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  • Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain..
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stora, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gillingwater, Thomas H.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    MacCallum, Malcolm
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Med Sch Biomed Sci, Anat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Luis Arsuaga, Juan
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Fac Ciencias Geol, Dept Paleontol, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Geosci, Dept Archaeol, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England.;Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Archaeol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Inst Salud Carlos 3, Evoluc & Comportamiento Humano, Ctr Mixto, Madrid 28029, Spain.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Archaeol & Hist, Bundoora, Vic 3086, Australia..
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Nat Sci & Psychol, Res Ctr Evolutionary Anthropol & Palaeoecol, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 3AF, Merseyside, England..
    Genomic Analyses of Pre-European Conquest Human Remains from the Canary Islands Reveal Close Affinity to Modern North Africans2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 21, p. 3396-3402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5th century BCE [1-3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6-8]. These results are in agreement with some linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological data indicating an origin from a North African Berber-like population [1, 4, 9]. However, to date there are no published Guanche autosomal genomes to help elucidate and directly test this hypothesis. To resolve this, we generated the first genome-wide sequence data and mitochondrial genomes from eleven archaeological Guanche individuals originating from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Five of the individuals (directly radiocarbon dated to a time transect spanning the 7th-11th centuries CE) yielded sufficient autosomal genome coverage (0.21x to 3.93x) for population genomic analysis. Our results show that the Guanches were genetically similar over time and that they display the greatest genetic affinity to extant Northwest Africans, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a Berber-like origin. We also estimate that the Guanches have contributed 16%-31% autosomal ancestry to modern Canary Islanders, here represented by two individuals from Gran Canaria.

  • Skogman, Barbro Hedin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Lager, M.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Lab Med, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Henningsson, A. J.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Clin Microbiol, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Tjernberg, I.
    Kalmar Cty Council, Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Kalmar, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    The recomBead Borrelia antibody index, CXCL13 and total IgM index for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children2017In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 2221-2229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For laboratory diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the recomBead Borrelia antibody index (AI) assay has shown promising results in a mixed age population, but has not previously been evaluated with specific focus on paediatric patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the recomBead Borrelia AI assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the laboratory diagnosis of LNB in children. We also wanted to explore whether early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and/or total IgM index could be useful as complementary diagnostic tools. Children being evaluated for LNB in a Swedish Lyme endemic area were included in the study (n = 146). Serum and CSF were collected on admission. Patients with other specific diagnoses were controls (n = 15). The recomBead Borrelia AI assay and the recomBead CXCL13 assay (Mikrogen) were applied together with total IgM index. The overall sensitivity for recomBead Borrelia AI (IgM and IgG together) was 74% and the specificity was 97%. However, the highest sensitivity (91%) at an acceptable level of specificity (90%) was obtained by recomBead Borrelia AI together with CXCL13 and total IgM index, showing a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 95%. Thus, the recomBead Borrelia AI assay performs with moderate sensitivity and high specificity in paediatric LNB patients. The major advantage seems to be increased sensitivity in the possible LNB group compared to the IDEIA assay. The diagnostic sensitivity may be further increased by using a combination of early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and total IgM index.

  • Burman, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Simulation and Optimization.
    Larson, Mats G.
    Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    A simple approach for finite element simulation of reinforced plates2018In: Finite elements in analysis and design (Print), ISSN 0168-874X, E-ISSN 1872-6925, Vol. 142, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach for adding Bernoulli beam reinforcements to Kirchhoff plates. The plate is discretised using a continuous/discontinuous finite element method based on standard continuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces. The beams are discretised by the CutFEM technique of letting the basis functions of the plate represent also the beams which are allowed to pass through the plate elements. This allows for a fast and easy way of assessing where the plate should be supported, for instance, in an optimization loop.

  • Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Troiano, Giuseppe
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip
    Fåhraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Wilms, Torben
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Norberg-Spaak, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Wang, Lixiao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Evidence that circulating proteins are more promising than miRNAs for identification of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 61, p. 103437-103448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue remains a devastating disease with a five-year survival of around 60%. Late detection and recurrence are the main causes for poor survival. The identification of circulating factors for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer is a rapidly evolving field of interest, with the hope of finding stable and reliable markers of clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating miRNAs and proteins as potential factors for distinguishing patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from healthy controls. Array-based profiling of 372 miRNAs in plasma samples showed broad variations between different patients and did not show any evidence for their use in diagnosis of tongue cancer. Although one miRNA, miR-150, was significantly down-regulated in plasma from patients compared to controls. Surprisingly, the corresponding tumor tissue showed an up-regulation of miR-150. Among circulating proteins, 23 were identified as potential markers of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. These findings imply that circulating proteins are a more promising source of biomarkers for tongue squamous cell carcinomas than circulating miRNAs. The data also highlight that circulating markers are not always directly associated with tumor cell properties.

  • Persson, Christer
    SMHI.
    Normalårskorrigering av Sveriges utsläpp av fossil CO2 från uppvärmning 1990-2002 2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is developed to estimate the variations, caused by changes in meteorological conditions compared to normal, of the Swedish fossil CO2-emissions associated with domestic and other building heating. The result from this study has been included in Sweden´s third national communication on Climate Change, 2001, and in the Swedish yearly reports to UNFCCC concerning data for the years 1999-2002. Calculations have been performed for each year during the period 1990-2002 and also for a 30-year normal period 1965-1995. The weather influence of heating demand for buildings have been calculated monthly for a number of places in Sweden based on the model ENLOSS, which has been developed at SMHI, see e.g. Taesler (1986) and CADET Energy Efficiency (1999). This model can be used to calculate in detail the energy demand for heating of different types of buildings with regard to surrounding air temperature, wind speed and direction, cloudiness, sun elevation and turbidity (affecting incoming radiation). Using ENLOSS an i.e. equivalent temperature can be calculated which takes all effects from the different weather parameters into consideration combined with information about site and characteristics and use of the building. Based on this equivalent temperature an Energy-Index is subsequently calculated, being a measure of the amount of energy needed to heat a specific building to normal room temperature (+21°C) compared to what is needed during a corresponding time period with normal weather conditions.

    All calculations of corrections of energy demand to normal weather conditions have in this study been performed using a "standard building" with the following characteristics:

    • Representing a mixed type of buildings

    • Mechanical ventilation

    • Energy for hot water production not included

    • Energy from lighting, people within the building, electric equipment etc. has been subtracted in a conventional way from the energy demand

    • A time constant of 24h is used to describe the heat storage within the building.

    Based on ENLOSS-model calculations of the energy demand using meteorological data for a large number of places over Sweden, a geographical distribution of the energy demand over the whole of Sweden has been determined by means of optimum interpolation technique. This has been done on a monthly basis and thereafter been added to yearly values weighted towards the distribution of population within each county in Sweden. This information is then used to calculate a county-specific Energy-Index for each year, which combined with energy statistics from SCB regarding each county, has been the basis for calculations of normal weather corrections of fossil CO2-emissions for each year during the period 1990-2002.

    5

    In this study calculations have been performed for two different assumption of marginal fuel (the fuel which should have been used/not used in case the weather had been normal): "oil" and "actual mix of fuel within each county". The differences between these two alternatives were small during the first years of the 1990-ies, but have increased for later years. The normal weather-corrected data reported to UNFCCC has - so far - been based on the assumption on oil as marginal fuel.

    For all years during the 1990-2002 period, except for 1996, the normal weather-corrected fossil CO2-emissions for Sweden have been larger than the real emissions. For 1990, which is a reference year in the international negotiations, the normal weather-corrected emission was 15% larger than the real emission.

  • Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Pro-invasive properties of Snail1 are regulated by sumoylation in response to TGFβ stimulation in cancer2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 58, p. 97703-97726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a key regulator of epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT) during embryogenesis and in tumors. The effect of TGF beta, on EMT, is conveyed by induction of the pro-invasive transcription factor Snail1. In this study, we report that TGF beta stimulates Snail1 sumoylation in aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancer cells. Sumoylation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 confers its transcriptional activity, inducing the expression of classical EMT genes, as well as TGF beta receptor I (T beta RI) and the transcriptional repressor Hes1. Mutation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 to arginine (K234R) abolished sumoylation of Snail1, as well as its migratory and invasive properties in human prostate cancer cells. An increased immunohistochemical expression of Snail1, Sumo1, T beta RI, Hes1, and c-Jun was observed in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their functional roles in tumorigenesis.

  • Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, Gothenburg.
    Gränsöverskridande koordination: syntaktisk förändring i äldre svenska2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Högman, Marieann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Innovative exhaled breath analysis with old breathing manoeuvres-is there a problem or an advantage?2017In: Journal of Breath Research, ISSN 1752-7155, E-ISSN 1752-7163, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 031001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the field of exhaled breath research is expanding, the question that arises is can the old usual method of spirometry be used in all cases? The answer is yes for some analysation methods and definitely not for others: it all depends on the result you are looking for. Exhaled breath condensate collection can be accomplished with silent tidal breathing, but not in the analysation of the amount of exhaled particles, as they become very low during tidal breathing. There are gases that are exhalation flow dependent, e.g. nitric oxide, acetone and ethanol, that require a special breathing manoeuvre with flow control. Physiological changes of the lung, i.e. inhalation to total lung capacity or forced exhalation such as during spirometry, will affect the result of exhaled biomarkers. The standardisation of exhaled breath requires further development, and there are many aspects to consider.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Emission factors and emissions from residential biomass combustion in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale biomass combustion can be a major source of air pollutants like emissions of greenhouse gases, acidifying pollutants, NMVOC, particulate matter, heavy metals, PAH and dioxins. On a yearly basis Sweden is obliged to report air emissions of these pollutants to different international bodies. Until submission 2005, covering data for 1990-2003, only one emission factor for each pollutant was used for the reporting of emissions from residential biomass combustion. The results from a closer examination by Statistics Sweden of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a disaggregation of the fuel consumption of biomass by fuel type (wood logs, pellets, wood chips), as well as by technology (boiler, stoves, and open firing places). This study aimed at improving the reporting of emissions from small- scale combustion of biomass by revising the emission factors for N2O, NOX, CO, NMVOC, SOX, NH3, total suspended particles (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, metals dioxins and PAH. Furthermore, the time series 1990-2004 for these emissions were updated. In this work the revised emissions factors were to a large extent based on results from the Swedish Energy Agency research program “Biofuel, Health and Environment”. In addition a literature review was carried out to collect data from other Swedish studies as well as relevant international studies. Results from several recent measurement studies, together with dissaggregation of emissions factors by technology and fuel type, lead to quite large differences between previously used emission factors and the revised emission factors presented In particular the new emission factors for NMVOC and particles are much lower, whereas the new emission factors for CO and dioxin are higher.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-23 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Ingång 64, plan 9, Linköping
    Nestorson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arthroplasty in Elbow Fracture Treatment2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice for distal humeral fractures. Stable fixation is required to allow early mobilisation and to reduce the risk of poor functional results. In an elderly patient with osteoporotic bone and with a comminuted intra-articular fracture stable internal fixation can be difficult to achieve. In these cases elbow arthroplasty is an option.

    An irreparable radial head fracture can be treated by excision or replacement. The indications for the respective procedure are unclear since reports include an array of different associated soft-tissue and bony injuries.

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use, complication rates and functional outcome of elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for complex distal humeral fractures and assess the usefulness of radial head replacement in Mason IV fracture dislocations.

    50 patients, aged 56-89 years were treated for a distal humeral fracture with primary hemi-arthroplasty using the Kudo© humeral component or the Latitude® prosthesis. The functional outcome was assessed retrospectively. The majority of the 50 patients treated with a primary hemi-arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture had a good or excellent functional result and regained a functional arc of movement of at least 100 degrees at medium term follow-up. There were six patients suffering secondary surgery and two with persistent ulnar nerve symptoms. Wear of the olecranon fossa was seen, mainly in the eight patients treated with a non-anatomical implant (Kudo®). Functional results were comparable to total elbow arthroplasty and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for distal humeral fractures. The use of implants that are more anatomical seemed to reduce the degree of olecranon wear but long-term results are lacking.

    The nationwide use of primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture between 1999 and 2014 was examined using three different registers. The survival rates in relation to prosthetic desing, age and sex were investigated using Cox regression analysis and number of adverse events recorded.

    In total 405 patients were treated with primary arthroplasty for a distal humeral fracture. The mean age at surgery was 75 years and the mean observation time was 67 months. Eighteen patients had undergone revision surgery and another 26 patients suffered an adverse event, 24 of which required secondary surgery.

    Increasing age reduced the risk for revision and there was no significant difference in survival between total- and hemi arthroplasty. The cumulative survival rate at 5 years was 99% (CI 98-100) and at 10 years 90% (CI 85-96). Elbow arthroplasty as primary treatment for distal humeral fractures produced reliable results with regards to revision surgery and adverse events.

    18 patients, age 19-79 years, treated with radial head replacement, and 14 patients, age 29-70 years, treated with radial head resection, for a Mason IV fracture dislocation were retrospectively reviewed.

    There were no significant differences in functional outcome in patients treated with replacement or excision for a Mason IV fracture dislocation. The rate of secondary surgery was higher in patients treated with replacement and ulno-humeral osteoarthritis was more pronounced in patients treated with radial head excision but follow-up was longer in these patients. Functional results were not improved by using radial head arthroplasty for Mason IV fracture dislocation. Secondary osteoarthritis is a concern in patients treated with excision but did not affect functional outcome after a mean follow-up time of 108 months.

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cooper, David
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    SCB.
    Methane emissions from residential biomass2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale biomass combustion can be a major source of air pollutants like hydrocarbons and particulate matters. Methane is one of the hydrocarbons emitted when burning biomass fuels and recent studies show that methane emissions from different kinds of residential biomass systems can vary significantly depending on type of combustion system and type of fuel. On a yearly basis Sweden is obligated to report air emissions of several pollutants to different international bodies. In previous reporting only one emission factor for methane is accounted for, including all technologies and all fuel types. This study aims to improve the reporting of methane emissions from small scale combustion of biomass by revising both activity data and emission factors. Further, the times series 1990-2003 for methane emission will be updated. New methane emission factors from small scale combustion of wood log, pellets and wood chips/sawdust was determined and an improved method was then used to calculate the emissions. In order to match the activity data categories, the emission factors were grouped by heating system category and fuel type. The result showed that methane emissions from wood log combustion are significantly higher compared to pellets combustion. However, significant variations in emission factors occur for specific combustion appliances and operation conditions. The recalculated time series for 1990- 2003 showed higher values of methane emissions due to desegregation of emission factors by combustion technology

  • Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridell, Erik
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stripple, Håkan
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uppdatering av klimatrelaterade emissionsfaktorer2010Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-03-26 13:00 Belladonna, Linköping
    Hammerman, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tendon Healing: Mechanical Loading, Microdamage and Gene Expression2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical loading and the inflammatory response during tendon healing might be important for the healing process. Mechanical loading can improve the healing tendon but the mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this thesis was to further clarify the effect of mechanical loading on tendon healing and how mechanical loading affects the inflammatory response during the healing process.

    We used a rat Achilles tendon model to study healing. The rats were exposed to different degrees of loading by unloading methods such as paralysis of the calf muscles with Botox, tail suspension, and an orthosis (a boot). Full loading was achieved by free cage activity or treadmill walking. Microdamage in tendons, unloaded with Botox, was also investigated by needling. The healing tendons were evaluated in a materials testing machine (to analyze the mechanical properties), by gene expression analysis (microarray and PCR), or histology.

    Our results show that moderate loading (unloading with Botox) improves the mechanical properties of healing tendons compared to minimal loading (unloading with Botox in combination with tail suspension or a boot), especially the material properties. In accordance to these findings, expression of extracellular matrix genes were also increased by moderate compared to minimal loading.

    Full loading improved all mechanical properties and the expression of extracellular matrix genes was further increased compared to moderate loading. However, structural properties, such as the strength and the size of the healing tendon, were more affected by full loading. Full loading also affected the expression of inflammation-related genes during the early healing phase, 3 and 5 days after tendon injury, and increased the number of immune cells in the healing tendon tissue. Also microdamage of the healing tendon (detected by blood leakage) was increased by full loading compared to moderate loading during the early healing phase.

    Induced microdamage by repeated needling in the healing tendon tissue increased the structural properties of the healing tendon. The gene expression after needling was similar to the gene expression after full loading.

    The improvement of mechanical properties by loading in healing tendons was decreased by an anti-inflammatory drug called parecoxib, which decreases the production of prostaglandins by inhibiting COX-2 activity. The effect of parecoxib was reduced when loading was reduced but we could not confirm that the effect of parecoxib was related to the degree of loading. However, parecoxib abolished the stimulatory effect of microdamage.

    In conclusion, these studies show that moderate loading improves the quality of the healing tendon whereas full loading also increases the quantity of the healing tendon tissue. Full loading creates microdamage and increases inflammation during the early healing phase. The strong effect of full loading on the structural properties might be due to microdamage. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib seems to impair mechanical stimulation of healing tendons by reducing the response to microdamage.

  • Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow2017In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

  • Karlsson, Chatarina
    et al.
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Larsson, Peder
    Pelagia Nature & Environment AB.
    Kiselalgsundersökning i Blekinge län 20162016Report (Other academic)
  • Vlachogiannis, Pavlos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Gudjonsson, Olafur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Montelius, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Grusell, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Hypofractionated high-energy proton-beam irradiation is an alternative treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 12, p. 2391-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155). Eighty-four patients were treated post subtotal resection, 42 at tumour relapse and 44 with upfront radiotherapy after diagnosis based on the typical radiological image. Irradiation was given in a hypofractionated fashion (3-8 fractions, usually 5 or 6 Gy) with a mean dose of 21.9 Gy (range, 14-46 Gy). All patients were planned for follow-up with clinical controls and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after treatment. The median follow-up time was 84 months. Age, gender, tumour location, Simpson resection grade and target volume were assessed as possible prognostic factors for post-irradiation tumour progression and radiation related complications. The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 93% and 85% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 13.5%, while disease-specific mortality was 1.7% (3/170 patients). Older patients and patients with tumours located in the middle cranial fossa had a lower risk for tumour progression. Radiation-related complications were seen in 16 patients (9.4%), with pituitary insufficiency being the most common. Tumour location in the anterior cranial fossa was the only factor that significantly increased the risk of complications. Hypofractionated proton-beam radiation therapy may be used particularly in the treatment of larger World Health Organisation grade I meningiomas not amenable to total surgical resection. Treatment is associated with high rates of long-term tumour growth control and acceptable risk for complications.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Liu, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Modelling Evolution: From non-life, to life, to a variety of life2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life is able to replicate itself, e.g., a microorganism is able to divide into two identical ones, and a single plant is able to forest a whole island. But life is the only example of self-replication (note that a computer virus seems able to replicate itself, but it needs the assistance of a processor such as a CPU, and thus not a truly self-replicating entity). So before the appearance of life, nothing can self-replicate. How does life, a truly self-replicating entity, evolve from substances which is not able to self-replicate? Why can it ever happen? Is there a general underlying mechanism that governs how self-replicating entities can develop de novo on Earth, or even other plants?

    As long as the first life appears, it has the potential to cover the whole plant. But one single life form cannot do the job. Life has branched into a huge number of biological classes and species. Different species interact with each other, and with their environment, which, as a whole, is defined as an ecosystem. Distinct ecosystems are found at different scales and different places, e.g., microbes cross-feed and compete for resources within natural communities; and different types of cells interact by exchanging metabolite within an organism body. But, why sometimes we consider an ecosystem as an individual (such as the human body which is, in fact, an ecosystem inhabited by a huge number of microorganisms without which we cannot survive) while sometimes not? What really distinguishes an individual-level life from a system-level life? Are there general properties only a system-level life has, emerged from the interactions among its compositional individual-level life?

    This thesis is to investigate these two questions by mathematical models. For the evolution from non-life to life, namely the origin of life, we build an artificial chemistry model to investigate why an independent self-replicating entity can develop spontaneously from some chemical reaction system in which no reaction is self-replicating. For the evolution from life to a variety of life, we build an artificial ecosystem model to investigate general properties of ecosystems.

  • Ortiz, Carina
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lundblad, Mattias
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Liski, Jari
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Karltun, Erik
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Lehtonen, Aleksi
    Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Helsinki, Finland.
    Gärdenäs, Annemieke
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, mark och miljö.
    Measurements and models – a comparison of quantification methods for SOC changes in forest soils2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish UNFCCC1-reporting of the LULUCF2-sector is based on methods in compliance with the “Good practice” as described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Biomass and soil inventory data from the Swedish Inventory of Forests is the major source of information used to quantify changes in the various carbon pools on forest land. Even if the reported uncertainties in soil carbon changes are small from a statistical perspective, they are large in relation to the total Swedish emissions of green house gases. This is due to the fact that the soil carbon pool is so large, that even small and statistically non-significant changes may have an impact on the Swedish CO2 balance. Sampling based methods may also result in considerable inter annual variations that may look conspicuous in the reporting. Because of the uncertainty and inter annual variations there has been a discussion on the methods used and if there are possibilities to lower the uncertainty and to get more stable estimates of soil carbon changes by combining measurements and models. In this study results from the two soil carbon models, Yasso07 and Q, were compared with repeated measurements of the soil inventory during the years 1994 to 2000. Soil carbon fluxes were simulated with the two models from 1926 to 2000 with Monte Carlo methodology to estimate uncertainty ranges. The results from the models agreed well with measured data. The simulations of Yasso07 and Q resulted in a soil organic carbon stock in year 2000 of 1600 Mton C and 1580 Mton C, respectively while the measured carbon pool was ¨1670 Mton C. The annual change in soil organic carbon varies substantially between the three methods mainly due to different assumptions regarding annual climate variation. However, the five year averaged mean of annual soil organic carbon change for the two periods 1994-1998 and 1996-2000 indicate the size and direction of the estimated annual changes agree reasonable well. The mean annual change for the two periods was for the Q-model 5.5 Mton C yr-1 and 5.6 Mton C yr-1 with a confidence interval of 2.1-10.7 Mton C yr-1, and for the Yasso07-model 3.7 Mton C yr-1 and 0.9 Mton C yr-1 respectively with a confidence interval ranging between -5 to 12.6 and -7 to 9.8 Mton C yr-1 respectively. The mean annual change for the two periods estimated using NFI-data was 1.6 M ton C yr-1 and 2.5 M ton C yr-1 with a standard error of 2 The general conclusion drawn from this study is that both sampling and the models Yasso07 and Q are possible tools to predict the soil organic carbon accumulation and annual changes for Swedish forest soils. The estimates based on measurements as well as the modelled results indicate an increase in carbon stocks in Swedish forest soils. This study does not support a change of method from inventory to model predictions. However, the agreement between the methods shows that the models are suitable as a complement to other soil carbon estimation methods. They are particularly useful for projections and we recommend a further development of the modelling tools.

    1 UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2 LULUCF, Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry

  • Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding engagement among children with and without need of special support due to behavior difficulties. The influence of social interaction as well as the provision of special support in Swedish preschool were investigated. Specifically, the aim was to explore children’s engagement at the nodal point between environmental factors, children’s behavior and characteristics, peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness, both in a cross-sectional perspective and over time. In addition, predictive factors for special support were explored.

    A prospective longitudinal survey design with three data points was used, with both quantitative and qualitative data. The sample consisted of 829 children, 425 boys and 394 girls (10 missing) from 92 preschool units in six municipalities in Sweden. The children participated in at least one wave of data collection. The preschool staff rated the children’s engagement, behavior difficulties, and the provision of special support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. For the cross-sectional analyses 663 children participated, and for the longitudinal analyses, 203 children participated. For the cross-sectional analyses logistics regression and content analyses as well as mediation analyses were used, meanwhile, structural equation models were used for longitudinal analyses, that is, growth curve model with multivariate analyses as well as autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Overall, children with high levels of hyperactive behavior were less engaged in everyday activities in preschool. In addition, the peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness were rated lower for these children, both in current time and longitudinally. Children’s hyperactive behavior had more negative influence on their core engagement (e.g. attentional behavior and persistence behavior), compared to their developmental engagement, (e.g.problem solving, involvement in complex rule-based play, more common for older preschoolers). The levels of social interaction explained a large percent of the negative effect between hyperactive behavior and engagement. Peer-to-child interaction explained between 56-78 percent, whereas teacher responsiveness explained between 33-34 percent.

    Over time, the level of hyperactive behavior decreased more dramatically for girls than for boys. However, boys who became more engaged, showed less hyperactive behavior over time. The majority (63%) of the children displaying behavior difficulties (BD) did not receive special support on top of what was provided to all children in the classroom. No support was related to children being a second language learner in Swedish (EL2) or BDs that did not disturb the peer group or the teachers. Children more often received special support if the staff perceived the child’s behavior difficulties as disruptive in preschool activities or among peers. The most common type of support, mentioned by the staff, was paying attention to the child’s negative behavior, achieved by at least one member of the staff staying close to the child. Other examples of attention to the child’s negative behavior involved the preschool staff providing special support by paying attention to critical situations, by teacher’s proximity to the children, or by distracting the child from situations that could trigger negative behavior. Distractions were used more often for children with high engagement and BD.

    Concerning directional and transactional paths, children’s core engagement was a significant predictor for both peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness. That is, high levels of core engagement at T1 predicted both types of social interaction at T2, which in turn predicted children’s levels of core engagement at T3. Children’s hyperactive behavior did not predict lower ratings in social interactions in preschool over time, whereas, high ratings in peer-to-child interactions and teacher responsiveness were significant predictors for decreased hyperactive behavior over time. Once again, social interactions were important factors for promoting a decrease in children’s hyperactive behavior. Children with high levels of core engagement were more likely to be met by teacher responsiveness and positive peer-to-child interactions over time.

    Several statistical relations exist between children’s engagement, BD, social interactions and special support in preschool settings. This thesis shows that perceived negative behaviors such as BD can co-exist with more positively perceived behaviors or characteristics, such as engagement. However, this research shows that well-functioning peer-to-child interaction and teacher interactions improve child engagement for children with hyperactive behavior, special support is not always provided and seldom focused on improving children’s engagement. In order to improve engagement among children in need of special support due to BD, it is necessary to consider both hyperactive behavior and engagement as well as the influence of social interactions. Teacher responsiveness and peer-to-child interaction may work as supportive factors for children with hyperactive behavior to help sustain attention and stay actively engaged in the activities. Preschool teachers need to self-reflect on their organization, planning ofeveryday activities and how to design special support that consider individual children’s needs for improving their engagement.

  • Samuelsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Resistanskurvor för elektriska fuktkvotsmätare1990Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-04-06 10:15 F 234, Östersund
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Communicating, Negotiating and Stereotyping: The roles of context, situation and gender in small group decision-making2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Making decisions together in groups takes an important role in society. Everywhere and in many different contexts people meet to make more or less formal decisions. As stereotypes constitute simplified group based perceptions of other people, decision-making groups risk making biased judgments and commit discriminating decisions. Stereotyping often follow the two universal dimensions competence and warmth (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2008). How people´s judgments are affected by stereotypes has mainly been studied on individual level and less is known about how stereotypes and prejudice is communicated and negotiated in group decision-making situations. One approach to study this is to investigate how different contexts may lead to different communication patterns, different experiences, and different decisions.  In this thesis context was varied in two different ways in two experiments. In the first experiment the goal set for the decision-making was varied. A competitive goal was contrasted to a cooperative goal in a group decision task using a sports scenario where the participants had to select members to a relay team. In the second experiment different information was used as a context variable. This was done by varying the information of gender and parenthood status of the applicants in a fictive recruitment scenario. In addition, in both experiments the gender composition in the groups was varied, forming yet another variable that might play a role for how the decision-making was carried out. These three factors were assumed to influence the form of the communication, the content of the communication in terms of stereotyping, and how the decision-making process was experienced. A mixed-method approach was chosen where quantitative and qualitative data were used in conjunction with each other, which was assumed to give a richer picture of the results.

    In paper I the form of the communication, as analyzed with interaction process analysis (IPA), did not differ much between the two goals. On the other hand, the content showed more systematic patterns. A competitive goal seemed to lead to both inclusion and exclusion with use of both positive and negative stereotypes. A cooperative goal seemed to lead to inclusion mechanisms and only use of positive stereotypes. In paper II where the aim was to investigate what was experienced as constituting a successful decision-making process it was found that equality of influence was of importance. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of the conversation patterns, by use of the conversational argument coding scheme (CACS), seemed to validate this. The successful groups had a more complex communication pattern than the less successful groups. In paper III, where the information for the decision task was varied in terms of gender and parenthood status of the applicants, it was found that parenthood information triggered a lot of discussion. The participants did not differentiate between mothers and fathers, but they applied attributes of competence and warmth differently to the targets. Furthermore, gender and gender composition seemed to matter as male and female groups applied the attributes differently. Paper IV used data from both experiments in order to investigate how the context variables and gender composition influenced how the decision situation was experienced. The results indicate that the context variables and gender composition interacted with own gender. Men seemed more content in male groups with male targets and a male parent condition while women seemed more content in mixed groups and a female parent condition.

    Context seems to play an important role, as it provides the participants in the group discussions with different information, leading to different patterns of stereotyping in the discussions. Also how the decision was experienced seems to be related to the context. Furthermore, group composition seems to function in this way too. The results are discussed in relation to practical implications and suggestions for future research. 

  • Ståhlberg, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Från marknadsföring till propagandakrig2017In: Ikaros, tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett projekt som inleddes som en studie i nation branding i Ukraina kom efter Majdanrevolten 2013-14 att övergå i en undersökning av hur ukrainska myndigheter och medier hanterar information i konflikten mellan Ukraina och Ryssland. Ryssland antas ha en mäktig propagandaapparat, men hur agerar Ukraina i informationskriget mot Ryssland?

  • Schlackow, Iryna
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Kent, Seamus
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Herrington, William
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Emberson, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Haynes, Richard
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Reith, Christina
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Wanner, Christoph
    Univ Hosp Wurzburg, Dept Med, Div Nephrol, Wurzburg, Germany..
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Renal Medicine. Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gray, Alastair
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    Landray, Martin J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England..
    Baigent, Colin
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, MRC, Populat Hlth Res Unit, Oxford, England..
    Mihaylova, Borislava
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford, England..
    A policy model of cardiovascular disease in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease2017In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 103, no 23, p. 1880-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To present a long-term policy model of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods: A Markov model with transitions between CKD stages (3B, 4, 5, on dialysis, with kidney transplant) and cardiovascular events (major atherosclerotic events, haemorrhagic stroke, vascular death) was developed with individualised CKD and CVD risks estimated using the 5 years' follow-up data of the 9270 patients with moderate-to-severe CKD in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) and multivariate parametric survival analysis. The model was assessed in three further CKD cohorts and compared with currently used risk scores.

    Results: Higher age, previous cardiovascular events and advanced CKD were the main contributors to increased individual disease risks. CKD and CVD risks predicted by the state-transition model corresponded well to risks observed in SHARP and external cohorts. The model's predictions of vascular risk and progression to end-stage renal disease were better than, or comparable to, those produced by other risk scores. As an illustration, at age 60-69 years, projected survival for SHARP participants in CKD stage 3B was 13.5 years (10.6 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) in men and 14.8 years (10.7 QALYs) in women. Corresponding projections for participants on dialysis were 7.5 (5.6 QALYs) and 7.8 years (5.4 QALYs). A non-fatal major atherosclerotic event reduced life expectancy by about 2 years in stage 3B and by 1 year in dialysis.

    Conclusions: The SHARP CKD-CVD model is a novel resource for evaluating health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of interventions in CKD.

  • Chabok, Abbas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Andreasson, Kalle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nikberg, Maziar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Low risk of complications in patients with first-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis2017In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1699-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-time acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) has been considered to have an increased risk of complication, but the level of evidence is low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of complications in patients with first-time AUD and in patients with a history of diverticulitis. This paper is a population-based retrospective study at Vastmanland's Hospital, VasterA<yen>s, Sweden, where all patients were identified with a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease ICD-10 K57.0-9 from January 2010 to December 2014. The records of all patients were surveyed and patients with a computed tomography (CT)-verified AUD were included. Complications defined as CT-verified abscess, perforation, colonic obstruction, fistula, or sepsis within 1 month from the diagnosis of AUD were registered. Of 809 patients with AUD, 642 (79%) had first-time AUD and 167 (21%) had a previous history of AUD with no differences in demographic or clinical characteristics. In total, 16 (2%) patients developed a complication within 1 month irrespective of whether they had a previous history of diverticulitis (P = 0.345). In the binary logistic regression analysis, first-time diverticulitis was not associated with increased risk of complications (OR 1.58; CI 0.52-4.81). The rate of antibiotic therapy was about 7-10% during the time period and outpatient management increased from 7% in 2010 to 61% in 2014. The risk for development of complications is low in AUD with no difference between patients with first-time or recurrent diverticulitis. This result strengthens existing evidence on the benign disease course of AUD.

  • Aoki, Yasunori
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Natl Inst Informat, Tokyo, Japan..
    Roshammar, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden.;SGS Exprimo, Mechelen, Belgium..
    Hamren, Bengt
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Quantitat Clin Pharmacol Innovat Med & Early Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hooker, Andrew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Model selection and averaging of nonlinear mixed-effect models for robust phase III dose selection2017In: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, ISSN 1567-567X, E-ISSN 1573-8744, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 581-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population model-based (pharmacometric) approaches are widely used for the analyses of phase IIb clinical trial data to increase the accuracy of the dose selection for phase III clinical trials. On the other hand, if the analysis is based on one selected model, model selection bias can potentially spoil the accuracy of the dose selection process. In this paper, four methods that assume a number of pre-defined model structure candidates, for example a set of dose-response shape functions, and then combine or select those candidate models are introduced. The key hypothesis is that by combining both model structure uncertainty and model parameter uncertainty using these methodologies, we can make a more robust model based dose selection decision at the end of a phase IIb clinical trial. These methods are investigated using realistic simulation studies based on the study protocol of an actual phase IIb trial for an oral asthma drug candidate (AZD1981). Based on the simulation study, it is demonstrated that a bootstrap model selection method properly avoids model selection bias and in most cases increases the accuracy of the end of phase IIb decision. Thus, we recommend using this bootstrap model selection method when conducting population model-based decision-making at the end of phase IIb clinical trials.

  • Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    How to calibrate a questionnaire: quality-assuring categorical data with psychometric measurement theory2018In: / [ed] Charité, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the social sciences – with ‘instruments’ such as questionnaires, ability tests, – in education, healthcare and so on, need metrological quality assurance. A patient, for instance, expects the same quality of care wherever and whenever provided. This is a challenge since the usual tools of statistics do not always work on the categorical scales typical of such measurements. Modelling a measurement system where the instrument is a human being, and where the output is a performance metric, i.e., how well the set-up performs an assessment, appears to be a way forward. This BEMC Colloquium will present the necessary tools, such as psychometric Rasch measurement theory, and will be followed by a hands-on workshop where you yourselves can analyse cases such as (i) the Quality of the BEMC Colloquium Series and (ii) a Healthy Lifestyle.

  • Warnecke, Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Abele, Sonja
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Musunuri, Sravani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Harris, Robert A.
    Karolinska Inst, Appl Immunol & Immunotherapy, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med,Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Scavenger Receptor A Mediates the Clearance and Immunological Screening of MDA-Modified Antigen by M2-Type Macrophages2017In: Neuromolecular medicine, ISSN 1535-1084, E-ISSN 1559-1174, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 463-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the uptake of malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the context of lipid peroxidation and its implications in CNS autoimmunity. The use of custom-produced fluorescently labeled versions of MOG or MDA-modified MOG enabled us to study and quantify the uptake by different macrophage populations and to identify the responsible receptor, namely SRA. The SRA-mediated uptake of MDA-modified MOG is roughly tenfold more efficient compared to that of the native form. Notably, this uptake is most strongly associated with anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. MDA-modified MOG was demonstrated to be resistant to degradation by lysine-dependent proteases in vitro, but the overall digestion fragments appeared to be similar in cell lysates, although their relative abundance appeared to be altered as a result of faster uptake. Accordingly, MDA-modified MOG is processed for presentation by APCs, allowing maximized recall proliferation of MOG(35-55)-specific 2D2 T cells in vitro due to higher uptake. However, MDA modification of MOG did not enhance immune priming or disease course in the in vivo MOG-EAE model, but did induce antibody responses to both MOG and MDA adducts. Taken together our results indicate that MDA adducts primarily constitute clearance signals for phagocytes and promote rapid removal of antigen, which is subjected to immunological screening by previously licensed T cells.

  • Snäll, Tord
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Victor
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Stat Sweden, Reg & Environm Dept, Environm & Tourism, Box 24300, SE-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammar, Torun
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Caruso, Alexandro
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Måns
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Transient trade-off between climate benefit and biodiversity loss of harvesting stumps for bioenergy2017In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1751-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To replace fossil fuel and thereby mitigate climate change, harvesting of wood such as stumps for bioenergy will likely increase. Coarse deadwood is an important resource for biodiversity and stumps comprise the main part of the coarse deadwood in managed forests. We provide the first integrated analysis of the long-term climate and biodiversity impacts of a whole landscape. We simultaneously project climate and biodiversity impacts of harvesting stumps to substitute for fossil coal, assuming scenarios with different proportions of the landscape with stump harvest (10, 50, 80%) the coming 50years. A life cycle approach was used to calculate future global temperature changes and future metapopulation changes in six epixylic lichens. Metapopulation dynamics were projected using colonization and extinction models based on times series data. Harvesting stumps from 50% of the clear-cut forest land benefits climate with a net global temperature reduction >0.5.10(-9)Kha(-1) after 50years if assuming substitution of fossil coal. For all scenarios, using stump bioenergy leads to immediate (within 1year) reductions in temperature of >= 50% compared to using fossil coal, increasing to 70% reduction after 50 years. However, large-scale stump harvest inflicted substantial metapopulation declines for five of six lichens. High stump harvest levels (>= 50%) put common lichens at risk of becoming red-listed following the IUCN criteria. The net temperature reduction (cooling effect) from substituting fossil coal with stumps harvested for bioenergy increased over time, while lichen metapopulations stabilized at lower equilibria after two to three decades. This indicates that trade-offs between climate and metapopulations of commons species are transient, where climate benefits become more prevalent in the long term. As both objectives are important for meeting (inter-)national climate and biodiversity targets, integrated analyses such as this should be encouraged and urged to guide policymaking about large-scale implementation of stump harvest.

  • Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Håkansson, Nina
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record2018In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 633-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50% of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50% over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid-to high latitudes where at least 50% of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts with the highest altitudes over Greenland and Antarctica. It is suggested to quantify the detection performance of other CDRs in terms of a sensitivity threshold of cloud optical thickness, which can be estimated using active lidar observations. Validation results are proposed to be used in Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulation Package (COSP) simulators for cloud detection characterization of various cloud CDRs from passive imagery.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 14:00 F11, Stockholm
    Altafi, Nasrin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Lefschetz Properties of Monomial Ideals2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the study of the Lefschetz properties of artinian monomial algebras. An artinian algebra is said to satisfy the strong Lefschetz property if multiplication by all powers of a general linear form has maximal rank in every degree. If it holds for the first power it is said to have the weak Lefschetz property (WLP).

    In the first paper, we study the Lefschetz properties of monomial algebras by studying their minimal free resolutions. In particular, we give an afirmative answer to an specific case of a conjecture by Eisenbud, Huneke and Ulrich for algebras having almost linear resolutions. Since many algebras are expected to have the Lefschetz properties, studying algebras failing the Lefschetz properties is of a great interest. In the second paper, we provide sharp lower bounds for the number of generators of monomial ideals failing the WLP extending a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig which provides upper bounds for such ideals. In the second paper, we also study the WLP of ideals generated by forms of a certain degree invariant under an action of a cyclic group. We give a complete classication of such ideals satisfying the WLP in terms of the representation of the group generalizing a result by Mezzetti and Miró-Roig.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Dalirian, Maryam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Investigating parameters governing liquid-phase cloud activation of atmospheric particles2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main sources of uncertainties in modeling and predicting the Earth’s climate. To overcome this uncertainty, we need to improve the understanding about the processes and parameters defining how aerosol particles turn into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) to produce cloud droplets or ice crystals. The focus of this dissertation is on liquid phase cloud droplets. The thesis investigates the effect of water solubility and surface tension on the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles. These parameters are among the key properties defining how an aerosol particle can turn into a cloud droplet. The main goals of this thesis are to investigate 1) the CCN activity of aerosol particles containing both water soluble and insoluble substances and 2) the contribution of molecular-scale surface structure to the surface tension and CCN activity of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures.

    In the first part of this thesis, the CCN activity of water-insoluble aerosol constituents coated by water-soluble or sparingly soluble species was investigated. The results showed that the CCN activity of the insoluble silica and black carbon particles, with sizes between 100 and 300 nm, increased with the amount of the coating on the insoluble cores and at thick enough coating approached the CCN activity of the soluble species. Moreover, controlled dry coating of the insoluble BC cores yielded a size-independent distribution of the coating material on the insoluble cores, which was not achieved by wet coating of the silica particles. The results also confirmed that by knowing the fraction of soluble material (coating thicknesses), the existing theories gave a reasonable estimate of the CCN activity for the mixed soluble-insoluble particles. Finally, the results highlight the need for including the impacts of co-emitted or later condensed compounds in estimates of the climate impacts of atmospheric insoluble aerosol species.

    In the second part of the thesis, surface propensity of succinic acid, pure or mixed with soluble inorganic salts in the aqueous droplets, were quantified via molecular-level surface composition measurement by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of succinic acid aqueous solutions showed strong enrichment of the succinic acid at the surface of the liquid droplets compared to the bulk solution. This effect was more pronounced in the presence of the highly soluble inorganic salts like NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 in the system. The modeled surface tension of the pure organic or mixture of organic and inorganic substances, using surface enrichment factors derived from the XPS experiments were in good agreement with the experimental surface tension data. This demonstrates the high potential of XPS for direct measurements of the surface composition of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures. The results suggest that for modeling the phase-state and water content of the atmospheric particles, the contribution by the surface layer needs to be considered, because aqueous droplet can contain larger amounts of organic compounds than the bulk solubility limit of the solutions. However, the effect of the aqueous surface composition on the CCN activation of particles consisting of the studied mixtures was estimated to be very small.

    The results presented in this thesis provide new insights into the relationship between aerosol particle composition and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the effect of more realistic complex mixtures will require more research. The results showed that for modeling semi-volatile species, the partitioning between the gas and condensed phase needs to be considered. In addition, along with the liquid-phase cloud activation, the ice nucleation ability of the particles made of soluble and insoluble species requires to be further investigated.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-Salen), Stockholm
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Transformative Imagination: Re-imagining the world towards sustainability2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central task for sustainability science in the Anthropocene is to offer guidance on alternative pathways of change. Even though this search and implementation of pathways towards sustainability is likely to require profound social-ecological transformations, little is yet known about the individual and collective capacities needed to support such transformations. This thesis explores the connection between human imagination and sustainability transformations, and introduces the notion of the transformative imagination to support methodological innovation in sustainability sciences, and practices aiming to support transformations towards sustainability. The transformative imagination is suggested to support fundamentally new ways of seeing, feeling, encountering and envisioning the world. The thesis takes a transdisciplinary action-research approach and studies how specific participatory practices, including the arts, may foster the transformative imagination as a means to more skilfully respond to, anticipate and shape social-ecological trajectories in the Anthropocene. The four included papers, each explores how practices may support particular features of the imagination as a transformative capacity. Paper I analyses a case in coastal Kenya where participatory modelling and future scenarios are applied to foster imagination of dynamics of interdependences and trade-offs within the context of poverty alleviation and ecosystems change. Paper II explores system diagrams and scenarios as practices for the development of social-ecological narratives that may support robust interventions in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Paper III implements, and studies how an art-based approach based on performances, visual methods and an art installation, could support transformative visions of the Iberian Peninsula in the context of extreme climate change. Paper IV is a literature review of the potential contributions of the arts to transformations, in the context of climate change. These papers focus on different features of imagination, which under certain circumstances may progressively develop into societal transformative capacities with the potential to re-structure current social-ecological realities. Overall, this thesis is a step towards forging new kinds of reflexive, imaginative and deliberative practices that can support the emergence of local arrangements of a sustainable world where life can carry on.

  • Sarén, Tina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ramachandran, Mohanraj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Martikainen, Miika
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Yu, Di
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Insertion of the Type-I IFN Decoy Receptor B18R in a miRNA-Tagged Semliki Forest Virus Improves Oncolytic Capacity but Results in Neurotoxicity2017In: MOLECULAR THERAPY-ONCOLYTICS, ISSN 2372-7705, Vol. 7, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncolytic Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been suggested as a potential candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. However, the oncolytic capacity of SFV is restricted by the anti-viral type-I interferon (IFN) response. The aim of this study was to increase the oncolytic capacity of a microRNA target tagged SFV against glioblastoma by arming it with the Vaccinia-virus-encoded type-I IFN decoy receptor B18R (SFV4B18RmiRT) to neutralize type-I IFN response. Expression of B18R by SFV4B18RmiRT aided neutralization of IFN-b, which was shown by reduced STAT-1 phosphorylation and improved virus spread in plaque assays. B18R expression by SFV4 increased its oncolytic capacity in vitro against murine glioblastoma (CT-2A), regardless of the presence of exogenous IFN-b. Both SFV4B18RmiRT and SFV4miRT treatments controlled tumor growth in mice with syngeneic orthotopic gliomablastoma (CT-2A). However, treatment with SFV4B18RmiRT induced severe neurological symptoms in some mice because of virus replication in the healthy brain. Neither neurotoxicity nor virus replication in the brain was observed when SFV4miRT was administered. In summary, our results indicate that the oncolytic capacity of SFV4 was improved in vitro and in vivo by incorporation of B18R, but neurotoxicity of the virus was increased, possibly due to loss of microRNA targets.

  • Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa.
    Wiemerslage, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Burch, K H
    Maiorana, S A
    Cocolas, E
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kamaloodien, K
    Stein, D J
    The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users2017In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, no 12, p. 1911-1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

    METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

    RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

    CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

  • Pisanu, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Cagliari Cagliari Italy.
    Preisig, Martin
    Castelao, Enrique
    Glaus, Jennifer
    Pistis, Giorgio
    Squassina, Alessio
    Del Zompo, Maria
    Merikangas, Kathleen R
    Waeber, Gérard
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A genetic risk score is differentially associated with migraine with and without aura2017In: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 136, no 8, p. 999-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence, subtypes and severity in a large population-based sample. The sample comprised 446 subjects with migraine and 2511 controls from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. Fifty-four SNPs earlier associated with migraine were selected. SNPs with a low impact on migraine prevalence in our sample were excluded using random forest. We combined the remaining 21 SNPs into a GRS and analyzed the association with migraine using logistic regression models. The GRS was significantly associated with migraine (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) and migraine without aura (MWOA) (OR = 2.01, p = 0.003), but not with migraine with aura (MWA). The GRS was not associated with migraine frequency, intensity or interference with daily activities. We show that a GRS combining multiple genetic risk variants is associated with MWOA but not MWA, suggesting a different genetic susceptibility background underlying the two forms of migraine.

  • Devine, Josefin
    Institute for Language and Folklore, Department of Onomastics, Uppsala.
    Älgen – skogens konung i flera bemärkelser?2018In: Katharina och namnen: Vänskrift till Katharina Leibring på 60-årsdagen den 20 januari 2018 / [ed] Leila Mattfolk & Kristina Neumuller (huvudred.), Josefin Devine, Elin Pihl, Lennart Ryman & Annette C. Torensjö, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, p. 225-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Olsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Tengdelius-Brunell, Johanna
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Avrinningsområden för vattenförekomster 2012: En hydrologisk indelning för PLC-62013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är ett uppdrag från HaV, Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten. Informationen i rapporten riktar sig, i första hand, till dem som inom SMED arbetar med Pollution Load Compilation 6 (PLC6), Vattenförvaltningen vid SMHI och till Vattenmyndigheterna. I rapporten redovisas resultatet av en aktivitet inom SMED där syftet var att definiera hydrologiska avrinningsområden för användning vid beräkning av flöden av vatten, kväve och fosfor till havet. Avrinningsområden för Vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster identifierades i digitala kartskikt från SVAR, Svenskt VattenARkiv vid SMHI. Från projektet har data leverats till andra utvecklingsprojekt inom SMED-vatten, till modelluppsättningen S-HYPE vid SMHI och till representanter för vattenmyndigheterna. Ett kartskikt med indelning i 27 831 områden var tillgängligt 26 november 2012. Kartskiktet kompletterades med information om flödesordning och identiteter för det havsområde som vattnet rinner till. Det kompletterade kartskiktet var tillgängligt för hämtning 21 december 2012. I början av 2013 gjordes ytterligare granskning av kartskikt och utkast till denna rapport. Det ledde till ytterligare förbättringar av kartskiktet till PLC6. I den här rapporten beskrivs kartskiktets innehåll.

    I slutet av 2012 gjordes korrigeringar av några vattenförekomsters identiteter och kartrepresentationer i SVAR. Dessa ändringar har införts i kartskiktet till PLC6 så att samordningen med vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster optimeras. Det här innebar att antalet områden i kartskiktet minskade till 27 830 eftersom två områden slogs samman. Det reviderade kartskiktet till PLC6 blev klart i mars 2013.

    Kartskiktet baseras på avrinningsområden från SVAR version 2012_2. Till den här versionen av vattendelare kunde vi koppla 23 127 av vattenmyndigheternas vattenförekomster i SVAR version 2012_2 inklusive ändringar av vattenförekomsters identiteter införda i SVAR i slutet av 2012. Av de här vattenförekomsterna var 1 103 preliminära, d.v.s. de var ännu inte fastställda av Vattenmyndigheterna. Det finns fler vattenförekomster för sjöar respektive vattendrag i SVAR men de ligger inte vid avrinningsområdenas utlopp.

  • Devine, Josefin
    [Review of:] Lars-Erik Edlund & Elzbieta Strzelecka (eds.) Mellannorrland i centrum, new edn (Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2017)2017In: Journal of the English Place-Name Society, ISSN 1351-3095, Vol. 2016, no 48, p. 112-114Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Turner, David R.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, BOX 461, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences2017In: ELEMENTA-SCIENCE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE, ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 5, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship's antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  • Olsson, Håkan
    Executive, Myndigheter, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Kvantifiering av fysisk påverkan på svenska vatten till följd av vattenuttag, flödesreglering och morfologiska förändringar: Slutrapport december 20042004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet sammanställdes information som kunde användas som indikatorer på

    fysisk påverkan enligt vattendirektivets intentioner. Det rörde sig om information som

    kunde specificeras geografiskt och som kunde tillgängliggöras under projekttiden.

    Målsättningen var att göra en första rikstäckande kartering av områden där det fanns

    vattenobjekt med indikation på kraftig fysisk påverkan.

    Vattenförekomster som är kraftigt fysiskt förändrade kan under vissa förutsättningar

    som specificeras i vattendirektivet bli karaktäriserade som ”preliminärt kraftigt

    modifierade vattenförekomster” (förkortas PKMV). Definitionen ”Kraftigt modifierade

    vatten” erhålls först sedan socio-ekonomiska tester utförts enligt artikel 4:3 i EU:s

    ramdirektiv för vatten. Dessa vattenförekomster får därmed mindre stränga miljömål. I

    projektarbetet identifierades 214 sjöar och 6 kustvattenområden som provisoriskt

    kraftigt modifierade. Inom 3265 delavrinningsområden fanns det i det insamlade

    underlaget indikation på förekomst av vatten som kan komma i fråga som PKMV (se

    karta på sidan 20 i denna rapport).

    Bedömningsunderlag, kartor och kartunderlag som producerats inom projektet lagrades

    vid SMHI för användning vid fortsatt arbete med karaktärisering av vattenförekomster

    inför rapporteringen till EU i mars 2005. Resultaten samlades också på en CD för

    leverans till Naturvårdsverket. I tabell 1 ges en översikt över information som

    sammanställts inom projektet.

    Tabell 1. Antal dokument, kartor och kartunderlag med data (shape-filer) som

    sammanställts i projektet och som rapporteras på CD. Kartor = kartbilder. Shape =

    shape-filer.

    Moment Kartor Shape Word-dok Övrigt

    Vattenuttag 5 1 1 4 av kartorna i Word-dok.

    Regleringsgrad 1

    Flödesindikatorer 1 1

    Flödesstatistik 1

    Regleringshöjd 1

    Sänkta sjöar 3 3

    Dammar 2

    Strandnära 4 4 1

    Hamnar 3 2

    Preliminärt kraftigt modifierade 6 3

    Preliminärt konstgjorda 2

    Slutrapport 1

    SUMMA 27 16 3

  • van der Burgt, Danielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Children's Spatialities: embodiment, emotion and agency2018In: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 218-219Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Nyström, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    SCB.
    Cooper, David
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Use of data from the EU emission trading scheme for reporting to EU Monitoring Mechanism, UNFCCC and CLRTAP2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide more accurate data for Sweden’s reporting to the EU Monitoring Mechanism, UNFCCC and CLRTAP, the potential of using emission trading data submitted by individual companies in a trading survey in 2004 has been investigated. In 2004 this work involved a quality check by comparing national Swedish data with data on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reported in the trading survey on plant level for the yeas 1998-2004. In several cases, significant discrepancies were observed which warranted a closer investigation and an eventual revision of activity data and a few emission factors

    This present study covers an investigation of 46 plants with discrepancies in activity data and five plants with discrepancies in emission factors, discovered during the work in 2004. After consultation with the appropriate personnel at each company explanations to the observed differences were found. The results indicated a revision of the activity data, which have been performed for 35 plants. The investigation of emission factors also resulted in revision according to the table below. Previous CO2 factor used in submission 2005

    ton CO2/TJ

    New CO2 factor that will be used in submission 2006

    ton CO2/TJ

    Carbide furnace gas

    60

    145

    Refinery gas

    66.7

    59.3

    Petroleum coke

    103

    100

  • Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Study of differences in plant data between the Energy Statistics and the EU Emission Trading Scheme2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, about 700 plants are included in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) for carbon dioxide (CO2), which was launched on the 1st of January 2005. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for collecting and reviewing the data.

    For reporting of emissions to the UNFCCC, EU Monitoring Mechanism, CLRTAP and the EU NEC Directive 1990-2005, activity data is mainly based on energy statistics from Statistics Sweden’s quarterly fuel surveys (QS) and the industrial energy survey. In some cases, additional data sources, such as companies’ envi-ronmental reports or direct information from the companies, are used as a comple-ment.

    In 2006, a study was performed by SMED to verify plant specific data from the quarterly fuels statistics with data from the ETS. One recommendation in the study was to carry out an in-depth study focussing on a few plants with large differences between their QS and ETS data , which has now been carried out and the results are presented in this report.

    In this study the fossil energy amounts from 19 plants have been calculated in the ETS and compared with the energy amounts in the QS. Where differences were found the reasons were analysed comparing the levels of energy and fuel consump-tion by fuel type. Contacts have been made with a few plants to better understand the differences. Waste combustion is not included in the ETS and results show that the coherence is relatively good after waste combustion was excluded from the QS.

    The QS and the emission estimations that are made based on those data have a number of deficiencies. First of all, the reported fuel amount differs slightly be-tween the data sets and since ETS data are verified, they are likely to be more cor-rect. Besides, on plant level, the national thermal values and emission factors that are used for the GHG inventory is not totally correct. An other deficiency in the QS is that unconventional fuels are grouped in the QS into for instance "Other not specified fuels". The emission factors of these fuels are associated with very large uncertainties, since they are not specific for the current fuel and plant. Finally, another problem is that some of those unconventional fuels are incorrectly classi-fied. In the ETS some of these fuels are often partly biogenic and should hence be classified as "Other biomass".

    The deficiencies identified should be considered to be revised if a better coherence between the QS and the ETS is desired.

  • Hagen, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jonkoping Univ, Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    The effects of increasing the normal retirement age on health care utilization and mortality2018In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 193-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay estimates the health effects of increasing the normal retirement age using Swedish administrative data on drug prescriptions, hospitalizations, and mortality. To this end, I use a reform that raised the age at which broad categories of Swedish local government workers were entitled to retire with full pension benefits from 63 to 65. Estimating the effect of the reform on individuals' health within the age range 65-69, the results show no evidence that the reform impacted mortality or health care utilization. Increasing the normal retirement age may thus have positive government income effects without seriously affecting short to medium run government health care expenditures.

  • Agustsson, Atli
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Res Ctr Movement Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sveinsson, Thorarinn
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Res Ctr Movement Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Lund Univ, Orthopaed, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden..
    The effect of asymmetrical limited hip flexion on seating posture, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion2017In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 71, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postural asymmetries with seating problems are common in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Aims: To analyse the prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion (< 90) in adults with CP, and to evaluate the association between asymmetrical limited hip flexion and postural asymmetries in the sitting position.

    Methods and procedures: Cross-sectional data of 714 adults with CP, 16-73 years, GMFCS level I -V, reported to CPUP, the Swedish cerebral palsy national surveillance program and quality registry, from 2013 to 2015. Hip range of motion was analysed in relation to pelvic obliquity, trunk asymmetry, weight distribution, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

    Outcomes and results: The prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion increased as GMFCS level decreased. Of adults at GMFCS level V, 22% had asymmetrical limited hip flexion (< 90). The odds of having an oblique pelvis (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.6-2.1), an asymmetrical trunk (OR 2.1, 95% CI:1.1-4.2), scoliosis (OR 3.7, 95% CI:1.3-9.7), and windswept hip distortion (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.4) were higher for adults with asymmetrical limited hip flexion compared with those with bilateral hip flexion > 90 degrees.

    Conclusions and implications: Asymmetrical limited hip flexion affects the seating posture and is associated with scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

  • Styrket nordisk lovsamarbeid: Muligheter og utfordringer2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten peker på utfordringer og muligheter for det nordiske lovsamarbeidet, som etter den nordiske samarbeidsavtalen (Helsingforsavtalen) er en sentral del i nordisk samarbeid. Rapporten har en rekke forslag til hvordan man kan styrke lovsamarbeidet.

    Rapporten fremhever at et styrket nordisk lovsamarbeid kan gi bedre lovgivning i hvert enkelt land, forebygge og motvirke grensehindre i Norden,og bidra til å fremheve den nordiske modellen i verdenssamfunnet. Et sterkere lovsamarbeid er viktig for å nå målet om at Norden skal være denmest integrerte region i verden i samsvar med de nordiske statsministrenes felles erklæring i 2016.

    Rapportforfatteren, professor emeritus Inge Lorange Backer ved Universitetet i Oslo, har lang erfaring fra nordisk samarbeid innenjustisområdet. Som ekspedisjonssjef i Lovavdelingen i Justisdepartementet i Norge (1995–2008) var han Norges medlem i den nordiske embetsmannskomiteen for lovsamarbeid.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:15 Auditorium Minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Li, Oliver
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Philosophy of Religion.
    Panentheism, Panpsychism and Neuroscience: In Search of an Alternative Metaphysical Framework in Relation to Neuroscience, Consciousness, Free Will, and Theistic Beliefs2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis philosophically examines, critically discusses, and proposes how a plausible philosophical framework of consciousness and free will should be formulated. This framework takes into account contemporary scientific research on human consciousness and free will and its possible challenges; also it is examined how this framework should be related to theistic beliefs – especially those connected to human and divine consciousness and free will.

    First, an overview of important research within the natural sciences about the conscious mind is presented together with its challenges to a theistic worldview. Next, questions related to reductive physicalism and dualism as a thesis and an antithesis are discussed. This dialectical approach leads to two lines for possible alternatives: emergence theories and process panpsychism. The subsequent analysis suggests that a form of process panpsychism in combination with a weaker form of emergence is most plausible.

    After a discussion of some central ideas about determinism and indeterminism, together with a brief overview of standard arguments within the philosophical free will debate, the proposed emergent process panpsychism is related to these standard arguments in the free will debate and scientific research about decision-making. As  a result it will be suggested how free will should be understood in relation to the emergent process panpsychism.

    The consequences of these results are then discussed in relation to a theistic worldview. Here panentheism will be suggested as the most reasonable conception of God. Also, the consequences for divine consciousness, divine action and interaction, the human soul, life before birth and after death, and more briefly a personal relationship with God, theological determinism, omniscience, and omnipotence will be discussed specifically in relation to panentheism in an emergent  process panpsychist setting.

  • Nyström, Anna-Karin
    SCB.
    Co2from the use of soda ash: CRF 2A42004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    v

    Emissions of CO2 from the use of soda ash shall be reported to the UNFCCC according to the IPCC Guidelines. In earlier Submissions, Sweden has only reported emissions from the use of soda ash within glass manufacture. In this project contact has been made and data has been collected from several other users of soda ash, for instance moist snuff producers and producers of detergents. Data has also been collected from companies that reported use of soda ash in the trading survey sent by SEPA and SMED in January, and from the Swedish Chemicals Inspectorates (KemI). New calculations of CO2 from the use of soda ash were made for the time series 1990-2003 based on data from KemI for all sectors except from glass manufacturers, where the data already available from earlier submissions were used. The new time series show a lot higher emissions than in Submission 2004, but still CO2 emissions from the use of soda ash is only about 1 % of the total CO2 emissions in the Industrial Process sector.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-22 10:15 Sal IV, Uppsala
    Sakka, Laura Stavroula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Affective responses to music in depressed individuals: Aesthetic judgments, emotions, and the impact of music-evoked autobiographical memories2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Music’s powerful influence on our affective states is often utilized in everyday life for emotion regulation and in music-therapeutic interventions against depression. Given this ability of music to influence emotions and symptoms in depressed people, it appears imperative to understand how these individuals affectively respond to music. The primary aim of this thesis is to explore whether depressed individuals have distinct affective responses to music, in terms of aesthetic judgments, emotional reactions, and emotion regulation. Furthermore, the thesis aims to provide possible explanations for such differences, in terms of underlying psychological processes (e.g., emotion-induction mechanisms) and depressive attributes (e.g., cognitive biases). Study I involves a music listening experiment exploring the relationship between depression and aesthetic judgments in music. Findings indicate that depression is associated with higher ratings of aesthetic judgment, accompanied by an enhanced reliance on the expressivity criterion. However, this relationship is not accompanied by an association between depression and the Openness to Experience personality factor. Study II investigates emotion regulation with music in depressed individuals, by means of a survey. The study features a novel conceptual framework for studying emotion regulation with music, grounded on the established process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 2008) in combination with the music-specific multi-level GSTM approach (van Goethem & Sloboda, 2011). Results indicate that depressed individuals do not differ from controls in their “active” emotional responding (i.e., emotion regulation) to music. Study III features an experiment comparing depressed to controls’ “passive” emotional responses (i.e., emotional reactions) to musical stimuli designed to activate specific mechanisms (i.e., Brain stem reflex, Contagion, and Episodic memory). Findings suggest that differences in emotional reactions occur with respect to episodic memory, potentially due to cognitive biases. Finally, Study IV follows up on these results and investigates the valence and specificity of music-evoked memories in depressed individuals. The study finds that depressed participants’ memories are negatively biased, but do not differ from controls’ in level of specificity. Together, the findings of this thesis suggest that music listening may have a dual potential for depressed individuals, functioning both as a beneficial resource for alleviating depressive symptoms (due to, e.g., elevated aesthetic appreciation of music) and as a contributing factor to depressive mood (due to, e.g., negatively biased memories).

  • Public defence: 2018-03-12 09:00 B/A1:111a, Uppsala
    van der Schot, Gijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Imaging Living Cells with an X-ray Laser2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Imaging living cells at a resolution higher than the resolution of optical microscopy is a significant challenge. Fluorescence microscopy can achieve a degree of super-resolution via labeling cellular components with a fluorescent dye. Reaching nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution requires high-energy radiation with significantly shorter wavelength than that of optical light. X-rays and electrons have the requisite wavelengths and could be suitable for such studies; however, these probes also cause significant radiation damage. A dose in excess of 100,000,000 Gray (Gy, J/kg) would be required to reach nanometer resolution on a cell, and no cell can survive this amount of radiation. As a consequence, much of what we know about cells at high resolution today comes from dead material.

    Theory predicts that an ultra-short and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse from an X-ray free-electron laser can outrun key damage processes to deliver a molecular-level snapshot of a cell that is alive at the time of image formation. The principle of ‘diffraction before destruction’ exploits the difference between the speed of light (the X-ray pulse) and the much slower speed of damage formation. The femtosecond pulse ‘freezes’ motion in the cell at physiological temperatures on the time scale of atomic vibrations, offering unprecedented time resolution and a plethora of new experimental possibilities.

    This thesis describes the first test experiments on imaging living cells with an X-ray laser. I present results in three essential areas of live cell imaging. (i) We have used an aerosol injector to introduce live cyanobacteria into the X-ray focus, and recorded diffraction patterns with extremely low background at very high hit rates. (ii) We demonstrated scattered signal beyond 4 nm resolution in some of these experiments. (iii) The thesis also describes image reconstruction, using a new fully automated pipeline that I developed during my studies. The reconstruction of diffraction patterns was successful for all patterns that did not have saturated pixels. The new software suite, called RedFlamingo, selects exposures with desired properties, can sort them according to sample size, shape, orientation, exposure, the number and type of objects in the beam during the exposure, their distance from each other, and so forth. The software includes validation tools to assess the quality of the reconstructions.