to the use of intranasal insulin. This drug delivery method increases cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of insulin in the absence of peripheral side effects, such as hypoglycemia. With this in mind, the present review will also summarize current knowledge on the efficacy of intranasal insulin to mitigate major pathological symptoms of AD, i.e., cognitive impairment and deregulation of A beta and tau metabolism.

  • Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Haapalar, Irja
    Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V
    Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C M
    Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M
    Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review2018Inngår i: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • Danielsson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Jones, Douglas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Kylberg, Eva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Strömquist, Jenny
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Johansson, Ann-Marie
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Hjelmquist, Pär
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Mechedal, Jan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University..
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University..
    Bizkarguenaga, E
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Benskin., Jonathan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    de Wit,, Cynthia
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Egebäck, Anna-Lena
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Kruså, Martin
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Distribution and conversions of metal-and POP concentrations among various tissues in herring2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Immunization, Vaccines & Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Vannice, Kirsten
    Durbin, Anna
    Hombach, Joachim
    Thomas, Stephen J.
    Thevarjan, Irani
    Simmons, Cameron P.
    Zika vaccines and therapeutics: landscape analysis and challenges ahead2018Inngår i: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Various Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine candidates are currently in development. Nevertheless, unique challenges in clinical development and regulatory pathways may hinder the licensure of high-quality, safe, and effective ZIKV vaccines.

    DISCUSSION: Implementing phase 3 efficacy trials will be difficult given the challenges of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of ZIKV transmission, the unpredictability of ZIKV epidemics, the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations making a single definite endpoint difficult, a lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays, and the need for inclusion of vulnerable target populations. In addition to a vaccine, drugs for primary prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis, or treatment should also be developed to prevent or mitigate the severity of congenital Zika syndrome.

    CONCLUSION: Establishing the feasibility of immune correlates and/or surrogates are a priority. Given the challenges in conducting phase 3 trials at a time of waning incidence, human challenge trials should be considered to evaluate efficacy. Continued financial support and engagement of industry partners will be essential to the successful development, licensure, and accessibility of Zika vaccines or therapeutics.

  • Leonhard, Sonja Emily
    et al.
    Lant, Suzannah
    Jacobs, Bart C.
    Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ferreira, Maria Lucia Brito
    Solomon, Tom
    Willison, Hugh John
    Zika virus infection in the returning traveller: what every neurologist should know2018Inngår i: Practical Neurology, ISSN 1474-7758, E-ISSN 1474-7766, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zika virus has been associated with a wide range of neurological complications. Neurologists in areas without current active transmission of the virus may be confronted with Zika-associated neurological disease, as a large number of returning travellers with Zika virus infection have been reported and the virus continues to spread to previously unaffected regions. This review provides an overview of Zika virus-associated neurological disease and aims to support neurologists who may encounter patients returning from endemic areas.

  • Kailembo, Alexander
    et al.
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Australia.
    Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that oral conditions affect 3.5 billion people worldwide with a higher burden among older adults and those who are socially and economically disadvantaged. Studies of inequalities in the use of oral health services by those in need have been conducted in high-income countries but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. This study measures and describes socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over, in China, Ghana and India.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of national survey data from the WHO SAGE Wave 1 (2007-2010) was conducted. Study samples in China (n = 1591), Ghana (n = 425) and India (n = 1307) were conditioned on self-reported need for oral health services in the previous 12 months. The binary dependent variable, unmet need for oral health services, was derived from questions about self-reported need and service use. Prevalence was estimated by country. Unmet need was measured and compared in terms of relative levels of education and household wealth. The methods were logistic regression and the relative index of inequality (RII). Models were adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, marital status, work status and self-rated health.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of unmet need was 60, 80, and 62% in China, Ghana and India respectively. The adjusted RII for education was statistically significant for China (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-1.9), Ghana (1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), and India (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-2.0), whereas the adjusted RII for wealth was significant only in Ghana (1.3, 95% CI:1.1-1.6). Male sex was significantly associated with self-reported unmet need for oral health services in India.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given rapid population ageing, further evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in unmet need for oral health services by older adults in LMICs is needed to inform policies to mitigate inequalities in the availability of oral health services. Oral health is a universal public health issue requiring attention and action on multiple levels and across the public private divide.

  • Lusey, Hendrew
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. World Council of Churches, Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative and Advocacy (EHAIA), Kinshasa Gombe, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Edin, Kerstin E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Prevalence and correlates of gender inequitable norms among young, church-going women and men in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo2018Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 887Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged political instability may have exacerbated gender inequitable beliefs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The aim of this study was to assess attitudes related to gender-equitable norms and its determinants among young, church-going women and men in Kinshasa, DRC.

    METHOD: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with 291 church-going women and 289 men aged 18-24 years old, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality, and responses to issues related to the gender-equitable men (GEM) scale. The GEM scale is a 24 item-questionnaire developed to measure attitudes towards gender equitable norms. Logistic regression was applied to discover the associations between the independent variables and the GEM outcome.

    RESULTS: Our study reflected the existence of attitudes hampering gender equality that were endorsed by both women and men. For example, 91.4% of women and 83% of men agreed with the statement "a woman's most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family". Similarly, 88.3% of women and 82.9% of men concurred with the idea that men need more sex than women. These findings coexisted with a few equitable norms, because 93.7% of women and 92.3% of men agreed that a man and a woman should decide together if they want to have children. A positive association was found in both women and men between being educated, being single and separated and having supportive attitudes towards gender equality and a higher GEM scale score. Residency in Camp Luka and Masina was also a significant social determinant associated with equitable gender norms among men whilst job status was only significant among women.

    CONCLUSION: While both women and men had high levels of gender inequitable norms, those with more education, single, and with supportive attitudes to gender equality had high GEM scale scores. The results highlight an urgent need for the church to challenge and change gender norms among church youths.

  • Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Oncare Medical Technology Company Limited , Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nguyen, Viet
    Tuan, Le Thanh
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Views by health professionals on the responsiveness of commune health stations regarding non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative study2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Primary health care plays an important role in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries. In light of the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, this study aims to explore health professionals' views about the responsiveness of primary health care services at commune health stations, particularly regarding the increase of NCDs in urban settings.

    METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Hanoi from July to August 2015. We implemented 19 in-depth interviews with health staff at four purposely selected commune health stations and conducted a brief inventory of existing NCD activities at these commune health stations. We also interviewed NCD managers at national, provincial, and district levels. The interview guides reflected six components of the WHO health system framework, including service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership/governance. A thematic analysis approach was applied to analyze the interview data in this study.

    RESULTS: Six themes, related to the six building blocks of the WHO health systems framework, were identified. These themes explored the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi. Health staff at commune health stations were not aware of the national strategy for NCDs. Health workers noted the lack of NCD informational materials for management and planning. The limited workforce at health commune stations would benefit from more health workers in general and those with NCD-specific training and skills. In addition, the budget for NCDs at commune health stations remains very limited, with large differences in the implementation of national targeted NCD programs. Some commune health stations had no NCD services available, while others had some programming. A lack of NCD treatment drugs was also noted, with a negative impact on the provision of NCD-related services at commune health stations. These themes were also reflected in the inventory of existing NCD related activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals view the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi, Vietnam as weak. Appropriate policies should be implemented to improve the primary health care services on NCDs at commune health stations in urban Hanoi, Vietnam.

  • von Rosen, Tatjana
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematisk statistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bilinear regression with rank restrictions on the mean and the dispersion matrix2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A bilinear regression model with rank restrictions imposed on the mean-parameter matrix and on the dispersion matrix is studied. Maximum likelihood inspired estimates are derived. The approach generalizes classical reduced rank regression analysis and principal component analysis. It is shown via a simulation study and a real example that even for small dimensions the method works as well as reduced rank regression analysis whereas the approach in this article also can be used when the dimension is large.

  • Disputas: 2018-09-08 09:00 Room 22-0008, Uppsala
    Basirat, Ali
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Principal Word Vectors2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Word embedding is a technique for associating the words of a language with real-valued vectors, enabling us to use algebraic methods to reason about their semantic and grammatical properties. This thesis introduces a word embedding method called principal word embedding, which makes use of principal component analysis (PCA) to train a set of word embeddings for words of a language. The principal word embedding method involves performing a PCA on a data matrix whose elements are the frequency of seeing words in different contexts. We address two challenges that arise in the application of PCA to create word embeddings. The first challenge is related to the size of the data matrix on which PCA is performed and affects the efficiency of the word embedding method. The data matrix is usually a large matrix that requires a very large amount of memory and CPU time to be processed. The second challenge is related to the distribution of word frequencies in the data matrix and affects the quality of the word embeddings. We provide an extensive study of the distribution of the elements of the data matrix and show that it is unsuitable for PCA in its unmodified form.

    We overcome the two challenges in principal word embedding by using a generalized PCA method. The problem with the size of the data matrix is mitigated by a randomized singular value decomposition (SVD) procedure, which improves the performance of PCA on the data matrix. The data distribution is reshaped by an adaptive transformation function, which makes it more suitable for PCA. These techniques, together with a weighting mechanism that generalizes many different weighting and transformation approaches used in literature, enable the principal word embedding to train high quality word embeddings in an efficient way.

    We also provide a study on how principal word embedding is connected to other word embedding methods. We compare it to a number of word embedding methods and study how the two challenges in principal word embedding are addressed in those methods. We show that the other word embedding methods are closely related to principal word embedding and, in many instances, they can be seen as special cases of it.

    The principal word embeddings are evaluated in both intrinsic and extrinsic ways. The intrinsic evaluations are directed towards the study of the distribution of word vectors. The extrinsic evaluations measure the contribution of principal word embeddings to some standard NLP tasks. The experimental results confirm that the newly proposed features of principal word embedding (i.e., the randomized SVD algorithm, the adaptive transformation function, and the weighting mechanism) are beneficial to the method and lead to significant improvements in the results. A comparison between principal word embedding and other popular word embedding methods shows that, in many instances, the proposed method is able to generate word embeddings that are better than or as good as other word embeddings while being faster than several popular word embedding methods.

  • Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Wallin, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Promoting aging migrants' capabilities: A randomized controlled trial concerning activities of daily living and self-rated health.2018Inngår i: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 173-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the 6-month and 1-year effects of a person-centered group-based health-promoting intervention on independence in daily activities and self-rated health. The study was an RCT with follow-ups at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 131 independent living people (70+) who have migrated to Sweden from Finland or Western Balkan region were included. Participants were independent in activities of daily living and cognitively intact. They were randomized to an intervention group receiving four weekly group-meetings and a follow-up home visit, or a control group (no intervention). An overall chi-squared test was performed and the odds ratio calculated. A high proportion of the participants maintained independence in activities of daily living and improved or maintained self-rated health. However, no significant differences were found between the groups. The result indicates that the intervention was offered too early in the aging process to be able to detect effects. Methodological challenges were met during both the recruitment and implementation phases. In response to lessons learned, a multicenter design is recommended for future research in order to strengthen the findings. Furthermore, this study has contributed with experiences on both opportunities and challenges in terms of research with and about older people aging in the context of migration, as is discussed.

  • Makenzius, Marlene
    et al.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Odero, Theresa M A
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Karolinska institutet.
    Oguttu, Monica
    Contraceptive uptake in post abortion care-Secondary outcomes from a randomised controlled trial, Kisumu, Kenya.2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikkel-id e0201214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim was to explore contraceptive uptake, associated factors and satisfaction among post abortion-care (PAC) seeking women in Kenya. Due to unsafe abortions, almost 120 000 Kenyan women received PAC in 2012, and of these women, 70% did not use contraception before pregnancy.

    METHODS: This study was nested in a larger randomised controlled trial, where 859 women sought PAC at two public hospitals in Kisumu, in June 2013-May 2016. The women were randomly assigned to a midwife or a physician for PAC, including contraceptive counselling, and followed up at 7-10 days and three months. Associated factors for contraceptive uptake were analysed with binary logistic regression, and contraceptive method choice, adherence and satisfaction level were examined by descriptive statistics, using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0.

    RESULTS: Out of the 810 PAC-seeking women, 76% (n = 609) accepted the use of contraception. Age groups of 21-25 (OR: 2.35; p < 0.029) and 26-30 (OR: 2.22; p < 0.038), and previous experience of 1-2 gravidities (OR 1.939; p = 0.018) were independent factors associated with the up-take. Methods used: injections 39% (n = 236); pills 27% (n = 166); condoms 25% (n = 151); implant 7% (n = 45) and intrauterine device (IUD) 1% (n = 8). At 3-month follow-up of the women (470/609; 77%), 354 (75%) women still used contraception, and most (n = 332; 94%) were satisfied with the method. Reasons for discontinuation were side-effects (n = 44; 39%), partner refusal (n = 27; 24%), planned pregnancy (n = 27; 24%) and lack of resupplies (n = 15; 13%).

    CONCLUSIONS: PAC-seeking women seem highly motivated to use contraceptives, yet a quarter decline the use, and at 3-month follow-up a further quarter among the users had discontinued. Implant, IUD and permanent method are rarely used. Strategies to improve contraceptive counselling, particularly to adolescent girls, and to increase access to a wide range of methods, as well as provider training and supervision may help to improve contraceptive acceptance and compliance among PAC-seeking women in Kisumu, Kenya.

  • Recensioner2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 260-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Ramberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    School effectiveness and truancy: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm2018Inngår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Truancy is a problem associated with a range of negative consequences at the individual and societal level, both in the short and the long term. Few earlier studies have investigated the association between school effectiveness and truancy. The aim of this study is to examine the links between three teacher-rated features of school effectiveness – school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos – and student-reported truancy. Data were collected in 2016 among 4,956 students and 1,045 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Results from two-level binary logistic regression analyses show that higher teacher ratings of the school leadership and of the school ethos (but not of teacher cooperation and consensus) are associated with a lower likelihood of truancy at the student-level, even when adjusting for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics. The findings indicate that effective school characteristics may contribute to reducing students’ inclination to play truant.

  • Disputas: 2018-09-21 10:00 B1014, Jönköping
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Industrial policy: Political considerations, payoffs, and peculiar incentives2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent papers. They deal with some aspects of industrial policy, namely public supports to firms that are intended to support innovation and growth at the firm level, using Swedish data. Two papers study the efficiency of current Swedish policies by estimating the effects of subsidies and public loans to firms, respectively.

    The results on subsidized firms suggests that there are some positive effects on profits and productivity, but these diminish and disappear over time. The results of public loans are more positive with long lasting effects on productivity and sales but only for smaller firms. Public loans do not lead to an increase in the number of employees in the firms that receive them.

    The third paper studies the selection of firms for subsidies and the incentives firms have to seek them. By modeling the decision to seek subsidies as a trade off between producing in the market and seeking grants, the results suggest that firms with low market productivity might self-select into seeking grants. The empirical results are in line with the theoretical predictions.

    The final paper studies the incentives that politicians have to implement programs and policies that they know will be inefficient. Since a lack of political action can make the politicians look incompetent, incumbentens have incentives to implement policies even though they know that these will be ineffective, to signal competence towards the voters.

  • Idevall Hagren, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Aktör-nätverksteori och kritiska textanalyser: En diskussion om teori, metod och tillämpning2018Inngår i: Kritiska text- och diskursstudier / [ed] Wojahn, Daniel, Seiler Brylla, Charlotta & Westberg, Gustav, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2018, s. 81-100Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Actor-network theory (ANT) offers an approach to study how social phenomena and relations are developed and come to matter. ANT objects to using theory as an explanatory framework, within which empirics is added and shaped. ANT claims that theoretical presumptions should not be the starting point for critic, but rather that critique is an effect of close deployment of empirical data. This article aims to read ANT from a critical linguistics’ perspective in order to discuss how ANT can bring new perspectives on the social to linguistics, and offer concepts and tools for critical text analysis. The article introduces ANT’s ontology and epistemology as well as the theoretical perspectives derived from them. Furthermore, the article deals with ANT as a critical approach. Two analytical studies of language and racism are introduced to illustrate how linguists can benefit from using ANT, including concepts like black box, punctualizationand translation.

  • Källström, Magnus
    Runorna på vinden i Marums kyrka, Västergötland2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 252-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Samuelsson, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Strategisk Plattform För Digital Informationsförvaltning: Projektrapport Centrum för Digital Informationsförvaltning2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har sammanställts med hjälp av medel från Tillväxtverket via Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden, Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland, Mittuniversitetet och Riksarkivet Härnösand. Syftet med förstudiens har varit att ta fram ett underlag för en övergripande strategisk plan för regionen med fokus på god informationsförvaltning. Planen skall identifiera viktiga områden för fortsatt forskning och utvecklingen inom domänen informationsförvaltning och utgöra grunden för fördjupande projekt. Förstudien ingår i ett strategiskt arbete för att bibehålla och kraftigt utveckla regionens kapacitet och förmåga att producera, kommunicera och bevara digital information. Mer konkret har vi i förstudien arbetat med förslag till: * En genomlysning av begreppet (god) informationsförvaltning och dess läge i regionen. * Stärkt teknisk utvecklingkompetens bland annat via e-tjänstutveckling av "uttagsmoduler" från verksamhetssystem och anpassning till e-delegationens och Riksarkivets FGS (Förvaltningsgemensamma specifikationer). * Hur regionen skall organisera sig och arbeta för en bättre informationsförvaltning Via omvärldsanalyser kring samtliga områden ovan har vi i rapporten påbörjat arbetet med att definiera begreppet informationsförvaltning samt urskilja ett antal verksamhetsområden som samtliga hanterar information och dokumenterat potentiella samverkansområden. Studien har också via en enkät skapat en lägesbeskrivning av informationshantering och förvaltning i regionen och inom vilka områden det finns behov av samverkan. För det fortsatta arbetet har vi också analyserat och skissat på tänkbara kluster och nätverkskonstellationer för att driva arbetet med informationsförvaltningen vidare. Som ett konkret exempel på både samverkan och utveckling av vissa funktioner inom området informationsförvaltning har vi konkretiserat en tänkbar e-tjänst. Tjänsten syftar till att skapa förutsättningar för mer automatiserade uttag av information ur verksamhetssystem med målet att generera enhetliga informationspaketet för leverans till olika e-arkivlösningar. De olika önskvärda aktiviteterna inom de tre områden ovan har avslutningsvis konkretiserats i en handlingsplan för regionen som syftar till att stärka regionens handlingskraft och kompetens inom området. Mer konkret kan vi se ett fortsatt arbete som handlar om att; Identifiera kvalitetskrav vid skapande och fångande av information för att säkerställa det långsiktiga bevarandet och återanvändningen av information. Det innebär att vi studerar de olika delarna i vår operationalisering av begreppet informationsförvaltning där det för de tre första funktionerna: Dokumentation, Registratur och Dokumenthantering handlar om att: • vi skapar en fördjupad förståelse för dokumentationens betydelse och inte minst • studerar förutsättningar för en sammanhållen registrering av all metadata antingen den sker i särskilda verksamhetssystem eller mer traditionella diarestyrda ärendeflöden. • skapa bättre utredningsmetodik för beslut om att dokumentera, kravställning av dokumentation samt val av system för dokumentation. I detta arbete använder standarder och verktyg som vi anpassar för svenska och regionala förhållande; • ISO 30300, ISO15489, ISO16175 som kvalitetstandarder för att säkerställa informationsflöden fram till arkivet och en enligt ingest enligt OAIS modellen. • Riksarkivets resultat från projektet med e-ARD FGS (Förvaltnings gemensamma specifikationer) I denna del skulle vi vilja utveckla en modell med helhetsperspektiv för informationsförvaltning, där också en samlad och organiserad hantering av verksamhetens registrering ingår. Dokumenthanteringen 4 måste också omfatta systemförvaltning så att vi får en modell som hanterar och kontrollera hela flödet av verksamhetsinformation. Vi identifierade ytterligare två funktioner i begreppet informationsförvaltning - Arkivering och Arkivförvaltning och av den genomförda enkäten framgick det att dessa funktioner hanterades mycket bristfälligt. Det som behöver göras på dessa områden är sådant som bör komplettera arbetet i det nyligen genomförda eARD-projektet och dess FGS. På detta område kunde ett modellarbete ha som mål att överbygga avståndet mellan de löpande verksamhetsprocesser och arkiv, t ex via överföring till mellanarkiv och ”slutarkiv” och för överföring mellan olika verksamhetssystem. Underlag för en sådan modell finns i ansatsen som redovisas i denna förstudie ”E-arkiv som en tjänst” i kapitel 7. Vi tror också detta är en viktig pusselbit i arbetet med den digitala agendan. Ett viktigt resultat av rapportens enkät är de respondenter, som svarat ”ja” eller ”vet ej” på frågan om de vill delta i ett gemensamt utvecklingsarbete inom informationsförvaltningens olika delfunktioner. Vi föreslår i rapporten att de bör erbjudas att delta i ett strategiskt nätverk för arbete med en gemensam FoU-plan som grund för en bättre digital informationsförvaltning. Till nätverket bör även inbjudas intresserade företag, i första hand ur existerande IT-kluster. I anslutning till start av ett förnyelsearbete inom traditionell arkivverksamhet kan en ömsesidigt gagnande klusterstruktur – en samlad plattform – byggas ut som ”Arkivlänet – kluster för digital arkiv- och informationsförvaltning”. Vi föreslår också en mer detaljerad agenda för detta arbete i den avslutande delen kring handlingsplanen för regionen.

  • Kubin, Markus
    et al.
    Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Kern, Jan
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Guo, Meiyuan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Teoretisk kemi.
    Källman, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Teoretisk kemi.
    Mitzner, Rolf
    Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Yachandra, Vittal K.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Lundberg, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Teoretisk kemi.
    Yano, Junko
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Wernet, Philippe
    Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    X-ray-induced sample damage at the Mn L-edge: a case study for soft X-ray spectroscopy of transition metal complexes in solution2018Inngår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, nr 24, s. 16817-16827Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray induced sample damage can impede electronic and structural investigations of radiation-sensitive samples studied with X-rays. Here we quantify dose-dependent sample damage to the prototypical Mn-III(acac)(3) complex in solution and at room temperature for the soft X-ray range, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn L-edge. We observe the appearance of a reduced Mn-II species as the X-ray dose is increased. We find a half-damage dose of 1.6 MGy and quantify a spectroscopically tolerable dose on the order of 0.3 MGy (1 Gy = 1 J kg(-1)), where 90% of Mn-III(acac)(3) are intact. Our dose-limit is around one order of magnitude lower than the Henderson limit (half-damage dose of 20 MGy) which is commonly employed for protein crystallography with hard X-rays. It is comparable, however, to the dose-limits obtained for collecting un-damaged Mn K-edge spectra of the photosystem II protein, using hard X-rays. The dose-dependent reduction of Mn-III observed here for solution samples occurs at a dose limit that is two to four orders of magnitude smaller than the dose limits previously reported for soft X-ray spectroscopy of iron samples in the solid phase. We compare our measured to calculated spectra from ab initio restricted active space (RAS) theory and discuss possible mechanisms for the observed dose-dependent damage of Mn-III(acac)(3) in solution. On the basis of our results, we assess the influence of sample damage in other experimental studies with soft X-rays from storage-ring synchrotron radiation sources and X-ray free-electron lasers.

  • Aadland, Reidun C.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Dziuba, Carter J.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Heggset, Ellinor B.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, PFI.
    Torsæter, Ole
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Holt, Thorleif
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Gates, Ian D.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Bryant, Steven L.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Identification of nanocellulose retention characteristics in porous media2018Inngår i: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikkel-id 547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of nanotechnology to the petroleum industry has sparked recent interest in increasing oil recovery, while reducing environmental impact. Nanocellulose is an emerging nanoparticle that is derived from trees or waste stream from wood and fiber industries. Thus, it is taken from a renewable and sustainable source, and could therefore serve as a good alternative to current Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies. However, before nanocellulose can be applied as an EOR technique, further understanding of its transport behavior and retention in porous media is required. The research documented in this paper examines retention mechanisms that occur during nanocellulose transport. In a series of experiments, nanocellulose particles dispersed in brine were injected into sandpacks and Berea sandstone cores. The resulting retention and permeability reduction were measured. The experimental parameters that were varied include sand grain size, nanocellulose type, salinity, and flow rate. Under low salinity conditions, the dominant retention mechanism was adsorption and when salinity was increased, the dominant retention mechanism shifted towards log-jamming. Retention and permeability reduction increased as grain size decreased, which results from increased straining of nanocellulose aggregates. In addition, each type of nanocellulose was found to have significantly different transport properties. Experiments with Berea sandstone cores indicate that some pore volume was inaccessible to the nanocellulose. As a general trend, the larger the size of aggregates in bulk solution, the greater the observed retention and permeability reduction. Salinity was found to be the most important parameter affecting transport. Increased salinity caused additional aggregation, which led to increased straining and filter cake formation. Higher flow rates were found to reduce retention and permeability reduction. Increased velocity was accompanied by an increase in shear, which is believed to promote breakdown of nanocellulose aggregates. © 2018 by the authors.

  • Rukundo, Johnson Bosco
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Employment, Competition and Firm Performance: A Sub-Saharan Africa Perspective2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses employment, competition and firm performance with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. The thesis consists of three individual papers and an introductory chapter. The purpose of each paper is to analyze firm performance. The main region of interest is Sub-Saharan Africa where countries in this part of the world are at lower levels of economic development and have experienced economic transition and strong firm investments. The papers contribute to existing industrial organization research by studying the effects of competition on R&D, effects of firm performance on innovation, and the determinants of informal employment and monthly wage earnings.

    The first paper focuses on firm performance which is found to affect firm innovation positively. This suggests that a firm’s decision regarding the scope of its total sales impacts its innovation capabilities. The second paper investigates the relationship between competition, R&D expenditure and innovation. It is found that a firm’s research efforts increase with an increase in levels of competition but at a diminishing rate confirming a non-linear, inverted-U relationship between competition and research expenditures. The third paper analyzes what determines informal employment and monthly wage earnings in formal firms. The results show that marginal benefit of higher education is lower for informal employees and that returns on education are much higher for workers with higher education.

  • Rukundo, Johnson Bosco
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Firm Performance And Innovation In The Developing Countries: Evidence From Firm-Level Survey2017Inngår i: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 235-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between firm performance and innovation in developing countries using micro data from enterprise surveys. The purpose is to empirically test the importance of firm performance in terms of sales, for a firm’s proneness to innovate specifically in developing countries. A two-stage least squares (2SLS) model is applied to a sample of 2356 firms from the manufacturing and service sectors. Results show that firm performance, defined as sales, is found to be a significant factor contributing to innovation among firms. This relationship holds in manufacturing firms even when distinguished from the services sector. The findings underline the importance of firms’ performance through increased sales. The paper adds to the existing limited research literature on performance and innovation studies in developing countries especially Africa. The paper results differ from previous research studies where focus has been on innovation impact towards performance. As a policy option, developing countries need to improve and promote an increase in firms’ sales that would spur them to introduce a new or substantially improved product or process.

  • Huang, Hongyun
    et al.
    Gen Hosp Armed Police Forces, Inst Neurorestoratol, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China..
    Young, Wise
    Rutgers State Univ, WM Keck Ctr Collaborat Neurosci, Piscataway, NJ USA..
    Chen, Lin
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Yuquan Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Shiqing
    Tianjin Med Univ, Dept Orthopaed, Gen Hosp, Tianjin, Peoples R China..
    Al Zoubi, Ziad M.
    Al Saif Med Ctr, Jordan Ortho & Spinal Ctr, Amman, Jordan..
    Sharma, Hari Shanker
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Saberi, Hooshang
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Neurosurg, Brain & Spinal Injury Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Moviglia, Gustavo A.
    Maimonides Univ, Ctr Res & Engn Tissues & Cellular Therapy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    He, Xijing
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Orthopaed, Affiliated Hosp 2, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Muresanu, Dafin F.
    Univ Med & Pharm, Dept Neurosci Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Sharma, Alok
    LTMG Hosp, LTM Med Coll, Dept Neurosurg, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Otom, Ali
    King Hussein Med Ctr RJRC Amman, Royal Rehabil Ctr, Amman, Jordan..
    Andrews, Russell J.
    NASA, Nanotechnol & Smart Syst, Ames Res Ctr, Silicon Valley, CA USA..
    Al-Zoubi, Adeeb
    Univ Illinois, Coll Med Peoria, Peoria, IL USA..
    Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey S.
    NeuroVita Clin Intervent & Restorat Neurol & Ther, Moscow, Russia..
    Chernykh, Elena R.
    Inst Fundamental & Clin Immunol, Lab Cellular Immunotherapy, Novosibirsk, Russia..
    Domanska-Janik, Krystyna
    Mossakowski Med Res Ctr, Stem Cell Bioengn Unit, Warsaw, Poland..
    Jafar, Emad
    Al Saif Med Ctr, Jordan Ortho & Spinal Ctr, Amman, Jordan..
    Johnson, W. Eustace
    Univ Chester, Fac Med Dent & Life Sci, Stem Cells & Regenerat Biol, Chester, Cheshire, England..
    Li, Ying
    UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Brain Repair & Rehabil, Spinal Repair Unit, London, England..
    Li, Daqing
    UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Brain Repair & Rehabil, Spinal Repair Unit, London, England..
    Luan, Zuo
    Navy Gen Hosp PLA, Dept Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Mao, Gengsheng
    Gen Hosp Armed Police Forces, Inst Neurorestoratol, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China..
    Shetty, Ashok K.
    Texas A&M Hlth Sci Ctr, Coll Med, Inst Regenerat Med, Dept Mol & Cellular Med, College Stn, TX USA..
    Siniscalco, Dario
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Dept Expt Med, Naples, Italy..
    Skaper, Stephen
    Univ Padua, Dept Pharmaceut & Pharmacol Sci, Padua, Italy..
    Sun, Tiansheng
    PLA Army Gen Hosp, Dept Orthoped, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Yunliang
    148th Hosp, Dept Neurol, Zibo, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Wiklund, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Neurosci, Unit Neurol, Umea, Sweden..
    Xue, Qun
    Soochow Univ, Dept Neurol, Affiliated Hosp 1, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    You, Si-Wei
    Fourth Mil Med Univ, Xijing Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Zuncheng
    Cent Hosp Taian, Dept Rehabil Med, Tai An, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Dimitrijevic, Milan R.
    Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    El Masri, W. S.
    Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Orthopaed Hosp, Spinal Injuries Unit, Oswestry, Shrops, England..
    Sanberg, Paul R.
    Univ S Florida, Morsani Coll Med, Ctr Excellence Aging Brain Repair, Tampa, FL USA..
    Xu, Qunyuan
    Capital Med Univ, Inst Neurosci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Luan, Guoming
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Sanbo Brain Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chopp, Michael
    Henry Ford Hlth Syst, Henry Ford Hosp, Neurol Res, Detroit, MI USA..
    Cho, Kyoung-Suok
    Catholic Univ Korea, Uijongbu St Marys Hosp, Coll Med, Dept Neurosurg, Uijongbu, South Korea..
    Zhou, Xin-Fu
    Univ South Australia, Sansom Inst Hlth Res, Sch Pharm & Med Sci, Div Hlth Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Wu, Ping
    Univ Texas Med Branch, Dept Neurosci & Cell Biol, Galveston, TX 77555 USA..
    Liu, Kai
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Div Life Sci, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Mobasheri, Hamid
    Univ Tehran, Inst Biochem & Biophys, Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ohtori, Seiji
    Chiba Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Orthoped Surg, Chiba, Japan..
    Tanaka, Hiroyuki
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Osaka, Japan..
    Han, Fabin
    Liaocheng Univ, Ctr Stem Cells & Regenerat Med, Liaocheng Peoples Hosp, Liaocheng, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Yaping
    Kunming Gen Hosp Chengdu Mil Command Chinese PLA, Dept Neurosurg, Kunming, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Shaocheng
    Second Mil Med Univ, Changhai Hosp, Dept Orthoped, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Yingjie
    Chengde Dadu Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Weichang, Hebei, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Zhicheng
    PLA Army Gen Hosp, Dept Orthoped, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Rao, Yaojian
    Luoyang Orthoped Hosp Henan Prov, Dept Neurosurg, Luoyang, Henan, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Zhouping
    Tongji Hosp, Tongji Med Coll HUST, Dept Neurol, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Xi, Haitao
    Capital Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Beijing Rehabil Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Liang
    Beijing Xiaotangshan Rehabil Hosp, Ctr Rehabil, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Shen, Shunji
    Weihai Municipal Hosp, Dept Rehabil, Weihai, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Xue, Mengzhou
    Zhengzhou Univ, Dept Neurorehabil, Affiliated Hosp 2, Zhengzhou, Henan, Peoples R China..
    Xiang, Guanghong
    Brain Hosp Hunan Prov, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Xiaoling
    PLA Army 266 Hosp, Dept Neurol, Chengde, Hebei, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaofeng
    Zhejiang Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp 1, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Hao, Yujun
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Affiliated Hosp 1, Urumqi, Xinjiang, Peoples R China..
    Hu, Yong
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Orthopaed & Traumatol, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jinfeng
    Umea Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Neurosci, Unit Neurol, Umea, Sweden..
    Ao, Qiang
    China Med Univ, Dept Tissue Engn, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Bin
    Guangzhou Med Univ, Dept Traumatol, Affiliated Hosp 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Zhiwen
    Chinese Peoples Liberat Army Gen Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Affiliated Hosp 1, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Ming
    Hunan Normal Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Affiliated Hosp 2, Hosp PLA 163, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Li, Tong
    Xinxiang Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Affiliated Hosp 2, Xinxiang, Henan, Peoples R China..
    Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)2018Inngår i: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 310-324Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system diseases or damage. Standardization of clinical cell therapy procedures is an important task for professional associations devoted to cell therapy. The Chinese Branch of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) completed the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration in 2011. The IANR and the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR) collaborated to propose the current version "Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)". The IANR council board members and CANR committee members approved this proposal on September 1, 2016, and recommend it to clinical practitioners of cellular therapy. These guidelines include items of cell type nomenclature, cell quality control, minimal suggested cell doses, patient-informed consent, indications for undergoing cell therapy, contraindications for undergoing cell therapy, documentation of procedure and therapy, safety evaluation, efficacy evaluation, policy of repeated treatments, do not charge patients for unproven therapies, basic principles of cell therapy, and publishing responsibility.

  • Nord, Anders G.
    et al.
    Tronner, Kate
    Malmberg, Mattias
    Pigmentanalys av bemålade brädor från Björsäters stavkyrka i Östergötland2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 257-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Leonard, Dag
    et al.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Dahlqvist, Johanna
    Alexsson, Andrei
    Ärlestig, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Taylor, Kimberly E.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Eketjäll, Susanna
    Jensen-Urstad, Kerstin
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Criswell, Lindsey A.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Novel gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis2018Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, nr 7, s. 1063-1069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at autoimmunity risk loci were associated with CVD in SLE and RA.

    Methods Patients with SLE (n=1045) were genotyped using the 200K Immunochip SNP array (Illumina). The allele frequency was compared between patients with and without different manifestations of CVD. Results were replicated in a second SLE cohort (n=1043) and in an RA cohort (n=824). We analysed publicly available genetic data from general population, performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays and measured cytokine levels and occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs).

    Results We identified two new putative risk loci associated with increased risk for CVD in two SLE populations, which remained after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. An IL19 risk allele, rs17581834(T) was associated with stroke/myocardial infarction (MI) in SLE (OR 2.3 (1.5 to 3.4), P=8.5x10(-5)) and RA (OR 2.8 (1.4 to 5.6), P=3.8x10(-3)), meta-analysis (OR 2.5 (2.0 to 2.9), P=3.5x10(-7)), but not in population controls. The IL19 risk allele affected protein binding, and SLE patients with the risk allele had increased levels of plasma-IL10 (P=0.004) and aPL (P=0.01). An SRP54-AS1 risk allele, rs799454(G) was associated with stroke/transient ischaemic attack in SLE (OR 1.7 (1.3 to 2.2), P=2.5x10(-5)) but not in RA. The SRP54-AS1 risk allele is an expression quantitative trait locus for four genes.

    Conclusions The IL19 risk allele was associated with stroke/MI in SLE and RA, but not in the general population, indicating that shared immune pathways may be involved in the CVD pathogenesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  • Råhlander, Moa
    The Långön pouch is not made from lizard skin2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 249-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Esmieu, Charlène
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    Raleiras, Patricia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    Berggren, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    From protein engineering to artificial enzymes - biological and biomimetic approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production2018Inngår i: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY & FUELS, ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 724-750Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen gas is used extensively in industry today and is often put forward as a suitable energy carrier due its high energy density. Currently, the main source of molecular hydrogen is fossil fuels via steam reforming. Consequently, novel production methods are required to improve the sustainability of hydrogen gas for industrial processes, as well as paving the way for its implementation as a future solar fuel. Nature has already developed an elaborate hydrogen economy, where the production and consumption of hydrogen gas is catalysed by hydrogenase enzymes. In this review we summarize efforts on engineering and optimizing these enzymes for biological hydrogen gas production, with an emphasis on their inorganic cofactors. Moreover, we will describe how our understanding of these enzymes has been applied for the preparation of bio-inspired/-mimetic systems for efficient and sustainable hydrogen production.

  • Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Globala studier. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Borell, Klas
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Social scientist under threat: Resistance and self-censorship in Turkish academia2018Inngår i: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks on academic freedom in Turkey have become increasingly systematic in recent years and thousands of academics have been dismissed. This study reflects on the effects of this worsening repression through interviews with academics in the social sciences, both those dismissed and those still active in their profession. Although the dismissed academics are socially in a very precarious position, they are continuing their scholarly activities in alternative, underground forms. This resistance stands in contrast to the accommodation and self-censorship that seem, according to the interviewees, to prevail in university departments.

  • Regner, Elisabet
    Bön med band av stenar2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 227-248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Díaz Reviriego, Isabel
    et al.
    Beck, Silke
    Darbi, Marianne
    Hauck, Jennifer
    Hudson, Christian
    Janz, Christophe
    Klenk, Nicole
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Marquard, Elisabeth
    Montana, Jasper
    Obermeister, Noam
    Raab, Kristina
    Schoolenberg, Mactheld
    Settele, Josef
    Turnhout, Esther
    Neßhöver, Carsten
    Five years of IPBES : Reflecting the achievements and challenges and identifying needs for its review towards a 2nd work programme.  2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On 17 to 19th October 2017, twenty-four academics and practitioners with diverse inter- and transdisciplinary experiences gathered for a workshop to collectively reflect on IPBES’ work and performance. The workshop was held at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) in Leipzig. The workshop and this report represent an effort to proactively contribute to IPBES’ ongoing (external) review process. The external review process opens up a window of opportunity towards re-thinking the very purpose of IPBES and identifying new pathways to live up to its initial ambitions, such as to move beyond assessments. The workshop identified a spectrum of potential opportunities, provided visions for the future work of IPBES, and collected insights into how to cope with them. While the workshop focussed on identifying future challenges and possible solutions, all participants underlined the great achievements that IPBES has already accomplished. This report provides a synthesis of the workshop discussions. The main recommendations for the external review were:

     - The external review should seize the opportunity to establish itself in a responsive and future-oriented way so that it not only assesses past performance but also facilitates learning and identifies new pathways for IPBES. It is important that the focus of the review is not just on the extent to which IPBES has fulfilled its ambitions but also on the efficiency with which it has done this, and on the potential unintended effects of decisions.

     - For IPBES to achieve its initial ambitions, strengthening the (mainly global-scale) scientific knowledge base behind assessments is necessary but not yet sufficient. To meet its broader set of goals, it is required to pay critical attention to all aspects of policy support, knowledge generation and capacity-building, including the meaningful participation of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities and the incorporation of local and indigenous knowledge. This will require building synergies between knowledge systems, promoting the engagement of the social sciences and humanities, and addressing current challenges in the nomination and selection procedures for the identification of experts.

     - The external review also opens up space to identify a full range of alternative options and choices that are available when reforming IPBES. The review should engage in real-world dialogues and liaise closely with partners from research, policy and practice as well as with national platforms and local actors.

  • Benebo, Faith Owunari
    et al.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Intimate partner violence against women in Nigeria: a multilevel study investigating the effect of women's status and community norms2018Inngår i: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women has been recognised as a public health problem with far-reaching consequences for the physical, reproductive, and mental health of women. The ecological framework portrays intimate partner violence as a multifaceted phenomenon, demonstrating the interplay of factors at different levels: individual, community, and the larger society. The present study examined the effect of individual- and community-level factors on IPV in Nigeria, with a focus on women's status and community-level norms among men.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on the latest Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (2013) was conducted involving 20,802 ever-partnered women aged 15-49 years. Several multilevel logistic regression models were calibrated to assess the association of individual- and community-level factors with IPV. Both measures of association (fixed effect) and measures of variations (random effect) were reported.

    RESULTS: Almost one in four women in Nigeria reported having ever experienced intimate partner violence. Having adjusted for other relevant covariates, higher women's status reduced the odds of IPV (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.32-0.71). However, community norms among men that justified IPV against women modified the observed protective effect of higher women's status against IPV and reversed the odds (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.26-2.83).

    CONCLUSIONS: Besides women's status, community norms towards IPV are an important factor for the occurrence of IPV. Thus, addressing intimate partner violence against women calls for community-wide approaches aimed at changing norms among men alongside improving women's status.

  • Wadsten, Charlotta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wennstig, A.-K
    Garmo, H.
    Nilsson, Greger
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Holmberg, Lars
    Fredriksson, Irma
    Wärnberg, F.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Risk of ischemic heart disease after radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ2018Inngår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 171, nr 1, s. 95-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is increasing. Left-sided breast irradiation may involve exposure of the heart to ionising radiation, increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a population-based cohort of women with DCIS.

    Methods: The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBase) cohort includes women registered with invasive and in situ breast cancers 1992-2012 and age-matched women without a history of breast cancer. In this analysis, 6270 women with DCIS and a comparison cohort of 31,257 women were included. Through linkage with population-based registers, data on comorbidity, socioeconomic status and incidence of IHD was obtained. Hazard ratios (HR) for IHD with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were analysed.

    Results: Median follow-up time was 8.8 years. The risk of IHD was not increased for women with DCIS versus women in the comparison cohort (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.82-1.06), after treatment with radiotherapy versus surgery alone (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.98) or when analysing RT by laterality (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.53-1.37 for left-sided versus right-sided RT).

    Conclusions: The risk of IHD was lower for women with DCIS allocated to RT compared to non-irradiated women and to the comparison cohort, probably due to patient selection. Comparison of RT by laterality did not show any over-risk for irradiation of the left breast.

  • Nord, Anders G.
    et al.
    Tronner, Kate
    Billström, Kjell
    Asp, Misa
    Lundmark, Elin
    Björling Olausson, Karin
    Pigmentanalys av medeltida muralmålningar i sju norrlandskyrkor2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 216-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Laine, Merit
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Drømmebilleder. Carl Gustaf Pilos portrætkunst2018Inngår i: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 87, nr 2, s. 115-118Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Ahola, Marja
    The material culture of Finnish Stone Age hunter-gatherer burials2017Inngår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 201-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Kinsman, John
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stöven, Svenja
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Europeiska CBRNE-centret.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Murillo, Pilar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Europeiska CBRNE-centret.
    Sulzner, Michael
    Good practices and challenges in addressing poliomyelitis and measles in the European Union2018Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 730-734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: All European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States have pledged to ensure political commitment towards sustaining the region's poliomyelitis-free status and eliminating measles. However, there remain significant gaps between policy and practice in many countries. This article reports on an assessment conducted for the European Commission that aimed to support improvements in preparedness and response to poliomyelitis and measles in Europe.

    Methods: A documentary review was complemented by qualitative interviews with professionals working in International and EU agencies, and in at-risk or recently affected EU/EEA Member States (six each for poliomyelitis and measles). Twenty-six interviews were conducted on poliomyelitis and 24 on measles; the data were subjected to thematic analysis. Preliminary findings were then discussed at a Consensus Workshop with 22 of the interviewees and eight other experts.

    Results: Generic or disease-specific plans exist in the participating countries and cross-border communications during outbreaks were generally reported as satisfactory. However, surveillance systems are of uneven quality, and clinical expertise for the two diseases is limited by a lack of experience. Serious breaches of protocol have recently been reported from companies producing poliomyelitis vaccines, and vaccine coverage rates for both diseases were also sub-optimal. A set of suggested good practices to address these and other challenges is presented.

    Conclusions: Poliomyelitis and measles should be brought fully onto the policy agendas of all EU/EEA Member States, and adequate resources provided to address them. Each country must abide by the relevant commitments that they have already made.

  • Kinsman, John
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Angrén, John
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Europeiska CBRNE-centret.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Furberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Mosquera, Paola A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Otero-García, Laura
    Snacken, René
    Derrough, Tarik
    Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma
    Ciotti, Massimo
    Tsolova, Svetla
    Preparedness and response against diseases with epidemic potential in the European Union: a qualitative case study of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and poliomyelitis in five member states2018Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: EU Decision 1082/2013/EU on serious cross-border health threats provides a legal basis for collaboration between EU Member States, and between international and European level institutions on preparedness, prevention, and mitigation in the event of a public health emergency. The Decision provides a context for the present study, which aims to identify good practices and lessons learned in preparedness and response to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (in UK, Greece, and Spain) and poliomyelitis (in Poland and Cyprus).

    METHODS: Based on a documentary review, followed by five week-long country visits involving a total of 61 interviews and group discussions with experts from both the health and non-health sectors, this qualitative case study has investigated six issues related to preparedness and response to MERS and poliomyelitis: national plans and overall preparedness capacity; training and exercises; risk communication; linking policy and implementation; interoperability between the health and non-health sectors; and cross-border collaboration.

    RESULTS: Preparedness and response plans for MERS and poliomyelitis were in place in the participating countries, with a high level of technical expertise available to implement them. Nevertheless, formal evaluation of the responses to previous public health emergencies have sometimes been limited, so lessons learned may not be reflected in updated plans, thereby risking mistakes being repeated in future. The nature and extent of inter-sectoral collaboration varied according to the sectors involved, with those sectors that have traditionally had good collaboration (e.g. animal health and food safety), as well as those that have a financial incentive for controlling infectious diseases (e.g. agriculture, tourism, and air travel) seen as most likely to have integrated public health preparedness and response plans. Although the formal protocols for inter-sectoral collaboration were not always up to date, good personal relations were reported within the relevant professional networks, which could be brought into play in the event of a public health emergency. Cross-border collaboration was greatly facilitated if the neighbouring country was a fellow EU Member State.

    CONCLUSIONS: Infectious disease outbreaks remain as an ongoing threat. Efforts are required to ensure that core public health capacities for the full range of preparedness and response activities are sustained.

  • Nouf-Latif, Faten
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Bertilsdotter-Rosqvist, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Narratives of ideal and second-option jobs among young adults with high functioning autism2018Inngår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The meaning of work is different for people in different social groups, and research exploring perceptions of meaningful work among adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) is scarce. The aim of this paper is to explore how narratives of satisfactory and meaningful future jobs are portrayed relative to two alternative discourses of work – the ‘obligation to work’ discourse, and the ‘disability rights’ discourse. This group of individuals are high functioning on the one hand, while at the same time holding legally-mandated special disability rights, an exploration of how this group reason about work-life and satisfactory jobs is particularly interesting. Through ethnographic fieldwork in Sweden, seven young adults with HFA were followed, and 17 interviews were conducted. The main findings and conclusions are that jobs that are individually assessed to be ‘ideal’, are put aside in favor of jobs that are more compatible with general labor market demands, as long as enjoyment and meaningfulness can still be experienced.

  • Vladasel, Theodor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Same, but different? Birth order, family size, and sibling sex composition effects in entrepreneurship2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Hedman, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samägd marktjänstutrustning på Stockholm Arlanda Airport2018Dataset
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygindustrin har sett en stadig ökning de senaste åren och under 2017 ökade luftrumsrörelserna i Sverige med 6% från året innan. Den stadiga ökningen sätter stor press på det komplexa systemet som är på en flygplats då det är många parter som ska samarbeta. Därför krävs det att resurserna på flygplatsen utnyttjas optimalt för att få en flygplats som verkar effektivt. En av dessa parter som ofta hamnar i kläm är marktjänstbolagen, som både måste hålla låga priser för att flygbolagen ska kunna ha ett brett utbud till konkurrenskraftiga priser. Samtidigt som de måste betala de avgifter till flygplatsen som ökar i takt med trafiken.

    I nuläget tillhandahåller alla marktjänstbolag på Stockholm Arlanda Airport sin egen marktjänstutrustning, vilket gör att de måste optimera mängden utrustning efter sina egna toppar istället för hur helheten på flygplatsen ser ut. Något som leder till att det cirkulerar för mycket marktjänstutrustning på flygplatsen i nuläget. Därför undersöker detta examensarbetet om Stockholm Arlanda Airport kan få ett bättre resursutnyttjande med gemensam marktjänstutrustning och hur detta skulle påverka flygplatsens avgifter, samt vilka övriga effekter det kan medföra.

    Examensarbetet utgår från principen med förändringsarbete och modellen “Stegen i ett förbättringsarbete” används. Genom intervjuer med anställda på Swedavia och med information från marktjänstbolagen har nuläget kartlagts, vilket är det första steget i förbättringsarbetet. Författarna har även genom intervjuerna identifierat olika möjligheter och problem som kan uppstå med gemensam marktjänstutrustning. Mängden marktjänstutrustning som behövs med gemensam marktjänstutrustning beräknades genom intervallfärgning. Genom en totalkostnadsanalys har sedan tre olika förslag tagits fram på vilken typ av marktjänstutrustning som Swedavia borde äga för att det ska vara lönsamt för både Swedavia och marktjänstbolagen. De ekonomiska analyserna har tillsammans med de övriga effekterna legat till grund för de rekommendationer som författarna har givit till Swedavia.

    Författarna till rapporten har kommit fram till resultatet att med gemensam marktjänstutrustning finns ekonomiska besparingar att göraför både Swedavia och marktjänstbolagen. Andra effekter Stockholm Arlanda Airport kan vänta sig av förändringen är bland annat:

    Ökad flexibilitet

    • Genom att marktjänstbolagen kan använda all marktjänstutrustning
    • Genom att det alltid finns marktjänstutrustning på plats

    Mindre mängd marktjänstutrustning

    • Skapar fler fria ytor då det krävs mindre förvaringsytor

    Bättre arbetsmiljö

    • Då den ekonomiska pressen på marktjänstbolagen minskar

    Miljöpåverkan

    • Mindre utsläpp då Swedavia har större möjlighet att påverka vilken utrustning som används på flygplatsen
  • Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bee, E.
    Luthander, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Smart control strategy for PV and heat pump system utilizing thermal and electrical storage and forecast services2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Disputas: 2018-09-14 12:00 MA624, HuddingeGustafsson Gillbrand, Patrik
    Stenbruk: Stenartefakter, råmaterial och mobilitet i östra Mellansverige under tidig- och mellanmesolitikum2018Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines artefacts, raw materials and lithic technology between c. 9200–6200 cal BC in Eastern Central Sweden. The overall purpose of this study is to investigate when people first came to Eastern Central Sweden and where they came from. More precisely, it provides a typological, geo­graphical and chronological survey of artefacts and the use of different raw materials. The study deals with assemblages with artefacts from more than thirty archaeologically excavated sites and loose finds in Eastern Central Sweden. The objects consist of chubby pecked axes, core axes, flake axes, shaft hole picks, microliths and micro burins, points, burins, rulers, uni­facial blade core, conical cores, micro blade cores, blades, drills, re­touched blades and micro blades. The artefacts have been compared with established typologies and chronologies for the rest of the Nordic countries and to some extent Russia and the Baltic States. An analysis of different raw mater­ials present at Early and Middle Mesolithic sites in Eastern Central Sweden was also carried out. The materials are put into a chronological and geo­graphical context. The raw materials included in the study are the non-local rocks flint and Cambrian flint, as well as local raw materials such as quartz, greenstone, local vulcanite, mylonite and red porphyry. From 9200 cal BC there is evidence of the first groups of people in the area, just shortly after that the Weichselian ice cap had withdrawn. Throughout the period studied the artefacts as well as the non-local raw materials exhibit great similarities to those found in the western part of Sweden. The study also shows, regar­ding the use of different raw materials and presence of certain artefacts, that some major events took place, suggesting a new chronological time frame for the Early- and Middle Mesolithic periods. In addition, a discussion re­gar­­ding mobility and migration in Eastern Central Sweden during Early Post Glacial time is carried out.

  • Sotnikov, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, C. K.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Dalenbäck, J. -O
    Andersen, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Simulations of a Solar-Assisted Block Heating System2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Bjurling, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    DOIT WP4 Final Report on Planning and Optimization2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Cenci, M. Angela
    et al.
    Jörntell, Henrik
    Petersson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). The Group for Integrative Neurophysiology and Neurotechnology, Neuronano Research Centre, Department Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    On the neuronal circuitry mediating l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia2018Inngår i: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, nr 8, s. 1157-1169Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of rodent models of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a growing literature has linked molecular changes in the striatum to the development and expression of abnormal involuntary movements. Changes in information processing at the striatal level are assumed to impact on the activity of downstream basal ganglia nuclei, which in turn influence brain-wide networks, but very little is actually known about systems-level mechanisms of dyskinesia. As an aid to approach this topic, we here review the anatomical and physiological organisation of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, and the changes affecting these circuits in animal models of parkinsonism and LID. We then review recent findings indicating that an abnormal cerebellar compensation plays a causal role in LID, and that structures outside of the classical motor circuits are implicated too. In summarizing the available data, we also propose hypotheses and identify important knowledge gaps worthy of further investigation. In addition to informing novel therapeutic approaches, the study of LID can provide new clues about the interplay between different brain circuits in the control of movement.

  • Pellegrini, Barbara
    et al.
    CeRiSM Res Ctr Mt Sport & Hlth, Rovereto, Italy; Univ Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Stoeggl, Thomas Leonhard
    Univ Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Developments in the Biomechanics and Equipment of Olympic Cross-Country Skiers2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 976Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, our aim was to describe the major changes in cross-country (XC) skiing in recent decades, as well as potential future developments. XC skiing has been an Olympic event since the very first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Over the past decades, considerable developments in skiing techniques and improvements in equipment and track preparation have increased skiing speed. In contrast to the numerous investigations on the physiological determinants of successful performance, key biomechanical factors have been less explored. Today's XC skier must master a wide range of speeds, terrains, and race distances and formats (e.g., distance races with individual start, mass-start or pursuit; knock-out and team-sprint; relays), continuously adapting by alternating between various sub-techniques. Moreover, several of the new events in which skiers compete head-to-head favor technical and tactical flexibility and encourage high-speed techniques (including more rapid development of propulsive force and higher peak forces), as well as appropriate training. Moreover, the trends toward more extensive use of double poling and skiing without grip wax in classical races have given rise to regulations in connection with Olympic distances that appear to have preserved utilization of the traditional classical sub-techniques. In conclusion, although both XC equipment and biomechanics have developed significantly in recent decades, there is clearly room for further improvement. In this context as well, for analyzing performance and optimizing training, sensor technology has a potentially important role to play.

  • Kanaki, K.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Klausz, M.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Jackson, A.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum, Garching, Germany.
    Nielsen, T.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Detector rates for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instruments at the European Spallation Source2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikkel-id P07016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building the European Spallation Source (ESS), the most powerful neutron source in the world, requires significant technological advances at most fronts of instrument component design. Detectors are not an exception. The existing implementations at current neutron scattering facilities are at their performance limits and sometimes barely cover the scientific needs. At full operation the ESS will yield unprecedented neutron brilliance. This means that one of the most challenging aspects for the new detector designs is the increased rate capability and in particular the peak instantaneous rate capability, i.e. the number of neutrons hitting the detector per channel, pixel or cm(2) at the peak of the neutron pulse. This paper focuses on estimating the incident and detection rates that are anticipated for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instruments planned for ESS. Various approaches are applied and the results thereof are presented.

  • Nilsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Lindwall, Lillemor
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Karlstad Universitet.
    From, Ingrid
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Patientens delaktighet i val av vårdgivare. En litteratur review2018Inngår i: Nordisk tidsskrift for helseforskning, ISSN 1504-3614, E-ISSN 1891-2982, Vol. 14 årgang, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea behind care choice is that healthcare providers would be more responsive to patients' health problems and needs and in doing so compete with increased quality and that patients should be able to choose from this. The question is how patients choose a healthcare provider by themselves. The aim was to describe what affected when patients chose healthcare providers. A literature review was carried out. The results showed that patients' choice of healthcare providers depended on the following three themes: their own care experiences, caring relationships with staff and service provided by caregivers. The underlying idea of care choice is competition based on quality of care, but the results show that patients make their choices based on other factors as described in the result and therefore improvement can be achieved if focus is placed on being responsive for patient care needs.

  • Ekblad, Laura L.
    et al.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Helin, Semi
    Viitanen, Matti
    Laine, Hanna
    Puukka, Pauli
    Jula, Antti
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Midlife insulin resistance, APOE genotype, and late-life brain amyloid accumulation2018Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 90, nr 13, s. e1150-e1157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Methods This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [C-11]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016. The participants were recruited according to their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values in the year 2000, and their APOE epsilon 4 genotype. The exposure group (IR+, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR > 2.17 at baseline (highest tertile of the Health2000 study population), and the control group (IR-, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR < 1.25 at baseline (lowest tertile). The groups were enriched for APOE epsilon 4 carriers, resulting in 50% (n = 15) APOE epsilon 4 carriers in both groups. Analyses were performed with multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results An amyloid-positive PET scan was found in 33.3% of the IR-group and 60.0% of the IR+ group (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.9, p = 0.04). The increased risk was seen in carriers and noncarriers of APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Higher midlife, but not late-life continuous HOMA-IR was associated with a greater brain amyloid burden at follow-up after multivariate adjustments for other cognitive and metabolic risk factors (ss = 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.002-0.22, p = 0.04). Conclusions These results indicate that midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in elderly individuals without dementia.

  • Fjellfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Development of a Swedish community mental health service market2018Inngår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in an organizational field over time when implementing a freedom of choice model. Main focus was on the range and characteristics of providers and services. Our findings suggest that the expected effects of the reform in terms of variety of providers and services within the organizational field did not materialise due to a lack of market competition. Providers complemented each other rather than competed with each other, and the logics of care, choice, and advocacy challenged each other within the quasi-market. All informants described financial conditions in the market as extremely strained. Strong personal commitment characterized providers entering and exiting the market. A gap was found between policy goals and experiences among stakeholders, and efficiency was found to be the policy goal achieved most often in practice. This raises the questions of how the Swedish community mental health service market will develop in the future and what the implications are for the participants.