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  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 09:00 12 B 252, Karlstad
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards Improving Transparency, Intervenability, and Consent in HCI2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency of personal data processing is enforced by most Western privacy laws, including the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which will be effective from May 2018. The GDPR specifies that personal data shall be processed lawfully, fairly, and in a transparent manner. It strengthens people's rights for both ex-ante and ex-post transparency and intervenability. Equally important is the strict legal requirements for informed consent established by the GDPR.

    On the other hand, the legal privacy principles have Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) implications. People should comprehend the principles, be aware of when the principles may be used, and be able to use them. Transparent information about personal data processing should be concise, intelligible, and provided in an easily accessible form, pursuant to the GDPR. Nonetheless, the answer to the question about how HCI implications can be addressed depends on the attempts to decrease the gap between legal and user-centric transparency, intervenability, and consent. Enhancing individuals' control in a usable way helps people to be aware of the flow of their personal information, control their data, make informed decisions, and finally preserve their privacy.

    The objective of this thesis is to propose usable tools and solutions, to enhance people's control and enforce legal privacy principles, especially transparency, intervenability, and informed consent. To achieve the goal of the thesis, different ways to improve ex-ante transparency and informed consent are investigated by designing and testing new solutions to make effective consent forms. Moreover, ex-post transparency and intervenability are improved by designing a transparency enhancing tool and investigating users' perceptions of data portability and transparency in the tool. The results of this thesis contribute to the body of knowledge by mapping legal privacy principles to HCI solutions, unveiling HCI problems and answers when aiming for legal compliance, and proposing effective designs to obtain informed consent.    

  • Andersen, Vibeke
    et al.
    Chan, Simon
    Luben, Robert
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Kaaks, R.
    Grip, Olof
    Bergmann, M. M.
    Boeing, H.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Overvad, Kim
    Oldenburg, Bas
    Opstelten, Jorrit
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Carbonnel, Franck
    Racine, Antoine
    Key, Timothy
    Masala, Giovanna
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, R.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Riboli, Elio
    Hart, Andrew
    Fibre intake and the development of inflammatory bowel disease: A European prospective multi-centre cohort study (EPIC-IBD)2018In: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, ISSN 1873-9946, E-ISSN 1876-4479, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Population-based prospective cohort studies investigating fibre intake and development of inflammatory bowel disease are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the association between fibre intake and the development of Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] in a large European population.

    Methods: In total, 401 326 participants, aged 20-80 years, were recruited in eight countries in Europe between 1991 and 1998. At baseline, fibre intake [total fibres, fibres from fruit, vegetables and cereals] was recorded using food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Each case was matched with four controls and odds ratios [ORs] for the exposures were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses according to smoking status were computed.

    Results: In total, 104 and 221 participants developed incident CD and UC, respectively. For both CD and UC, there were no statistically significant associations with either quartiles, or trends across quartiles, for total fibre or any of the individual sources. The associations were not affected by adjusting for smoking and energy intake. Stratification according to smoking status showed null findings apart from an inverse association with cereal fibre and CD in non-smokers [Quartile 4 vs 1 OR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.02-0.75, p = 0.023, OR trend across quartiles = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.29-0.86, p = 0.017].

    Conclusion: The results do not support the hypothesis that dietary fibre is involved in the aetiology of UC, although future work should investigate whether there may be a protective effect of specific types of fibre according to smoking status in CD.

  • Bygdéus, Pia
    Lund University.
    Medierande verktyg i körledarpraktik: en studie av arbetssätt och handling i körledning med barn och unga2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, approximately 5 % of the population sing in a choir or a singing group which means that about 500 000 people plus a number of choral conductors regularly meet in choir related practices. The aim of the present study is to describe, verbalize and make visible the mediating tools used by choir directors working with children and youth. The study is qualitative in character: four choir directors were observed closely while working with their children and youth choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individual interviews, focus conversations, videotapes and stimulated recall interviews.The results demonstrate that the role of the choir director is complex. When working with a choir, choir directors often use several aspects of their professional role. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points at eight categories of working approaches: (a) A listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; (b) a variation in ways of working with the choir; (c) the use of musical routines; (d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musical expression with the group; (e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive commands and instructions; (f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; (g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and (h) the use of target images expressed as visions, goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. These categories are generated through the analysis of the choir directors’ actions and activities in their work with the choirs. This is situated in choir singing as a social and cultural practice. The participants display great individual variation in their choices of strategies for communication and in their decision-making when working with children’s and youth choirs. A large variety of cultural and mediating tools are used. The working approaches and mediating tools become available in a social, situated and cultural practice. In conclusion, choral conducting with children and youth involves a great variety of negotiations and renegotiations of working approaches and mediating tools.

  • Peeters, Jeroen
    et al.
    Papworth, Nigel
    Glaser, Pernilla
    Collevecchio, Carla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Betancour, Ana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Trotto, Ambra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. RISE Interactive.
    No Man is an Island. Situated Design Research and Wicked Impact2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S3354-S3367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the research-through-design process that led to the realization of the interactive exhibition Charged Utopia that took place in August 2016 at the Norrbyskars Museum. The design leveraged embodiment and active perception: visitors could activate the content by physically engaging with the space. These interactions were intended to trigger personal reflections on social coexistence, its paradoxes and challenges. The paper guides through the research-through- design process, from initial design direction and their theoretical grounding, to the design process and final event. The paper contributes with a reflection on the "wicked impact" of the event, suggesting that it is of relevance for design researchers that deal with societal issues, to discuss and expose the effects of their practice beyond immediate results.

  • Bygdéus, Pia
    Lund University.
    Uttryck genom handling: Medierande verktyg i körledararbete med barn och unga2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the choir leader is a complex one. When working with a choir, choir leaders often use several aspects of their professional role. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe, verbalise and make visible the mediating tools that choir directors working with children and youth choirs use. In a longitude study, four choir leaders were observed closely while working with their choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individualinterviews, focus conversations and videotapes. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points to eight groups of mediating tools: a) a listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; b) a variation in ways of working with the choir, where a variety of physical tools are used; c) the use of musical routines; d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musicalexpression with the group; e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive instructions; f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and h) the use of target images expressed as visions, small/big goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. The choir directors who participated in the study use a variety of approaches and ways of working as a strategy for communicating and working with child and youth choirs.

  • Nilfyr, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Dokumentationssyndromet: En interaktionistisk och socialkritisk studie av förskolans dokumentations- och bedömningspraktik2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to contribute with knowledge about preschool documentation and assessment practice. The starting point is the interaction taking place in situations where teachers and/or children simultaneously conduct some form of documentation. The focus lies on the way this interaction and, consequently, these situations can be perceived from a socialinteractionist and social-critical perspective.

    Goffman’s social interaction theory has been used to analyze and interpret the interaction arising in documentation situations. Reed’s concept of maximal interpretation with a utopian referent has also been useful in the analyses. The empirics consist of video observations of everyday documentation situations comprising interaction between teacher and child. The primary interaction theory concepts used in the analysis include definition of a situation, framing and secondary adaptation.

    The analysis shows that, on the basis of different interaction patterns, teachers and children make different definitions and framings of documentation situations. Teacher definitions seem task-oriented, including a predetermined goal and the expected result of the activity. Children appear more spontaneously driven and seem to act on the assumption that the activity tends to change. The analysis also indicates that the teacher largely tries to make children share her definition by speaking in questions. Maintaining the activity as such and hence its definition seems to be an overarching aim among the teachers. In cases when the expected outcome does not harmonize with the actual one but results in a performance gap, a transformation takes place in that things are reinterpreted into something else. What also emerges from the result is that both teachers and children seem to adapt to current institutional documentation and assessment practice expectations and demands. Teachers’ adaptation is expressed in that they seem to act as though there is no performance gap between the predetermined and the actual result. This gives rise to an as if practice. The children on their part seem to adapt by directing their performance to harmonize with what seems to be expected by the teacher.

    To create meaning in what is said or done in the specific activity, the aim of the situation must be clarified by the participant. In other words, teachers and children need to arrive at a mutual definition of what is going on or what is intended to go on. The result indicates that no clarification has been made of what a documentation situation can or should mean. Both parties seem to interact on the basis of implicit or taken-for-granted definitions of what is or is supposed to be going on in the situation. The vulnerability of reaching a mutual framing of the situations and of different adaptations indicates the necessity of considering what learning or what other aspects can be made visible through the documentations taking place in the analyzed situations and in what ways preschool documentation and assessment practice may promote or restrain children’s lifelong urge to learn.

  • Sabde, Yogesh
    et al.
    Chaturvedi, Sarika
    Randive, Bharat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Environment, R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India.
    Sidney, Kristi
    Salazar, Mariano
    De Costa, Ayesha
    Diwan, Vishal
    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0189364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 +/- 0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03 +/- 0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual's characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the level of emergency obstetric care functionality in public obstetric care facilities will allow more optimal utilization of facilities for childbirth under the JSY program thereby leading to better outcomes for mothers.

  • Stoner, Marie C. D.
    et al.
    Edwards, Jessie K.
    Miller, William C.
    Aiello, Allison E.
    Halpern, Carolyn T.
    Julien, Aimée
    Selin, Amanda
    Hughes, James P.
    Wang, Jing
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    Wagner, Ryan G.
    MacPhail, Catherine
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of the Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Pettifor, Audrey
    Effect of schooling on age-disparate relationships and number of sexual partners among young women in rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 0682017In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 76, no 5, p. E107-E114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attending school may have a strong preventative association with sexually transmitted infections among young women, but the mechanism for this relationship is unknown. One hypothesis is that students who attend school practice safer sex with fewer partners, establishing safer sexual networks that make them less exposed to infection.

    Setting: We used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial of young women aged 13-20 years in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa, to determine whether the percentage of school days attended, school dropout, and grade repetition are associated with having a partner 5 or more years older (age-disparate) and with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months.

    Methods: Risks of having an age-disparate relationship and number of sexual partners were compared using inverse probability of exposure weighted Poisson regression models. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures.

    Results: Young women who attended fewer school days (<80%) and who dropped out of school were more likely to have an age-disparate relationship (risk difference 9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9% to 16.0%; risk difference (%) dropout 17.2%, 95% CI: 5.4% to 29.0%) and those who dropped out reported having fewer partners (count difference dropout 0.343, 95% CI: 0.192 to 0.495). Grade repetition was not associated with either behavior.

    Conclusion: Young women who less frequently attend school or who drop out are more likely to have an age-disparate relationship. Young women who drop out have overall more partners. These behaviors may increase the risk of exposure to HIV infection in young women out of school.

  • Persson de Fine Licht, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Chalmers Univ Technol, Res Inst Sweden RISE, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hostile urban architecture: A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this paper, it is argued that these views are difficult to defend and that much more empirical research on the topic is needed.

  • Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Coping with second home tourism: responses and strategies of private and public service providers in western Sweden2017In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second homes have increasingly gained academic attention, not least within tourism research. Nevertheless, most studies have addressed the topic from the perspective of the second home owners, highlighting issues such as motivation for second home ownership, use patterns, geographical location, and meanings of second homes. Even the impacts of second homes have mainly been addressed as the accumulated outcome of their owners’ decisions. Hence, second homes have mainly been conceptualized as personal/family projects. Relatively little research has been done on the ways local communities cope with second home tourism. This is the departure point for this paper, with the purpose of analysing coping strategies among public and private stakeholders regarding second home tourism. It is argued that communities have various ways of coping, ranging from resistance to resource utilization. The proposed conceptual framework is empirically applied to the case of the Swedish West Coast. In an interview survey of public and private service providers, different strategies are identified. The results of the survey indicate that second home owners are increasingly seized on as a resource that can be utilized for business development. Ultimately, institutional preconditions imply that second homes remain a challenge for local municipalities.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isacson, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    De Bruin, Pedro Sales
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for new high-mass phenomena in the dilepton final state using 36 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 10, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search is conducted for new resonant and non-resonant high-mass phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states. The search uses 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data, collected at s=13" role="presentation">s√=13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Upper limits at 95% credibility level are set on the cross-section times branching ratio for resonances decaying into dileptons, which are converted to lower limits on the resonance mass, up to 4.1 TeV for the E6-motivated Z χ . Lower limits on the qqℓℓ contact interaction scale are set between 2.4 TeV and 40 TeV, depending on the model.

  • Public defence: 2018-02-23 13:00 F11, Stockholm
    Jonsson, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    Two Problems in non-linear PDE’s with Phase Transitions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is in the field of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE), focusing on problems which show some type of phase-transition. A single phase Hele-Shaw flow models a Newtoninan fluid which is being injected in the space between two narrowly separated parallel planes. The time evolution of the space that the fluid occupies can be modelled by a semi-linear PDE. This is a problem within the field of free boundary problems. In the multi-phase problem we consider the time-evolution of a system of phases which interact according to the principle that the joint boundary which emerges when two phases meet is fixed for all future times. The problem is handled by introducing a parameterized equation which is regularized and penalized. The penalization is non-local in time and tracks the history of the system, penalizing the joint support of two different phases in space-time. The main result in the first paper is the existence theory of a weak solution to the parameterized equations in a Bochner space using the implicit function theorem. The family of solutions to the parameterized problem is uniformly bounded allowing us to extract a weakly convergent subsequence for the case when the penalization tends to infinity.

    The second problem deals with a parameterized highly oscillatory quasi-linear elliptic equation in divergence form. As the regularization parameter tends to zero the equation gets a jump in the conductivity which occur at the level set of a locally periodic function, the obstacle. As the oscillations in the problem data increases the solution to the equation experiences high frequency jumps in the conductivity, resulting in the corresponding solutions showing an effective global behaviour. The global behavior is related to the so called homogenized solution. We show that the parameterized equation has a weak solution in a Sobolev space and derive bounds on the solutions used in the analysis for the case when the regularization is lost. Surprisingly, the limiting problem in this case includes an extra term describing the interaction between the solution and the obstacle, not appearing in the case when obstacle is the zero level-set. The oscillatory nature of the problem makes standard numerical algorithms computationally expensive, since the global domain needs to be resolved on the micro scale. We develop a multi scale method for this problem based on the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) framework and using a finite element (FE) approach to capture the macroscopic variations of the solutions at a significantly lower cost. We numerically investigate the effect of the obstacle on the homogenized solution, finding empirical proof that certain choices of obstacles make the limiting problem have a form structurally different from that of the parameterized problem.

  • Larsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Planering, progression, profession: hur studenter blir planerare2017In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De kunskaper som utvecklas med stöd i de nationella examensmålen för värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt är de som ligger närmast den professionella identiteten. Denna kunskapskategori ges begränsat utrymme i de förväntade studieresultat som examineras inom samhällsplanerarprogrammet vid Umeå universitet. Trots detta får studenterna anställning som planerare, ofta kort efter att de tagit sin kandidatexamen. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka hur kunskapsmässig progression underbyggs avseende värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt i en planerarutbildning med kulturgeografi som huvudområde. I denna artikel redovisas en analys av samhällsplanerarprogrammet. De kurser i kulturgeografi som ingår i programmet analyseras utifrån förväntade studieresultat, läraktiviteter och examinationsformer i syfte att spåra den planerade progressionen. Särskild uppmärksamhet ägnas kunskapskategorin värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån en modell för att förstå vilka typer av kunskaper som används vid avvägningar och beslut i planeringsprofessionen. Analysen visar att samhällsplanerarprogrammets planerade progression följer principen att först ge studenterna breda ämneskunskaper, därefter utveckla metodfärdigheter och mot slutet utveckla mer komplexa och handlingsinriktade kunskaper. Den visar också att den planerade progressionen är begränsad i att underbygga normativa aspekter av studenternas värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt.

  • Ahlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Embretsen-Varro, Elin
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden..
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Lund Univ, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Lund, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Orebro Univ, Dept Oncol, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Oncol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    High expression of cyclin D1 is associated to high proliferation rate and increased risk of mortality in women with ER-positive but not in ER-negative breast cancers2017In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 164, no 3, p. 667-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclin D1 has a central role in cell cycle control and is an important component of estrogen regulation of cell cycle progression. We have previously shown that high cyclin D expression is related to aggressive features of ER-positive but not ER-negative breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to validate this differential ER-related effect and furthermore explore the relationship between cyclin D overexpression and CCND1 gene amplification status in a node-negative breast cancer case-control study. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of cyclin D1 (n = 364) and amplification of the gene CCND1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (n = 255) was performed on tissue microarray sections from patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer. Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. The primary event was defined as breast cancer death. Breast cancer-specific survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariable models using conditional logistic regression. Expression of cyclin D1 above the median (61.7%) in ER breast cancer was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer death (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.5-6.8) also when adjusted for tumor size and grade (OR 3.1). No significant prognostic impact of cyclin D1 expression was found among ER-negative cases. Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated to high expression of the proliferation markers cyclins A (rho 0.19, p = 0.006) and B (rho 0.18, p = 0.003) in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative cases. There was a significant association between CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression (p = 0.003), but CCND1 amplification was not statistically significantly prognostic (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.4). We confirmed our previous observation that high cyclin D1 expression is associated to high proliferation and a threefold higher risk of death from breast cancer in ER-positive breast cancer.

  • Islam, Md. Koushikul
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Strand, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Baranczewski, Pawel
    Artursson, Per
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Anti-Rift Valley fever virus activity in vitro, pre-clinical pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of benzavir-2, a broad-acting antiviral compound2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2. In vitro, benzavir-2 efficiently inhibited RVFV infection, viral RNA production and production of progeny viruses. In vitro, benzavir-2 displayed satisfactory solubility, good permeability and metabolic stability. In mice, benzavir-2 displayed oral bioavailability with adequate maximum serum concentration. Oral administration of benzavir-2 formulated in peanut butter pellets gave high systemic exposure without any observed toxicity in mice. To summarize, our data demonstrated potent anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 in vitro together with a promising pre-clinical pharmacokinetic profile. This data support further exploration of the antiviral activity of benzavir-2 in in vivo efficacy models that may lead to further drug development for human use.

  • Öst, Elin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Nisell, Margret
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Burgos, Carmen Mesas
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet / Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital.
    Health-related quality of life in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia2018In: Pediatric surgery international (Print), ISSN 0179-0358, E-ISSN 1437-9813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    METHODS: Between 1993 and 2003, a total of 102 children born with CDH were treated at Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital in Stockholm. In 2012, long-term survivors (n = 77) were asked to participate in the present study, which resulted in a 46% (n = 35) response rate. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was used for measuring HRQoL and a detailed review of medical records was performed.

    RESULTS: The study participants did not differ from the non-participants in terms of prenatal diagnosis, gender, side of lesion, method of surgical repair, time to intubation, need for ECMO support, or way of discharge from the hospital. Children born with CDH considered themselves to have a good HRQoL, as good as healthy Swedish children. There were only a few significant HRQoL differences within the group of children with CDH, although several median scores in ECMO-treated patients were somewhat lower. Correlations between child and parent scores on HRQoL were low.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life in children born with CDH is good overall, however, a correlation between the severity of the malformation and HRQoL cannot be excluded.

  • Bremner, Craig
    et al.
    Charles Sturt Univ, Design, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.
    Bernadet, Laura
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    The Museum of the Future: a sedimentary cloud2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. S3560-S3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking our cue from the impact of Joseph Kosuth’s 1965 conceptual artwork One and Three Chairs, there has always been one and three museums-the cosmos is the museum of light, the city is the museum of space and given the job of the museum is to indefinitely accumulate time the museum today is the museum of time. In this paper we present a fourth-the museum of the future. The museum and the department store were concurrent designs of industrialization; one-the store-collected the here-and-now and sold it as what-might-become while the other-the museum-collected what-was and projected it as what-we-have-become. However, the manifest crises of the planet illustrate the limits of our capacity to persuade ourselves we can imagine a future in which we want to live, and cast urgency on the long-term design project of being together. And the project of being together in the urban age is driving us to change the entire terrain of thought and action. Where once ideas drove change, change now appears to be split between two projects whose temporal dimensions govern the notion of ‘future’. One is the busy sharing of digital records of the as-found, and counter to this digital archive is the revival of designs of what-might-become illustrated in the boom in digital imagery of fantasy futures. In order to now imagine a future it has become necessary to navigate the competing time frames of the digital archiving of the past and the digital reproduction of the future. But for Jacques Derrida the question of the archive is not a question of the past but a question of the future, the very question of the future, of a response, of a promise and of a responsibility for tomorrow. According to him “the archive-if we want to know what this will have meant we will only know tomorrow.” And Hal Foster disconnects the archive from the museum when he questions “Might visual culture rely on techniques of information to transform a wide range of mediums into a system of image-text-a database of digital terms-an archive without museums?” In this paper we propose this temporal disjuncture-archive and future-can be bridged by the design of what we call the Museum of the Future whose windows open onto the permanent present. The Museum of the Future is not a location for the sentimental accumulation of time in the form of tasteful objects. According to Cedric Price “neither knowledge nor value can be stored and contained in a particular place” therefore “the museum of the future initiates a process of constant revision that assures the contingency and non-solidity of a building”. Following from Price we propose the Museum of the Future is a continuous interior whose form, stretched to compass the cumulous cloud of digital sentimentality and reproduction, functions as a sedimentary layer for our imaginings of increasingly populous and proximate future relations.

  • Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    From Utopian One-worldism to Geopolitical Intergovernmentalism: UNESCO's Department of Social Sciences as an International Boundary Organization, 1946-19552017In: Serendipities: Journal for the Sociology and History of the Social Sciences, ISSN 2521-0947, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 148-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a new coordinating organization in the rapidly expanding international field of post-World War II social science, UNESCO’s Department of Social Sciences (SSD), set up in 1946, played a central role. This article explores the formation of the SSD during its first decade with a special focus on its organizational aspects. By conceptualizing the SSD as an “international boundary organization”, the article analyzes the organizational structuration of agency spaces on different levels – within SSD, in relation to UNESCO and to the UN system at large – as well as over time. As a result, the article discerns four phases, distinguished by organizational changes, under which the SSD was successively transformed from a relatively independent transnational organization, which shared the utopian vision of one-worldism, to an intergovernmental organization considerably more vulnerable to external geopolitical pressures.

  • Persson, Christer
    et al.
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Verbova, Marina
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Rehn, Helena
    SCB.
    Normalårskorrigering av fossil koldioxidemission från fastighetsuppvärmning och elproduktion 2008-2010 varav 2010 avser preliminära data: Resultatredovisning för hela perioden 1990-20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annual Inventories, Parties are encouraged to give information on application of adjustments as it is regarded as important information in relation to the monitoring of emission and removal trends, and the performance of national policies and measures. Information on fossil CO2-emissions adjusted for weather and climatic conditions in Sweden was included in the Third National Communication on Climate Change in 2001, and up-dated in the Fourth and Fifth National Communication in 2005 and 2009, respectively.

    The Swedish weather conditions vary a great deal from year to year. Temperature, solar radiation and wind influence the amount of energy needed to heat buildings in order to maintain normal indoor temperatures. Precipitation affects the quantity of water flowing in watercourses and hence the potential for generating electric energy using hydropower.

    Figure 1. Actual and normal-year corrected fossil CO2-emissions for heating of buildings and electricity production in Sweden for the years 1990-2010. For the year 2010 preliminary statistics on fossil fuel consumption is used.

    Sweden has developed a normal-year correction method, which makes it possible to adjust actual fossil CO2-emissions in Sweden for a specific year to the fossil CO2-emissions which should have taken place in a climatic "normal" year and facilitate a comparison. Normal-year correction includes emissions from heating of buildings (but not cooling) and from electricity generation. The model used to calculate the need, depending on weather, for heating of buildings is described in more detail in reference [1] and later further elaborated in details [3]. The model for normal-year corrections of CO2-emissions from electricity production, including hydro-power, is described in [2]. Actual and normal-year corrected fossil CO2-2

    emissions caused by heating of buildings and electricity production is shown for 1990-2010 (preliminary data for fossil fuel consumption in 2010) in Figure 1. In Table 1 the normal-year corrections of fossil CO2-emissions (1000 tons CO2/year) in total and separated for electricity production (including electric heating) and heating of buildings (except electric heating) are shown. The correction shall be added to the actual emission to obtain the normal-year emission. The normal-year corrected total emissions of fossil CO2 for heating of buildings and electricity production was almost constant during the period 1990-1999. Since then the emission has gradually decreased and was in 2009 about half of the levels during the period 1990-1999. In 2010, which was an exceptional year with regard to low Swedish nuclear power production combined with an unusually long and cold winter, there was a slight increase in the normal-year corrected fossil CO2-emissions compared to in 2009.

    Year Electricity production&heating Heating building excl el-heating Total normal-year correction 1990 1 315 1 943 3 258 1991 449 765 1 213 1992 877 1 425 2 302 1993 149 502 652 1994 -238 496 258 1995 484 342 826 1996 -1 338 -757 -2 095 1997 560 680 1 240 1998 760 325 1 085 1999 807 1 065 1 872 2000 1 708 1 619 3 326 2001 660 487 1 147 2002 191 901 1 092 2003 -133 662 529 2004 356 642 998 2005 733 859 1 592 2006 333 965 1 298 2007 478 991 1 469 2008 339 908 1 248 2009 230 626 855 2010 -410 -1 228 -1 639 Normal-year corrections of fossil CO2 [1000 ton CO2/year]

    Table 1. Annual 1990-2010 (2010 preliminary data) calculated normal-year corrections of fossil CO2-emissions (1000 ton CO2/year). Values are given for the total correction as well as separated into heating of buildings (excluding electric heating) and electricity production (including electric heating). The correction shall be added to the actual emission to obtain the normal-year emission.

    REFERENCES

    [1] Persson C. Normalårskorrigering av Sveriges utsläpp av fossil CO2 från uppvärmning. Summary in English. Rapportserie SMED och SMED&SLU, Nr 1. 2004

    [2] Holmberg J. & Axelsson J. Kortfattad metodbeskrivning – Normalårskorrigering av el. SwedPower. 2006

    [3] Normalårskorrigering av fjärrvärmebränslen. Rapport till Naturvårdsverket. Profu AB 2006.

  • Swaminathan, Soumya
    et al.
    Room, Robin S.
    Ivers, Louise C.
    Hillis, Graham
    Grais, Rebecca F.
    Bhutta, Zulficiar A.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    What's coming for health science and policy in 2018?: Global experts look ahead in their field2018In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e1002498Article in journal (Other academic)
  • George, Asha
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Pariyo, George W.
    Peterson, Stefan S.
    Maternal and newborn health implementation research: programme outcomes, pathways of change and partnerships for equitable health systems in Uganda2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, article id 1359924Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Nichols, Erin K.
    et al.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC-Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chandramohan, Daniel
    Clark, Samuel J.
    Flaxman, Abraham D.
    Jakob, Robert
    Leitao, Jordana
    Maire, Nicolas
    Rao, Chalapati
    Riley, Ian
    Setel, Philip W.
    The WHO 2016 verbal autopsy instrument: An international standard suitable for automated analysis by InterVA, InSilicoVA, and Tariff 2.02018In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e1002486Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a practical method for determining probable causes of death at the population level in places where systems for medical certification of cause of death are weak. VA methods suitable for use in routine settings, such as civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems, have developed rapidly in the last decade. These developments have been part of a growing global momentum to strengthen CRVS systems in low-income countries. With this momentum have come pressure for continued research and development of VA methods and the need for a single standard VA instrument on which multiple automated diagnostic methods can be developed.

    Methods and findings: In 2016, partners harmonized a WHO VA standard instrument that fully incorporates the indicators necessary to run currently available automated diagnostic algorithms. The WHO 2016 VA instrument, together with validated approaches to analyzing VA data, offers countries solutions to improving information about patterns of cause-specific mortality. This VA instrument offers the opportunity to harmonize the automated diagnostic algorithms in the future.

    Conclusions: Despite all improvements in design and technology, VA is only recommended where medical certification of cause of death is not possible. The method can nevertheless provide sufficient information to guide public health priorities in communities in which physician certification of deaths is largely unavailable. The WHO 2016 VA instrument, together with validated approaches to analyzing VA data, offers countries solutions to improving information about patterns of cause-specific mortality.

  • Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 A1:111a, Uppsala
    Guiastrennec, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mechanism-based modeling of biological processes involved in oral absorption2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For orally administered drugs, the rate and extent of absorption are governed by the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, the characteristics of the dosage form and the physico-chemical properties of the drug. This thesis primarily aimed to improve the mechanistic understanding and the predictability of processes involved in the absorption of orally administered drugs using a population modeling approach. A secondary aim was to propose an optimized dosing regimen for first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in underweight Indian children.

    A model characterized the effect of pH, mechanical stress and formulation on in vitro extended release (ER) tablet erosion. The model was further used in combination with anatomical tablet location data to predict the in vivo erosion dynamics. The proposed approach could help address challenges related to the development of future ER formulations.

    Gastric emptying regulates the rate of entry of nutrients into the small intestine. Bile acids are essential for the intestinal absorption of lipophilic drugs, but the determination of their local intestinal concentrations is difficult. A modeling framework was developed to characterize the relationships between nutritional intake, rate of gastric emptying, gallbladder emptying–refilling patterns and plasma concentrations of bile acids. This modeling framework could be used in combination with systems pharmacology models to predict the drug-drug interactions and food effects associated with gastric emptying, as well as to link the postprandial changes in plasma bile acid concentrations to the variability in drugs’ absorption.

    Optimal doses of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been firmly established. In an underweight Indian children population, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model identified rifampin as single predictor of unfavorable treatment outcome. Children with low body weight and/or HIV coinfection had a higher probability of unfavorable treatment outcome. Doses increase were proposed and could provide crucial information for future guidelines.

    In summary, the developed models enabled the prediction of the in vivo erosion profile of ER formulations based on in vitro dissolution data. A modeling framework predicted the postprandial gastric emptying rate and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Finally, a model-based approach was used to identify risk factors and propose optimized dose recommendations in tuberculosis-infected Indian children.

  • Viðarsson, Jónas R.
    et al.
    Einarsson, Marvin Ingi
    Ragnarsson, Sigurður Örn
    Laksá, Unn
    Danielsen, Rannvá
    Iversen, Audun
    Henriksen, Edgar
    Berthelsen, Tønnes
    Manuel, Heather
    Brown, Tom
    Decker, David
    Lund, Henrik S.
    Larson, Bengt
    Ottosson, Carl-Axel
    Nordic coastal fisheries and communities: Status and future prospects2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal fisheries play a vital role in the marine sector of the Nordic countries and serves as a backbone of the economy of many smaller coastal communities. The coastal fleets usually have a big presence in smaller, more remote fishing villages, supplying local processing companies with raw material. The coastal sector is therefore highly important for regional development, as it represents a significant part of total landings and offers employment for a large number of fishermen, processors and other supporting industries.

    This report reviews the coastal sectors in seven Nordic countries, which include almost 20 thousand coastal vessels that are catching close to 900 thousand tonnes a year, valued at 1.2 billion EUR. The fleets are highly variable and the individual countries do each have their unique strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, which are discussed in the report.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-22 13:00 T1, Huddinge
    Askfors, Ylva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
    Samverkan för innovation: En fallstudie av mötet mellan akademi, industri och sjukvård2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan kan leda till innovation, konkurrenskraftiga företag, förstklassig forskning samt välfungerande myndigheter och institutioner. I den politiska debatten idag finns en förväntan att Sverige ska upprätthålla sin konkurrenskraft och bemöta samhällets utmaningar genom innovation och att vägen till innovation går via samverkan. Avhandlingen bygger på en studie av ett samverkansprojekt vars syfte var att skapa innovation för att minska antalet vårdrelaterade infektioner i Sverige. Projektet som studerats ses som en transdisciplinär ansats med aktörer som representerade akademi, industri samt hälso- och sjukvård.

    Syftet med avhandlingen är att vidareutveckla kunskapen om interorganisatorisk samverkan för innovation. Detta görs genom ett tredelat bidrag, till teoribildningen kring samverkan för innovation som börjat växa fram, till den samverkande praktiken inom både privat och offentlig sektor samt till politiker och beslutsfattare som styr fördelning av statliga anslag till forskning och innovation.

    Fallstudien som ligger till grund för avhandlingen är baserad på en etnografiskt inspirerad studie. Empiriskt material samlades in och skapades tillsammans med aktörerna i projektet under drygt två års tid genom intervjuer och deltagande observation.

    Studien visar att interorganisatorisk samverkan består av flera dimensioner och kan förstås på flera nivåer. Interorganisatorisk samverkan innebär inte bara att det är olika organisationer som ska göra en gemensam ansträngning. Organisationerna består av olika människor med olika discipliner och professioner vilka bygger på olika utgångspunkter och sätt att se på världen. Samverkan kan ses som ett sätt att fylla mellanrummen mellan organisationer istället för att bygga broar över gränser. I de organisatoriska mellanrummen kan aktörer från olika organisationer, med olika discipliner och professioner mötas utan institutionaliserade roller, i en receptiv kontext där innovation kan skapas.

  • Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sjödahl, Charlotte
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet ikommuners styrdokument2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten återger resultatet från en studie av hur nationella styrdokument översätts till den lokala arenan inom utbildningsområdet. Skollagen anger att utbildningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. Trots försök från olika myndigheter på den nationella arenan att förtydliga vad detta innebär är det fortfarande otydligt vad det innebär i konkret handling. Huvudmannen kan i sin tur arbeta vidare med att stödja utbildningsverksamheten genom sina egna styrdokument. Arbetet med att utforma styrdokumenten leds vanligtvis av en skolchef. För att öka förståelsen för hur idéer om vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet kommer till uttryck i kommuners styrdokument har vi genomfört en kvalitativ studie. Ett urval av 65 skolchefer från kommuner av olika storlek och geografisk placering fick frågan att skicka in styrdokument där de på något sätt hade behandlat vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. 16 kommuner skickade in 53 dokument. Av dessa var det 16 styrdokument från 9 kommuner som uttryckligen hade med begreppen. Dokumenten består bland annat av verksamhetsidé, måldokument, strategiska dokument, verksamhetsplaner och handlingsplaner. En induktiv analys visar på sex kategorier för hur huvudman förhåller sig till begreppen vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet:

    1. Begreppsförekomst: vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet nämns men innebörden diskuteras inte.

    2. Karriärsatsning: vetenskaplig grund och beprövaderfarenhet handlar om professionell kompetens, vilket sätter fokus på kompetensutveckling och karriärvägar.

    3. Litteraturgenomgång: presentation av litteraturgenomgångar som ett sätt att koppla till vetenskaplig forskning.

    4. Metodfrågor: användning av forskningsbaserade metoder och ansatser för att utbildningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet.

    5. Samverkan: samverkan med ett lärosäte för att utbildningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet.

    6. Systematiskt kvalitetsarbete: det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet kopplas ihop med vetenskaplig grund ochbeprövad erfarenhet.

    Utifrån dessa sex kategorier för vi en diskussion om hur dominanta idéer färdas i organisationer. Här återges en kort summering av slutsatserna:

    • Det pågår översättning av nationella dominanta idéer till den lokala praktiken.

    • Samverkan med ett lärosäte verkar vara av vikt för att utveckla ett arbetssätt som stöder att utbildningen vilar på vetenskaplig grund.

    • Interaktiv praktiknära forskning anges som en lämplig ansats för att utbildningen ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet.

    • Litteraturhänvisningar i styrdokumenten handlar i hög grad om referenser till texter från Skolverket och andra myndigheter samt intresseorganisationer, inte direkta forskningsreferenser.

    Resultatet visar att de begrepp och definitioner som dominerar nationellt översätts till en mångfald av olika operativa insatser. Mångfalden kan bero på att kommuner har olika förutsättningar att stödja en utbildning på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. Det kan också vara ett uttryck för att kommuner vill uppnå ett visst syfte i en viss kontext.Trots nationella definitioner av skollagens begrepp krävs en översättningsprocess när kravet på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet ska efterlevas i den lokala kontexten. Anledningen är att tjänstemän, skolledare och lärare ska kunna hitta sätt att arbeta med detta som är anpassat efter deras specifika behov. Översättningsprocessen kräver kunskap om på vilket sätt forskningen kan bidra till utveckling av verksamheten. I den här processen är det också viktigt att ta hänsyn till praktik och etik. Det här sker inom en ram där utbildning även bygger på ett normativt samhällsuppdrag, det vill säga det att eleverna ska bli kompetenta demokratiska medborgare. Utifrån att vi har tagit skolchefens perspektiv i denna rapport vill vi slutligen påpeka att det saknas vägledning i styrdokumenten för hur eventuella förändringar i arbetssätt påverkar ledarskapet i organisationen. Ett styrdokument är kanske inte den främsta arenan för ledarskapsarbetet men det antyder förändringar som i sin tur ger förändrade förutsättningar och kunskapskrav för ledarskapet. Insikter om skolchefens förändrade ledarskap är en viktig kunskapslucka att fylla i framtida arbeten.

  • Pan, S.
    et al.
    Wang, H.
    Pei, F.
    Yang, L.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    An Investigation on Energy Consumption of Air Conditioning System in Beijing Subway Stations2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 2568-2573Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Luo, H.
    et al.
    Liang, X.
    Lu, J.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Applicability analysis of insulation in different climate zones of China2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 1835-1841Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Broeckx, Bart J. G.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Anim Genet, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Derrien, Thomas
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Mottier, Stephanie
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Wucher, Valentin
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Cadieu, Edouard
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Hedan, Benoit
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Le Beguec, Celine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Botherel, Nadine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Saunders, Jimmy H.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Med Imaging & Orthoped, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Deforce, Dieter
    Univ Ghent, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, Lab Pharmaceut Biotechnol, Ghent, Belgium..
    Andre, Catherine
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    Peelman, Luc
    Univ Ghent, Lab Anim Genet, Fac Vet Med, Merelbeke, Belgium..
    Hitte, Christophe
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS URM6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, Rennes, France..
    An exome sequencing based approach for genome-wide association studies in the dog2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used to identify loci associated with phenotypic traits in the domestic dog that has emerged as a model for Mendelian and complex traits. However, a disadvantage of GWAS is that it always requires subsequent fine-mapping or sequencing to pinpoint causal mutations. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and canine high-density (cHD) SNP genotyping of 28 dogs from 3 breeds to compare the SNP and linkage disequilibrium characteristics together with the power and mapping precision of exome-guided GWAS (EG-GWAS) versus cHD-based GWAS. Using simulated phenotypes, we showed that EG-GWAS has a higher power than cHD to detect associations within target regions and less power outside target regions, with power being influenced further by sample size and SNP density. We analyzed two real phenotypes (hair length and furnishing), that are fixed in certain breeds to characterize mapping precision of the known causal mutations. EG-GWAS identified the associated exonic and 3'UTR variants within the FGF5 and RSPO2 genes, respectively, with only a few samples per breed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that EG-GWAS can identify loci associated with Mendelian phenotypes both within and across breeds.

  • Erlandsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Bogren, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. UNFPA Country Office, Bangladesh.
    Capacity building of midwifery faculty to implement a 3-years midwifery diploma curriculum in Bangladesh: A process evaluation of a mentorship programme.2018In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 29, p. 212-218, article id S1471-5953(17)30757-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a midwifery diploma-level programme was introduced in 2010 in Bangladesh, only a few nursing faculty staff members had received midwifery diploma-level. The consequences were an inconsistency in interpretation and implementation of the midwifery curriculum in the midwifery programme. To ensure that midwifery faculty staff members were adequately prepared to deliver the national midwifery curriculum, a mentorship programme was developed. The aim of this study was to examine feasibility and adherence to a mentorship programme among 19 midwifery faculty staff members who were lecturing the three years midwifery diploma-level programme at ten institutes/colleges in Bangladesh. The mentorship programme was evaluated using a process evaluation framework: (implementation, context, mechanisms of impact and outcomes). An online and face-to-face blended mentorship programme delivered by Swedish midwifery faculty staff members was found to be feasible, and it motivated the faculty staff members in Bangladesh both to deliver the national midwifery diploma curriculum as well as to carry out supportive supervision for midwifery students in clinical placement. First, the Swedish midwifery faculty staff members visited Bangladesh and provided a two-days on-site visit prior to the initiation of the online part of the mentorship programme. The second on-site visit was five-days long and took place at the end of the programme, that being six to eight months from the first visit. Building on the faculty staff members' response to feasibility and adherence to the mentorship programme, the findings indicate opportunities for future scale-up to all institutes/collages providing midwifery education in Bangladesh. It has been proposed that a blended online and face-to-face mentorship programme may be a means to improving national midwifery programmes in countries where midwifery has only recently been introduced.

  • Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fullskalatest av deteksjon av brann i fasade med varmedetekterende kabel og flammedetektor2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne rapporten presenteres en fullskalatest gjennomført 31. januar 2017 der målet var å finne ut hvor stor brannen blir før den blir detektert av en varmedetekterende kabel montert i et stålrør og en flammedetektor.  Flammedetektoren detekterte brannen umiddelbart etter antenning i det oppsettet som ble testet. Den varmedetekterende kabelen montert i stålrør detekterer ikke brannen før brannen hadde spredt seg helt til røret.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Åberg, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Evolution of Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins and their interaction partners. The work presented is a combination of phylogenetic analysis, ancestral reconstruction and biophysical characterization in order to examine the evolutionary trajectory of protein-protein interactions involving disorder. The intrinsically disordered domains, NCBD and CID are both part of transcriptional co-regulating proteins. In evolution, NCBD existed before the emergence of CID and the most ancient domains display a low affinity complex with many weak contacts and high degree of conformational heterogeneity. Later in evolution, when NCBD and CID co-exists, a few mutations have altered the interaction in a way that the affinity is increased 25-fold and the conformational heterogeneity is decreased. In the same manner, the interaction is further optimized in extant species, resulting in a high affinity complex with less contacts of higher strength and less conformational heterogeneity. The intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of the tumour suppressing protein p53 and its negative regulator MDM2 date back to the beginning of animal life. The interacting domains are either lost or conserved in distinct phyla indicating a tight co-evolution. Phylogenetic trees produced by only including phyla with a conserved interaction domain follow the species evolution. Resurrection of p53 and MDM2 in the vertebrate lineage display an evolution of a high affinity complex in the ancestor of fish and tetrapods to a slightly improved affinity in modern tetrapods but a substantially lower affinity in zebrafish. The p53 protein family, which also includes p63 and p73, diverged from a common ancestor. The individual proteins display altered affinities to MDM2 which is a result of the high sequence divergence between them. The ionic dependence for the interactions is small, and not in line with other studies of disordered proteins. In conclusion, the work in this thesis have contributed with evolutionary analysis and experimental data of interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins.

  • Tegenu, Tsegaye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Self-development of Private Sector in Ethiopia2018In: Ethiopian business review, Vol. 6, no 58, p. 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Caban, Kelvin
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Chem, 3000 Broadway,MC3126, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Pavlov, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Gonzalez, Ruben L., Jr.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Chem, 3000 Broadway,MC3126, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    A conformational switch in initiation factor 2 controls the fidelity of translation initiation in bacteria2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiation factor (IF) 2 controls the fidelity of translation initiation by selectively increasing the rate of 50S ribosomal subunit joining to 30S initiation complexes (ICs) that carry an N-formyl-methionyl-tRNA (fMet-tRNA(fMet)). Previous studies suggest that rapid 50S subunit joining involves a GTP- and fMet-tRNA(fMet)-dependent "activation" of IF2, but a lack of data on the structure and conformational dynamics of 30S IC-bound IF2 has precluded a mechanistic understanding of this process. Here, using an IF2-tRNA single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal, we directly observe the conformational switch that is associated with IF2 activation within 30S ICs that lack IF3. Based on these results, we propose a model of IF2 activation that reveals how GTP, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and specific structural elements of IF2 drive and regulate this conformational switch. Notably, we find that domain III of IF2 plays a pivotal, allosteric, role in IF2 activation, suggesting that this domain can be targeted for the development of novel antibiotics.

  • Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    En vurdering av effekten til slokkesprayer på det norske markedet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Kravene som stilles til slokkesprayer (en type supplerende brannslokningsutstyr) er tydelige når det gjelder merking, men uklare med hensyn til slokkeeffekt. SP Fire Research har på oppdrag for Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB), testet 11 slokkesprayer for å undersøke hvor god slokkeeffekten er, og hvor godt merket de er. Resultatene fra testene viser at de aller fleste slokkesprayene ikke tilfredsstiller krav til slokkeeffekt som oppstilles av den britiske standarden BS 6165:2002 og den kommende europeiske standarden prEN 16856:2015, som omfatter slike produkter.   De beste produktene viste imidlertid en relativt god slokkeeffekt, og kan være et godt supplement til annet brannslokningsutstyr for å slokke en brann i en tidlig fase. 

  • Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Recommendations for documentation of  reaction-to-fire properties of materials offshore2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a set of recommended reaction-to-fire test methods and related criteria for different construction products and furnishing products for use on offshore petroleum industry facilities.   The principle reaction-to-fire properties that will be critical for fire development are  heat release  smoke production  production of toxic smoke  spread of flames  production of burning droplets/debris.  The test methods presented in this report documents one or several of these properties for a range of different products

  • Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Baker, Greg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Ulfsnes, Mette Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brannsikkerhet i bygg med massivtre2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I dette prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudie på brannsikkerhet ved bruk av massivtre i bygninger.   Problemstillingene det ble jobbet med var temperaturforløp i en naturlig brann, selvslokking og forkullingshastighet. Ut fra litteraturstudiet konkluderer vi med at kunnskapen om brannsikkerhet i forbindelse med massivtre i bygninger er mangelfull.  Det er spesielt rundt problemstillinger knyttet til ubeskyttet massivtre, forkullingshastigheter, delaminering og selvslokking det er flere ubesvarte spørsmål, og dette er forhold som kan ha stor innvirkning på brannsikkerheten i bygninger.   Vi anbefaler at det utarbeides retningslinjer for hvordan anvendelse av massivtre skal håndteres i prosjektering og risikoanalyse for nye bygg

  • Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Ishol, Herbjørg M.
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Utredning i forbindelse med brannvesenets dimensjonering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer i forbindelse med utarbeidelse av forslag til revidert forskrift for organisering og dimensjonering av brann- og redningsvesenet.   Prosjektet har hatt som målsetting å evaluere spesifikke problemstillinger relatert til: 1. Responstid og innsatstid 2. Dimensjonering av beredskap a. Størrelse på samlet innsatsstyrke samt oppmøte b. Vaktberedskap – dagkasernering  3. Dimensjonering av beredskap – vaktlag og støttestyrke med hensyn til såkalt "fremskutt enhet"

  • Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Slokkeanlegg i kombinasjon med tidlig deteksjon i korridor2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Det er utviklet en testprotokoll basert på CEN/TS 14972:2011 og gjennomført en testserie for å teste detektorsystemer og forvarselsslokkeanlegg for bruk i korridorer som benyttes til opphenging av klær på skoler . Det er testet tre ulike detektorsystemer som har vist seg å fungere godt med de riktige innstillingene, men det er stor variasjon på deteksjonstid når innstillingene endres. Av slokkesystemene tilfredsstiller vanntåkesystemet fra Prevent Systems med Prev3exp-dyser og sprinkleranlegget fra Tyco med veggdyser av typen TY1334 kriteriene i testprotokollen.   Det er også gjennomført en fribranntest som viser hvor viktig det er å gjennomføre tiltak for å detektere og kontrollere brann i rømningsveier da forholdene i korridoren raskt gjør det vanskelig å rømme.

  • Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fullskala branntest av elbil2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Norge og Grenland Energy, gjennomført to fullskala branntester av elbiler av merke Tata Indica GLX. Batteriet i bilene var et 26 kWh Li-ion batteri med en katode bestående av nikkel, magnesium og kobolt (NMC-katode).  I test 1 ble en elbil sluppet i fritt fall fra en høyde på 20 meter, for å simulere en kraftig kollisjon. Umiddelbart etter sammenstøtet begynte det å ryke kraftig fra batteriet. Etter  ca. 7 minutter begynte bilen å brenne med synlige flammer. Bilen fikk deretter brenne fritt. Etter 2,5 timer ble temperaturen målt mellom 310 og 540 °C på ulike deler av batteripakken. Bilen var da fullstendig utbrent. Testen viser at en elbil som blir utsatt for en kraftig kollisjon kan begynne å brenne.   I test 2 var målet å antenne batteripakken ved å bruke en ekstern varmekilde, for deretter  å måle hvor mye slokkevann som krevdes for å slokke brannen. Batteriet ble oppvarmet av en propanbrenner fra undersiden av bilen. Etter ca. 10 minutter begynte bilen å brenne med synlige flammer. Det ble gjennomført to slokkeforsøk under brannen. Brannen reantente etter første slokkeforsøk, men ble fullstendig slokket i andre forsøk. Til tross for den eksterne oppvarmingen av batteriet, og at bilen var overtent i en lengre periode, begynte det ikke å brenne i batteripakken. Brannen kunne dermed  slokkes med samme innsatsmetode og tidsforbruk som en brann i en konvensjonell bensin-/dieselbil.

  • Hox, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Slokkemetoder med lite vann2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    SP Fire Research har i samarbeid med Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB), Regionalt forskningsfond Midt-Norge og Norsk brannbefals landsforbund (NBLF), utført et prosjekt for å få en bedre kunnskapsoversikt over nye slokkeverktøy både med hensyn på effekt, og hvor utbredt de er. Gjennom ulike aktiviteter kan prosjektet konkludere med følgende:Resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse avdekker at brannvesen i Norge har god kjennskap til nye slokkeverktøy, som CAFS og skjærslokker, men de blir i liten grad benyttet. Dette kan til en viss grad knyttes opp mot utilstrekkelig opplæring og manglende erfaring med utstyret. Videre indikerer tester at utvendig slokkeinnsats kan senke temperaturen i et brannrom betydelig, og eventuelt slokke brannen, dersom denne innsatsen blir utført i nærheten av brannen. Skjærslokkeren ble vurdert til å være det beste alternativet for å håndtere hulromsbranner. Resultatene viser også at det er mulig å designe gode testmetoder for å sammenligne ulike slokkerverktøy.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:00 Skoogsalen, Uppsala
    Morén, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Speech, Voice and Nasal Function in Adults2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common craniofacial malformation. Even after repair of the cleft there may be persistent symptoms affecting speech, voice, nasal breathing, dentition, appearance and quality of life. The aims of the thesis were to: (I) investigate subjective nasal function and nasal airway at clinical examination, (II) evaluate speech by perceptual evaluation, (III) assess voice quality by perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis and (IV) compare ratings of speech by naïve listeners, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and patients.

    All consecutive patients with complete  unilateral CLP, born 1960-1987, and treated at Uppsala University Hospital were invited. A total of 83 (76%) (I) and 73 (67%) (II, III, IV) of the 109 eligible patients and non-cleft controls (n=63) participated. Patients had been treated in childhood with one- or two-stage palate closure. The participants underwent clinical examination, recording of speech and filled in questionnaires.

    The results showed that: (I) Patients earlier treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, nasal symptoms were not associated with clinical findings or method of palate closure. (II) Seven patients (10%) presented with hypernasality, 12 (16%) had audible nasal emission and/or nasal turbulence, five (7%) had consonant production errors, one (2%) had glottal reinforcements/substitutions, and one had reduced intelligibility. Controls had no quantifiable problems with speech. (III) Among patients, the mean values for the 12 perceptual voice variables on a visual analogue scale (0 = no abnormality, 100 = maximal abnormality) ranged between 1 and 22 and the mean for all was 6 mm. Voice variables were similar between patients and controls except “vocal fry”; this and total mean of all the perceptual voice variables were slightly lower among patients (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018 ). No clear association was found between velopharyngeal insufficiency and dysphonia. (IV). There were positive correlations between speech ratings by naïve listeners and SLPs (r =0.44 to 0.69, p always < 0.001, Spearman). The correlations between ratings of any of these groups and the patients’ self-ratings were weaker (r < 0.40). The patients were less satisfied with their speech and rated themselves to have more speech abnormalities than controls (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in any of the variables regarding speech, voice or nose between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure in any of the studies.

    This thesis shows that adults treated for unilateral CLP have more nasal symptoms and cleft related speech abnormalities compared to the controls, however the prevalence of speech abnormalities are relatively low. Voice quality is not affected. Speech quality is rated differently by naïve listeners, SLPs and patients.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2005 - 20142017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne studien er informasjon fra brannstatistikk og andre kilder fra perioden 2005 – 2014 analysert, for å få mer detaljert kunnskap om hvem som omkommer i brann og hvorfor de omkommer. Dermed kan tiltak iverksettes mer målrettet for å redusere antall omkomne.  Følgende spørsmål er forsøkt besvart i studien: 1. Hvilke risikofaktorer forbindes med de som omkommer i branner i Norge? 2. Hva er årsakene til dødsbranner i Norge? 3. Hvordan kan dødsbranner best forebygges?  I den aktuelle perioden er det registrert 517 branner med 571 omkomne. Vi har kartlagt informasjon fra 347 politirapporter, identifisert 387 omkomne og trukket ut informasjon fra pasientjournalene til 248 av de omkomne.

  • Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of fatal fires in Norway in the 2005 – 2014 period2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, information from fire statistics and other sources has been analyzed to get more detailed knowledge than before about who dies in fires and why. This will help to implement more targeted measures in order to reduce the number of people perishing in fires.  The study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What risk factors are associated with those who perish in fires in Norway? 2. What are the causes of fatal fires in Norway? 3. How can fatal fires best be prevented?  A total of 517 fires with 571 fatalities are registered in the official fire statistics in the 2005 – 2014 period. We have examined 347 police investigation reports, identified 387 deceased and  extracted information from 248 medical records.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-17 13:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Erikson, Marja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krediter i lust och nöd: Skattebönder i Torstuna härad, Västmanlands län, 1770‒18702018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the role of loans and credit for Swedish freeholders (skattebönder) from 1770 to 1870. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of credit for investments to improve agricultural operations, acquire land and respond to rural crises from the household perspective. Three parishes in Mälardalen form the area under investigation. Probate inventories after freeholders together with title deeds and mortgages are the most important source material of the study.The study shows that the way freeholders used credit changed in connection to changing institutional circumstances and shifting rural economic conditions. At the end of the eighteenth century, freeholders’ farming was profitable. The households generally had rather small debts during this period and credits were primarily used for daily transactions. Agriculture expanded in the district until 1815, but this expansion was followed by weaker growth with declining profitability for the freeholders up until around 1850. From 1815, the credit market changed as the Swedish National Bank started to offer beneficial loans. The debts held by freeholders grew rapidly from the 1810s up until about 1850. It is in the thesis shown that the rising indebtedness was caused by both a greater need for capital and by a change in the supply of credit. Land prices increased during the good years and remained at a high level. The households on average made larger land acquisitions than before, which required more capital. Declining profitability in agriculture and crop failures meant that credits were needed to cover income losses and to maintain a material standard. Finally, the availability of preferential bank credits made the freeholders borrowing more. The loans from the National Bank could be seen as a substitute for the limited opportunities to reclaim land in the district. With new loans, households could acquire more land, which was the only way to increase the households' income. However, this with necessity resulted in a continuous reduction of the number of landowners. This process was accentuated in the 1820s and 1840s, when a series of bankruptcies occurred among the landowning farmers.

  • Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Techno-economic evaluation of biogas upgrading using ionic liquids in comparison with2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a full-scale test carried out 31 January 2017 in which the objective was to find out how much the fire progresses before it is detected by a heat detection cable mounted in a steel pipe, and a flame detector.  In the setup being tested the flame detector detected the fire almost immediately after ignition. The heat detection cables mounted in steel pipes did not detect the fire until it had spread all the way to the pipes.

  • Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, Bioctr, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Lab Solut Chem Adv Mat & Technol, Pr 49 St, St Petersburg 197101, Russia..
    Terekhov, Aleksey N.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Sheremetevskiy Prosp 8, Ivanovo 153012, Russia..
    Pakhomov, Andrey V.
    Ivanovo State Med Acad, Sheremetevskiy Prosp 8, Ivanovo 153012, Russia..
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Vinogradov, Vladimir V.
    ITMO Univ Kronverksky, Lab Solut Chem Adv Mat & Technol, Pr 49 St, St Petersburg 197101, Russia..
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Chem & Biotechnol, Bioctr, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles improves burn wound healing and tissue regeneration through specific interaction with blood serum proteins2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 15448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn wounds are one of the most important causes of mortality and especially morbidity around the world. Burn wound healing and skin tissue regeneration remain thus one of the most important challenges facing the mankind. In the present study we have addressed this challenge, applying a solution-stabilized dispersion TiO2 nanoparticles, hypothesizing that their ability to adsorb proteins will render them a strong capacity in inducing body fluid coagulation and create a protective hybrid material coating. The in vitro study of interaction between human blood and titania resulted at enhanced TiO2 concentrations in formation of rather dense gel composite materials and even at lower content revealed specific adsorption pattern initiating the cascade response, promising to facilitate the regrowth of the skin. The subsequent in vivo study of the healing of burn wounds in rats demonstrated formation of a strongly adherent crust of a nanocomposite, preventing infection and inflammation with quicker reduction of wound area compared to untreated control. The most important result in applying the TiO2 dispersion was the apparently improved regeneration of damaged tissues with appreciable decrease in scar formation and skin color anomalies.

  • Karttjänst för framtida medelvattenstånd längs Sveriges kust2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havsnivån stiger och orsaken är den globala uppvärmningen. Effekterna av uppvärmningen på havets nivå kommer främst från den termiska expansionen samt bidrag från smältande glaciärer och de stora landisarna på Grönland och Antarktis.

    Hur snabbt den globala havsnivån stiger beror på hur stora utsläppen av växthusgaser blir. Globala medelvattenstånd fram till år 2100 har framtagits inom IPCC och beskrivs utifrån klimatscenarier, som innebär olika antaganden om den framtida utvecklingen. Oavsett klimatscenario stiger havsnivån och den kommer att fortsätta stiga även efter år 2100. Störst osäkerhet råder, angående framtida havsnivåer, kring avsmältningen av de stora ismassorna på Grönland och Antarktis.

    Medelvattenståndet är den nivå som avgör var strandlinjen normalt ligger och som höga och låga vattenstånd varierar kring. Medelvattenståndet längs Sveriges kuster kommer att förändras olika mycket, främst beroende på den pågående landhöjningen. Andra regionala processer som kan påverka medelvattenståndet är dåligt kända men bedöms i nuläget vara små.

    Globala medelvattenstånd, framtagna inom IPCC AR5, i kombination med landhöjningsinformation från Lantmäteriet har använts för att göra beräkningar av framtida medelvattenstånd längs svenska kusten. Beräkningarna sträcker sig till år 2100. Medelvattenstånd vid observationsplatser längs kusten för referensperioden 1986-2005 används som utgångsvärde.

    Resultaten har publicerats i en karttjänst som visar medelvattenståndet enligt tre olika utsläppsscenarier kring år 2050 respektive år 2100. Karttjänsten ger indikationer för vilka områden som kan vara sårbara för stigande havsnivåer.

  • Johansson, Lasse
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Gyllenram, Walter
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Nerheim, Signild
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Lokala effekter på extrema havsvattenstånd2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När havsvattennivån ska beräknas för en viss plats behöver hänsyn tas till lokala förhållanden. Vattenståndet lokalt kan avvika från det som observeras vid en av SMHI:s eller andras mätplatser. Geografin på platsen och vågor kan leda till högre vattennivåer än de som observeras vid mätplatserna.

    Denna rapport ger en kort beskrivning av hur vattenståndet längs Sveriges kuster byggs upp. Vi ger exempel på olika mekanismer för att läsaren ska få en uppfattning om skalorna i tid och höjd. Vågfenomen lokalt kan leda till att ytterligare högre nivåer kan beröras av vatten än vad vattenståndet anger.

    En översiktlig beskrivning görs av hur vågor interagerar med stränder ochkajer. Begreppen våguppstuvning och våguppsköljning förklaras. Några exempel ges på vilken effekt bottens lutning har och hur vågor utvecklas i hamnar.

    För att beräkna återkomstvärden för vattenstånd på en lokal plats beskrivs hur man kan utgå från de mätningar som SMHI gör sedan många år. Observationer från den närmaste eller de närmaste mätplatserna kan användas för att beräkna vattenstånd med olika återkomsttider för den önskade platsen. Ett exempel på en sådan beräkning presenteras där speciellt viktiga detaljer redovisas.