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  • Johansson, Gudrun M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    A modified standardized nine hole peg test for valid and reliable kinematic assessment of dexterity post-stroke2019Inngår i: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikkel-id 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impairments in dexterity after stroke are commonly assessed by the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), where the only outcome variable is the time taken to complete the test. We aimed to kinematically quantify and to compare the motor performance of the NHPT in persons post-stroke and controls (discriminant validity), to compare kinematics to clinical assessments of upper extremity function (convergent validity), and to establish the within-session reliability.

    METHODS: The NHPT was modified and standardized (S-NHPT) by 1) replacing the original peg container with an additional identical nine hole pegboard, 2) adding a specific order of which peg to pick, and 3) specifying to insert the peg taken from the original pegboard into the corresponding hole of the target pegboard. Eight optical cameras registered upper body kinematics of 30 persons post-stroke and 41 controls during the S-NHPT. Four sequential phases of the task were identified and analyzed for kinematic group differences. Clinical assessments were performed.

    RESULTS: The stroke group performed the S-NHPT slower (total movement time; mean diff 9.8 s, SE diff 1.4), less smoothly (number of movement units; mean diff 0.4, SE diff 0.1) and less efficiently (path ratio; mean diff 0.05, SE diff 0.02), and used increased scapular/trunk movements (acromion displacement; mean diff 15.7 mm, SE diff 3.5) than controls (P < 0.000, r ≥ 0.32), indicating discriminant validity. The stroke group also spent a significantly longer time grasping and releasing pegs relative to the transfer phases of the task compared to controls. Within the stroke group, kinematics correlated with time to complete the S-NHPT and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (rs 0.38-0.70), suggesting convergent validity. Within-session reliability for the S-NHPT was generally high to very high for both groups (ICCs 0.71-0.94).

    CONCLUSIONS: The S-NHPT shows adequate discriminant validity, convergent validity and within-session reliability. Standardization of the test facilitates kinematic analysis of movement performance, which in turn enables identification of differences in movement control between persons post-stroke and controls that may otherwise not be captured through the traditional time-based NHPT. Future research should ascertain further psychometric properties, e.g. sensitivity, of the S-NHPT.

  • Windahl, Charlotta
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Integrated Solutions in the Capital Goods Sector: Exploring innovation, service and network perspectives2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With varying degrees of success, a number of firms in the capital goods sector are experimenting with different ‘integrated solutions’ initiatives. Integrated solutions include product innovations which enable increased process control that allows the optimisation of the customers’ processes, as well as business innovations which change the firms’ business models and customer approach. It is not always easy to develop and commercialise these new offerings, especially for firms that have traditionally focused on developing and selling products. Integrated solutions challenge these firms to shift the focus from physical products, spare parts and support services to emphasis on delivery of performance optimisation and productivity.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers and five supporting chapters that discuss and analyse the challenges with developing and commercialising integrated solutions in the capital goods sector. The research builds on case studies of firms experimenting with integrated-solution offerings. The firms produce complex, expensive industrial machinery to customers in the process and manufacturing industries. The main case is based on a five-year, in-depth longitudinal study of Alfa Laval, and more specifically of the developments within the wastewater industry. Other case studies include ITT Flygt and Atlas Copco.

    The thesis shows that the development and commercialisation of integrated solutions represent a multifaceted, iterative and complex process for the firms under study, who need to combine product, service and business innovations, create new business structures, and create new relationships with customers and possible partners. Consequently, the development of integrated solutions is not confined to or explained by one theoretical field in this thesis, but is linked to innovation, service and network perspectives.

    The thesis also shows that the three activities of innovating, organising and building relationships are dependent on changing market structures, customer demands and business cycles. Therefore it becomes important to manage the coexistence of different types of offerings, such as products, services and integrated solutions.

  • Mak, Alan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, FREIA.
    Salén, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, FREIA.
    Goryashko, Vitaliy
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, FREIA.
    Clarke, Jim
    STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, United Kingdom.
    Science Requirements and Performance Specification forthe CompactLight X-Ray Free-Electron Laser2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    CompactLight is a consortium funded by the European Union through the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 777431.  This report summarizes science requirements and performance specification for the CompactLight x-ray free-electron laser. 

  • Andreae, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Franzén Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Evangelista, Lorraine
    Sweden Lorraine Evangelista, RN, Prof, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken US.
    The associations between physical activity and appetite in patients with heart failure – a prospective observational study2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical activity and appetite both play a crucial role for health outcomes and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Nevertheless, both of these key functions are frequently decreased in patients with heart failure. Whilst most attention focuses independently on the physical activity levels, the associations with appetite has been insufficiently investigated. The aim was therefore to explore the associations between physical activity and appetite in community dwelling heart failure patients.

    Methods: This prospective observational study consisted of 186 patients with symptomatic heart failure of whom 56 (30%) were women and 130 (70%) were men. Mean age was 70.7 (SD=11 years), the majority had NYHA-class II, 114 (63%). Objective and subjective methods were used to measure physical activity include a wearable actigraph (SenceWear) for 4 days and six minutes’ walk test. The actigraph calculate total energy expenditure, active energy expenditure, number of steps and METs daily average index. Patients also stated their physical activity level on a numeric rating scale. A self-reported questionnaire, the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire was used to assess appetite. Simple linear regression was conducted to explore the associations between physical activity and appetite at baseline and at 18-month follow-up.

    Results: In general, the levels of physical activity in this sample was low and appetite was poor. There was a significant association between objective physical activity measures and appetite at baseline ranging between (p=<0.001-0.041). The number of steps and walking distance had the strongest association, each explaining 6% and 7% of the total variance in appetite. At the 18-month follow-up, all objective and subjective physical activity measures were associated with appetite (p=0.001-0.035) with the number of steps being most strongly associated (p=<0.001) explaining 14% of the total variation in appetite.

    Conclusions: Patients with heart failure who are more physically active experiences better appetite. These findings underscore the importance of placing greater attention on both physical activity and appetite in clinical practice as these factors has implications for patient’s health outcomes. Further longitudinally oriented studies are needed to determine whether there is a causal relationship between physical activity and appetite in heart failure populations.

    Keywords: Appetite, Heart Failure, Physical activity

  • Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Dopamine D2/3 Binding Potential Modulates Neural Signatures of Working Memory in a Load-Dependent Fashion.2019Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 537-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dopamine (DA) modulates corticostriatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA (measured by PET) and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relationship. One possible reason for these discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task with greater prefrontal activations may yield a stronger association with DA. Moreover, a potential DA–BOLD association may be modulated by task performance. We studied 155 (104 normal-performing and 51 low-performing) healthy older adults (43% females) who underwent fMRI scanning while performing a working memory (WM) n-back task along with DA D2/3 PET assessment using [11C]raclopride. Using multivariate partial-least-squares analysis, we observed a significant pattern revealing positive associations of striatal as well as extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors to BOLD response in the thalamo–striatal–cortical circuit, which supports WM functioning. Critically, the DA–BOLD association in normal-performing, but not low-performing, individuals was expressed in a load-dependent fashion, with stronger associations during 3-back than 1-/2-back conditions. Moreover, normal-performing adults expressing upregulated BOLD in response to increasing task demands showed a stronger DA–BOLD association during 3-back, whereas low-performing individuals expressed a stronger association during 2-back conditions. This pattern suggests a nonlinear DA–BOLD performance association, with the strongest link at the maximum capacity level. Together, our results suggest that DA may have a stronger impact on functional brain responses during more demanding cognitive tasks.

  • Berg, Martin
    Sociologförbundet har ordet2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 525-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Recensioner2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 517-524Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Berg, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Minnesord: Vad vi bör minnas och förvalta efter Johan Asplund2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 509-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Holmberg, Tora
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sociologiska gångarter: Föredrag från Sociologdagarna 20182018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 505-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Zetterberg, Hans
    Om Columbia-sociologin2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 489-503Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Swedberg, Richard
    Cornell University.
    Hans Zetterberg om Columbia-sociologin2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 487-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Ulmestig, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Panican, Alexandru
    Lunds universitet.
    Att vistas i arbetsmarknadspolitikens ingenmansland: Organisatoriska gränser inom lokal arbetsmarknadspolitik2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 467-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the no-man’s land of labour market policy - organizational boundaries in local labour market policy in Sweden

    Swedish labour market policy faces major challenges. Sweden has a labour deficit and a very low unemployment rate at the same time as unemployment is high among young people and immigrants. Unemployed in Sweden with high thresholds to enter the labour market are referred to the local labour market policy where the municipalities co-operates, competes and negotiates with the Public Employment Service (PES). The purpose of this study is to understand the organizational boundaries between PES and the municipalities and how these boundaries affect the local labour market policy in eleven municipalities. We have carried out semi-structured group interviews with managers. The boundaries between PES and the municipalities are vague and require negotiations regarding resources such as the unemployed, different forms of activities offered to the unemployed and economic resources. Clearer boundaries would generate conditions that offer unemployed people a strategic organization of the local labour market policy with enhanced co-operation and adaptation to common goals instead of competition and large amount of time spent on negotiating.

  • Uggla, Ylva
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University.
    Ambivalence in environmental representation: a theoretical contribution2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 447-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the phenomenon of representation through the theoretical lens of ambivalence, concentrating on the people involved in representation: representatives. We argue that the theoretical concept of ambivalence can be helpful in analysing and understanding the various tensions environmental and other representatives encounter in their practice. Based on the concepts of “sociological ambivalence”, “ideological dilemma”, and “the organizational centaur”, as well as on insights from social studies of science and sustainability studies, the paper develops a typology of three potential sources of ambivalence: role conflicts, value conflicts, and conflicts between goals and means. In addition, the paper identifies various ways of coping with ambivalence, including the construction of meta-norms, organizational and network support, pragmatism, drawing boundaries for reasonable and acceptable actions, rule bending and discursive negotiation. The paper concludes that the concept of ambivalence adds crucial insights to the positions, practices, and challenges of environmental representatives and notes that ambivalence is not only a matter of tensions and conflicts but can be a source of reflexivity, learning, and agency.

  • Arvestad, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Swedish e-science Research Centre, Sweden.
    alv: a console-based viewer for molecular sequence alignments2018Inngår i: Journal of Open Source Software, ISSN 2475-9066, Vol. 3, nr 31, artikkel-id 955Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, Sara
    Lunds universitet.
    Redaktörerna har ordet2018Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 445-446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Edling, Cristofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, SaraLunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2018:42018Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Lundgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bailer, Stefanie
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Târlea, Silvana
    Bargaining success in the reform of the Eurozone2018Inngår i: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a systematic assessment of bargaining success in the reform of the Eurozone 2010 to 2015. Theoretically, we develop an argument about preferences and institutions as determinants of bargaining success and contrast this argument with an alternative account privileging states’ power resources. Empirically, we conduct a statistical analysis of new data covering all key reform proposals. Our findings are three-fold. First, contrary to a conventional narrative of German dominance, the negotiations produced no clear winners and losers. Secondly, while power resources were of limited importance, holding preferences that were centrist or close to the European Commission favoured bargaining success—particularly when adoption only required the support of a qualified majority. Thirdly, these descriptive and explanatory results reflect dynamics of compromise and reciprocity.

  • Malmström, Elina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning.
    It's all about the game board: On auditors' appearance and expertise2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Adamson, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. De Montfort University, UK.
    A Novel Method for Adaptive Control of Manufacturing Equipment in Cloud Environments2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adaptively control manufacturing equipment, both in local and distributed environments, is becoming increasingly more important for many manufacturing companies.

    One important reason for this is that manufacturing companies are facing increasing levels of changes, variations and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors, which can negatively impact their performance. Frequently changing consumer requirements and market demands usually lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles. Variations in manufacturing capability and functionality, such as equipment breakdowns, missing/worn/broken tools and delays, also contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Events which are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage.

    For manufacturing scenarios such as these, the use of real-time manufacturing information and intelligence is necessary to enable manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions and requirements, and not according to a pre-determined process plan. Therefore, there is a need for an event-driven control approach to facilitate adaptive decision-making and dynamic control capabilities.

    Another reason driving the move for adaptive control of manufacturing equipment is the trend of increasing globalization, which forces manufacturing industry to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. One of the crucial objectives for Cloud Manufacturing is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in collaborative and networked environments. Therefore, there is also a need that such an event-driven control approach supports the control of distributed manufacturing equipment.

    The aim of this research study is to define and verify a novel and comprehensive method for adaptive control of manufacturing equipment in cloud environments.

    The presented research follows the Design Science Research methodology. From a review of research literature, problems regarding adaptive manufacturing equipment control have been identified. A control approach, building on a structure of event-driven Manufacturing Feature Function Blocks, supported by an Information Framework, has been formulated. The Function Block structure is constructed to generate real-time control instructions, triggered by events from the manufacturing environment. The Information Framework uses the concept of Ontologies and The Semantic Web to enable description and matching of manufacturing resource capabilities and manufacturing task requests in distributed environments, e.g. within Cloud Manufacturing. The suggested control approach has been designed and instantiated, implemented as prototype systems for both local and distributed manufacturing scenarios, in both real and virtual applications. In these systems, event-driven Assembly Feature Function Blocks for adaptive control of robotic assembly tasks have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the control approach. The utility and performance of these prototype systems have been tested, verified and evaluated for different assembly scenarios.

    The proposed control approach has many promising characteristics for use within both local and distributed environments, such as cloud environments. The biggest advantage compared to traditional control is that the required control is created at run-time according to actual manufacturing conditions.

    The biggest obstacle for being applicable to its full extent is manufacturing equipment controlled by proprietary control systems, with native control languages. To take the full advantage of the IEC Function Block control approach, controllers which can interface, interpret and execute these Function Blocks directly, are necessary.

  • Sundström, Gerdt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Mer familj, mer omsorg: Svenska familjeband under senare år – särskilt 1985-20152019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport handlar om medelålders (45-64 år) respektive äldre personer (65+) och visar att dagens familjerelationer utvecklats gynnsamt för de äldre och är stabil för de medelålders. Fler äldre har partner, barn eller både- och än någonsin tidigare: 6 procent av dem har till och med fortfarande föräldrar i livet; många har dessutom syskon; och de har ofta föräldrarna, barnen och syskonen i närheten. Materialet bygger på en analys av hela den svenskfödda befolkningen, där vi granskat tillgång och närhet, det vill säga vilka relationer de har och var de har dem, men inte vad man gör med dem: Annan forskning visar dock på att socialt umgänge med anhöriga, inbördes utbyte och omsorg – given och mottagen – nu liksom förr är mycket vanligt och till och med ökande. Svenska familjeband är omfattande och i flera avseenden växande. Familjen mår sammanfattningsvis bra och ger allt mer omsorg. Det beror sannolikt på utökade familjeband men troligen också på sviktande offentlig service och sjukvård. Vi ser brister i kontaktytan mellan stat och familj.

  • Justin, Casimir
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jamieson, Max
    HIR Skåne, Sweden.
    Elmquist, Helena
    Odling i Balans, Sweden.
    Persson, Ingvar
    LRF konsult, Sweden.
    Bergman, Niklas
    LRF, Sweden.
    Färdplanför effektivisering och egenförsörjning av energi i lantbruket2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

  • Johansson, Catrin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Lång väg till hållbart ledarskap för klimatet2018Inngår i: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, L., Grusell, M., Bolin, N. & Falalsca, K., Sundsvall: Demicom, Mittuniversitetet , 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Disputas: 2019-02-15 14:00 Q2, Stockholm
    Baumann, Dominik
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Reglerteknik. Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems.
    Fast and Resource-Efficient Control of Wireless Cyber-Physical Systems2019Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) tightly integrate physical processes with computing and communication to autonomously interact with the surrounding environment.This enables emerging applications such as autonomous driving, coordinated flightof swarms of drones, or smart factories. However, current technology does notprovide the reliability and flexibility to realize those applications. Challenges arisefrom wireless communication between the agents and from the complexity of thesystem dynamics. In this thesis, we take on these challenges and present three maincontributions.We first consider imperfections inherent in wireless networks, such as communication delays and message losses, through a tight co-design. We tame the imperfectionsto the extent possible and address the remaining uncertainties with a suitable controldesign. That way, we can guarantee stability of the overall system and demonstratefeedback control over a wireless multi-hop network at update rates of 20-50 ms.If multiple agents use the same wireless network in a wireless CPS, limitedbandwidth is a particular challenge. In our second contribution, we present aframework that allows agents to predict their future communication needs. Thisallows the network to schedule resources to agents that are in need of communication.In this way, the limited resource communication can be used in an efficient manner.As a third contribution, to increase the flexibility of designs, we introduce machinelearning techniques. We present two different approaches. In the first approach,we enable systems to automatically learn their system dynamics in case the truedynamics diverge from the available model. Thus, we get rid of the assumption ofhaving an accurate system model available for all agents. In the second approach, wepropose a framework to directly learn actuation strategies that respect bandwidthconstraints. Such approaches are completely independent of a system model andstraightforwardly extend to nonlinear settings. Therefore, they are also suitable forapplications with complex system dynamics.

  • Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. School of Sport Sciences, UiT Arctic University of Norway, Postboks 1621, 9509, Alta, Norway..
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Epidemiology of osteonecrosis among older adults in Sweden2019Inngår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: This study estimated the incidence of osteonecrosis in a Swedish, nationwide cohort of older adults. Osteonecrosis was approximately 10 times more common than in previous studies. The strongest risk factors were dialysis, hip fracture, osteomyelitis, and organ transplantation, but only hip fractures could have contributed substantially to the disease burden.

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of osteonecrosis in a Swedish, nationwide cohort of older adults and in a large number of risk groups in that cohort.

    Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included everyone who was aged 50 years or older and who was living in Sweden on 31 December 2005. We used Swedish national databases to collect data about prescription medication use, diagnosed medical conditions, and performed medical and surgical procedures. The study outcome was diagnosis of primary or secondary osteonecrosis at any skeletal site. The strength of risk factors was assessed using age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

    Results: The study cohort comprised 3,338,463 adults. The 10-year risk of osteonecrosis was 0.4% (n = 13,425), and the incidence rate was 4.7 cases/10000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6 to 4.7 cases). The strongest risk factors for osteonecrosis were hip fracture (SIR, 7.98; 95% CI, 7.69–8.27), solid organ transplantation (SIR, 7.14; 95% CI, 5.59–8.99), dialysis (SIR, 6.65; 95% CI, 5.62–7.81), and osteomyelitis (SIR, 6.43; 95% CI, 5.70–7.23). A history of hip fracture was present in 21.7% of cases of osteonecrosis, but osteomyelitis, dialysis, and solid organ transplantation were present in only 0.5 to 2% of cases.

    Conclusions: Osteonecrosis was approximately 10 times more common than a small number of previous population-based studies have suggested. The strongest risk factors for osteonecrosis were dialysis, hip fracture, osteomyelitis, and solid organ transplantation, but only hip fractures could have contributed substantially to the disease burden.

  • Disputas: 2019-02-08 13:15 Brusewitzsalen, Uppsala
    Khoban, Zohreh
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Deliberation, against all odds?: The critical prospects of mini-publics2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the theory of deliberative democracy has encountered multiple challenges. In this thesis, I explore the prospects of a particular type of deliberative democratic institution – deliberative mini-publics – in three essays. In the first essay, I discuss the challenge of combining mini-publics with institutions for preference aggregation, such as elections. I address the concern that citizens of a society dominated by aggregative institutions could be discouraged from the collective and cooperative form of participation required by mini-publics. Studying the effect of the right to vote on citizenship norms, I find no support for this concern. On the contrary, I show that elections boost support for non-electoral forms of political participation. In the second essay, I focus on the concept of descriptive representation in mini-publics to investigate previous studies’ tendency to introduce aggregative elements to deliberative institutions. I find that current conceptualizations of descriptive representation in the mini-publics literature tend to primarily address concerns about the democratic legitimacy of a political institution consisting of unelected representatives. I argue that mini-publics can be considered legitimate if the notion of legitimacy is detached from elections. After showing that mini-publics do not necessarily suffer from a lack of legitimacy, I suggest an argument for descriptive representation that better serves the mini-publics' aim of facilitating high-quality deliberation. The third essay is motivated by a call from theorists to treat social differences as a resource that can enhance deliberative processes, rather than an obstacle. I test whether emphasizing social differences in mini-publics makes humble communication and reflexivity – elements that constitute normative conditions of deliberation – less likely. Analysing the effect of increased social group salience on expectations of deliberation, I find that emphasizing group differences raises expectations of observing and acknowledging differences without lowering the prospects of humble communication and reflexivity.

  • Nyirenda, Moffat J.
    et al.
    Ramsay, Michèle
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. STIAS Wallenberg Research Centre, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Patterns of adult body mass in sub-Saharan Africa2018Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Wallerius, Johan Gottschalk
    Affiliation.
    Dissertationem de terra salina sterili, consent. ampliss. facult. philosoph. in reg. acad. Upsaliensi præside ... Joh. Gotschalk Wallerio, ... in audit. Gustav. ad diem [tomrum] Martii anni MDCCLXIV. Horis ante meridiem consvetis, pro gradu philosophico, publico defert examini Petrus Tenggreen, Arbogia Westmannus.1764No name for locale no (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Odzakovic, Elzana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden.
    Ward, Richard
    Faculty of Social Science, University of Stirling, UK.
    Kullberg, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    'Overjoyed that I can go outside': Using walking interviews to learn about the lived experience and meaning of neighbourhood for people living with dementia.2018Inngår i: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, artikkel-id 1471301218817453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationships between people living with dementia and their neighbourhood as they venture out from home on a regular and often routine basis. Here, we report findings from the Swedish field site of an international 5-year project: Neighbourhoods: our people, our places. The aims of this study were to investigate the lived experience of the neighbourhood for people with dementia and through this to better understand the meaning that neighbourhood held for the participants. In this study, we focus on the walking interviews which were conducted with 14 community-dwelling people with dementia (11 men and 3 women) and were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological method. Four themes were revealed from these interviews: life narratives embedded within neighbourhood; the support of selfhood and wellbeing through movement; the neighbourhood as an immediate social context; and restorative connections to nature. These themes were distilled into the 'essence' of what neighbourhood meant for the people we interviewed: A walkable area of subjective significance and social opportunity in which to move freely and feel rejuvenated. We have found that the neighbourhood for community-dwelling people with dementia holds a sense of attachment and offers the potential for freedom of movement. Our research indicates that a dementia diagnosis doesn't necessarily reduce this freedom of movement. The implications for practice and policy are considered: future research should explore and pay closer attention to the diverse living conditions of people living with dementia, and not least the particular challenges faced by people living alone with dementia.

  • Disputas: 2019-02-08 09:00 Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå
    Berginström, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Fatigue after traumatic brain injury: exploring novel methods for diagnosis and treatment2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of disability and mortality. While some patients recover quickly, especially at the mild side of the injury severity continuum, many will experience symptoms for years to come. In this chronic phase, patients report a wide array of symptoms, where fatigue is one the most common. This fatigue makes huge impact in several areas of these patients’ lives. Despite the prevalence of fatigue after TBI, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Further, there are no standardized way for assessment and diagnosis, and there are no treatments with satisfying empirical support. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effects of the novel compound OSU6162 on fatigue in patients with TBI, and to explore functional and structural brain imaging correlates of fatigue after TBI.

    Methods: Studies I and III were based on a placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial examining the effects of the monoaminergic stabilizer OSU6162 on fatigue in patients in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury. In study I, self-assessment scales of fatigue and neuropsychological tests were used as outcomes, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal was the primary outcome in study III. Studies II and IV used cross-sectional designs, comparing patients with TBI with age- and gender matched healthy controls. Study II examined whether fMRI BOLD signal could be used to detect and diagnose fatigue in patients with TBI, and study IV whether white matter hyperintensities (WMH) contribute to lower cognitive functioning and presence of fatigue after TBI.

    Results: Study I revealed no effects of OSU6162 during 28 days of treatment at maximum doses of 15 mg twice daily on measures of fatigue or any other outcome. The results from study II indicated that fatigue after TBI is linked to alterations in striato-thalamic-cortical loops, and suggested that fMRI could be a promising technique to use in the diagnosis of fatigue after TBI. In study III the results revealed effects of treatment in the right occipitotemporal and orbitofrontal cortex. In these areas, the BOLD response was normalized in the OSU6162 group as compared to healthy controls, while the placebo group showed a steady low activity in these areas. The regional effects were located outside the network shown to be linked to fatigue in study II, which might explain why there were no effects on fatigue after treatment with OSU6162 in study I. Study IV showed that WMH lesions increased with increased TBI severity, but the presence and extent of lesions did not explain lower neuropsychological functioning or fatigue in subjects with previous TBI.

    Conclusions: In summary, although no effects on fatigue after treatment with OSU6162 were seen, the results provide support to the theory that fatigue after TBI is linked to alterations in striato-thalamic-cortical loops, and on how fatigue after TBI could be assessed or diagnosed using fMRI. Structural damage within white matter was however not related to fatigue.

  • Disputas: 2019-02-08 13:00 Ma121, Mit-huset, Umeå
    Skog, Daniel A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    The Dynamics of Digital Transformation: the Role of Digital Innovation, Ecosystems and Logics in Fundamental Organizational Change2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates digital transformation, understood here as processes where organizational actors engage in digital innovation and transform their organizations in order to respond to change in their business and technology environments. Specifically, it examines the dynamics of digital transformation, seeking to understand the key sociotechnical elements and their relationships that drive digital transformation processes and influence how they unfold over time. To theorize the dynamics of digital transformation, I synthesize extant knowledge with contributions from four appended research papers.

    The outset for theorizing in this dissertation is a body of literature that has begun to accumulate knowledge on digital transformation as a distinct phenomenon. Within this literature, I identify three main areas that are vital to understanding digital transformation processes, yet have so far not been sufficiently theorized. First, research on digital transformation often describe it as a complex and longitudinal process that involves several sequences of digital innovation, yet it has primarily been studied in the form of discrete instances of innovation decoupled in time and space. As a result, current knowledge on digital transformation as a longitudinal process is limited. Second, the literature on digital transformation emphasize that interactions between digital business and technology environments and organizations are crucial for explaining why and how digital transformation unfolds. At the same time, however, the literature has so far not been able to offer a conceptualization of these interactions in ways that make formative influence over time visible. Third, existing research on digital transformation has remained dominantly focused on the role of managers and paid limited attention to other organizational actors in digital transformation.

    Addressing the limitations identified in existing digital transformation research, I draw upon established theoretical concepts and the four appended research papers to theorize a conceptual framework on digital transformation dynamics. The conceptual framework contributes to research by clarifying a set of theoretical concepts and relationships that are instrumental for addressing digital transformation as a sequential and cumulative process, and the actors, agency and actions that realize digital transformation over time. It is supportive of future theorizing of digital transformation as a subject matter related yet distinct from other forms of organizational change enabled by technology use.

  • Disputas: 2019-02-08 13:00 Hörsal G. Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Norén, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    "Framtiden tillhör informatörerna”: samhällsinformationens formering i Sverige 1965–19752019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the period 1965 to 1975. During this period information related issues were high up on the political agenda, in Sweden and internationally. I argue that the period is of particular interest in order to understand the impact and development of governmental information in Sweden, even for our time. One overreaching research question has guided this study: What ideas and practices characterized how and why the state disseminated information to the public? The thesis uses four tensions to study the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the late 1960s and early 1970s: (1) information as a solution – information as a problem, (2) dissemination of information – control over information, (3) information through mass communication – information through interpersonal dialogue, and (4) governmental information – commercial information. These tensions draw theoretically from John Durham Peters’ notions of communication.

    The thesis uses strands from three research fields: PR-history, cultural histories of media, and digital humanities. The four papers use different theoretical perspectives in order to shed new light on of the formation of governmental information in Sweden. Adding to that, and to theoretically tie the papers together, the thesis presents an overarching network perspective with a special focus on conceptual history as a means to better understand how governmental information was discussed as well as practiced. Different methods are used to study the formation of governmental information. The latter is partly because of the political issue’s porous boundaries and fragmented-oriented character, and partly due to the lack of previous research with a problematizing and historical approach to governmental information in Sweden. The thesis combines qualitative and quantitative methods to study different aspects how the state communicated with the public.

    This dissertation presents new findings about the formation of governmental information during the period 1965 to 1975. One regards the different intersections of governmental information. It shows that the production and dissemination of information from agencies to citizens was far from “pure” governmental information, and rather entangled with various actors from industry, academy and civil society. A second finding concerns the language of governmental information. Here, the dissertation shows – through large-scale digital text methods – how the concept of “information” exploded in usages from the 1960s and onwards, and how “information” as a discursive element infiltrated a growing number of political topics from the same period and onwards. A third finding centers on the media of governmental information. One result shows how broadly academics and bureaucrats defined the concept of media in relation to the practice of governmental information. All kinds of media devices, and not only the traditional news media, were considered important for the purpose of disseminating information on large scale to the public. Lastly, this dissertation reveals governmental information as without guaranties. Overall it shows how information from state agencies to citizens was generated through various conflicting tensions that have to be addressed, but without any hope of finding a balance free from communication problems. These problems tend to reoccur in different settings through history, also visible today. This result should however not be regarded as a pessimistic standpoint, rather it calls for modesty in terms of communication in general, and governmental information in particular.

  • Hörberg, Ulrica
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Galvin, Kathleen
    University of Brighton.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte
    Linnéuniveristetet.
    Using lifeworld philosophy in education to intertwine caring and learning: an illustration of two ways of learning how to care2019Inngår i: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our general purpose is to show how a philosophically oriented theoretical foundation, drawn from a lifeworld perspective can serve as a coherent direction for caring practices in education. We argue that both caring and learning share the same ontological foundation and point to this intertwining from a philosophical perspective. We proceed by illustrating shared epistemological ground through some novel educational practices in the professional preparation of carers. Beginning in a phenomenologically oriented philosophical foundation, we will first unfold what this means in the practice of caring, and secondly what it means for education and learning to care in humanly sensitive ways. We then share some ways that may be valuable in supporting learning and health that provides a basis for an existential understanding. We argue that existential understanding may offer a way to bridge the categorisations in contemporary health care that flow from problematic dualisms such as mind and body, illness and well-being, theory and practice, caring and learning. Ways of overcoming such dualistic splits and new existential understandings are needed to pave the way for a care that is up to the task of responding to both human possibilities and vulnerabilities, within the complexity of existence. As such, we argue that caring and learning are to be understood as an intertwined phenomenon of pivotal importance in education of both sensible and sensitive carers. Lifeworld led didactics and reflection, which are seen as the core of learning, constitute an important educational strategy here.

  • Mahon, Kathleen
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Heikkinen, Hannu, L.T.
    Jyväskylä University, Finland.
    Huttunen, Rauno
    Turku University, Finland.
    Critical educational praxis in university ecosystems: Enablers and constraints.2018Inngår i: Pedagogy, Culture & Society, ISSN 1468-1366, E-ISSN 1747-5104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities serve several important functions in society today through research, education, and community engagement, not least helping people to live meaningfully in society, and helping to create a world worth living in. A kind of practice that seems particularly important in fulfilling such responsibilities is critical educational praxis, a social-justice oriented, educational practice/praxis, with a focus on asking critical questions and creating conditions for positive change. Yet, the contemporary university is not exactly a niche for critical educational praxis. There are many practices and arrangements within higher education that make the enactment of critical educational praxis very challenging. This paper explores this concern by explicating the notion of critical educational praxis and examining enablers and constraints for critical educational praxis drawing on an empirical study conducted in one university setting. Our aim in doing so is to prompt consideration of the kind of university ecosystems currently being created, and the implications of this for academic communities and society. 

  • von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Olsson, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Värderingsverktyg för ökad tillgänglighet i förskola och skola – möjligheter och fallgropar i praktiken.2018Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Paulraj, Alagar Raj
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Processteknologi. KTH Royal institute of Technology.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemiteknik.
    Chamoun, Mylad
    Svengren, Henrik
    Noréus, Dag
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Skårman, Björn
    Vidarsson, Hilmar
    Johansson, Malin
    Electrochemical Performance and in Operando Charge Efficiency Measurements of Cu/Sn-Doped Nano Iron Electrodes2019Inngår i: Batteries, E-ISSN 2313-0105, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fe-air or Ni-Fe cells can offer low-cost and large-scale sustainable energy storage. At present, they are limited by low coulombic efficiency, low active material use, and poor rate capability. To overcome these challenges, two types of nanostructured doped iron materials were investigated: (1) copper and tin doped iron (CuSn); and (2) tin doped iron (Sn). Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was added to the electrode and LiOH to the electrolyte. In the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample, the addition of SWCNT increased the discharge capacity from 430 to 475 mAh g−1, and charge efficiency increased from 83% to 93.5%. With the addition of both SWCNT and LiOH, the charge efficiency and discharge capacity improved to 91% and 603 mAh g−1, respectively. Meanwhile, the 4 wt. % Sn substituted sample performance is not on par with the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample. The dopant elements (Cu and Sn) and additives (SWCNT and LiOH) have a major impact on the electrode performance. To understand the relation between hydrogen evolution and charge current density, we have used in operando charging measurements combined with mass spectrometry to quantify the evolved hydrogen. The electrodes that were subjected to prolonged overcharge upon hydrogen evolution failed rapidly. This insight could help in the development of better charging schemes for the iron electrodes.

  • Walladbegi, Java
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Oral Med & Pathol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Anncarin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Hematologi.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Univ West, Sch Business Econ & IT, Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Protocol for a randomised controlled trial to study cryoprevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis after autologous stem cell transplantation2018Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikkel-id e021993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A majority of patients who receive myeloablative therapy prior to hematopoetic stem cell transplantation develop oral mucositis (OM). This adverse cytotoxic effect manifests as oral mucosal erythema and ulcerations and frequently necessitates high doses of morphine for pain alleviation. OM may also interfere with food intake and result in parenteral nutrition, weight loss and impaired quality of life. To date, there have been a few studies of evidence-based interventions for prevention of OM. Cooling the oral mucosa using ice chips in conjunction with chemotherapy is known to reduce the severity of OM although clinical application is still limited due to several disadvantages. The primary endpoint of this study is therefore to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative intraoral cooling device (Cooral) compared with ice cooling in reducing the degree of OM, in patients with myeloma or lymphoma.

    Method and analysis: A total of 180 patients from four different university hospitals in Sweden will be randomised to ice or Cooral in a proportion of 1:1. The degree of OM will be assessed at eight intraoral locations, in accordance with the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale and WHO scale. Patients will be registered beginning at admission and will continue until discharge or until day +28. The primary variable is analysed in a multiple linear regression model. The significance level used is 5%.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol, questionnaire, diaries and letter of invitation to participants have been reviewed by the local ethical board in Goteborg. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated to participants.

  • Pallavicini, Nicola
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci & Environm Engn, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden.
    Engstrom, Emma
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci & Environm Engn, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden.
    Baxter, Douglas C.
    ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden.
    Ohlander, Bjorn
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci & Environm Engn, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Ingri, Johan
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci & Environm Engn, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Hawley, Scott
    Univ Durham, Dept Earth Sci, Durham, England.
    Hirst, Catherine
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Geosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rodushkina, Katerina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Analytisk kemi.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Geosci & Environm Engn, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Lab Grp, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea, Sweden.
    Ranges of B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn Concentrations and Isotope Ratios in Environmental Matrices from an Urban Area2018Inngår i: Journal of Spectroscopy, ISSN 2314-4920, E-ISSN 2314-4939, artikkel-id 7408767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic information may provide powerful insight into the elemental cycling processes which occur in natural compartments. Further implementation of isotopic techniques in natural sciences requires a better understanding of the range of elemental and isotopic compositional variability in environmental matrices. This study assesses the local-scale concentration and isotopic composition variability of nine elements: boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), and zinc (Zn) in lysimetric waters, mushrooms, litter, needles, leaves, and lichens. Sequential extractions were also performed on soil samples from 6 depth profiles providing more detailed information on the variability of elemental concentrations and isotope ratios between the elemental pools present in soil. For most of the sample types studied the range of isotopic variability between samples spans almost the entire ranges reported in the literature for natural samples. These results represent a starting point for discussing the role of natural variability in isotopic studies (for example, as a limiting factor in the use of isotopic mixing models) and a baseline for future in-depth studies examining the controls on isotope fraction in natural systems.

  • Oats, Lynne
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    de Widt, Dennis
    Cardiff University.
    Co-operative compliance: The UK Case – playing the long game2019Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK approach to interactions between HMRC and large businesses is incremental. The origins of co-operative compliance pre-date the merger between the former Inland Revenue and Her Majesty’s Customs and Excise to form HMRC, but were given impetus by the formation of the combined large business unit, now the Large Business Directorate.

    Over the course of the last 13 years, a number of shifts have occurred including additional regulatory requirements and increased public scrutiny and political attention, all of which have influenced the trajectory of co-operative compliance regime. This study draws heavily on information provided by knowledgeable interviewees who shared their views with us during 2015, 16 and 17.

    We find that initial enthusiasm for co-operative compliance was shared by both HMRC and large businesses for whom speedier processes and more collaborative working represented efficiency gains. The increased publicity around the tax affairs of large corporates and the performance of HMRC subsequent to 2012, however, precipitated a number of legislative and procedural changes that served to dampen the enthusiasm, particularly from the business point of view. These include the Senior Accounting Officer regime and the requirement to publish a Tax Strategy, the former concerned with the internal control processes of large corporates and the latter to trigger behavioural change through public exposure with reputational consequences.

    2018 sees a recalibration of the risk review process that will facilitate reconsideration of the terms of engagement between large business and HMRC. We anticipate that co-operative compliance, like many regulatory initiatives, will continue to evolve in response to pressures both internal and external to HMRC, and that the role of technology will be both a blessing and a curse in the quest for continued collaboration.

  • Andersén, Annelie
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Petersson, Maria
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Yrkesämnesdidaktik på universitet: Mål, innehåll, arbetssätt och examination2018Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 98-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate learning goals, content, working methods and examinations in the vocational didactic sections of the vocational teacher education programme. In a case study, a total of forty study guides from one vocational teacher education programme have been analysed in order to answer what central content is highlighted, how the goals are examined, and what course literature is used in vocational subject didactics in a selected vocational teacher education programme at a Swedish university. The aim of the analysis, based on Hiim’s (2010) model, is to find both clearly expressed and more latent elements. The results answer questions on what the subject didactics contain in three different courses. Vocational teacher educators plan their teaching with regard to the goals of vocational subject didactics, but the interpretation of goals varies among different educators and within different vocational subjects. The result also gives some indications of what could be general differences and similarities within and between different didactics teacher groups and/or vocational subjects. The analysis of the study guides also shows that educational background and the form of employment of educators seem to be of importance.

  • Disputas: 2019-02-15 10:15 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Wennström, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interpreting Policy Convergence Between the Left and the Right2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is made up of four essays that address major problems in the policy areas of education and immigration in Sweden and an introductory essay that offers an overarching analysis of the results of the four individual studies. The first three essays analyze the significant decline in quality of elementary and secondary education since the late 1990s from three different angles: the decline in teachers’ working conditions and status (Essay I), the deficiencies in the regulatory framework of Sweden’s system of school competition between public and for-profit providers of education (Essay II), and the prescribed view of knowledge in Swedish schools (Essay III). The fourth essay examines the policy of refugee placement in recent years. It shows that peripheral and rural municipalities with declining populations and high unemployment have received greater numbers of refugees per capita than growing urban municipalities offering better employment opportunities. The introductory essay focuses on the common thread in the four essays, namely, policy convergence between the Left and the Right. In fact, the empirical evidence in the individual studies suggests that the Social Democrats and the Moderate Party have a propensity for policy convergence in the two areas analyzed, but that it is unintentional and hard to detect for the actors themselves. This observation runs counter to what is typically assumed in political science, namely, that the Left and the Right are polar opposites with widely divergent policy agendas.

  • Alexius, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Why are real interest rates so low? Evidence from a structural VAR with sign restrictionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Real interest rates reached record low levels in many countries as the business cycle picks up after the financial crisis. Numerous explanations for this phenomenon have been suggested, but only a handful of studies attempt to disentangle the relative importance of the different factors. Sign restrictions are useful for analyzing this problem since shocks to the supply of savings and investment demand have effects of different signs. The simplest bivariate Bayesian VAR model with only the real interest rate and savings indicates that shocks to investment have been twice as important as shocks to savings. When more variables are included, we find that negative business cycle shocks have depressed the real interest rate by -1.26%. The second most important factor is low productivity, contributing-1.11%. However, high savings has not been a major driving force behind the low real interest rates during the recent period.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:15 Ada Lovelace, B-building
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On motion planning and control for truck and trailer systems2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, improved sensor and hardware technologies as well as new methods and algorithms have made self-driving vehicles a realistic possibility in the near future. Thanks to this technology enhancement, many leading automotive and technology companies have turned their attention towards developing advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and self-driving vehicles. Autonomous vehicles are expected to have their first big impact in closed areas, such as mines, harbors and loading/offloading sites. In such areas, the legal requirements are less restrictive and the surrounding environment is more controlled and predictable compared to urban areas. Expected positive outcomes include increased productivity and safety, reduced emissions and the possibility to relieve the human from performing complex or dangerous tasks. Within these sites, different truck and trailer systems are used to transport materials. These systems are composed of several interconnected modules, and are thus large and highly unstable while reversing. This thesis addresses the problem of designing efficient motion planning and feedback control frameworks for such systems.

    First, a cascade controller for a reversing truck with a dolly-steered trailer is presented. The unstable modes of the system is stabilized around circular equilibrium configurations using a gain-scheduled linear quadratic (LQ) controller together with a higher-level pure pursuit controller to enable path following of piecewise linear reference paths. The cascade controller is then used within a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework and the complete motion planning and control framework is demonstrated on a small-scale test vehicle.

    Second, a path following controller for a reversing truck with a dolly-steered trailer is proposed for the case when the obtained motion plan is kinematically feasible. The control errors of the system are modeled in terms of their deviation from the nominal path and a stabilizing LQ controller with feedforward action is designed based on the linearization of the control error model. Stability of the closed-loop system is proven by combining global optimization, theory from linear differential inclusions and linear matrix inequality techniques.

    Third, a systematic framework is presented for analyzing stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a controlled vehicle and a feedback controller, executing a motion plan computed by a lattice planner. When this motion planner is considered, it is shown that the closed-loop system can be modeled as a nonlinear hybrid system. Based on this, a novel method is presented for analyzing the behavior of the tracking error, how to design the feedback controller and how to potentially impose constraints on the motion planner in order to guarantee that the tracking error is bounded and decays towards zero.

    Fourth, a complete motion planning and control solution for a truck with a dolly-steered trailer is presented. A lattice-based motion planner is proposed, where a novel parametrization of the vehicle’s state-space is proposed to improve online planning time. A time-symmetry result is established that enhance the numerical stability of the numerical optimal control solver used for generating the motion primitives. Moreover, a nonlinear observer for state estimation is developed which only utilizes information from sensors that are mounted on the truck, making the system independent of additional trailer sensors. The proposed framework is implemented on a full-scale truck with a dolly-steered trailer and results from a series of field experiments are presented.

  • Schaefer, Ingo
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Hamburg, Germany.
    Hopchet, Manoelle
    Belgian Inst Psychotraumatol, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vandamme, Naomi
    Belgian Inst Psychotraumatol, Trauma Ctr Limburg, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Ajdukovic, Dean
    Univ Zagreb, Dept Psychol, Fac Humanities & Social Sci, Zagreb, Croatia.
    El-Hage, Wissam
    Univ Tours, CHRU Tours, INSERM, iBrain,UMR 1253, Tours, France.
    Egreteau, Laurine
    Clin Psychiat Univ, CHRU Tours, Laurine Egreteau, Tours, France.
    Javakhishvili, Jana Darejan
    ILia State Univ, Fac Arts & Sci, Inst Addict Studies, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Makhashvili, Nino
    ILia State Univ, Business Sch, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Lampe, Astrid
    Univ Med Hosp Innsbruck, Dept Med Psychol & Psychotherapy, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ardino, Vittoria
    Urbino Univ, Dipartimento Sci Uomo, Urbino, Italy.
    Kazlauskas, Evaldas
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Psychol, Ctr Psychotraumatol, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Mouthaan, Joanne
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Dept Clin Psychol, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Sijbrandij, Marit
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Behav & Movement Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Dragan, Malgorzata
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Psychol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Lis-Turlejska, Maja
    SWPS Univ Social Sci & Humanities, Fac Psychol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Porto, Portugal;Univ Coimbra, Ctr Social Studies CES, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Sales, Luisa
    Univ Coimbra, Ctr Trauma CES, Mil Hosp Coimbra, Dept Psychiat, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Kunskapscentrum för katastrofpsykiatri.
    Nazarenko, Tetiana
    USOCTE, Nongovt Org, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Nalyvaiko, Natalia
    USOCTE, Nongovt Org, Int Inst Depth Psychol, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Armour, Cherie
    Ulster Univ, Fac Life & Hlth Sci, Inst Mental Hlth Sci, Sch Psychol, Coleraine, Londonderry, North Ireland.
    Murphy, Dominic
    Combat Stress, Res Dept, Leatherhead, Surrey, England;Kings Coll London, Dept Psychol Med, Kings Ctr Mil Hlth Res, London, England.
    Trauma and trauma care in Europe2018Inngår i: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8066, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 1556553Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European countries have a long history of exposure to large-scale trauma. In the early 1990s the increasing awareness of the consequences of trauma within the mental health community led to the foundation of local societies for psychotraumatology across Europe and the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS), which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2018. The focus of this article is to describe the current state of care for survivors of trauma in the 15 European countries where ESTSS member societies have been established. Brief descriptions on the historical burden of trauma in each country are followed by an overview of the care system for trauma survivors in the countries, the state-of-the-art of interventions, current challenges in caring for survivors and the topics that need to be most urgently addressed in the future. The reports from the different countries demonstrate how important steps towards a better provision of care for survivors of trauma have been made in Europe. Given the cultural and economic diversity of the continent, there are also differences between the European countries, for instance with regard to the use of evidence-based treatments. Strategies to overcome these differences, like the new ESTSS training curricula for care-providers across Europe, are briefly discussed.

  • Nyman, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Utveckling av granskningsmallar: Individens behov i centrum2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Joel, Geier
    et al.
    Thatcher, Kate
    Newson, Rebecca
    Benbow, Steven
    Dessirier, Benoît
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Research on Resaturation of Bentonite Buffer2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson-Jordenius, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Borås University, Sweden.
    Accelerating Open Digital Innovation in the Automotive Industry: Action Design Research in Progress2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As digital technology becomes embedded in the core of customer offerings, companies find themselvesbeing part of dynamic networks and must develop more open and distributed innovation processes.However, important and mature industrial domains, such as the automotive sector, find it difficult tofully utilize digital technologies due to closed innovation processes. Therefore, automotive companiestry to attract external software developers by establishing new organisational forms for open digitalinnovation. Yet, the understanding of the problems that the organizational forms are expected to solve,how the organizational interventions should be designed and their effects on digital innovation areuncertain. Therefore, our goal is to contribute with knowledge of how the automotive industry canaccelerate digital innovation by mindfully selecting and designing appropriate organisational interventions for open digital innovation. In this research in progress paper, we present a two-year action design research project and contribute with initial empirical results on the problems with open digitalinnovation in the automotive industry, a comparison of organizational forms for open digital innovation, based on a literature review and an assessment of the organizational forms’ potential to overcomethe problems. The next step is to perform a structured literature review, and to design and implementan organizational intervention to facilitate a first iteration of externally initiated innovation cases.

  • Georganaki, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van Hooren, Luuk
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dimberg, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vascular Targeting to Increase the Efficiency of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 3081Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Boosting natural immunity against malignant cells has had a major breakthrough in clinical cancer therapy. This is mainly due to the successful development of immune checkpoint blocking antibodies, which release a break on cytolytic anti-tumor-directed T-lymphocytes. However, immune checkpoint blockade is only effective for a proportion of cancer patients, and a major challenge in the field is to understand and overcome treatment resistance. Immune checkpoint blockade relies on successful trafficking of tumor-targeted T-lymphocytes from the secondary lymphoid organs, through the blood stream and into the tumor tissue. Resistance to therapy is often associated with a low density of T-lymphocytes residing within the tumor tissue prior to treatment. The recruitment of leukocytes to the tumor tissue relies on up-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines by the tumor vasculature, which is denoted as endothelial activation. Tumor vessels are often poorly activated due to constitutive pro-angiogenic signaling in the tumor microenvironment, and therefore constitute barriers to efficient leukocyte recruitment. An emerging possibility to enhance the efficiency of cancer immunotherapy is to combine pro-inflammatory drugs with anti-angiogenic therapy, which can enable tumor-targeted T-lymphocytes to access the tumor tissue by relieving endothelial anergy and increasing adhesion molecule expression. This would pave the way for efficient immune checkpoint blockade. Here, we review the current understanding of the biological basis of endothelial anergy within the tumor microenvironment, and discuss the challenges and opportunities of combining vascular targeting with immunotherapeutic drugs as suggested by data from key pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  • Morgan, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. SciLifeLab.
    Nordling, Torbjorn
    Tjarnberg, Andreas
    NYU.
    Sonnhammer, erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    A Generalized Framework for Controlling FDR in Gene Regulatory Network Inference2018Inngår i: Bioinformatics, ISSN 1367-4803, artikkel-id bty764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation

    Inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from perturbation data can give detailed mechanistic insights of a biological system. Many inference methods exist, but the resulting GRN is generally sensitive to the choice of method-specific parameters. Even though the inferred GRN is optimal given the parameters, many links may be wrong or missing if the data is not informative. To make GRN inference reliable, a method is needed to estimate the support of each predicted link as the method parameters are varied.

    Results

    To achieve this we have developed a method called nested bootstrapping, which applies a bootstrapping protocol to GRN inference, and by repeated bootstrap runs assesses the stability of the estimated support values. To translate bootstrap support values to false discovery rates we run the same pipeline with shuffled data as input. This provides a general method to control the false discovery rate of GRN inference that can be applied to any setting of inference parameters, noise level, or data properties. We evaluated nested bootstrapping on a simulated dataset spanning a range of such properties, using the LASSO, Least Squares, RNI, GENIE3 and CLR inference methods. An improved inference accuracy was observed in almost all situations. Nested bootstrapping was incorporated into the GeneSPIDER package, which was also used for generating the simulated networks and data, as well as running and analyzing the inferences.

  • Mörk, Eva
    et al.
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier – CKS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm.
    Kommunernas framtid2019Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunerna står inför stora utmaningar framöver. Den åldrande befolkningen innebär att efterfrågan på omsorgstjänster ökar och att allt färre människor i yrkesarbetande åldrar ska försörja allt fler som inte arbetar. Under de gångna decennierna har Sverige dessutom genomgått en stark urbanisering, vilket skapar väsentligt skilda villkor för storstadsrespektive landsbygdskommuner. Till detta kommer högt flyktingmottagande där många av flyktingarna är unga, vilket bland annat ställer höga krav på skolan.

    I SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport 2019 granskar vi den befintliga svenska kommunmodellen. Vi undersöker hur ändamålsenlig den är för att möta framtidens utmaningar och om den ger kommunerna rimliga förutsättningar att förse medborgarna med viktiga välfärdstjänster såsom skola och äldreomsorg. Vi fokuserar på tre frågor:

    1. Hur ska en likvärdig och högkvalitativ kommunal service upprätthållas?
    2. Hur ska framtidens välfärd finansieras?
    3. Hur ska väljarnas ansvarsutkrävande i kommunerna säkerställas?

    Den svenska kommunmodellen, där kommunerna ansvarar för att tillhandahålla både lokala kollektiva varor och viktiga välfärdstjänster, rymmer en inneboende motsättning. Här uppstår konflikt mellan å ena sidan kommunal självstyrelse och önskan om att anpassa tjänsteutbudet till lokala preferenser och förutsättningar, och å andra sidan kraven på nationell likvärdighet i utbudet av välfärdstjänster.

  • Liss, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker LuMiNk Akademin (hädanefter “LuMiNk”) som är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet (LiU), Mirum galleria och Norrköpings kommun. Projektet startades hösten 2015 med niondeklassare från Söderportens skola i Norrköping där elever regelbundet träffar rekryterade studenter från olika programutbildningar på Linköpings universitet med syftet att ge stöd i studierna och inspirera till fortsatta studier. Då Söderportens högstadieverksamhet hösten 2017 flyttade till Klingsborgsskolan följde LuMiNk med och är alltså numera verksamt på Klingsborgsskolan.

    Rapporten har som syfte att kvantitativt utvärdera effekten av projektet samt ge rekommendationer till LuMiNks styrelsegrupp. Data på avgångna elever från Klingsborgsskolan har använts för att skatta huruvida deras betyg, val efter högstadiet samt närvaro påverkats av att gå programmet. Detta görs genom att de elever på Klingsborgsskolan som gått programmet jämförs med de som inte deltagit i programmet. Den mån som eleverna som deltog i LuMiNk (LuMiNk-gruppen) höjt sina betyg relativt de som inte deltagit programmet (kontrollgruppen) tar vi som indikation på vilken effekt som programmet har.

    Resultaten visar att de som gått LuMiNk haft signifikant höjda betyg i ämnena engelska, so, no, svenska som andraspråk samt höjda meritvärden relativt kontrollgruppen. Vi finner dock inte att de som gått LuMiNk höjt sina betyg relativt kontrollgruppen i varken matematik eller i praktiska ämnen.

    LuMiNk-gruppen har under hela terminen högre skolnärvaro än kontrollgruppen men eftersom det inte sker någon noterbar divergering mellan grupperna under terminens gång kan vi inte visa på att LuMiNk lett till högre närvaro i skolan.

    Eftersom ett syfte med LuMiNk är att inspirera till eftergymnasiala studier har vi följt upp hur det gått för elever som tidigare gick ut högstadiet från Söderporten för att på så sätt undersöka huruvida LuMiNk-gruppen i högre grad väljer att gå högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Vi finner att LuMiNk-elever i dubbelt så hög grad väljer högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen.

    Eftersom LuMiNk är ett program som eleverna själva väljer att söka till kan det förekomma så kallad ’självselektering’. Detta kan exempelvis innebära att redan mer ambitiösa elever väljer att söka LuMiNk, och att den uppmätta relativa ökningen i betyg och frekvens att gå högskoleförberedande program på gymnasiet hade skett även utan LuMiNk. Detta försöker vi att kontrollera för genom att kontrollera för skillnader i elevkompositionen mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen, använda oss av kompletterande statistiska modeller samt genom att jämföra de skattade effekterna med en skapad variabel för förväntad effekt per ämne. Vi bedömer efter ha genomfört dessa tillvägagångssätt att LuMiNk med hög sannolikhet faktiskt bidragit till den relativa skillnaden i betygstrenden mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Skillnaden i sannolikhet mellan LuMiNk- och kontrollgruppen att välja ett högskoleförberedande gymnasieprogram är behäftat med högre osäkerhet då tillgängliga data inte möjliggör lika omfattande statistiska modeller som för betygsvariabeln. Om vi dock kontrollerar för skillnader i elevkompositionen gällande betyg innan LuMiNk, kön, samt huruvida en elev kom till Sverige under grundskoletiden eller ej kvarstår dock en tämligen stor skillnad i sannolikheten att välja ett högskoleförberedande program (9 procent) mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Vidare har enkätsvar, närvaro vid LuMiNks läxhjälpstillfällen samt tidigare forskning studerats för att komplettera resultaten från effektstudien. Svaren från enkäterna visar inte på att LuMiNk-eleverna verkar välja att gå till LuMiNk på grund av brister i hemmamiljön, utan snarare att de finner LuMiNk stimulerande. Eleverna rapporterar vidare att de får mycket hjälp med studierna på LuMiNk jämfört med hemma. LuMiNks studiemiljö har eleverna olika åsikter om. Vissa uttrycker att miljön är något för stökig medan andra elever just uppskattar miljöombytet från skolan till en mer avslappnad miljö.

    Statistik på generell skolnärvaro och tidigare forskning som gjorts på läxhjälpsprojekt visar att äldre elever ofta har lägre närvaro och är svårare att locka till deltagande i läxhjälpsprojekt. Det är därför positivt att närvaron på LuMiNk-tillfällena generellt sett är hög samtidigt som ungefär hälften av eleverna på skolan valt att gå LuMiNk. Den höga närvaron bekräftar enkätsvaren att LuMiNk är populärt bland eleverna.

    Tidigare forskning visar på att det inte är självklart att läxläsningsprojekt ger effekt på studieresultat. Vi bedömer att LuMiNks tydliga struktur där eleverna förpliktigar sig att ha hög närvaro och den tydliga kopplingen till skolan bidrar till att LuMiNk tillhör de läxläsningsprojekt som faktiskt visar ha effekt på studieresultaten.