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• Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Inventering av möjligheter för utveckling av P-kemin i ICECREAMDB2011Report (Other academic)

National estimates of phosphorus (P) losses from Swedish agricultural land to surrounding

waters are currently produced using the calculation tool ICECREAMDB

and its constituent simulation model ICECREAM. The ICECREAM model has its

origins in the American models CREAMS and EPIC, and parts of it have been

adapted for calculating the solubility of P under Finnish conditions. It would be

preferable if the model were better adapted for the soil conditions and soil mapping

data available in Sweden. In the present work we focused on the model’s description

of inorganic soil P, its storage in different pools and its solubility. We identified

the problem that the model in its current form is slightly too rigid and insensitive

to changes in fluctuations in more mobile P fractions. The model is unable to

reproduce either the within-year dynamics or the long-term dynamics of a more

easily soluble, plant-available pool, since that pool and its associated flows are too

small in relation to the large total-P pool. Since the parameterisation of pools and

flows of inorganic P is not adapted to the soil analysis methods used in Sweden, the

availability of suitable indata is limited.

Recent research in Sweden has revealed a correlation between the P content of the

soil extracted with ammonium lactate and expressed as P-AL and soluble P in the

topsoil extracted with CaCl2 or H2O. The results are not as clear regarding the P

status of the soil and soluble P in drainage water or in neighbouring water courses.

This is because other characteristics, both chemical and physical, and how these are

distributed throughout the entire soil profile must be taken into account. The research

has also shown that taking into account the P sorption capacity of the soil

and the degree of P saturation can improve the correlation between soil P status and

dissolved P for certain soils. If these correlations can be verified for a larger number

of soils, it may be worthwhile including them in the simulation model in order

to improve calculations of P losses.

There is a need for improved models that reflect the latest research and that modify

the area of application of the models from the original intention. Such models will

need to include additional or modified descriptions of various processes. It would

be desirable to base the description of the soil’s inorganic P pools in ICECREAM

on the analytical methods used routinely in Sweden. It would also be desirable to

take into account additional chemical characteristics of the soil in calculating the

balance and thereby the flows between the different P pools in the model. Future

research will show whether this is possible. This report presents a review of existing

knowledge and should be regarded as decision support for future planning for

such developments. The research results contained in the report must be verified

for a greater number of soils and model development must be tailored to match the

available indata. The underlying motive for the development must be a need to

describe the effects of cultivation measures that affect P dynamics, which we are

unable to do at present.

• Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
Kväveretention i svenska sjöar och vattendrag – betydelse för utsläpp från reningsverk2007Report (Other academic)

This report has been compiled on request of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to

facilitate the discussion with the EU Commission. The EU Commission has announced that it

will take Sweden to the European Court of Justice for failing to ensure proper treatment of

urban waste water according to the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (Directive

91/271/EEC). In Sweden natural nitrogen removal (retention) in waterbodies is considered as

part of the treatment of emissions, when transported to the sea.

Nitrogen retention is a well-known phenomenon that includes several natural biogeochemical

processes, which permanently remove nitrogen from the water. The effect may be

considerable in areas with many lakes. Sweden has 92 000 lakes larger than 1 hectare. It is

rather normal with 30-70% nitrogen retention in Swedish lakes and rivers. The main process

for natural nitrogen retention is denitrification, which is the same process that is applied for

biological treatment in waste water plants.

Natural retention is hard to measure, however, and has to be estimated based on several

assumptions like so many other fluxes in nature. In Sweden a model system has been

developed for large-scale calculation of nutrient transport, including retention, from land to

the sea, with relatively high geographic resolution. The system couples field-scale models

with catchment models and is scientifically documented and reviewed. It has been applied

since 1997 for international reporting to HELCOM. The catchment model (HBV-NP) is tuned

and evaluated against monitored time-series of measurements where such are available. The

nitrogen retention that is calculated with HBV-NP is composed of nitrogen that is

permanently transferred to the atmosphere and sediment, and which therefore will not further

contribute to the eutrophication of water systems.

Both calculations and measurements show that the retention is largest in the summer,

especially in areas with many lakes and high loads. The retention capacity of lakes differs

geographically; in the northern part of the country it is low, while the lakes in the southern

part of the country are more effective as nitrogen sinks. In Southern Sweden the mean

retention is 30-40 kg ha-1 lake yr-1. In total about 30 000 tonnes nitrogen is reduced annually

in lakes and rivers, and 70% of this is reduced in southern Sweden. For emissions in the

interior of the country, the load is reduced considerably during the transport through rivers

and lakes, especially for south-central Sweden where the retention in the lakes is high. The

accumulated retention can be over 80% in certain areas.

It is difficult to evaluate the model results, since nitrogen retention cannot be measured

directly and is integrated for large areas and waterbodies. It is common to use other variables

to judge the credibility of the retention calculations. The result of the HBV-NP model is

continuously evaluated against time series of observations in watercourses, both discharge

and nutrient concentration, when it is used operationally. The model is evaluated both visually

and statistically. The agreement for discharge and water balance is normally good, while the

nutrient concentration can deviate more from observations. Sensitivity studies show that the

model is relatively robust. When the model is compared to other models or budget

calculations, the deviations can normally be explained by different assumptions or input data.

The HBV-NP model has about the same precision as other similar models, nevertheless, the

water discharge normally shows better accuracy.

For source apportionment calculations, the retention in the flow paths of the landscape is

accumulated for the emissions from specific urban waste water treatment plants (UWWTP).

The emissions that pass through many lakes have only small impact on the sea. Natural

nitrogen retention in rivers and lakes reduces the Swedish UWWTP:s contribution to the coast

with 3200 tonnes per year, which corresponds to 18% of their total emissions. However, the

retention varies substantially between different parts of the country. Most of the UWWTP

with large emissions are located along the coast and in southern Sweden, where 90% of the

natural retention occurs. In the interior of northern Sweden there are few UWWTP and the

retention capacity is low, and thus, the amount of reduced nitrogen is also low.

Everything indicates that the calculated nitrogen retention for Sweden is of the right

magnitude and that the large-scale pattern for Sweden is correct, even if deviation can occur

for small specific areas and for different time-periods.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and genetic variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk by KRAS and BRAF mutation status2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0196233Article in journal (Refereed)

Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, intracellular reactions involved in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, likely increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, results have been inconsistent. To explore whether this inconsistency could be explained by intertumoral heterogeneity, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to the risk of molecular subtypes of CRC defined by mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. This nested case-control study included 488 CRC cases and 947 matched controls from two population-based cohorts in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. We analyzed 14 biomarkers and 17 SNPs in prediagnostic blood and determined KRAS and BRAF mutation status in tumor tissue. In a multivariate network analysis, no variable displayed a strong association with the risk of specific CRC subtypes. A non-synonymous SNP in the CTH gene, rs1021737, had a stronger association compared with other variables. In subsequent univariate analyses, participants with variant rs1021737 genotype had a decreased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.50, 1.05), and an increased risk of BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.30), with weak evidence for heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0.01). This subtype-specific SNP association was not replicated in a case-case analysis of 533 CRC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P = 0.85). In conclusion, we found no support for clear subtype-specific roles of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and SNPs in CRC development, making differences in CRC molecular subtype distributions an unlikely explanation for the varying results on the role of one-carbon metabolism in CRC development across previous studies. Further investigation of the CTH gene in colorectal carcinogenesis with regards to KRAS and BRAF mutations or other molecular characteristics of the tumor may be warranted.

• Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. AstraZeneca R&D, Discovery Sci, Cambridge Sci Pk, Cambridge, England.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
Critical domain interactions for type A RNase P RNA catalysis with and without the specificity domain2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0192873Article in journal (Refereed)

The natural trans-acting ribozyme RNase P RNA (RPR) is composed of two domains in which the catalytic (C-) domain mediates cleavage of various substrates. The C-domain alone, after removal of the second specificity (S-) domain, catalyzes this reaction as well, albeit with reduced efficiency. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that efficient cleavage mediated by the Escherichia coli C-domain (Eco CP RPR) with and without the C5 protein likely depends on an interaction referred to as the "P6-mimic". Moreover, the P18 helix connects the C-and S-domains between its loop and the P8 helix in the S-domain (the P8/P18-interaction). In contrast to the "P6-mimic", the presence of P18 does not contribute to the catalytic performance by the C-domain lacking the S-domain in cleavage of an all ribo model hairpin loop substrate while deletion or disruption of the P8/P18-interaction in full-size RPR lowers the catalytic efficiency in cleavage of the same model hairpin loop substrate in keeping with previously reported data using precursor tRNAs. Consistent with that P18 is not required for cleavage mediated by the C-domain we show that the archaeal Pyrococcus furiosus RPR C-domain, which lacks the P18 helix, is catalytically active in trans without the S-domain and any protein. Our data also suggest that the S-domain has a larger impact on catalysis for E. coli RPR compared to P. furiosus RPR. Finally, we provide data indicating that the absence of the S-domain and P18, or the P8/P18-interaction in full-length RPR influences the charge distribution near the cleavage site in the RPR-substrate complex to a small but reproducible extent.

• SCB.
A review of Swedish crop residue statistics used in the greenhouse gas inventory2005Report (Other academic)

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) calculation model for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural land includes emissions from the nitrogen turnover in crop residues. The nitrogen content of crop residues is calculated using primary crop statistics in combination with recalculation factors, that is, the ratios of crop residue/primary crop and the nitrogen content in crop residues. In addition, information on removed crop residues is used to subtract that part of the crop residues that is not turned over on agricultural land.

A comparison between data used in different countries reveals great differences.1 Variations in climate, soil fertility and production methods across different countries partly explain some of the differences. Nevertheless, it is likely that these differences also depend on different definitions as well as on variations in the trial data. A more systematic comparison of the recalculations for different countries requires well-documented sources of information

• Candy, David C. A.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
A synbiotic-containing amino-acid-based formula improves gut microbiota in non-IgE-mediated allergic infants2018In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 677-686Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino-acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow’s milk allergy (CMA).

Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF-including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA. Feces from age-matched healthy breastfed infants were used as reference (healthy breastfed reference (HBR)) for primary outcomes. The CMA subjects were randomized and received test or control formula for 8 weeks. Test formula was a hypoallergenic, nutritionally complete AAF including a prebiotic blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve M-16V. Control formula was AAF without synbiotics.

Results: A total of 35 (test) and 36 (control) subjects were randomized; HBR included 51 infants. At week 8, the median percentage of bifidobacteria was higher in the test group than in the control group (35.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas ER/CC was lower (9.5% vs. 24.2%, respectively; P<0.001). HBR levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC were 55% and 6.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: AAF including specific synbiotics, which results in levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC approximating levels in the HBR group, improves the fecal microbiota of infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA.

• Huang, Hongyun
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)2018In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 310-324Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system diseases or damage. Standardization of clinical cell therapy procedures is an important task for professional associations devoted to cell therapy. The Chinese Branch of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) completed the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration in 2011. The IANR and the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR) collaborated to propose the current version "Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)". The IANR council board members and CANR committee members approved this proposal on September 1, 2016, and recommend it to clinical practitioners of cellular therapy. These guidelines include items of cell type nomenclature, cell quality control, minimal suggested cell doses, patient-informed consent, indications for undergoing cell therapy, contraindications for undergoing cell therapy, documentation of procedure and therapy, safety evaluation, efficacy evaluation, policy of repeated treatments, do not charge patients for unproven therapies, basic principles of cell therapy, and publishing responsibility.

• Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

I samband med retentionsberäkningar i vissa avrinningsområden med åker på ler-jordar har problem uppstått med låga bruttobelastningar. Detta skulle kunna bero på för låga kvävehalter för lerjordar som använts som indata. En översyn har därför utförts av de beräknade kväveläckagekoefficienterna för jordbruksmark för styv lera (clay) från TRK och PLC5.

För att kunna jämföra utveckling och förändringar av metoden för beräkningar av läckagekoefficienterna (NLeCCS) mellan TRK och PLC5 har beräkningar för år 1999 utförda inom ramen för TRK projektet jämförts med senare utförda beräk-ningar för 1999 med PLC5-metoden. För att utvärdera hur förändringarna mellan de två metoderna påverkat utlakningen från lerjordarna har beräkningen för 1999 med PLC5-metoden använts som utgångspunkt och manipulerats för att utvärdera enskilda förändringar mellan de två metoderna. Effekten av förändringar av rotdjup för clay, ändrad klimatperiod (och målavrinning), ogräsupptag, vallinsådd, vårbe-arbetning, rotdjup för träda och halt organiskt material i marken beräknades. För-ändringen av rotdjup för vissa grödor påverkade bara beräkningen för clay medan de övriga förändringarna som testats även påverkade beräkningen för de övriga jordarna. Förändringen av rotdjupet av vissa grödor ökade koncentrationen för clay i alla regioner och ändrad klimatperiod gav både ökade och minskade koncentrat-ioner i regionerna. I region 4 och 6 gav ändrat rotdjup för clay och ändrad klimat-period ungefär samma koncentration med PLC5-metoden som med TRK-metoden.

En genomgång av uppmätta kvävehalter från rutförsök, observationsfält och ty-pområden på jordbruksmark som domineras av styv lera har gjorts. I dessa områ-den varierade långtidsmedelvärdena mellan 3,3 och 5,3 mg NO3-N/l. I motsva-rande regioner (4, 5a och 6) var de beräknade koncentrationerna i TRK i samma storleksordning, medan koncentrationerna beräknade med PLC5-metodiken var något lägre.

Med FyrisNP simulerades N-transport från ett avrinningsområde dominerat av styv lera med användning av läckagekoefficienter (PLC5-metodik), lokal grödfördel-ning och förbättrad jordartskarta. Simuleringarna kunde inte uppnå uppmätta N-koncentrationer i utloppspunkten för område U8 (Figur 27), varken med koeffici-enterna från TRK eller PLC5 med regional eller lokal grödfördelning. Den bästa överenskommelsen med uppmätta värden nåddes då läckagekoefficienterna från PLC5 räknades upp 2,5 gång.

• Karolinska Inst, Integrated Cardio Metab Ctr, Huddinge, Sweden..
Tartu Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiac Surg, Tartu, Estonia.. Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Pathophysiol, Tartu, Estonia.. Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Pathophysiol, Tartu, Estonia.. Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Pathophysiol, Tartu, Estonia.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Karolinska Inst, Integrated Cardio Metab Ctr, Huddinge, Sweden. Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Inst Genom & Multiscale Biol, Dept Genet & Genom Sci, New York, NY 10029 USA.. Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Cardiovasc Res Ctr, New York, NY 10029 USA.. Tartu Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiac Surg, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Pathophysiol, Tartu, Estonia.;Clin Gene Networks AB, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Solna, Sweden.. Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Inst Genom & Multiscale Biol, Dept Genet & Genom Sci, New York, NY 10029 USA.. Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Inst Genom & Multiscale Biol, Dept Genet & Genom Sci, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Clin Gene Networks AB, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Integrated Cardio Metab Ctr, Huddinge, Sweden.;Univ Tartu, Inst Biomed & Translat Med, Dept Pathophysiol, Tartu, Estonia.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Inst Genom & Multiscale Biol, Dept Genet & Genom Sci, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Clin Gene Networks AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
Global analysis of A-to-I RNA editing reveals association with common disease variants2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e4466Article in journal (Refereed)

RNA editing modifies transcripts and may alter their regulation or function. In humans, the most common modification is adenosine to inosine (A-to-I). We examined the global characteristics of RNA editing in 4,301 human tissue samples. More than 1.6 million A-to-I edits were identified in 62% of all protein-coding transcripts. mRNA recoding was extremely rare; only 11 novel recoding sites were uncovered. Thirty single nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies were associated with RNA editing; one that influences type 2 diabetes (rs2028299) was associated with editing in ARPIN. Twenty-five genes, including LRP11 and PLIN5, had editing sites that were associated with plasma lipid levels. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic regulation of RNA editing and establish a rich catalogue for further exploration of this process.

• SCB.
Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. SCB.
Kvalitetskontroll av emissionsfaktorer för stationär förbränning: Memorandum2012Report (Other academic)
• Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Subgrain-controlled grain growth in the laser-melted 316 L promoting strength at high temperatures2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 5, article id 172394Article in journal (Refereed)

Stainless steel 316 L prepared by laser melting consisted of a hierarchical austenitic microstructure with micrometresized (10–25 µm) grains containing fine 1 µm subgrains with a cellular structure. At high-temperature thermal treatments (greater than or equal to 1100°C), merging and growth of the 1 µm subgrains into bigger subgrains restricted the rapid grain growth and microstructure coarsening. Partial phase transformation of austenite to ferrite at temperatures greater than or equal to 1100°C, in combination with gradual and steady growth of subgrains inside the micrometre-sized grains and nucleation of the sigma phase, has promoted the tensile strength of stainless steel 316 L to 300 MPa at 1100°C compared with that of conventionally made 316 L counterparts (approx. 40 MPa). The grain growth mechanism of the laser-melted microstructure can change the application criteria for 316 L and expand the application fields for 316 L.

• Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Förbättrad beräkningsmetodik för retention av fosfor från enskilda avlopp Slutrapport2009Report (Other academic)

Inom projektet Förbättrad beräkningsmetodik för retention av fosfor från enskilda avlopp har SMED utvärderat den teoretiska metodiken för att beräkna bruttobelastning av fosfor och kväve från enskilda avlopp genom mätningar i området Garns-Ekskogen i Vallentuna kommun. Vissa förfiningar av beräkningsmetodiken har också utvecklats och implementerats i projektet.

Med dessa förbättringar kan konstateras att den teoretiska fosforbelastningen från enskilda avlopp ligger nära den som bestämts via beräkningar utgående från mätningar. Den teoretiska fosforbelastningen är 1-2 gånger så hög som den utifrån mätningar beräknade belastningen, vilket är rimligt med tanke på osäkerheten i mätningarna och i indata till de teoretiska beräkningarna. Bakgrundsbelastningen från omgivande skogsmark är enligt enkla läckageberäkningar låg jämfört med den från enskilda avlopp i detta område.

För kväve gäller det omvända, då den teoretiska belastningen från enskilda avlopp är tre gånger lägre än den som kan beräknas utifrån mätningar, vilket är förklarligt då belastningen från andra källor för kväve är betydligt högre än för fosfor.

Markretentionens bidrag till skillnaden mellan beräknad och genom mätningar framtagen belastning har inte kunna säkerställas pga den stora osäkerheten som finns kring reningsschabloner och andra felkällor. En grov uppskattning ger dock att markretentionen för fosfor från enskilda avlopp i projektområdet är runt 50%.

SMEDs belastningsberäkningar för enskilda avlopp bör i första hand förbättras genom att den uppdaterade beräkningsmetodiken appliceras nationellt. Vad gäller belastningsdata är detta inget problem, då SCB redan har tillgång till denna statistik. För att förbättra belastningsstatistiken är det även nödvändigt att teknikuppgifterna för enskilda avlopp uppdateras och att i denna datainsamling reningsteknik för BDT- och WC-vatten separeras så att beräkningarna kan hantera både ”tvårörssystem” och fastigheter med enbart BDT-avlopp.

• Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Diagnost Radiol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Oncol & Pathol, Solvegatan 23, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.. Mayo Clin, Dept Neurosci, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.. Mayo Clin, Dept Neurol, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Angelholm Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund,Memory Clin, Vastersjogatan 10, S-26282 Angelholm, Sweden.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology. Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Clin Memory Res Unit, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Memory Clin, S-20502 Malmo, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Getingevagen 4, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
Slowly progressive dementia caused by MAPT R406W mutations: longitudinal report on a new kindred and systematic review2018In: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, ISSN 0065-6755, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 10, article id 2Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Background: The MAPT c.1216C > T (p.Arg406Trp; R406W) mutation is a known cause of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 tau with Alzheimer's disease-like clinical features. Methods: We compiled clinical data from a new Swedish kindred with R406W mutation. Seven family members were followed longitudinally for up to 22 years. Radiological examinations were performed in six family members and neuropathological examinations in three. We systematically reviewed the literature and compiled clinical, radiological, and neuropathological data on 63 previously described R406W heterozygotes and 3 homozygotes. Results: For all cases combined, the median age of onset was 56 years and the median disease duration was 13 years. Memory impairment was the most frequent symptom, behavioral disturbance and language impairment were less common, and Parkinsonism was rare. Disease progression was most often slow. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was Alzheimer's disease. R406W homozygotes had an earlier age at onset and a higher frequency of behavioral symptoms and Parkinsonism than heterozygotes. In the new Swedish kindred, a consistent imaging finding was ventromedial temporal lobe atrophy, which was evident also in early disease stages as a widening of the collateral sulcus with ensuing atrophy of the parahippocampal gyrus. Unlike previously published R406W carriers, all three autopsied patients from the novel family showed neuropathological similarities with progressive supranuclear palsy, with predominant four-repeat (exon 10+) tau isoform (4R) tauopathy and neurofibrillary tangles accentuated in the basal-medial temporal lobe. Amyloid-beta pathology was absent. Conclusions: Dominance of 4R over three-repeat (exon 10-) tau isoforms contrasts with earlier reports of R406W patients and was not sufficiently explained by the presence of H1/H2 haplotypes in two of the autopsied patients. R406W patients often show a long course of disease with marked memory deficits. Both our neuropathological results and our imaging findings revealed that the ventromedial temporal lobes were extensively affected in the disease. We suggest that this area may represent the point of origin of tau deposition in this disease with relatively isolated tauopathy.

• Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Projektets huvudsyfte är att generera nya geografiska dataunderlag avseende markanvändning med bättre upplösning för beräkningar inom SMED Vatten och att undersöka konsekvenserna för kommande rapporteringar av att använda markanvändningsdata med högre rumslig- och tematisk upplösning.

Underlaget till arbetet som genomförts i projektet är dels det tidigare markanvändningsunderlaget som använts inom SMED Vatten för beräkningar av belastningar till vatten tillsammans med ett nyframtaget underlag för markanvändningsdata som bygger på SMD (Svenska Marktäckedata). Båda markanvändningsdatabaserna relateras till den geografiska indelningen som utgörs av hydrologiskt beräknade delavrinningsområden. Underlaget har lästs in i geodatabaser där data relateras till varandra genom rumsliga beräkningar i ett geografiskt informationssystem.

För klasserna skog och tätort överskattas arealen generellt i PLC5 data jämfört med SMD och för klasserna myr och vatten sker en underskattning av klassarealerna i PLC5 jämfört med SMD. Minsta arealskillnaden blir på klassen vatten som också uppvisar den minsta standardavvikelsen.

Konsekvensen av att byta kartdatabas för beräkning av markanvändningsarealer är liten vid en total jämförelse mellan markanvändning i PLC5 beräkningarna jämfört med arealer hämtade ur SMD. Orsaken till detta är att arealerna hos de områden som står för en stor andel av bruttobelastningen är desamma i de båda underlagen. För enskilda delavrinningsområden kan förändringen vara stor.

Beräkningstekniskt eller kostnadsmässigt finns det inga skäl att använda SMD som kartdatabas för att generera markanvändningsklassning för belastningsberäkningar i SMED Vatten. Det finns ingen anledning att byta ut den gamla klassningen med avseende på geografisk upplösning då förbättringen med att använda SMD är alltför marginell i jämförelse med andra osäkerheter och felkällor. Däremot är det troligt att belastningen kommer att förändras om lämpliga läckagehalter kan ansättas till fler klasser och den vägen öka noggrannheten i belastningen av kväve och fosfor.

• Public defence: 2018-06-11 14:00 F3, Stockholm
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
Sensorimotor Robot Policy Training using Reinforcement Learning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Robots are becoming more ubiquitous in our society and taking over many tasks that were previously considered as human hallmarks. Many of these tasks, e.g., autonomously driving a car, collaborating with humans in dynamic and changing working conditions and performing household chores, require human-level intelligence to perceive the world and to act appropriately. In this thesis, we pursue a different approach compared to classical methods that often construct a robot controller based on the perception-then-action paradigm. We devise robotic action-selection policies by considering action-selection and perception processes as being intertwined, emphasizing that perception comes prior to action and action is key to perception. The main hypothesis is that complex robotic behaviors come as the result of mastering sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs), i.e., regularities between motor actions and associated changes in sensory observations, where SMCs can be seen as building blocks to skillful behaviors. We elaborate and investigate this hypothesis by deliberate design of frameworks which enable policy training merely based on data experienced by a robot,without intervention of human experts for analytical modelings or calibrations. In such circumstances, action policies can be obtained by reinforcement learning (RL) paradigm by making exploratory action decisions and reinforcing patterns of SMCs that lead to reward events for a given task. However, the dimensionality of sensorimotor spaces, complex dynamics of physical tasks, sparseness of reward events, limited amount of data from real-robot experiments, ambiguities of crediting past decisions and safety issues, which arise from exploratory actions of a physical robot, pose challenges to obtain a policy based on data-driven methods alone. In this thesis, we introduce our contributions to deal with the aforementioned issues by devising learning frameworks which endow a robot with the ability to integrate sensorimotor data to obtain action-selection policies. The effectiveness of the proposed frameworks is demonstrated by evaluating the methods on a number of real robotic tasks and illustrating the suitability of the methods to acquire different skills, to make sequential action-decisions in high-dimensional sensorimotor spaces, with limited data and sparse rewards.

• Public defence: 2018-05-31 13:15 Nobel BL32, B-huset, Linköping
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Combinatorics and topology related to involutions in Coxeter groups2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This dissertation consists of three papers in combinatorial Coxeter group theory.

A Coxeter group is a group W generated by a set S, where all relations can be derived from the relations s2 = e for all s 𝜖 S, and (ss)m(s,s) = e for some pairs of generators s s in S, where e 𝜖 W is the identity element and m(s, s) is an integer satisfying that m(s, s) = m(s, s) ≥ 2. Two prominent examples of Coxeter groups are provided by the symmetric group Sn (i.e., the set of permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n}) and finite reflection groups (i.e., finite groups generated by reflections in some real euclidean space). There are also important infinite Coxeter groups, e.g., affine reflection groups.

Every Coxeter group can be equipped with various natural partial orders, the most important of which is the Bruhat order. Any subset of a Coxeter group can then be viewed as an induced subposet.

In Paper A, we study certain posets of this kind, namely, unions of conjugacy classes of involutions in the symmetric group. We obtain a complete classification of the posets that are pure (i.e., all maximal chains have the same length). In particular, we prove that the set of involutions with exactly one fixed point is pure, which settles a conjecture of Hultman in the affirmative. When the posets are pure, we give their rank functions. We also give a short, new proof of the EL-shellability of the set of fixed-point-free involutions, established by Can, Cherniavsky, and Twelbeck.

Paper B also deals with involutions in Coxeter groups. Given an involutive automorphism θ of a Coxeter system (W, S), let

ℑ(θ) = {w 𝜖 W | θ(w) = w−1}

be the set of twisted involutions. In particular, ℑ(id) is the set of ordinary involutions in W. It is known that twisted involutions can be represented by words in the alphabet $\tiny\underline{S}$ = {$\small\underline{s}$ | s 𝜖 S}, called $\small\underline{s}$-expressions. If ss has finite order m(s, s), let a braid move be the replacement of $\small\underline{s}$ $\small\underline{s}$$\small\underline{s}$ by $\small\underline{s}$$\small\underline{s}$ $\small\underline{s}$ ⋯, both consisting of m(s, s) letters. We prove a word property for ℑ(θ), for any Coxeter system (W, S) with any θ. More precisely, we provide a minimal set of moves, easily determined from the Coxeter graph of (W, S), that can be added to the braid moves in order to connect all reduced $\small\underline{s}$-expressions for any given w 𝜖 ℑ(θ). This improves upon a result of Hamaker, Marberg, and Pawlowski, and generalises similar statements valid in certain types due to Hu, Zhang, Wu, and Marberg.

In Paper C, we investigate the topology of (the order complexes of) certain posets, called pircons. A special partial matching (SPM) on a poset is a matching of the Hasse diagram satisfying certain extra conditions. An SPM without fixed points is precisely a special matching as defined by Brenti. Let a pircon be a poset in which every non-trivial principal order ideal is finite and admits an SPM. Thus pircons generalise Marietti’s zircons. Our main result is that every open interval in a pircon is a PL ball or a PL sphere.

An important subset of ℑ(θ) is the set 𝜄(θ) = {θ(w−1)w | w 𝜖 W} of twisted identities. We prove that if θ does not flip any edges with odd labels in the Coxeter graph, then 𝜄(θ), with the order induced by the Bruhat order on W, is a pircon. Hence, its open intervals are PL balls or spheres, which confirms a conjecture of Hultman. It is also demonstrated that Bruhat orders on Rains and Vazirani’s quasiparabolic W-sets (under a boundedness assumption) form pircons. In particular, this applies to all parabolic quotients of Coxeter groups.

• Public defence: 2018-06-11 14:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
Hemicelluloses and other Polysaccharides for Wood Adhesive Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Promotionsfesten i Uppsala den 1 juni 20182018Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
Skolerfarenheter och självskattad hälsa bland elever i särskolan2018Report (Refereed)

Särskolan är en skolform för elever med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar. Forskning visar att elever i särskolan, trots olika insatser från olika aktörer, inte erbjuds full delaktighet i samhället. En god förståelse för dessa elevers skolgång är därför viktig för att arbeta för de ska få en så tillfredställande livssituation som möjligt. Syftet med projektet var att få ökad kunskap om vilka samband som finns mellan elevernas socioekonomiska bakgrund, sociodemografiska förhållanden, upplevelse av skolsituation samt deras egna skattningar av hälsa. Särskoleelevernas svar jämförs även med svar från elever i övrig skola. Data bygger på enkätundersökningar som genomförts bland 1320 särskoleelever i högstadium och gymnasium i olika kommuner åren 2003-2015. En jämförelse görs även mellan elever i särskolan och elever i övriga skolan i Stockholm för åren 2013-2015.

Tre frågor har formulerats: Hur upplever elever i grundsärskolan och gymnasiesärskolan sin skolsituation och hälsa? Vilka samband finns mellan särskoleelevernas socio-ekonomiska bakgrund, sociodemografiska förhållanden, upplevelse av skolsituation samt deras självskattade hälsa och egenrapporterade hälsobesvär. Finns det några skillnader mellan elever i särskolan och övrig skola avseende skolsituation och hälsa? Data visar att:

• Ungefär hälften av eleverna i särskolan skattar sin hälsa som mycket bra, ca 10 % anser att den är dålig.
• Majoriteten särskoleelever upplever skolklimatet som positivt med goda möjligheter till inlärning.
• Mer än hälften av eleverna i särskolan har förtroende för lärare
• För självskattad hälsa framträder inga signifikanta samband med utländsk bakgrund. Bland särskoleelever på högstadiet är psykiska besvär mindre vanliga bland invandrarungdomar. Elever i särskolan med utländsk bakgrund är överrepresenterade jämfört med motsvarande andel i grundskolan och gymnasieskolan.
• Resultaten visar att kön spelar roll. Ser vi till olika uppskattade hälsobesvär gäller genomgående att dessa är vanligare bland flickor. Detta gäller både särskola och övrig skola.
• Förtroende för föräldrar och skoltrivsel kan kopplas samman med självskattad hälsa både bland elever i särskolan och bland elever i övriga skolan. Ungdomar som har förtroende för föräldrar skattar sin hälsa högre. För skoltrivsel följer sambandet i huvudsak ett mönster där bättre skoltrivsel kopplas till bättre självskattad hälsa.
• Bland elever på högstadiet i övriga skolan finns en koppling till familjesituation och socioekonomisk bakgrund. Ungdomar som bor hos båda föräldrar eller har växelvis boende redovisar lägre förekomst av psykiska besvär än ungdomar i andra boenden.
• Bland eleverna i gymnasiesärskolan framträder ett klart samband med förtroende för lärare. De som inte angett att de har förtroende för lärare redovisar högre förekomst av besvär.

Det finns några skillnader mellan elever i särskolan och övrig skola avseende skolsituation och hälsa, men de grundläggande dragen är desamma. Sammantaget tyder resultaten på att det är samma faktorer som påverkar hälsa bland elever i särskolan och i övriga skolan. Det centrala är om eleverna har förtroende för sina föräldrar och hur de trivs i skolan.

• Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Univ Delhi, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Delhi 110007, India.. Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
Heavy charged scalars from cs̄ fusion: a generic search strategy applied to a 3HDM with U(1) x U(1) family symmetry2018In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 3, article id 024Article in journal (Refereed)

We describe a class of three Higgs doublet models (3HDMs) with a softly broken U(1) x U(1) family symmetry that enforces a Cabibbo-like quark mixing while forbidding tree-level flavour changing neutral currents. The hierarchy in the observed quark masses is partly explained by a softer hierarchy in the vacuum expectation values of the three Higgs doublets. As a consequence, the physical scalar spectrum contains a Standard Model (SM) like Higgs boson h(125) while exotic scalars couple the strongest to the second quark family, leading to rather unconventional discovery channels that could be probed at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we describe a search strategy for the lightest charged Higgs boson H-+/-, through the process c -> H+ -> W+ h(125), using a multivariate analysis that leads to an excellent discriminatory power against the SM background. Although the analysis is applied to the proposed class of 3HDMs, we employ a model-independent formulation such that it can be applied to any other model with the same discovery channel.

• Inst High Energy Phys, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
Measurement of e+e−→π0π0ψ(3686) at √s from 4.009 to 4.600 GeV and observation of a neutral charmoniumlike structure2018In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 97, no 5, article id 052001Article in journal (Refereed)

Using ethorne-collision data collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb(-1) at center-of-mass energies (root s) from 4.009 to 4.600 GeV, the process e(+)e(-) -> pi(0)pi(0)psi(3686) is studied for the first time. The corresponding Born cross sections are measured and found to be half of those of the reaction e(+)e(-) -> pi(0)pi(0)psi(3686). This is consistent with the expectation from isospin symmetry. Furthermore, the Dalitz plots for pi(0)pi(0)psi(3686) are accordant with those of pi(0)pi(0)psi(3686) at all energy points, and a neutral analog to the structure in pi(+/-)psi(3686) around 4040 MeV/c(2) first observed at root s = 4.416 GeV is observed in the isospin neutral mode at the same energy.

• Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI. Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI. Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Hantering av kopplingen mellan markanvändning, läckagekoefficienter och avrinning för PLC62013Report (Other academic)

Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har uppdragit åt SMED att beräkna näringsämnesbelastningen till Sveriges omgivande havsbassänger. Uppdraget utgör underlag till HELCOM-rapporteringen Pollution Load Compilation (PLC Periodical).

Inom SMED sker en kontinuerlig utveckling av metoder och modeller för att förbättra kvalitén på dessa beräkningar. I denna rapport undersöks möjligheterna att kombinera tidigare framtagen metodik för att beräkna källfördelningen av kväve och fosfor med ny förbättrad beräkning av avrinning genom att utnyttja en redan kalibrerad högupplöst hydrologisk modell för Sverige, kallad S-HYPE.

Den belastning som avses i denna rapport är det diffusa markläckaget som genereras av olika slags markanvändning, beräknat som en produkt av markanvändningsslag och specifik typhalt. S-HYPE har kalibrerats med en definition av markanvändning som skiljer sig från den markanvändning som använts tidigare. För att det ska vara möjligt att använda de typhalter som  tagits fram i tidigare beräkningar behöver de olika definitionerna av markanvändning relateras till varandra. För test och validering av den nya avrinningsberäkningen genom en anpassning av tidigare kalibrerad S-HYPE till SMED – HYPE bedöms skillnader i arealer hos markanvändningen ha en försumbar effekt. För en fullständig beräkning av närsaltsläckage behöver markanvändning däremot harmoniseras.

Data om jordbrukets arealer tas i PLC-beräkningarna från jordbruksblocken och de stödsökta grödorna. I PLC6 ändras metodiken för jordbruksblock som saknar stödsökta grödor så att dessa beräknas som odefinierade grödor med läckaget för extensiv vall, istället för att de klassas som öppen mark som i PLC5. Om möjligt ska de konstaterade grödarealerna istället för de mer preliminära stödsökta arealerna användas

• Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
Utvärdering av hastighetsmätningar med blåtandssensorer: jämförelse med data från MCS (Motorway Control System)2018Report (Other academic)

The aim of this project was to compare vehicle speed measurements using Bluetooth detection with radar measurements from a Motorway Control System (MCS). Of particular interest was to evaluate whether the method could be used in before-after studies of road safety measures such as speed cameras or other speed reducing measures.

The results from the study show that:

• The penetration rate varies between 12 and 16 percent depending on the site and whether it is a weekday or weekend.

• Bluetooth measurements provide stable results with respect to average vehicle speed at diurnal level. Comparisons with MCS data show that the results of the two methods follow each other well and the difference between methods is about the same from day to day.

• Speed measurements with Bluetooth sensors are judged to be sufficiently reliable, on the evaluated road type, to be used in before-after studies of various road safety measures.

• Public defence: 2018-06-12 09:00 Konferensrummet, Uppsala
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Asthma and Rhinitis among Adults in Sweden and China: Risk Factors in the Home Environment2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate associations between selected home environment factors and asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptoms among adults from Sweden, China and northern Europe. Two studies were performed in Sweden, one in China, and one longitudinal cohort study was performed in northern Europe. Dampness/mould was common, and was a main risk factor in all studies. Other risk factors for asthma symptoms in Sweden included window pane condensation in winter, multi-family buildings constructed from 1961-1975, rented apartments, environment tobacco smoke (ETS), and living in a colder climate zone. Higher ventilation flow in Sweden was associated with less asthma symptoms. Risk factors for rhinitis in Sweden included window pane condensation, a higher moisture load, concrete slab foundation constructed before 1991, multi-family buildings constructed from 1976-1985, rented apartments and living in densely populated areas. Risk factors for rhinitis in China included window pane condensation, recent redecoration, new furniture, presence of cockroaches, pet keeping, ETS and living near a main road or highway. Frequently cleaning of the home and putting beddings to sunshine were protective factors for rhinitis in China. Other risk factors for respiratory infections in Sweden included houses with a brick façade, window pane condensation, a higher moisture load, multi-family buildings constructed from 1976-1985, rented apartments and living in densely populated areas. Furthermore, dampness and mould, and mould odour were risk factors for onset of asthma and rhinitis in northern Europe. In conclusion, indoor dampness and mould can be a risk factor for asthma and rhinitis in Sweden, China and northern Europe. Certain construction years (1961-1985), ETS, recent redecoration, new furniture, living in urban areas and exposure to traffic air pollution can be risk factors for asthma, rhinitis or respiratory infections. A high ventilation flow and daily cleaning at home can be protective.

• Eriksson, Leif
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
Secular trend, seasonality and effects of a community-based intervention on neonatal mortality: follow-up of a cluster-randomised trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738Article in journal (Refereed)

BACKGROUND: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial.

METHODS: In Quang Ninh province, 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Births and neonatal deaths were assessed in a baseline survey in 2005, monitored during the trial in 2008-2011 and followed up by a survey in 2014. Time series analyses were performed on monthly neonatal mortality data.

RESULTS: There were 30 187 live births and 480 neonatal deaths. The intervention reduced the neonatal mortality from 19.1 to 11.6 per 1000 live births. The reduction was sustained 3 years after the trial. The control areas reached a similar level at the time of follow-up. Time series decomposition analysis revealed a downward trend in the intervention areas during the trial that was not found in the control areas. Neonatal mortality peaked in the hot and wet summers.

CONCLUSIONS: A community engagement intervention resulted in a lower neonatal mortality rate that was sustained but not further reduced after the end of the trial. When decomposing time series of neonatal mortality, a clear downward trend was demonstrated in intervention but not in control areas.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN44599712, Post-results.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Health-related quality of life determinants among Rwandan women after delivery: does antenatal care utilization matter? A cross-sectional study2018In: Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, ISSN 1606-0997, E-ISSN 2072-1315, Vol. 37, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Despite the widespread use of antenatal care (ANC), its effectiveness in low-resource settings remains unclear. In this study, self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was used as an alternative to other maternal health measures previously used to measure the effectiveness of antenatal care. The main objective of this study was to determine whether adequate antenatal care utilization is positively associated with women's HRQoL. Furthermore, the associations between the HRQoL during the first year (113 months) after delivery and socio-economic and demographic factors were explored in Rwanda.

Methods: In 2014, we performed a cross-sectional population-based survey involving 922 women who gave birth 1-13 months prior to the data collection. The study population was randomly selected from two provinces in Rwanda, and a structured questionnaire was used. HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D-3L and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The average HRQoL scores were computed by demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The effect of adequate antenatal care utilization on HRQoL was tested by performing two multivariable linear regression models with the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores as the outcomes and ANC utilization and socio-economic and demographic variables as the predictors.

Results: Adequate ANC utilization affected women's HRQoL when the outcome was measured using the EQ-VAS. Social support and living in a wealthy household were associated with a better HRQoL using both the EQ-VAS and EQ-5D. Cohabitating, and single/unmarried women exhibited significantly lower HRQoL scores than did married women in the EQ-VAS model, and women living in urban areas exhibited lower HRQoL scores than women living in rural areas in the ED-5D model. The effect of education on HRQoL was statistically significant using the EQ-VAS but was inconsistent across the educational categories. The women's age and the age of their last child were not associated with their HRQoL.

Conclusions: ANC attendance of at least four visits should be further promoted and used in low-income settings. Strategies to improve families' socio-economic conditions and promote social networks among women, particularly women at the reproductive age, are needed.

• Public defence: 2018-06-15 08:00 Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Norrköping
Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
Tailoring visualization applications for tasks and users2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Exponential increases in available computational resources over the recent decades have fueled an information explosion in almost every scientific field. This has led to a societal change shifting from an information-poor research environment to an over-abundance of information. As many of these cases involve too much information to directly comprehend, visualization proves to be an effective tool to gain insight into these large datasets. While visualization has been used since the beginning of mankind, its importance is only increasing as the exponential information growth widens the difference between the amount of gathered data and the relatively constant human ability to ingest information. Visualization, as a methodology and tool of transforming complex data into an intuitive visual representation can leverage the combined computational resources and the human cognitive capabilities in order to mitigate this growing discrepancy.

A large portion of visualization research is, directly or indirectly, targets users in an application domain, such as medicine, biology, physics, or others. Applied research is aimed at the creation of visualization applications or systems that solve a specific problem within the domain. Combining prior research and applying it to a concrete problem enables the possibility to compare and determine the usability and usefulness of existing visualization techniques. These applications can only be effective when the domain experts are closely involved in the design process, leading to an iterative workflow that informs its form and function. These visualization solutions can be separated into three categories: Exploration, in which users perform an initial study of data, Analysis, in which an established technique is repeatedly applied to a large number of datasets, and Communication in which findings are published to a wider public audience.

This thesis presents five examples of application development in finite element modeling, medicine, urban search & rescue, and astronomy and astrophysics. For the finite element modeling, an exploration tool for simulations of stress tensors in a human heart uses a compression method to achieve interactive frame rates. In the medical domain, an analysis system aimed at guiding surgeons during Deep Brain Stimulation interventions fuses multiple modalities in order to improve their outcome. A second analysis application is targeted at the Urban Search & Rescue community supporting the extraction of injured victims and enabling a more sophisticated decision making strategy. For the astronomical domain, first, an exploration application enables the analysis of time-varying volumetric plasma simulations to improving these simulations and thus better predict space weather. A final system focusses on combining all three categories into a single application that enables the same tools to be used for Exploration, Analysis, and Communication, thus requiring the handling of large coordinate systems, and high-fidelity rendering of planetary surfaces and spacecraft operations.

• Paixao, Enny S.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Asymptomatic Prenatal Zika Virus Infection and Congenital Zika Syndrome2018In: Open Forum Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2328-8957, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)

To investigate to what extent asymptomatic vs symptomatic prenatal Zika virus infections contribute to birth defects, we identified 3 prospective and 8 retrospective studies. The ratio varied greatly in the retrospective studies, most likely due to recruitment and recall bias. The prospective studies revealed a ratio of 1: 1 for asymptomatic vs symptomatic maternal Zika infections resulting in adverse fetal outcomes.

• Public defence: 2018-06-13 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.

Economic Distress and Support for Far-right Parties – Evidence from Sweden. This paper studies the effects of economic distress on support for far-right parties. Using Swedish election data, I show that layoff notifications among low-skilled native-born workers account for 31 percent of the increased vote share for the Swedish far-right party the Sweden Democrats. The effect of layoff notifications on support for the Sweden Democrats is larger in areas with a high share of low-skilled immigrants, and in areas with a low share of high-skilled immigrants. These findings are in line with theories suggesting that voters attribute their impaired economic status to immigration, due to labor market concerns. Furthermore, I find no effects on voting for other anti-EU and anti-globalization parties, challenging the notion that economic distress increases anti-globalization sentiment. Using detailed survey data, I present suggestive evidence of how increased salience of political issues related to immigration channels unemployment risk into support for far-right parties.

The Origins of Common Identity: Division, Homogenization Policies and Identity Formation in Alsace-Lorraine. We exploit the quasi-exogenous division of the French regions Alsace and Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 due to disagreements in the German leadership to provide evidence of group identity formation within historically homogeneous regions. People in the treated area, which was exposed to repressive homogenization policies aimed to suppress group identity, express a stronger regional identity and support more regional autonomy today. Using a regression discontinuity design at the municipal level, we find that support for two crucial referenda, which would have increased regional autonomy, subscription rates to regional newspapers, and regionalist party votes are significantly higher in the treated area. The results are robust across different specifications and bandwidths, and not driven by language differences, large agglomerations or distance to foreign countries. The differences in regional identity are strongest for the first two age cohorts after World War II and become weaker for later generations.

Gender Differences in Revenge and Strategic play: A Natural Experiment. This paper provides new evidence of gender differences in retaliatory behavior. Using game show data from a natural setting where stakes are high, we ask whether men are more likely to retaliate following an attack and whether the gender of the target matters for this decision. The behavior studied in this paper is the decision of whom to send the question to in a quiz show setting. We observe a 23 percent gender gap in the propensity to retaliate: women are less likely to seek revenge. The gender of the target matters for women but not for men, with women being more likely to retaliate against men than women. In addition, we show that retaliation is a successful way to avert future attacks in the short term. This is especially true for women, yet we find that women seek less revenge than men.

• Public defence: 2018-06-15 10:00 K2, Stockholm
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems. RISE Acreo AB.
Multiphysics Characterization of SiC Power Modules2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis proposes several novel silicon carbide power module design concepts. The goal has been to address the problems with the present designs. The electrical, thermal, and thermomechanical performances of the demonstrators have been evaluated along with presentations of methodologies of experimental and numerical characterizations.

Compact high-temperature power modules with adequate cooling systems are attractive to automotive applications. Therefore, a novel thermal design of a double-sided liquid/air cooled silicon carbide power module (1200 V, 200 A) has been proposed. The concept integrates a dc-link capacitor, a gate driver board, and finned cooling channels. The cooling concept has been evaluated for three application scenarios based on a validated computational fluid dynamics model. Moreover, a simulation methodology has been developed to quantify the effect of different materials and thicknesses of the cold plates on the temperature of the silicon carbide power dies.

For medium- and high-power applications, contemporary research concludes that the reliability of the existing packaging technology needs to be improved. Therefore, this work proposes a novel press-pack silicon carbide power module concept. The concept enables bondless package and allows for an order of magnitude higher clamping force on the heatsinks than what can be applied on the dies. First, experimental and numerical methodologies for thermomechanical performance characterization of a press-pack structure have been investigated. By using digital image correlation technique, the deformation of each stacked material layer has been obtained. The developed experiment has led to an analytical estimation of friction coefficients on the contact interfaces. The co-influence of the design parameters on the thermomechanical performance of the press-pack structure has been analyzed through a parametric study based on a finite element model. Second, the novel double press-pack silicon carbide power module concept has been evaluated in a demonstrator in terms of parasitic inductance, thermal resistance, and thermomechanical stress.

Furthermore, many of the power module designs only stay at the stage of proof-of-concept due to the cost of retooling of the manufacturing facility. Embedded power modules which employ advanced printed circuit board processing and die embedding technologies, enable a solution with possibility of low cost and mass production. Therefore, a novel design concept of a three-phase embedded power module (1200 V, 20 A) has been proposed. Simulation-driven design development has been implemented and lead to a fabricated demonstrator. The electromagnetic, thermal, and thermomechanical performances of the concept have been evaluated by simulations and compared to a commercially available power module.

• Public defence: 2018-06-15 10:15 F2, Stockholm
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
Of Pipes and Bends2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This work is concerned with the transition to turbulence of the flow in bent pipes, but it also includes an analysis of large-scale turbulent structures and their use for flow control.

The flow in a toroidal pipe is selected as it represents the common asymptotic limit between spatially developing and helical pipes. The study starts with a characterisation of the laminar flow as a function of curvature and the Reynolds number Re, since the so-called Dean number is found to be of little use except for infinitesimally low curvatures. It is found that the flow is modally unstable and undergoes a Hopf bifurcation for any curvature greater than zero. The bifurcation is studied in detail, and an effort to connect this modal instability with the linearly stable straight pipe is also presented.

This flow is not only modally unstable, but undergoes subcritical transition at low curvatures. This scenario is found to bear similarities to straight pipes, but also fundamental differences such as weaker turbulent structures and the apparent absence of puff splitting. Toroidal pipe flow is peculiar, in that it is one of the few fluid flows presenting both sub- and supercritical transition to turbulence; the critical point where the two scenarios meet is therefore of utmost interest. It is found that a bifurcation cascade and featureless turbulence actually coexist for a range of curvature and Re, and the attractors of the respective structures have a small but finite basin of attraction.

In 90◦ bent pipes at higher Re large-scale flow structures cause an oscilla- tory motion known as swirl-switching. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition is used to determine the cause of this phenomenon: a wave-like structure which is generated in the bent section, and is possibly a remnant of a low-Re instability.

The final part of the thesis has a different objective: to reduce the turbulent frictional drag on the walls of a channel by employing a control strategy independent of Re-dependent turbulent scales, initially proposed by Schoppa & Hussain [Phys. Fluids 10:1049–1051 (1998)]. Results show that the original method only gives rise to transient drag reduction while a revised version is capable of sustained drag reduction of up to 18%. However, the effectiveness of this control decreases rapidly as the Reynolds number is increased, and the only possibility for high-Re applications is to use impractically small actuators.

• Public defence: 2018-06-13 10:00 Sal C Elctrum, Stockholm
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
Optical properties of GaN and InGaN studied by time- and spatially-resolved spectroscopy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The past decade has seen rapid expansion in the use of group III-nitride based devices. White InGaN LEDs are substituting incandescent light bulbs, space satellite industry adopting ion-radiation-resistant GaN transistors, and AlGaN deep UV LEDs are increasingly being used for water disinfection and air purification. Despite this success, performance and efficiency of many devices is still far from optimal with many fundamental material properties still disputed and technological issues not solved. For example, the energy difference between the lowest conduction band valleys in the case of GaN is still being debated, and an efficient white light source of monolithic three-color LED has still not been achieved, due to the poor quantum efficiency of green-emitting quantum wells.

In view of these material challenges, this thesis was dedicated to studies of GaN, InGaN and their quantum wells with the help of time- and spatially- resolved spectroscopy and numerical modeling. This work provides new insights on both the fundamental and the growth-induced properties. Specifically, the energy difference between the lowest conduction band valleys in GaN, a key parameter for electronic devices, has been experimentally evaluated. In addition, electron scattering rates and satellite valley’s effective mass have been estimated by modeling pump-probe transients with rate equations. A study on Fe doped GaN has revealed that, depending on the device operation rate, different Fe+3 states should be considered when modelling GaN:Fe-based optoelectronic devices. Moreover, electron and hole capture coefficients and their temperature dependence have been determined. It has also been demonstrated that the random alloy model could only be used to describe emission and absorption linewidths in the InGaN alloy for a very low-In-content samples. Indium incorporation into the alloy has been found to be affected by the geometry of monolayer step edges that are formed during growth. Time-resolved scanning near-field photoluminescence spectroscopy studies on non-polar and semi-polar InGaN/GaN quantum wells have demonstrated that the common assumption of a spatially uniform radiative recombination rate is not always correct. Finally, it has been found that for a moderate to high-In-content QW the photoluminescence linewidth is defined primarily by variations of alloy composition and not well width fluctuations.

• Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
Science and Culture in the Kerguelen Islands: a relational approach to the spatial formation of a subantarctic archipelago2018In: Island Studies Journal, ISSN 1715-2593, E-ISSN 1715-2593Article in journal (Refereed)

The Kerguelen Islands are devoid of a permanent population, but are nonetheless interlinked to past and current human activities that have shaped their subantarctic landscape. In the past decades, the archipelago has become a French outpost for scientific research where scientists, support staff, research assistants, and travelers assemble during temporary missions. In this article, I present the spatial formation of islands as relational in order to explore how the material and the cultural converge to make the Kerguelen Islands a place of both mundane practice and global interconnection. These spatialities intertwine the features of the landscape with pre-departure preparations, animal encounters, scientific rigour, daily routines, and past human activities. I advance these narratives by analyzing 18 blogs of French sojourners who have spent extensive time on the Kerguelen Islands. I ultimately give islands without a permanent population a character unlike that of isolation and contemplation as is usually attributed to cold-water islands of the (sub) polar seas.

• Public defence: 2018-05-31 14:00 FB42, Stockholm
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
Measurements of hard X-ray polarization from the Crab and Cygnus X-12018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Polarimetry provides insights into the emission mechanisms of astrophysical sources by elucidating their magnetic field and geometry. Hard X-rays are produced in \mbox{regions} with strong magnetic fields or strong gravitational effects, which makes them a probe of extreme environments. This thesis describes the design, \mbox{calibration} and data analysis from the balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeters the PoGOLite Pathfinder and its upgrade PoGO+. These instruments have measured the polari-zation from the Crab nebula and pulsar, and of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1.

Paper I explores to what extent the statistical uncertainties on the polarization parameters are non-Gaussian when the number of photons is low, as tends to be the case for balloon-borne instruments.With this in mind, a Bayesian method is used for data analysis in the subsequent papers. Paper II describes the measurement of the polarization of the Crab system in the 20-120 keV energy range conducted by the PoGOLite Pathfinder. Although the result is modest in its statistical significance it paves the way for the design of the upgraded instrument PoGO+.

The PoGO+ mission was conceived to remedy the shortcomings of the PoGOLite Pathfinder design and observation strategy, as well as the pre-flight calibration, which the focus of Paper III. Significant improvements are made to the detector response model, optimization of data acquisition thresholds, online veto system and to the general calibration procedure. When combined with interspersed target and background measurements, systematic uncertainties are significantly smaller for PoGO+ than for the PoGOLite Pathfinder.

The main scientific results are presented in Papers IV and V for the Crab (20-160 keV) and Cygnus X-1 (20-180 keV), respectively. For the Crab, PoGO+ does not support a rapid increase in the polarization fraction claimed previously. Additionally, the hard X-ray emission must be produced close to the pulsar and possibly in the fine structures of the nebula. This is in agreement with X-ray images from other instruments. For Cygnus X-1, the polarization measurements constrain the geometry by rejecting the model where the hard X-rays are produced in a compact corona close to the black hole and support the extended corona model.

The thesis demonstrates how balloon-borne instruments can be improved over the course of several campaigns and can contribute to the testing of detector design, development of analysis methods and provide new scientific results for bright X-ray sources.

• Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:15 Hörsal E, Umeå
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
National environmental evaluation systems: guiding towards sustainability?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Background: Dealing with environmental threats is one of the largest, if not the largest, challenge contemporary societies face. One way to better deal with this challenge would be to produce knowledge that can be used to improve environmental work and environmental policy and thus ultimately contribute to sustainable development. National environmental evaluations, which this thesis explores, could potentially fill this function because they are supposed to generate applicable and useful knowledge for improving environmental policy and practice for a sustainable transition. However, what different environmental actors view as useful knowledge varies, and needs to be empirically investigated. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to investigate whether, and how, national environmental evaluation systems contribute to key actors’ environmental work and sustainable development. The thesis explores two national environmental evaluation systems in Sweden.

Method: A mixed methods approach is applied that combines three methods. Firstly, a narrative synthesis is developed and applied to compile a list of sustainable development effects from national environmental evaluations. Secondly, a critical program theory is used to investigate the evaluation system’s underlying logic and to assess the likelihood of it achieving its intended effects. Thirdly, a directed content analysis is used to explore the usability and use of environmental evaluations and evaluation systems. The methods are applied to various documents, interviews with key actors, and observations at two environmental seminars.

Results: The results show that, to contribute to sustainable development in the context of evaluation systems and network governance, environmental evaluations need to be of sufficient quality and meet different stakeholders’ knowledge needs. However, only some evaluations meet this demand. The main value of national environmental evaluations and evaluation systems is that they reinforce the national objectives, provide a recurrent report on achievement of objectives, and push actors to take responsibility to improve their environmental work.

• Kristianstad University, Research Environment Children's and Young People's Health in Social Context (CYPHiSCO). Kristianstad University, Research Platform for Collaboration for Health. Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för sjuksköterskeutbildningarna och integrerad hälsovetenskap.
School nurses' Experiences in working with students with mental health problems2017Conference paper (Refereed)
• Univ Alaska, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA..
Univ Alaska, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.;Univ Washington, Polar Sci Ctr, Appl Phys Lab, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Alaska, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.. Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Geosci, Fairbanks, AK USA..
The challenge of monitoring glaciers with extreme altitudinal range: mass-balance reconstruction for Kahiltna Glacier, Alaska2018In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 64, no 243, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)

Glaciers spanning large altitudinal ranges often experience different climatic regimes with elevation, creating challenges in acquiring mass-balance and climate observations that represent the entire glacier. We use mixed methods to reconstruct the 1991-2014 mass balance of the Kahiltna Glacier in Alaska, a large (503 km(2)) glacier with one of the greatest elevation ranges globally (264-6108m a. s.l.). We calibrate an enhanced temperature index model to glacier-wide mass balances from repeat laser altimetry and point observations, finding a mean net mass-balance rate of -0.74 mw.e. a(-1)(+/-sigma = 0.04, std dev. of the best-performing model simulations). Results are validated against mass changes from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, a novel approach at the individual glacier scale. Correlation is strong between the detrended model-and GRACE-derived mass change time series (R-2 = 0.58 and p << 0.001), and between summer (R-2 = 0.69 and p = 0.003) and annual (R-2 = 0.63 and p = 0.006) balances, lending greater confidence to our modeling results. We find poor correlation, however, between modeled glacier-wide balances and recent single-stake monitoring. Finally, we make recommendations for monitoring glaciers with extreme altitudinal ranges, including characterizing precipitation via snow radar profiling.

• Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Engineered cyanobacteria with enhanced growth show increased ethanol production and higher biofuel to biomass ratio2018In: Metabolic engineering, ISSN 1096-7176, E-ISSN 1096-7184, Vol. 46, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)

The Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle is the main pathway to fix atmospheric CO2 and store energy in carbon bonds, forming the precursors of most primary and secondary metabolites necessary for life. Speeding up the CBB cycle theoretically has positive effects on the subsequent growth and/or the end metabolite(s) production. Four CBB cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase), transketolase (TK) and aldolase (FBA) were selected to be co-overexpressed with the ethanol synthesis enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. An inducible promoter, PnrsB, was used to drive PDC and ADH expression. When PnrsB was induced and cells were cultivated at 65 µmol photons m−2 s−1, the RuBisCO-, FBP/SBPase-, TK-, and FBA-expressing strains produced 55%, 67%, 37% and 69% more ethanol and 7.7%, 15.1%, 8.8% and 10.1% more total biomass (the sum of dry cell weight and ethanol), respectively, compared to the strain only expressing the ethanol biosynthesis pathway. The ethanol to total biomass ratio was also increased in CBB cycle enzymes overexpressing strains. This study experimentally demonstrates that using the cells with enhanced carbon fixation, when the product synthesis pathway is not the main bottleneck, can significantly increase the generation of a product (exemplified with ethanol), which acts as a carbon sink.

• Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
The greedy walk on an inhomogeneous Poisson process2018In: Electronic Communications in Probability, ISSN 1083-589X, E-ISSN 1083-589X, Vol. 23, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)

The greedy walk is a deterministic walk that always moves from its current position to the nearest not yet visited point. In this paper we consider the greedy walk on an inhomogeneous Poisson point process on the real line. We prove that the property of visiting all points of the point process satisfies a 0-1 law and determine explicit sufficient and necessary conditions on the mean measure of the point process for this to happen. Moreover, we provide precise results on threshold functions for the property of visiting all points.

• Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
SCB. SCB.
Tillämpning av Good Practice Guidance Förstudie2003Report (Other academic)
• Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Probability Theory.
Sequential testing of a Wiener process with costly observations2018In: Sequential Analysis, ISSN 0747-4946, E-ISSN 1532-4176, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)

We consider the sequential testing of two simple hypotheses for the drift of a Brownian motion when each observation of the underlying process is associated with a positive cost. In this setting where continuous monitoring of the underlying process is not feasible, the question is not only whether to stop or to continue at a given observation time but also, if continuing, how to distribute the next observation time. Adopting a Bayesian methodology, we show that the value function can be characterized as the unique fixed point of an associated operator and that it can be constructed using an iterative scheme. Moreover, the optimal sequential distribution of observation times can be described in terms of the fixed point.

• Berglind, Daniel
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors.

Methods: The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability.

Discussion: There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1).

• Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio. Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
Building Effective Transnational Partnerships: The Case of Smart Lighting2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

This policy brief examines the requirements for building effective transnational partnerships in different policy fields, based on the lessons learned from the recent Lighting Metropolis project – a cross-border innovation venture between Denmark and Sweden that sought to develop smart lighting solutions in urban environments. The brief begins with an overview of this new technology area, before outlining the main opportunities and challenges in the implementation of smart lighting throughout Europe. This is followed by a review of the key findings from Lighting Metropolis, with a focus on assessing the experiences of transnational co-operation identified during the project. Finally, the concluding section outlines a number of recommendations for enhancing transnational collaboration. The policy brief has been prepared by Nordregio as part of the BSR Stars S3 project. It is based on a literature review and interviews conducted with partners involved in Lighting Metropolis.

• Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Antibiotic resistance ABCF proteins reset the peptidyl transferase centre of the ribosome to counter translational arrest2018In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 3753-3763Article in journal (Refereed)

Several ATPases in the ATP-binding cassette F (ABCF) family confer resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (MLS) antibiotics. MLS are structurally distinct classes, but inhibit a common target: the peptidyl transferase (PTC) active site of the ribosome. Antibiotic resistance (ARE) ABCFs have recently been shown to operate through direct ribosomal protection, but the mechanistic details of this resistance mechanism are lacking. Using a reconstituted translational system, we dissect the molecular mechanism of Staphylococcus haemolyticus VgaA(LC) and Enterococcus faecalis LsaA on the ribosome. We demonstrate that VgaA(LC) is an NTPase that operates as a molecular machine strictly requiring NTP hydrolysis (not just NTP binding) for antibiotic protection. Moreover, when bound to the ribosome in the NTP-bound form, hydrolytically inactive EQ(2) ABCF ARE mutants inhibit peptidyl transferase activity, suggesting a direct interaction between the ABCF ARE and the PTC. The likely structural candidate responsible for antibiotic displacement by wild type ABCF AREs, and PTC inhibition by the EQ(2) mutant, is the extended inter-ABC domain linker region. Deletion of the linker region renders wild type VgaA(LC) inactive in antibiotic protection and the EQ(2) mutant inactive in PTC inhibition.

• Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
Mätning av cykeldäcks friktionsegenskaper som underlag för simuleringsstudier2018Report (Other academic)

In this project measurements of a bicycle tyre on an asphalt surface have been carried out in the VTI stationary tyre testing facility, in order to provide slip curves describing friction properties of the tyre. The measurement results have then been used to obtain tyre parameters for simulation purposes. The following tyre parameters have been measured: cornering stiffness, camber stiffness, brake slip stiffness and lateral relaxation length.

The tested tyre generated a maximum friction level of approximately 1.0 on the asphalt. Typical values of the tyre parameters were: normalized cornering stiffness 0.3; standardized camber stiffness 0.01; standard brake slip stiffness 250. Compared to the few previously published measurements on bicycle tyres, cornering stiffness was generally about 50 percent higher than previously reported. The values for camber stiffness correspond well to the values shown by a racing tyre study but are 25–50 percent lower than the values measured on more normal tyres in another study. For brake slip stiffness there are no previous measurements to compare with. Measurement of the lateral relaxation length was unfortunately affected by problems with the measuring equipment and we could not determine the relaxation length with the desired accuracy. From the measurements, we estimate the relaxation length to 200–300 mm for the tested tire, which is a factor 2–3 to greater than reported in the only earlier study that measured relaxation length for bicycle tyres.

• Aix Marseille Univ, EPV, IRD 190, INSERM 1207,EHESP, Marseille, France..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Domain Infect Control & Environm Hlth, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol & Modelling Mol Biol, Oslo, Norway.. Kansas State Univ, Diagnost Med & Pathobiol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.;Kansas State Univ, KS Biosecur Res Inst, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.. Aix Marseille Univ, EPV, IRD 190, INSERM 1207,EHESP, Marseille, France.;Inst Hosp Univ Mediterranee Infect, APHM Publ Hosp Marseille, Marseille, France.. Aix Marseille Univ, EPV, IRD 190, INSERM 1207,EHESP, Marseille, France.;Inst Hosp Univ Mediterranee Infect, APHM Publ Hosp Marseille, Marseille, France..
Emerging arboviruses: Why today?2017In: ONE HEALTH, ISSN 2352-7714, Vol. 4, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The recent global (re)emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika virus, was widely reported in the media as though it was a new phenomenon. This is not the case. Arboviruses and other human microbial pathogens have been (re)emerging for centuries. The major difference today is that arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geographically extensive, largely due to intensive growth of global transportation systems, arthropod adaptation to increasing urbanisation, our failure to contain mosquito population density increases and land perturbation. Here we select examples of (re)emerging pathogenic arboviruses and explain the reasons for their emergence and different patterns of dispersal, focusing particularly on the mosquito vectors which are important determinants of arbovirus emergence. We also attempt to identify arboviruses likely to (re)emerge in the future.

• Lønnebotn, Marianne
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
Body silhouettes as a tool to reflect obesity in the past2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195697Article in journal (Refereed)

Life course data on obesity may enrich the quality of epidemiologic studies analysing health consequences of obesity. However, achieving such data may require substantial resources. We investigated the use of body silhouettes in adults as a tool to reflect obesity in the past. We used large population-based samples to analyse to what extent self-reported body silhouettes correlated with the previously measured (9-23 years) body mass index (BMI) from both measured (European Community Respiratory Health Survey, N = 3 041) and selfreported (Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study, N = 3 410) height and weight. We calculated Spearman correlation between BMI and body silhouettes and ROC-curve analyses for identifying obesity (BMI >= 30) at ages 30 and 45 years. Spearman correlations between measured BMI age 30 (+/- 2y) or 45 (+/- 2y) and body silhouettes in women and men were between 0.62-0.66 and correlations for self-reported BMI were between 0.58-0.70. The area under the curve for identification of obesity at age 30 using body silhouettes vs previously measured BMI at age 30 (+/- 2y) was 0.92 (95% CI 0.87, 0.97) and 0.85 (95% CI 0.75, 0.95) in women and men, respectively; for previously self-reported BMI, 0.92 (95% CI 0.88, 0.95) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.85, 0.96). Our study suggests that body silhouettes are a useful epidemiological tool, enabling retrospective differentiation of obesity and non-obesity in adult women and men.

• Public defence: 2018-06-07 10:00 F3, Stockholm
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
Strong blast wave interaction with multiphase media2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The interaction of a blast wave propagating in air with different fluids like water column, aqueous foam and thermal/density inhomogeneity have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The blast waves were generated at atmospheric conditions in a newly constructed exploding wire facility. For fixed capacitance and wire size, the intensity of the shock front (measured typically at 200 mm from the wire explosion plane) was varied by controlling the charges stored in the capacitor and the size of the test section. Qualitative features of the interaction were captured using shadowgraph technique. Numerical simulations were performed to better analyze and understand the flow features observed in experiments. The main points across each fluid interactions are as follow:

Water column: A new technique was implemented to create highly repeatable, properly shaped, large diameter water column. The impact of a blast wave with shock Mach number ranging from 1.75 to 2.4 on a 22 mm diameter water column resulted in a complex system of waves propagating inside the column. Due to the concave boundary of the downstream interface, the reflected expansion wave naturally focused at a point before travelling upstream resulting in the generation of large negative pressures leading to nucleation of cavitation bubbles. Through high speed photography, various aspects of the flow features were discussed qualitatively and quantitatively. With the aid of numerical simulation, the effect of size of water column and shock strength on the maximum attainable negative pressures in the absence of cavitation were quantified.

Aqueous foam: The performance of various aqueous foam barrier configurations on the attenuation of externally generated blast wave peak pressure was examined. Here a blast wave with shock Mach number 4.8 was allowed to interact with an aqueous foam barrier of initial liquid fraction 0.1. The dominant process responsible for reduction of peak pressure was the `catching up' of the rarefaction wave with the wave front travelling in the foam barrier. Additional reduction was provided by the impedance mismatch factor at the foam-air interface which was further exploited to achieve greater reduction. A simple numerical model treating the foam by a pseudo-gas approach was used for re-constructing the experimental results.

Density inhomogeneity: The unstable evolution of a 2D elongated, elliptically-shaped inhomogeneity embedded in ambient air and aligned both normal and at an angle to the incident plane blast wave of impact Mach number 2.15 was studied. The inhomogeneity was created on the basis of `Joule heating' wherein heat produced by a current carrying wire was used to heat its surrounding air. Two counter-rotating vortices primarily due to Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) and a train of vortices primarily due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) were observed for two different inclination angles. Similarly circulation, calculated from numerical simulation solving Navier-Stokes equation, was also found to vary from a linear to a quadratic function when the inhomogeneity was inclined.

• RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.

Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

• Public defence: 2018-06-13 13:15 Room Å4001, Uppsala
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Theoretical Chemistry.
MATTER-ANTIMATTER INTERACTIONS: The hydrogen-antihydrogen system and antiproton-matter interactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Ever since antiparticles were discovered their nature has been something of a mystery. They were postulated to be identical to regular particles except for having opposite charge, but this would imply that an equal amount of antiparticles and particles should have been created at the beginning of time. However, everywhere we look the Universe seems to be constituted of regular particles, giving rise to the question whether there is something else that differentiates antiparticles from regular particles, or if there is something amiss in the Standard Model of particle physics.

This thesis focuses on a central system of study in this field, the hydrogen-antihydrogen system and the theory surrounding it, as well as an expansion into systems with an antiproton interacting with small molecules, bridging the fields of quantum physics and quantum chemistry.

Methods expanding on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the interaction between the two atoms are presented. The resulting 2-body interaction potential is then used for creating a part of the basis in a non-adiabatic 4-body method in order to look for resonance states whose existence could impact cross-sections of hydrogen-antihydrogen scattering. The eigenfunctions obtained from the non-adiabatic method are used by extracting the 2-body hadronic density function and comparing it to the adiabatic wave function, for measuring the adiabaticity of the hydrogen-antihydrogen system.

The antiproton-matter interaction is first investigated by a quantum dynamical approach of an antiproton scattering on molecular hydrogen, common products in high-energy collision experiments, continued by a study of the potential energy surfaces of an antiproton interacting with a range of functional groups present in the human body.

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