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  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 10:15 Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala
    Pavliuk, Mariia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Accumulative Charge Separation in Photocatalysis: From Molecules to Nanoparticles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photochemical energy conversion into solar fuel involves steps of light absorption, charge separation and catalysis. Nature has taught us that the effective accumulation of redox equivalents and charge separation are the key steps in sunlight conversion. The focus of this thesis is to unveil photophysical and photochemical processes that lead to accumulative charge separation. The optimization of electron transfer process will be held by minimization of losses via recombination, and extension of the lifetime of the charge separated state by usage of the electron relay.

    The goal is to couple light induced electron transfer process with the multi-electron catalytic process of hydrogen evolution. In this regard, light harvesters (molecules, metal nanostructures) that generate at least two electrons per absorbed photon will be studied. Additionally, semiconductors that generate long-lived charge separated states are utilized to accumulate several redox equivalents necessary for hydrogen evolution.

    The hybrid systems produced by the combination of the advantageous properties of molecules, semiconductors, and metal nanoparticles are under the scope of investigation. Metal nanoparticles are advantageous because of their high absorption cross-section. The molecular linkers provide control and flexibility in tuning the connection between the light absorber and the electron relay. Semiconductor nanoparticles offer the desired charge separation properties via prolonging the lifetime sufficiently to perform photocatalysis.

    The detailed understanding, investigation and development of the hybrid systems is at the heart of the progress of photochemical solar fuel production.

  • Abramenkovs, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Removal of heat-sensitive clustered damaged DNA sites is independent of double-strand break repair2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious lesions that can arise in cells after ionizing radiation or radiometric drug treatment. In addition to prompt DSBs, DSBs may also be produced during repair, evolving from a clustered DNA damaged site, which is composed of two or more distinct lesions that are located within two helical turns. A specific type of cluster damage is the heat-sensitive clustered site (HSCS), which transforms into DSBs upon treatment at elevated temperatures. The actual lesions or mechanisms that mediate the HSCS transformation into DSBs are unknown. However, there are two possibilities; either these lesions are transformed into DSBs due to DNA lesion instability, e.g., transfer of HSCS into single-strand breaks (SSBs), or they are formed due to local DNA structure instability, e.g., DNA melting, where two SSBs on opposite strands meet and transform into a DSB. The importance of these processes in living cells is not understood, but they significantly affect estimates of DSB repair capacity. In this study, we show that HSCS removal in human cells is not affected by defects in DSB repair or inhibition of DSB repair. Under conditions where rejoining of prompt DSBs was almost completely inhibited, heat-sensitive DSBs were successfully rejoined, without resulting in increased DSB levels, indicating that HSCS do not transfer into DSB in cells under physiological conditions. Furthermore, analysis by atomic force microscopy suggests that prolonged heating of chromosomal DNA can induce structural changes that facilitate transformation of HSCS into DSB. In conclusion, the HSCS do not generate additional DSBs at physiological temperatures in human cells, and the repair of HSCS is independent of DSB repair.

  • Went, Molly
    et al.
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Sud, Amit
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Speedy, Helen
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Sunter, Nicola J.
    Newcastle Univ, Northern Inst Canc Res, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Foersti, Asta
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.
    Law, Philip J.
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Johnson, David C.
    Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Mirabella, Fabio
    Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Holroyd, Amy
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Li, Ni
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Orlando, Giulia
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Weinhold, Niels
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Myeloma Inst Res & Therapy, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    van Duin, Mark
    Erasmus MC Canc Inst, Dept Hematol, NL-3075 EA Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Chen, Bowang
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Mitchell, Jonathan S.
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Lund Strateg Res Ctr Stem Cell Biol & Cell Therap, Hematol & Transplantat, Lund, Sweden.
    Smedby, Karin E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jayne, Sandrine
    Univ Leicester, Ernest & Helen Scott Haematol Res Inst, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Majid, Aneela
    Univ Leicester, Ernest & Helen Scott Haematol Res Inst, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Dearden, Claire
    Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Allsup, David J.
    Hull Royal Infirm, Dept Haematol, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England.
    Bailey, James R.
    Hull York Med Sch, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England;Univ Hull, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England.
    Pratt, Guy
    Birmingham Heartlands Hosp, Dept Haematol, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
    Pepper, Chris
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Med, Dept Haematol, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales.
    Fegan, Chris
    Cardiff & Vale Natl Hlth Serv Trust, Heath Pk, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Kuiper, Rowan
    Erasmus MC Canc Inst, Dept Hematol, NL-3075 EA Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Stephens, Owen W.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Myeloma Inst Res & Therapy, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Bertsch, Uta
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Natl Ctr Tumor Dis, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Broderick, Peter
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Einsele, Hermann
    Univ Clin Wurzburg, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Gregory, Walter M.
    Univ Leeds, Clin Trials Res Unit, Leeds LS2 9PH, W Yorkshire, England.
    Hillengass, Jens
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Internal Med 5, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hoffmann, Per
    Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, D-53127 D- Bonn, Germany;Univ Basel, Dept Biomed, Div Med Genet, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland.
    Jackson, Graham H.
    Royal Victoria Infirm, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 4LP, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Nickel, Jolanta
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Internal Med 5, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, D-53127 D- Bonn, Germany;Univ Bonn, Life & Brain Ctr, Dept Genom, D-53127 Bonn, Germany.
    da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Thomsen, Hauke
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Walker, Brian A.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Myeloma Inst Res & Therapy, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Broyl, Annemiek
    Erasmus MC Canc Inst, Dept Hematol, NL-3075 EA Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Davies, Faith E.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Myeloma Inst Res & Therapy, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Hansson, Markus
    Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Hematol & Transfus Med, BMC B13, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Goldschmidt, Hartmut
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Internal Med 5, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Natl Ctr Tumor Dis, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Dyer, Martin J. S.
    Univ Leicester, Ernest & Helen Scott Haematol Res Inst, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Kaiser, Martin
    Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Sonneveld, Pieter
    Erasmus MC Canc Inst, Dept Hematol, NL-3075 EA Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Morgan, Gareth J.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Myeloma Inst Res & Therapy, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Hemminki, Kari
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Lund Univ, Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bjorn
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Hematol & Transfus Med, BMC B13, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden;Broad Inst, 7 Cambridge Ctr, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.
    Catovsky, Daniel
    Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Allan, James M.
    Newcastle Univ, Northern Inst Canc Res, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Inst Canc Res, Div Genet & Epidemiol, London SW7 3RP, England;Inst Canc Res, Div Mol Pathol, London SW7 3RP, England.
    Genetic correlation between multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia provides evidence for shared aetiology2018In: Blood Cancer Journal, ISSN 2044-5385, E-ISSN 2044-5385, Vol. 9, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clustering of different types of B-cell malignancies in families raises the possibility of shared aetiology. To examine this, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD)-score regression of multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, totalling 11,734 cases and 29,468 controls. A significant genetic correlation between these two B-cell malignancies was shown (R-g = 0.4, P = 0.0046). Furthermore, four of the 45 known CLL risk loci were shown to associate with MM risk and five of the 23 known MM risk loci associate with CLL risk. By integrating eQTL, Hi-C and ChlP-seq data, we show that these pleiotropic risk loci are enriched for B-cell regulatory elements and implicate B-cell developmental genes. These data identify shared biological pathways influencing the development of CLL and, MM and further our understanding of the aetiological basis of these B-cell malignancies.

  • Gustafsson, Ingrid
    Internrevisionen och det paradoxala oberoendet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ”oberoende” används allt mer frekvent i samband med olika former av granskning. Ofta menas då att granskaren är oberoende från den granskade, till exempel genom att de tillhör olika organisationer. Men vad händer när oberoendeidealet ska praktiseras inom en organisation? Med internrevision inom Polisen som utgångspunkt studerar Ingrid Gustafsson hur och vad som ska skiljas åt för att berättelsen om oberoende ska bli trovärdig. Det är alltså inte en värdering av oberoendet som står i fokus, utan arbetet för att skapa det.

    Med hjälp av begreppet ”gränsarbete” studerar hon hur oberoende granskning hanteras och skapas generellt och bidrar samtidigt, mer specifikt, till en större förståelse för internrevisionens praktik och villkor.

  • Veldman, Sarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Kim, Seol-Jong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    van Andel, Tinde R.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Font, Maria Bello
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Postboks 1172, N-0318 Oslo, Norway.
    Bone, Ruth E.
    Royal Bot Gardens, Richmond TW9 3AB, Surrey, England.
    Bytebier, Benny
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Bews Herbarium, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa.
    Chuba, David
    Univ Zambia, Dept Biol Sci, Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Inst Biol Leiden, POB 9505, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands;Univ Appl Sci Leiden, Zernikedreef 11, NL-2333 CK Leiden, Netherlands.
    Martos, Florent
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Bews Herbarium, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa;Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, CNRS, Inst Systemat Evolut Biodiversite ISYEB,EPHE, CP50,45 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Mpatwa, Geophat
    Copperbelt Univ, Sch Nat Resources, POB 21692, Kitwe, Zambia.
    Ngugi, Grace
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Life Sci, Bews Herbarium, Pr Bag X01, ZA-3209 Scottsville, South Africa;Natl Museums Kenya, East African Herbarium, POB 40658-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Vinya, Royd
    Copperbelt Univ, Sch Nat Resources, POB 21692, Kitwe, Zambia.
    Wightman, Nicholas
    Homegarden Landscape Consultants Ltd, P Bag 30C, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Yokoya, Kazutoma
    Royal Bot Gardens, Richmond TW9 3AB, Surrey, England.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Trade in Zambian Edible Orchids-DNA Barcoding Reveals the Use of Unexpected Orchid Taxa for Chikanda2018In: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Zambia, wild edible terrestrial orchids are used to produce a local delicacy called chikanda, which has become increasingly popular throughout the country. Commercialization puts orchid populations in Zambia and neighbouring countries at risk of overharvesting. Hitherto, no study has documented which orchid species are traded on local markets, as orchid tubers are difficult to identify morphologically. In this study, the core land-plant DNA barcoding markers rbcL and matK were used in combination with nrITS to determine which species were sold in Zambian markets. Eighty-two interviews were conducted to determine harvesting areas, as well as possible sustainability concerns. By using nrITS DNA barcoding, a total of 16 orchid species in six different genera could be identified. Both rbcL and matK proved suitable to identify the tubers up to the genus or family level. Disa robusta, Platycoryne crocea and Satyrium buchananii were identified most frequently and three previously undocumented species were encountered on the market. Few orchid species are currently listed on the global International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Local orchid populations and endemic species could be at risk of overharvesting due to the intensive and indiscriminate harvesting of chikanda orchids, and we therefore encourage increased conservation assessment of terrestrial African orchids.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 09:15 Room B41, Uppsala
    Treyer, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Characterization of parameters influencing intracellular bioavailability and prediction of intracellular drug exposure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work investigates factors influencing intracellular drug disposition. An experimental method for measurement of intracellular bioavailability (Fic), was used throughout. Fic is defined as the ratio between the unbound drug concentration inside the cell and the compound concentration in the cell exterior.

    First, the impact of transporter proteins—such as the uptake transporter OATP-1B1 and the efflux transporter P-gp—on Fic was assessed in isolation in singly transfected, well-characterized cell models. The net impact of ADME proteins on Fic, including drug transporter proteins and metabolic enzymes, was assessed in primary human hepatocytes. The results indicated that the Fic measurement accurately reflected system-dependent functionality of these proteins.

    Second, the impact of cellular lipids on Fic was studied, in particular phospholipids (a major constituent of cellular membranes) and neutral lipids (in the form of neutral lipid droplets in adipocytes). Drug partitioning to phospholipids was found to be the major determinant of intracellular fraction of unbound drug (fu,cell), while neutral lipid droplets and cellular proteins played a relatively smaller role. Therefore, the importance of phospholipids, and their major four subspecies—phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)—was investigated in a cell-free approach with purified phospholipids.

    Finally, Fic was applied in two ways to drug discovery settings. First, Fic successfully harmonized system-dependent CYP450 enzyme inhibition values (IC50) obtained in human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. Fic measured in suspended human hepatocytes also reflected hepatic enrichment factors of CYP450 inhibitors used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling. Second, Fic was used as a complementary tool to study the effect of cell-penetrating peptides on intracellular disposition of targeted antisense oligonucleotide conjugates.

    Overall, the thesis contributes to the mechanistic understanding of Fic and demonstrates its use for drug compound profiling at an early stage in drug discovery settings.

  • Åstrand, Per-Olof
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH. Department of Physiology, Kungliga Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Experimental studies of physical working capacity in relation to sex and age1952Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • Fellström, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Renal Medicine.
    Holmdahl, J.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Nephrol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundvall, N.
    Sunderby Hosp, Unit Nephrol, Lulea, Sweden.
    Cockburn, E.
    Astellas Pharma, Kastrup, Denmark.
    Kilany, S.
    Astellas Pharma, Kastrup, Denmark.
    Wennberg, L.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Div Transplantat Surg, Huddinge, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, CLINTEC, Huddinge, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adherence of Renal Transplant Recipients to Once-daily, Prolonged-Release and Twice-daily, Immediate-release Tacrolimus-based Regimens in a Real-life Setting in Sweden2018In: Transplantation Proceedings, ISSN 0041-1345, E-ISSN 1873-2623, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 3275-3282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In this study we investigated medication adherence of kidney transplant patients (KTPs) to an immediate-release tacrolimus (IR-T) regimen and, after conversion, to a prolonged-release tacrolimus (PR-T) regimen in routine clinical practice. Methods. This was a non-interventional, observational, multicenter Swedish study. We included adult KTPs with stable graft function, remaining on IR-T or converting from IR-T to PR-T. Data were collected at baseline, and months 3, 6, and 12 post-baseline. The primary endpoint was adherence using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medication Scale (BAASIS). Secondary assessments included tacrolimus dose and trough levels, clinical laboratory parameters (eg, estimated glomerular filtration rate), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Results. Overall, data from 233 KTPs were analyzed (PR-T, n = 175; IR-T, n = 58). Mean change in PR-T dose from baseline (4.8 mg/d) to month 12 was -0.2 mg/d, and for IR-T (4.2 mg/d) was-0.4 mg/d; tacrolimus trough levels remained similar. Overall adherence was similar between baseline and month 12 in both groups (PR-T: 54.4% vs 57.0%, respectively; IR-T: 65.5% vs 69.4%); timing adherence followed a similar pattern. The probability of taking adherence improved between baseline and month 12 (odds ratio, 1.97; P =.0092) in the PR-T group only. Mean BAASIS visual analog scale score at baseline was 94.3 11.1% (PR-T) and 95.3 7.6% (IR-T), and >95% at subsequent visits. Laboratory parameters remained stable. Eight (4.6%) patients receiving PR-T (none receiving IR-T) had ADRs considered probably/possibly treatment-related. Conclusion. Disparity existed between high, patient-perceived and low, actual adherence. Overall adherence to the immunosuppressive regimen (measured by BAASIS) did not improve significantly over 12 months in stable KTPs converting to PR-T or remaining on IR-T; renal function remained stable.

  • Rahm, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Educational imaginaries: a genealogy of the digital citizen2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis makes use of a genealogical approach to map out and explainhow and why computers and citizenship have become so closely connected.It examines the historical continuities and disruptions, and the role thatpopular education has played in this interrelation. Drawing on previousresearch in the overlap between Swedish popular education history andhistorical computer politics, this thesis adds knowledge about howimaginaries of popular education, operating as silver bullet solutions toproblems with computerization, have had important functions as governingtools for at least 70 years. That is, Swedish popular education has since the1950s been imagined as a central solution to problems with computerization,but also to realize the societal potentials associated with computers.

    Specifically, this thesis makes two contributions: 1) Empirically, the thesisunearths archived, and in many ways forgotten, discourses around thehistorical enactment of the digital citizen, and the role of popular education,questioning assumptions that are taken for granted in current times; 2)Theoretically, the thesis proposes a conceptual model of educationalimaginaries, and specifically introduces the notion (and method) of‘problematizations’ into these imaginaries.

  • Marshall, Matilda
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Hållbarhet till middag: En etnologisk studie om hur miljövänligt ätande praktiseras i vardagslivet2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability has become a conspicuous term in the public and political debate, as well as in the landscapes of consumption. This study focuses on how people understand and practice sustainability through food in their everyday life. The aim is to describe and analyse sustainability as a collection of meaning-making practices by studying households that in some sense actively aim for an environmentally friendly and sustainable food consumption. The ethnographic fieldwork, mainly interviews and participant observations, included fifteen households in a municipality in northern Sweden during 2012-15. The dissertation centres around reoccurring themes: organic food, local food, food as culture and materiality, morality and distinction. Through these themes it became evident that the participants related sustainable food practices to more than environmental issues. Socioeconomic relations within the locality and the global world, as well as cultural norms, traditions and values related to food, were important aspects of a perceived sustainable society. Although occasionally seeming inconsistent and contradictory in their meaning-making of and commitment to practices revolving around ideals of (ecological) sustainability, the participants balanced multiple sustainabilities simultaneously. Besides the ecological aspect, they also wished for sustainable localities, household economy, social relations and personal wellbeing.

    Influenced by social practice theory the study pays attention to the competences, meanings and materials a practice is dependent on. The participants developed individual repertoires, or practice bundles, of sustainable food related practices that were meaningful in their everyday life. The development and expansion of such a bundle could be understood as a form of acquiring and maintaining green capital; a symbolic capital based upon shared green values which unite the possessors and distinguish them from those lacking such values. Green capital is expressed through green distinction, that is, using taste to differentiate between holders and non-holders of the symbolic capital. The participants separated themselves from both the large majority who did not yet understand or practise sustainability, and from “fanatics” who they perceived took sustainability in an extreme and unsound manner. A balanced approach to sustainability was favoured as the participants to a great extent valued a lifestyle adjustable to the preconditions of the contemporary Swedish society, such as social norms. The study shows how sustainability is constantly renegotiated and filled with new cultural meaning.

  • Öberg, Lisa
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treelines in high-mountain regions are constrained by heat deficiency, although the working mechanisms are still not entirely understood. Observational and paleoecological studies on treeline performance may contribute to increased understanding of the treeline phenomenon in general. The present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By various analytical tools, the studies embrace widely different temporal scales.

    The concept treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper individual tree of a certain tree species, at least 2 m tall. All the principal tree species in the Scandes are concerned, i.e. mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Paper I deals with regional treeline dynamics at more than 100 sites over the past 100 years. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the same period, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. Thus, under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, treeline upshifts have been much smaller than 200 m, which relates to the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution and soil depth. After 1975, the birch has lost its role as the most rapidly advancing tree species, being superseded by pine and spruce.

    Paper II is a short-term (2005/2007-2010/2011) study of mountain birch treeline performance along a regional maritimity-continentality gradient. Upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part of the gradient contrasts to retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part. In the latter area, earlier and more complete melting of late-lying snow patches has seemingly progressed to a state when soil drought sets back the vigour of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate.

    Paper III explores treeline change by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate spruce individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline and is based on analyses of radiocarbon-dated megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath clonal groups of spruce. Living spruce clones, which in some cases may date back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP), suggests that spruce immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought. As the krummholz form presupposes open and windy habitats, it is inferred that permanently open spots prevailed in the high-mountain landscape even during periods when treelines in general were much higher than today.

    Paper IV reports radiocarbon dates of wood samples, retrieved from newly exposed glacier forefields at three main sites, located high above the modern treelines and embracing the entire Swedish Scandes. It appears that pine colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present day treeline position and accordingly, the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present (uncorrected for land uplift). During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered 100-150 m above the uppermost pines. In response to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. Thereafter, these habitats experienced increased snow accumulation and glacier inception.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:15 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Tsougkas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Combinatorial and analytical problems for fractals and their graph approximations2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent field of analysis on fractals has been studied under a probabilistic and analytic point of view. In this present work, we will focus on the analytic part developed by Kigami. The fractals we will be studying are finitely ramified self-similar sets, with emphasis on the post-critically finite ones. A prototype of the theory is the Sierpinski gasket. We can approximate the finitely ramified self-similar sets via a sequence of approximating graphs which allows us to use notions from discrete mathematics such as the combinatorial and probabilistic graph Laplacian on finite graphs. Through that approach or via Dirichlet forms, we can define the Laplace operator on the continuous fractal object itself via either a weak definition or as a renormalized limit of the discrete graph Laplacians on the graphs.

    The aim of this present work is to study the graphs approximating the fractal and determine connections between the Laplace operator on the discrete graphs and the continuous object, the fractal itself.

    In paper I, we study the number of spanning trees on the sequence of graphs approximating a self-similar set admitting spectral decimation.

    In paper II, we study harmonic functions on p.c.f. self-similar sets. Unlike the standard Dirichlet problem and harmonic functions in Euclidean space, harmonic functions on these sets may be locally constant without being constant in their entire domain. In that case we say that the fractal has a degenerate harmonic structure. We prove that for a family of variants of the Sierpinski gasket the harmonic structure is non-degenerate.

    In paper III, we investigate properties of the Kusuoka measure and the corresponding energy Laplacian on the Sierpinski gaskets of level k.

    In papers IV and V, we establish a connection between the discrete combinatorial graph Laplacian determinant and the regularized determinant of the fractal itself. We establish that for a certain class of p.c.f. fractals the logarithm of the regularized determinant appears as a constant in the logarithm of the discrete combinatorial Laplacian.

  • Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Umeå University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, SE 90187 Umeå.
    Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes2012In: Landscape Online, ISSN 1865-1542, E-ISSN 1865-1542, Vol. 26, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris) colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in "empty" glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  • Wällstedt, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Managing Multiplicity: On Control, Care and the Individual2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis about managing multiplicity. It analyses how people working in municipalities are managing, controlling, and caring for the complex and contradictory world they live in. Building on more than 100 interviews and observations, the thesis examines the multiple realities of those who work in public sector organisations. By studying (1) the work of managers on different organisational levels, controllers, professionals responsible for the care of others and, to a lesser extent, politicians; (2) the management control systems that are used in the work, and (3) the ongoing debates and legislations directed towards the management of care practices, the thesis makes an effort to analyse how the realities of these individuals; those active in controlling and caring, are constructed.

    The thesis makes several contributions to the literatures on management control and public management. Where earlier studies are either based on a functionalist conception of management control and public management (in which performance measures and control systems are tools in the hands of managers, that enable them to control other practices), or focused on understanding how control contributes to the construction of reality (making reality ontologically coherent, and therefore controllable), the present thesis argues that management can be approached and analysed as a practice devoted to managing ontological multiplicity, rather than as an activity devoted to control other practices or making reality controllable.

    By using the concept of ontological politics, the thesis shows that control often fails to make reality controllable, which makes the practice of management reliant on alternative ways to manage. The alternative to control that is analysed in the thesis is care, and the thesis argues that care could be seen as a way to manage, rather than as something that should be controlled: care is complementary to control when it comes to management. The thesis explicates how management by care is done in relation to management by control, and how they may become resources for each other in managing the complex and contradictory public sector.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 09:15 Sal VIII, Uppsala
    Nikoleris, Nikos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems.
    Efficient Memory Modeling During Simulation and Native Execution2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Application performance on computer processors depends on a number of complex architectural and microarchitectural design decisions. Consequently, computer architects rely on performance modeling to improve future processors without building prototypes. This thesis focuses on performance modeling and proposes methods that quantify the impact of the memory system on application performance.

    Detailed architectural simulation, a common approach to performance modeling, can be five orders of magnitude slower than execution on the actual processor. At this rate, simulating realistic workloads requires years of CPU time. Prior research uses sampling to speed up simulation. Using sampled simulation, only a number of small but representative portions of the workload are evaluated in detail. To fully exploit the speed potential of sampled simulation, the simulation method has to efficiently reconstruct the architectural and microarchitectural state prior to the simulation samples. Practical approaches to sampled simulation use either functional simulation at the expense of performance or checkpoints at the expense of flexibility. This thesis proposes three approaches that use statistical cache modeling to efficiently address the problem of cache warm up and speed up sampled simulation, without compromising flexibility. The statistical cache model uses sparse memory reuse information obtained with native techniques to model the performance of the cache. The proposed sampled simulation framework evaluates workloads 150 times faster than approaches that use functional simulation to warm up the cache.

    Other approaches to performance modeling use analytical models based on data obtained from execution on native hardware. These native techniques allow for better understanding of the performance bottlenecks on existing hardware. Efficient resource utilization in modern multicore processors is necessary to exploit their peak performance. This thesis proposes native methods that characterize shared resource utilization in modern multicores. These methods quantify the impact of cache sharing and off-chip memory sharing on overall application performance. Additionally, they can quantify scalability bottlenecks for data-parallel, symmetric workloads.

  • Säter Böe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    BRAVENT – Delrapport 2 ; Brannspredning i ventilasjonskanaler2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is sub-report 2 of the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke distribution in ventilation ducts) which presents results from experiments where the risk of spreading fire and heat in ventilation ducts has been investigated. In the experiments, the effect of fire insulation on the duct, and mixing hot smoke with air at room temperature in the duct (as from adjacent rooms) has been investigated. The ventilation duct was connected to a furnace at one end and a fan at the other end. The furnace was heated to the desired temperature, and hot smoke was drawn through the duct at a certain velocity. Thermocouples measured the temperature both inside the duct (smoke gas temperatures) and on the duct’s external surface at different distances from the furnace.

  • Säter Böe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Jan Paul
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    BRAVENT – Delrapport 1 : Teori- og kunnskapssammenstilling2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently questions about whether spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts during a fire represent an increased risk for personal safety and loss of properties have been raised. The technical solutions currently used to fulfill the pre-accepted performance given in the guidelines to the building regulations with regard to fire protection of ventilation ducts are largely based on descriptions in SINTEF's Building Design Sheet 520.352 on fire- and smoke protection of ventilation systems, and in BV Netts Guide for fireproof ventilation, also known as the BVNett Guide. This topic was once again raised in connection with the revision of the 2017 edition of the building regulations, when it was pointed out in inquiry statements that the pre-accepted performances are insufficiently defined and that the solutions outlined in the Building Design Sheet and the BVNett Guide are not sufficiently documented.

    In order to elucidate this topic and provide scientific documentation on the extent to which the spread of heat and smoke in ventilation ducts represents a risk to persons and properties, the BRAVENT project (Fire and smoke spread in ventilation ducts) was initiated.

    The project investigates issues related to heat dissipation in ventilation ducts, clogging of filters in ventilation systems due to smoke, the effect of the seal-up strategy with respect to pressure build-up in the fire room and smoke spread through leakages in the construction.

    The objective of the sub-task presented in this report was to:

    Compile a theoretical basis for the experiments and analyzes to be carried out.

    1. Map relevant regulations for fire protection of ventilation systems.

    2. Map standards that are the basis for determining the fire resistance of components included in a ventilation system.

    3. Map the state-of-the-art regarding a. the need to fire insulate ventilation ducts.

    b. the need to install bypass channels to prevent the filter systems from being clogged by smoke particles.

    c. the effect of installing fire dampers in all fire-partitions with respect to smoke spread.

    d. how smoke can be spread via ventilation ducts and leaks in the building structure.

    e. the pros and cons of seal-up and extraction strategies.

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    This is sub-report 1, which summarizes the relevant, fire-related theory and state-of-the-art in the focus area. The report serves as the theoretical basis for planning of experiments and for the other activities in the BRAVENT project.

  • Uggla, Ylva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ambivalence in environmental representation: A theoretical contribution2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 447-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the phenomenon of representation through the theoretical lens of ambivalence, concentrating on the people involved in representation: representatives. We argue that the theoretical concept of ambivalence can be helpful in analysing and understanding the various tensions environmental and other representatives encounter in their practice. Based on the concepts of “sociological ambivalence”, “ideological dilemma”, and “the organizational centaur”, as well as on insights from social studies of science and sustainability studies, the paper develops a typology of three potential sources of ambivalence: role conflicts, value conflicts, and conflicts between goals and means. In addition, the paper identifies various ways of coping with ambivalence, including the construction of meta-norms, organizational and network support, pragmatism, drawing boundaries for reasonable and acceptable actions, rule bending and discursive negotiation. The paper concludes that the concept of ambivalence adds crucial insights to the positions, practices, and challenges of environmental representatives and notes that ambivalence is not only a matter of tensions and conflicts but can be a source of reflexivity, learning, and agency.

  • Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    A song of ice and mud: Interactions of microbes with roots, fauna and carbon in warming permafrost-affected soils2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost-affected soils store a large quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) – ca. half of worldwide soil carbon – and currently undergo rapid and severe warming due to climate change. Increased SOM decomposition by microorganisms and soil fauna due to climate change, poses the risk of a positive climate feedback through the release of greenhouse gases. Direct effects of climate change on SOM decomposition, through such mechanisms as deepening of the seasonally-thawing active layer and increasing soil temperatures, have gathered considerable scientific attention in the last two decades. Yet, indirect effects mediated by changes in plant, microbial, and fauna communities, remain poorly understood. Microbial communities, which may be affected by climate change-induced changes in vegetation composition or rooting patterns, and may in turn affect SOM decomposition, are the primary focus of the work described in this thesis.

    We used (I) a field-scale permafrost thaw experiment in a palsa peatland, (II) a laboratory incubation of Yedoma permafrost with inoculation by exotic microorganisms, (III) a microcosm experiment with five plant species grown either in Sphagnum peat or in newly-thawed permafrost peat, and (IV) a field-scale cold season warming experiment in cryoturbated tundra to address the indirect effects of climate change on microbial drivers of SOM decomposition. Community composition data for bacteria and fungi were obtained by amplicon sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid extraction, and for collembola by Tullgren extraction, alongside measurements of soil chemistry, CO2 emissions and root density.

    We showed that in situ thawing of a palsa peatland caused colonization of permafrost soil by overlying soil microbes. Further, we observed that functional limitations of permafrost microbial communities can hamper microbial metabolism in vitro. Relieving these functional limitations in vitro increased cumulative CO2 emissions by 32% over 161 days and introduced nitrification. In addition, we found that different plant species did not harbour different rhizosphere bacterial communities in Sphagnum peat topsoil, but did when grown in newly-thawed permafrost peat. Plant species may thus differ in how they affect functional limitations in thawing permafrost soil. Therefore, climate change-induced changes in vegetation composition might alter functioning in the newly-thawed, subsoil permafrost layer of northern peatlands, but less likely so in the topsoil. Finally, we observed that vegetation encroachment in barren cryoturbated soil, due to reduced cryogenic activity with higher temperatures, change both bacterial and collembola community composition, which may in turn affect soil functioning.

    This thesis shows that microbial community dynamics and plant-decomposer interactions play an important role in the functioning of warming permafrost-affected soils. More specifically, it demonstrates that the effects of climate change on plants can trickle down on microbial communities, in turn affecting SOM decomposition in thawing permafrost.

  • Sundström, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stocholm, Sweden.
    Wällstedt, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Stocholm, Sweden.
    Intresserande samverkan: Från samsyn till framsyn – en studie inom Trafikverket2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har som mål att studera hur Trafikverket praktiserar strategi tillsammans med andra intressenter och aktörer. Rapporten utgör delprojekt 3 i ett större treårigt projekt som genomförts inom Akademin för ekonomistyrning i staten (AES) vid Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet. Projektet har finansierats av Trafikverket, inom ramen för FoI-portfölj nummer sex, Trafikverket – en modern myndighet. Tidigare delrapporter inom projektet har visat att det internt i organisationen finns flera bilder av hur strategin ska omsättas i praktiken, samt diskuterat vad som är viktigt i detta arbete. Då en stor del av Trafikverkets uppdrag genomförs av externa parter ingår det också i forskningsprojektet att studera vad som händer med Trafikverkets strategiska arbete i externa relationer. När flera organisationers strategier möts, påverkar och påverkas av varandra väcks frågor om hur strategier samverkar och hur sådan strategisk samverkan fungerar i praktiken. Målet med denna rapport är därför att utveckla kunskap om strategisk verksamhetsstyrning genom att koppla samman frågor om strategi med frågor om samverkan. Detta uppnås genom att studera hur samverkan fungerar i praktiken. Som grund för rapporten har tre olika exempel på praktiker studerats där Trafikverket möter andra aktörer i planering och genomförande av Trafikverkets arbete.

    För att utveckla förståelsen av samverkan antar studien ett samverkansperspektiv: studien tar utgångspunkt i praktiken, snarare än i de samverkande aktörerna. Till skillnad från tidigare samverkansstudiers fokus på enskilda organisationers nytta av att samverka, innebär detta samverkansperspektiv fördjupade frågor om hur olika aktörer med olika intressen verkar samman, och hur sådan samverkan fungerar i praktiken. För att kunna diskutera samverkan på ett konstruktivt sätt används tre teoretiska begrepp i rapporten: mångfald, intressering och löften. Med dessa begrepp som utgångspunkt inriktas analysen på att undersöka förutsättningar för samverkan. Utifrån analysen av samverkans förutsättningar presenteras i rapportens avslutande kapitel ett utvecklat förhållningssätt till samverkan: intresserande samverkan. 

  • Barnes, Christopher
    et al.
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Schneider, David
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Walczak, Katarzyna
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Bukala, Michal
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Kosminska, Karolina
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Geol Geophys & Environm Protect, Krakow, Poland.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Acad Ctr Mat & Nanotechnol, Krakow, Poland.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High-spatial resolution dating of monazite and zircon revealsthe timing of subduction-exhumation of the Vaimok Lens in the Seve Nappe Complex (Scandinavian Caledonides)2019In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 174, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-situ monazite Th-U-total Pb dating and zircon LA-ICP-MS depth-profiling was applied to metasedimentary rocks from the Vaimok Lens in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), Scandinavian Caledonides. Results of monazite Th-U-total Pb dating, coupled with major and trace element mapping of monazite, revealed 603 +/- 16 Ma Neoproterozoic cores surrounded by rims that formed at 498 +/- 10 Ma. Monazite rim formation was facilitated via dissolution-reprecipitation of Neoproterozoic monazite. The monazite rims record garnet growth as they are depleted in Y2O3 with respect to the Neoproterozoic cores. Rims are also characterized by relatively high SrO with respect to the cores. Results of the zircon depth-profiling revealed igneous zircon cores with crystallization ages typical for SNC metasediments. Multiple zircon grains also exhibit rims formed by dissolution-reprecipitation that are defined by enrichment of light rare earth elements, U, Th, P, +/- Y, and +/- Sr. Rims also have subdued Eu anomalies ( Eu/Eu* approximate to 0.6-1.2) with respect to the cores. The age of zircon rim formation was calculated from three metasedimentary rocks: 480 +/- 22 Ma; 475 +/- 26 Ma; and 479 +/- 38 Ma. These results show that both monazite and zircon experienced dissolution-reprecipitation under high-pressure conditions. Caledonian monazite formed coeval with garnet growth during subduction of the Vaimok Lens, whereas zircon rim formation coincided with monazite breakdown to apatite, allanite and clinozoisite during initial exhumation.

  • Karlsson, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Minnesord: Johan Asplund som lärare2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 513-516Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Mai, Juri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Bridging McMurry and Wittig in One-Pot: Olefins from Stereoselective, Reductive Couplings of Two Aldehydes via Phosphaalkenes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of C=C bonds is of great importance for fundamental and industrial synthetic organic chemistry. There are many different methodologies for the construction of C=C bonds in the literature, but currently only the McMurry reaction allows the reductive coupling of two carbonyl compounds to form alkenes. This thesis contributes to the field of carbonyl olefinations and presents the development of a new synthetic protocol for a one-pot reductive coupling of two aldehydes to alkenes based on organophosphorus chemistry. The coupling reagent, a phosphanylphosphonate, reacts with an aldehyde to yield a phosphaalkene intermediate which upon activation with a base undergoes an olefination with a second aldehyde.

    A general overview of synthetic methods for carbonyl olefinations and the chemistry of phosphaalkenes is given in the background chapter. The Wittig reaction and its variations are discussed in detail. The synthesis, reactivity, properties and applications of phosphaalkenes are highlighted with particular focus on strategies to stabilize these otherwise reactive species.

    The third chapter describes a novel method for the reductive coupling of aldehydes. The activation of phosphaalkene intermediates by a hydroxide base, mechanistic studies, development of a one-pot procedure and investigations of the substrate scope are discussed. The new one-pot reaction is advantageous over the McMurry coupling since it allows the formation of unsymmetrical E-alkenes under mild conditions.

    The next chapter is dedicated to a modification of the reaction sequence. The results show that activation of the phosphaalkene with an alkoxide instead of hydroxide, followed by oxidation, generates a more reactive transient species that can undergo the coupling with electron rich (deactivated) aldehydes which was not possible under the initial reaction conditions.

    Chapter five describes a modification of the phosphanylphosphonate reagent that enables the preparation of alkenes with high Z-stereoselectivity.

    In the final chapter, chemical equilibria studies of triphenylphosphaalkenes are presented. It is found that phosphaalkenes with poor kinetic stabilization can also be used as intermediates in the carbonyl-to-alkene coupling chemistry.

    In summary, this thesis presents the development of an unprecedented synthetic method for the direct formation of C=C double bonds from two aldehydes together with strategies on improvements of the substrate scope and modifications to control the stereochemical outcome of the reaction.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-13 13:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Paidikondala, Maruthibabu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Regulating Gene Expression to Promote Osteoblastic Differentiation of Stem Cells2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is a tissue that heals by itself, unless the defect is too large (critical size). Today, novel regenerative medicine approaches have emerged as an alternative to treat such defects. This thesis explores alternative therapeutic strategies for bone tissue engineering which are biocompatible and clinically translatable. Many types of scaffolds that can act as reservoirs for growth factors such as rh-BMP-2 have been developed for bone tissue engineering in the past. However, the role of cross-linking chemistries that are employed to make hydrogels on the integrity and function of the loaded growth factors is not well understood. In this thesis, we have explored the influence of cross-linking chemistry on rh-BMP-2 integrity and bioactivity both in-vitro and in-vivo. These studies have demonstrated that thiol-Michael addition cross-linking chemistry greatly affects the integrity and bio-functionality of the loaded protein BMP-2 and leads to poor bone formation in an in-vivo rat model. On the other hand, hydrogels employing hydrazone chemistry did not significantly affect the integrity and bioactivity of BMP-2, which lead to a superior bone formation in-vivo. Since the high dose of rh-BMP-2 is known to confer many side effects, alternative ex-vivo strategies involving transient transfection of BMP-2 expressing plasmid DNA and silencing of anti-osteogenic genes using siRNA are developed. Our optimized method involves rapid transfection of hMSCs in suspension (5 minutes) with plasmid DNA followed by centrifugation and encapsulation in a hydrogel not only reduced cytotoxicity but also lead to efficient osteoblast differentiation of stem cells. Furthermore, this thesis presents the role of ECM-derived polymer HA in interacting with siRNA and trafficking across the plasma membrane, presumably through CD44 receptors and successfully silencing the target gene in-vitro. We explored the potential of such a non-cationic transfection method to deliver functional siRNA (anti-Pleckho-1 siRNA) in MSCs and compared it with commercially available cationic lipid LipofectamineTMRNAiMAX, using our optimized suspension transfection method. Our novel ex-vivo strategy employing HA hydrogels enabled efficient silencing of BMP-2 signaling pathway antagonist Pleckho-1 while avoiding the cytotoxicity issues in 3D, which further qualifies them for potential clinical application for cell-based therapies. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 09:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Suhm, Tamara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mitochondrial translation and its impact on protein homeostasis and aging2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides their famous role as powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria are also involved in many signaling processes and metabolism. Therefore, it is unsurprising that mitochondria are no isolated organelles but are in constant crosstalk with other parts of the cell. Due to the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria, they still contain their own genome and gene expression machinery. The mitochondrial genome of yeast encodes eight proteins whereof seven are core subunits of the respiratory chain and ATP synthase. These subunits need to be assembled with subunits imported from the cytosol to ensure energy supply of the cell. Hence, coordination, timing and accuracy of mitochondrial gene expression is crucial for cellular energy production and homeostasis. Despite the central role of mitochondrial translation surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms.

    In this work, I used baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study different aspects of mitochondrial translation. Exploiting the unique possibility to make directed modifications in the mitochondrial genome of yeast, I established a mitochondrial encoded GFP reporter. This reporter allows monitoring of mitochondrial translation with different detection methods and enables more detailed studies focusing on timing and regulation of mitochondrial translation. Furthermore, employing insights gained from bacterial translation, we showed that mitochondrial translation efficiency directly impacts on protein homeostasis of the cytoplasm and lifespan by affecting stress handling. Lastly, we provided first evidence that mitochondrial protein quality control happens at a very early stage directly after or during protein synthesis at the ribosome. Surveillance of protein synthesis and assembly into complexes is important to avoid accumulation of misfolded or unassembled respiratory chain subunits which would disturb mitochondrial function.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Chamoun, Mylad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Based on Available Resources: Investigation and Development towards Efficient Battery Performance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries employing water based electrolytes enable extremely low manufacturing costs and are inherently safer than Li-ion batteries. Batteries based on zinc, manganese dioxide, iron, and air have high energy relevancy, are not resource restricted, and can contribute to large scale energy storage solutions. Zinc has a rich history as electrode material for primary alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries. Historically, its use in secondary batteries has been limited because of morphological uncertainties and passivation effects that may lead to cell failure. Manganese dioxide electrodes are ineffective as rechargeable electrodes because of failure mechanisms associated with phase transformations during cycling. The irreversibility of manganese dioxide is strongly correlated to the formation of the electrochemically inactive spinel, Mn3O4/ZnMn2O4. The development of the iron electrode for Fe–air batteries was initiated in late the 1960s and these batteries still suffer from charging inefficiency, due to the unwanted hydrogen evolution reaction. Meanwhile, the air electrode is limited in long-term operation because of the sluggish oxygen evolution and reduction kinetics. These limitations of the Fe–air battery yield poor overall efficiencies, which bring vast energy losses upon cycling.

    Herein, the limitations described above were countered for rechargeable Zn–MnO2 and Fe–air batteries by synthesizing electrode materials and modifying electrolyte compositions. The electrolyte mixture of 1 M KOH + 3 M LiOH for rechargeable alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries limited the formation of the inactive spinels and improved their cycle life significantly. Further, the formation of the inactive spinels was overcome in mildly acidic electrolytes containing 2 M ZnSO4, enabling the cells to cycle reversibly at lower pH via a distinctive reaction mechanism. The iron electrodes were improved with the addition of stannate, which suppressed hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, optimal charge protocols of the iron electrodes were identified to minimize the hydrogen evolution rate. On the air electrode, the synthesized NiCo2O4 showed excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and reduction, and was incorporated to a flow assisted rechargeable Fe–air battery, in order to prove the practicability of this technology. Studies of the electrode materials on the micro, macro, nano, and atomic scales were carried out to increase the understanding of the nature of and interactions between of these materials. This included both in operando and ex situ characterization. X-ray and neutron radiation, and analytical- and electrochemical methods provided insight to improve the performance and cycle life of the batteries.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 sal FA31, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Young Star Clusters and Clumps in the Local Universe: The effect of galactic environment on star formation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stars do not form in isolation, but rather out of a hierarchical structure set by the turbulence of the interstellar medium. At the densest peak of the gas distribution, the star formation process can produce young star clusters (YSCs), which are gravitationally bound systems of stars with mass between ~100 and 106 MSun and typical size of few parsecs. At larger scales, clusters are themselves arranged into cluster complexes, on scales of hundreds of parsecs and up to kiloparsec scales, which are usually referred to as ‘star-forming clumps’.

    Observations of local star-forming galaxies show that YSCs form over a wide range of galactic environment. However, it is not yet clear if and how the galactic environment relates to the properties of star clusters. I present the results obtained by studying the YSC population of the nearby spiral galaxy M51. We find that the cluster mass function, dN/dM, can be described by a power-law with a -2 slope and an exponential truncation at 105 MSun, consistent with what is observed in similar galaxies in the literature. The shape of the mass function is similar when looking at increasing galactocentric distances. We observe significant differences, however, when comparing clusters located in the spiral arm with those the inter-arm environments. On average, more massive clusters are formed in the spiral arms, as also previously found for the YSC progenitors, the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Finally, we see that clusters are more quickly disrupted in denser environments, as expected if their disruption is mainly caused by tidal interaction with dense gas structures like the GMCs.

    I have also undertaken the analysis of the interplay between galactic scale properties and larger star forming units, the stellar clumps. The analysis has been conducted in a sample of 14 low-redshift starburst galaxies, the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). The elevated star formation rate densities of such galaxies allow to form clumps with densities comparable to clumps at high-redshift, typically more massive and denser than what is normally observed in the local universe. The clumps in the LARS galaxies contribute to a large fraction to the UV flux of the galaxy itself (in many galaxies > 50%), resulting in galaxies which appear ‘clumpy’. In agreement with formation theories we observe that clumpiness is higher in galaxies with higher SFR surface density and dominated by turbulent gas motion.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Braga, Mariana Pires
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evolution of host repertoires and the diversification of butterflies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All herbivorous insects are specialized to some extent to their host plants, but the level of specialization varies greatly. Insect-plant coevolution is often invoked to explain the large diversity of herbivorous insects, but the role of specialization during diversification is still controversial. Although well-studied, our understanding of the evolution of species interactions is still improving, and recent theoretical developments have highlighted the role of generalization (via colonization of new hosts) on diversification. In this thesis, various approaches are combined for a detailed study of the origins of macroevolutionary patterns of host use and butterfly diversity. Chapter I provides a mechanistic basis for such patterns through simulations of lineages evolved in silico. By separating the effects of the number of hosts used by a parasite lineage and the diversity of resources they encompass, we found that resource diversity, rather than host range per se, was the main driver of parasite species richness in both simulated and empirical systems. In Chapter II, we combined network and phylogenetic analyses to quantify support for the two main hypothesized drivers of diversification of herbivorous insects. Based on analyses of two butterfly families, Nymphalidae and Pieridae, we found that variability in host use is essential for diversification, while radiation following the colonization of a new host is rare but can produce high diversity. We then reconciled the two alternative hypotheses into a unified process of host-associated diversification where continuous probing of new hosts and retention of the ability to use hosts colonized in the past are the main factors shaping butterfly-plant networks. While network analysis is a powerful tool for investigating patterns of interaction, other methods are necessary to directly test the mechanisms generating the observed patterns. Therefore, in Chapter III we describe a model of host repertoire evolution we developed for Bayesian inference of evolution of host-parasite interactions. The approach was validated with both simulated and empirical data sets. Finally, in Chapter IV we used the method described in Chapter III to explicitly test the predictions made in Chapter II about the evolution of butterfly-plant networks. We found direct evidence for the role of expansion of fundamental host repertoire and phylogenetic conservatism as important drivers of host repertoire evolution. Thus, using three different approaches, we found overall support for the idea that variation in host use accumulated over evolutionary time is essential for butterfly diversification.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 10:00 B21, Uppsala
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Neuromolecular and behavioural profile of teleosts: - effects of boldness, agonistic behaviour and reproductive status2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if boldness is reflected in the function of brain histaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Moreover, behavioural differences in AB line, spiegeldanio (spd) line and wild caught strain of zebrafish have also been explored apart from the winner-loser effect in AB and spd fish. This thesis also includes studies on the effect of progestins on reproductive behaviour in zebrafish and regulation of leptinergic system on sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Boldness is reflected in higher expression of histamine receptor 1 (hrh1) in the telencephalon and diencephalon of male zebrafish and dominance by an elevated expression of hrh1 in the optic tectum. In female zebrafish boldness is also associated with lower expression of histamine receptor 3 (hrh3) in the optic tectum and dominance by lower expression of hrh3 in the telencephalon. Comparison of behavioural traits of zebrafish of AB, spd and wild type shows that wild type strain is most shy and shows no gender difference. AB is bolder than spd in the open field test while spd is bolder AB in the novel tank dive test. Similarly results for aggression are also test dependent since the spd is more aggressive than AB in the mirror test, however no difference is measured during dyadic fight test. A typical loser effect and activation of serotonergic system is observed in both AB and spd fish. Further, both levonorgestrel (LNG) and progesterone (P4) cause an early puberty in male zebrafish. However only levonorgestrel causes males biased population at environmental concentrations. In male Atlantic salmon, during early spring, both leptin paralogues, lepa1 and lepa2 in the liver and leptin receptor (lepr) in the brain are downregulated in non-maturing control group. At final maturational stage both hepatic lepa1 and lepa2 are upregulated 7.7 times and 49 times respectively in maturing control males. A significant upregulation of lepr is also measured from mid to late spermatogenesis.  

    This thesis elucidates that an elevated brain histaminergic tone is associated with boldness and dominance and in both sexes changes at gene level are orchestrated by different brain region. Boldness is a contextual trait as it depends on strain, line, sex and test. The loser effect after losing a fight is present in both AB and spd line, however it has been shown for the first time in spd line here. Only androgenic progestin causes male biased population but both androgenic and anti androgenic progestin cause early puberty in zebrafish. The expression of leptinergic system is significantly affected during early sexual maturation in parr stage of salmon. Moreover, depleted fat stores are associated with low leptin levels and feed restriction is association with an elevated leptinergic tone in liver and pituitary. This thesis not only emphasizes that strain vs line difference exists and should be an important criterion before designing any experiment, but it also indicates an important role histaminergic system, progestins and leptinergic system in divergent behaviour profiles, puberty and sexual maturation, respectively of teleosts and contributes to our understanding of it.

  • Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ávila, Marcela
    Isakson, Alberto
    Greco, Iván
    Moscoso, Patricia
    Rodríguez, Daniel
    Granjeras del Mar: Luchas y Sueños en Coliumo2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the book is to make visible the history and aspirations of the Union of Independent Workers of Artisanal Fishermen, Shore Harvesters and Seaweed collectors, Caleta Coliumo − which in spite of its masculine name is composed only of women. In doing so the authors hope to contribute to supporting the Union’s ongoing struggle to secure productive livelihoods and contribute more widely to coastal sustainability in the region. These are goals that we think should involve partnerships between scientists, fishing organizations and local, regional and national authorities. The book is also a contribution to the general discussion on the Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB) and especially to the entry of women into fishing in Chile.

    More particularly, this book focuses on the experience of women in Coliumo, in southern Chile (Bío-Bío region), who in the heat of the struggle for coastal resources with fishermen from an adjacent fishing cove, organized themselves and were successful in applying for and obtaining exclusive use rights in coastal marine areas under the system of Territorial Rights of Use for Fishing (TURFs). Gaining entitlements to TURFs soon evolved into a new struggle for resources, this time among women aligned with different fishing unions in Coliumo. The outcome of this struggle was the creation of a second TURFs, again governed only by an all-women fishing union. This demonstrated once again, that in addition to the women’s role as seaweed collectors, they were able to effectively exercise their recently acquired negotiation and managerial skills. These were capacities that even local fishermen came to admire. What began as a conflict with fishermen from another cove, became an avenue where two all-women fishing unions became managers of two TURFs entitlements in the village.  The women’s capacities to effectively manage their TURFs entitlements and related resources has resulted in increases in income and enhanced standing in their communities. The fishing union examined in the study will soon be moving up the value chain from seaweed collectors to producers. With the support of the State, there are also plans to develop small-scale algae aquaculture. Through the collective exercise of their own agency the women of Coliumo have empowered themselves not only as fishers and workers but also as resource managers, entrepreneurs and community leaders.

  • Zackrison, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Including grid storage to increase the use of renewables case of an island in the North sea2018In: Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2018. Conference Program &Abstract Book, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of renewable energy supply is limited by fluctuations and lack of alignment with demand. Including storage technology in the grid can increase self-consumption of renewable energy in local applications as well as reduce peaks in supply and demand for local low voltage grids with a high share of renewable energy input. The project NETfficient, funded by the European Union under the Grant Agreement 646463, explores requirements and effects of storage solutions in a grid on different levels. On the island of Borkum in the North Sea, a variety of grid-connected use cases is installed and tested in pilot studies. This paper focusses on homes equipped with photovoltaic panels for harvesting energy and two different storage solutions. The research addresses the resource demand and emissions due to novel components and the potential to decrease resource demand during the use phase, applying a life cycle perspective for components and systems. Data from the project as well as from LCA databases are collected and used to calculate environmental impacts for three different systems or applications: Stand alone photovoltaic (PV) panels, PV panels and customized Li- Ion-batteries and PV panels with a disused Li-Ion battery from an electric vehicle. The results indicate that the customized or dedicated Li-Ion battery in combination with PV panels have a larger climate impact avoidance than the other systems.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-15 13:00 Jupiter, Uppsala
    Starlander, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Dissemination of Multiresistant Bacteria: Their Selection, Transmission, Virulence and Resistance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria are an emerging threat in modern medicine. Consumption of antimicrobial agents among humans, animals and in agriculture causes a selection of resistance genes. Dissemination of bacteria carrying resistance genes occurs both globally and locally, and hospital settings pose a special risk for spread when staff, environment and vulnerable patients interact. The overall aim of this thesis was to analyse underlying factors that facilitate the dissemination of multiresistant pathogenic bacteria in hospital settings.

    Clusters of resistant bacteria from six occasions were investigated. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSRP), ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analysed by a range of methods, from cultures on broth to PCR and whole genome sequencing. Type of resistance, clonality, virulence factors, mobile genetic elements, epidemiology, survival in the environment, and patient history were examined variously depending on study.

    The results showed that VRE resistance genes can be acquired during treatment with vancomycin. Furthermore, contamination of the hospital environment could quickly cause an outbreak, when patients are frequently relocated and exposition to contaminated rooms increase. Resistant bacteria emerging among companion animals, such as the dog-associated MRSP, can pose a zoonotic threat, when a virulent clone finds a new niche in humans.

    The ability of Gram-negative bacteria to survive in a hospital environment is probably better than expected, given the right prerequisites; incorrect use of sinks enabled the spread of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the survival on hospital associated materials was longer for ESBL-producing E. coli than the AmpC-producing counterpart, which could tell part of why ESBL-producing E. coli is increasing. Hence, the survival in the environment calls for consideration when choosing materials and equipment for hospitals and nursing homes.

    Exchange of bacteria occurs continuously between humans and our surroundings. Outbreaks of multiresistant bacteria are rare in Sweden but expose the weaknesses in healthcare when occurring. The organization, materials and equipment of hospitals facilitate the dissemination of resistant bacteria, as does animals and humans around us and even the genes in our own microbiota.

  • Dongre, Mitesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Larsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Miftakhova, Regina R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Johannessen, Mona
    von Hofsten, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Erhardt, Marc
    Tuck, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Flagella-mediated secretion of a novel Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin affecting both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts2018In: Communications Biology, ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Caenorhabditis elegans as an infection host model for Vibrio cholerae predator interactions, we discovered a bacterial cytotoxin, MakA, whose function as a virulence factor relies on secretion via the flagellum channel in a proton motive force-dependent manner. The MakA protein is expressed from the polycistronic makDCBA (motility-associated killing factor) operon. Bacteria expressing makDCBA induced dramatic changes in intestinal morphology leading to a defecation defect, starvation and death in C. elegans. The Mak proteins also promoted V. cholerae colonization of the zebrafish gut causing lethal infection. A structural model of purified MakA at 1.9 Å resolution indicated similarities to members of a superfamily of bacterial toxins with unknown biological roles. Our findings reveal an unrecognized role for V. cholerae flagella in cytotoxin export that may contribute both to environmental spread of the bacteria by promoting survival and proliferation in encounters with predators, and to pathophysiological effects during infections.

  • Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • Kuhn, McKenzie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundin, Erik J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emissions from thaw ponds largely offset the carbon sink of northern permafrost wetlands2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern regions have received considerable attention not only because the effects of climate change are amplified at high latitudes but also because this region holds vast amounts of carbon (C) stored in permafrost. These carbon stocks are vulnerable to warming temperatures and increased permafrost thaw and the breakdown and release of soil C in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The majority of research has focused on quantifying and upscaling the effects of thaw on CO2 and CH4 emissions from terrestrial systems. However, small ponds formed in permafrost wetlands following thawing have been recognized as hotspots for C emissions. Here, we examined the importance of small ponds for C fluxes in two permafrost wetland ecosystems in northern Sweden. Detailed flux estimates of thaw ponds during the growing season show that ponds emit, on average (±SD), 279 ± 415 and 7 ± 11 mmol C m−2 d−1 of CO2 and CH4, respectively. Importantly, addition of pond emissions to the total C budget of the wetland decreases the C sink by ~39%. Our results emphasize the need for integrated research linking C cycling on land and in water in order to make correct assessments of contemporary C balances.

  • Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL Site Lausanne, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering ENAC, Laboratory of ecological systems ECOS, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Institute for Peat and Mire Research, Northeast Normal University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun, China.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    School of Science and the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Galanina, Olga
    Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Galka, Mariusz
    Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Monitoring & Department of Biogeography and Paleoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan, Polen.
    Ganeva, Anna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gillikin, David P.
    Department of Geology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Goia, Irina
    Babe ̧s-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar, Russia.
    Hajek, Michal
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Univ Kitakyushu, Dept Biol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McGill Univ, Dept Geog, Montreal, Canada.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton Univ, Dept Geog & Environm Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jirousek, Martin
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic; Mendel Univ Brno, Fac AgriSci, Dept Plant Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Lapshina, Elena
    Yugra State Univ, Khanty Mansiysk, Russia.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Northeast Normal Univ, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Inst Peat & Mire Res, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China; Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    No Arizona Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc Ecoss, Flagstaff, USA.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Geog, Calgary, Canada; St Marys Univ, Dept Geol, Calgary, Canada.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, USA.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Noskova, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England; Penza State Univ, Penza, Russia.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Robinson, Sean
    SUNY Coll Oneonta, Dept Biol, Oneonta, NY USA.
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Univ Southampton, Biol Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Rochefort, Line
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Sci, Quebec City, PQ, Canada; Laval Univ, Ctr Northern Studies, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Singer, David
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland; Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Verheyden, Anouk
    Union Coll, Dept Geol, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Waddington, James Michael
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, Canada.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • Carstensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Rosberg, Birgitta
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Before evening falls: Perspectives of a good old age and healthy ageing among oldest-old Swedish Men2019In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Olah, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The new roles of men and women and implications for families and societies.2018In: A Demographic Perspective on Gender, Family and Health in Europe / [ed] G. Doblhammer and J. Gumà, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents main research findings on new gender roles and their implications for families and societies. It first depicts the development of family forms in Europe over the past fifty years, with a focus on increasingly diverse family biographies along with changes in the roles of women and men. It highlights that changes in women’s role have been more comprehensive, whereas transformation of the male role has barely started in most countries. Thereafter, views in contemporary scholarship on the interplay between the increasing family complexity and gender role changes are addressed. A detailed discussion of new challenges of transitions in and organization of family life follows, with a focus on four main topics: women’s new role and its implications for family dynamics, the gendered transition to parenthood, new gender roles in doing families, and coping strategies in family and work reconciliation under conditions of uncertainty and precariousness and impacts on fertility. A brief conclusion ends the chapter. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-13 09:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Johnsson, Inger W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Long-term metabolic effects of a high birth weight2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrauterine environment influences foetal growth as well as future response to risk factors for disease. This occurs partly through epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, birth weight is a possible risk marker of adult disease. Low birth weight is a well-known risk factor for adult disease, particularly when associated with obesity and a U-shaped relationship between birth weight and several metabolic diseases has been suggested.

    In this thesis we investigated associations between a high birth weight and risk of adult disease, e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

    By analyses of national register data on 759 999 subjects up to the age of 37 years, we could demonstrate an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males, but not in females, with a high birth weight (>2 SDS). The increase was particularly pronounced in males with a birth weight >3 SDS. There was an association between high birth weight and obesity in males and females, but no such relation was seen for hypertension or serum lipid abnormalities.

    In a clinical study, 27 cases with a birth weight ≥4 500 grams were compared with 27 controls with normal birth weight, regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The cases had a greater radial artery intima thickness and intima:media ratio compared with the controls indicating early atherosclerotic changes. Body mass index, body composition, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient did not differ between cases and controls, but females with a high birth weight had a more disadvantageous distribution of body fat.

    In order to investigate associations between birth weight and pregnancy outcomes, register data on 305 893 females was analysed. The results demonstrated an association between the female´s own birth weight and offspring birth weight. A high maternal birth weight was associated with increased risk of obesity. The risk of gestational diabetes was increased in females with a low, but not a high birth weight.

    In conclusion, subjects with a moderately high birth weight did not differ substantially from those with a normal birth weight regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, differences in arterial wall dimensions were demonstrated in a clinical investigation, and there were differences in BMI and risk of type 2 diabetes on a population level. Since risks are most pronounced in subjects with a birth weight >3 SDS, this group is in particular need of follow up and disease preventive measures.

  • Trochidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Guedes, Carlos
    Holzapfel, André
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Anantapadmanabhan, Akshay
    Klaric, Andrija
    Analysis-by-synthesis of rhythm in South Indian Art percussion performances by means of statistical analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Christoffersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jury, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication of modular hyaluronan-PEG hydrogels to support 3D cultures of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device2018In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 015013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liver cell culture models are attractive in both tissue engineering and for development of assays for drug toxicology research. To retain liver specific cell functions, the use of adequate cell types and culture conditions, such as a 3D orientation of the cells and a proper supply of nutrients and oxygen, are critical. In this article, we show how extracellular matrix mimetic hydrogels can support hepatocyte viability and functionality in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device. A modular hydrogel system based on hyaluronan and poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEG), modified with cyclooctyne moieties for bioorthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-azide 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition (SPAAC), was developed, characterized, and compared for cell compatibility to hydrogels based on agarose and alginate. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) formed spheroids with viable cells in all hydrogels with the highest expression of albumin and urea in alginate hydrogels. By including an excess of cyclooctyne in the HA backbone, azide-modified cell adhesion motifs (linear and cyclic RGD peptides) could be introduced in order to enhance viability and functionality of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEPs). In the HA-PEG hydrogels modified with cyclic RGD peptides hiPS-HEPs migrated and grew in 3D and showed an increased viability and higher albumin production compared to when cultured in the other hydrogels. This flexible SPAAC crosslinked hydrogel system enabled fabrication of perfused 3D cell culture of hiPS-HEPs and is a promising material for further development and optimization of liver-on-a-chip devices.

  • Persson, Magnus
    Malmö universitet.
    Uppfinningen av ett skolämne: Ett historiesociologiskt perspektiv på samhällskunskapsämnets logik2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 160-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From being a part of the history subject, social studies was established as an independent school-subject in Sweden during the first decades of the postwar era. By using a historical sociology analysis this article argue that the specific social and moral setting that dominated how the educational system were organized after WWII, formed durable and still present  logics of the definition of subject-content, the societal function of the subject and the means of knowledge (re)production related to the subject. Social studies developed a normative content taught with progressive methods in close relation to state-ideological ideas of citizenship and democracy rather than academic production of knowledge. This developed a school-subject based on institutionalized unpredictability, a content with high elasticity and with weak links to knowledge (re)production system most often carried out by the academic system.

  • Wendell, Joakim
    History Teaching between Multiperspectivity and a Shared Line of Reasoning: Historical  Explanations in Swedish Classrooms2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 136-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the presence of multiperspectivity in history teaching through teachers' constructions of historical explanations in classroom interactions.  The concept of multiperspectivity is linked to the related concept of interpretation as a central aspect of comprehension of history, in particular to the idea of including different interpretations of the same historical event or process. This idea, as expressed in the current Swedish history syllabus, is contrasted with the notion of establishing a shared line of reasoning as a central aim of teaching practices. The study is built on classroom observations of three teachers in lower secondary school, and specifically analyses how historical explanations are constructed as more or less open to different interpretations. The results indicate that explanations only occasionally are presented as open to different interpretations, and that the degree of openness is influenced by adaptation to student groups, but also possibly by the content matter. The study suggests that the notion of multiperspectivity may come into conflict with the aim of establishing a shared line of reasoning.

  • Kimanen, Anuleena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Kallioniemi, Arto
    University of Helsinki.
    Towards Interpretive and Empathetic Encounters between Worldviews2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 118-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on young people’s attitudes and skills in dealing with religious diversity has been conducted in many surveys, but in real life one is faced with many different types of diversity. How does pupils’ preparedness for inter-worldview dialogue develop? This article approaches young people’s emotions faced by different types of dissimilarity and skills of asking about others’ worldviews. Key theories in analysing the results were Abu-Nimer’s stage model of interreligious sensitivity and Jackson’s interpretive approach to religious education with a special focus on empathy. The use of pictures when studying emotions revealed that most of the participants experienced non-religious features as pleasant. The pictures depicting the most dissimilarity were experienced as the most negative but also in many cases as interesting. The questions written by the teenagers indicated a wide range of attitudes and skills. Many of them were capable of addressing religious or personal meanings, thus showing an ability to rise above the surface level and seek understanding. An interesting category of questions on the possibility of inter-worldview interaction also emerged. Visual techniques in the research on teenagers’ thinking should be further developed because young people today are surrounded by images.

  • Olovsson, Tord Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Ämnesövergripande undervisning och betyg i årskurs 4-6 i svensk grundskola i SO- och NO-ämnena2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 88-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden introduced a new national curriculum (Lgr11) for the compulsory school in 2011. It included new syllabi for the school subjects and a grading system now starting from school year 6. Social studies (civics, geography, history and religious studies) and natural sciences (biology, chemistry and physics) received syllabus with knowledge requirements for each respective subject. Despite the sectioning, Lgr11 encourages subject-integrated teaching and, when teaching has mainly been subject-integrated, summarised grades in both social studies and natural sciences are possible in school year 6. The purpose of this study is to investigate, analyse and compare to which extent teaching in school year 4-6 is subject-integrated and whether the grades in school year 6 are summarised in social studies as well as natural sciences. In the autumn of 2017, principals from 113 schools comprehending school years 4-6, completed a questionnaire. The results, also analysed in relation to Bernsteins theoretical model, show that teaching in each individual subject, as well as alternation between subject-integrated teaching and teaching in the individual subjects is most common. Fully subject-integrated teaching in social studies and nature sciences respectively is the least common practise. Three quarters of the schools give grades in the individual subjects. In schools with fully subject-integrated teaching, it is more common with summarised grades than grades in the individual subjects. However, this is more common in social studies than in the natural sciences. Almost all of the schools that teach in the individual subjects also give grades in the individual subjects.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-28 13:15 G207, Skövde
    Tavara, Shirin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    High-Performance Computing For Support Vector Machines2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning algorithms are very successful in solving classification and regression problems, however the immense amount of data created by digitalization slows down the training and predicting processes, if solvable at all. High-Performance Computing(HPC) and particularly parallel computing are promising tools for improving the performance of machine learning algorithms in terms of time. Support Vector Machines(SVM) is one of the most popular supervised machine learning techniques that enjoy the advancement of HPC to overcome the problems regarding big data, however, efficient parallel implementations of SVM is a complex endeavour. While there are many parallel techniques to facilitate the performance of SVM, there is no clear roadmap for every application scenario. This thesis is based on a collection of publications. It addresses the problems regarding parallel implementations of SVM through four research questions, all of which are answered through three research articles. In the first research question, the thesis investigates important factors such as parallel algorithms, HPC tools, and heuristics on the efficiency of parallel SVM implementation. This leads to identifying the state of the art parallel implementations of SVMs, their pros and cons, and suggests possible avenues for future research. It is up to the user to create a balance between the computation time and the classification accuracy. In the second research question, the thesis explores the impact of changes in problem size, and the value of corresponding SVM parameters that lead to significant performance. This leads to addressing the impact of the problem size on the optimal choice of important parameters. Besides, the thesis shows the existence of a threshold between the number of cores and the training time. In the third research question, the thesis investigates the impact of the network topology on the performance of a network-based SVM. This leads to three key contributions. The first contribution is to show how much the expansion property of the network impact the convergence. The next is to show which network topology is preferable to efficiently use the computing powers. Third is to supply an implementation making the theoretical advances practically available. The results show that graphs with large spectral gaps and higher degrees exhibit accelerated convergence. In the last research question, the thesis combines all contributions in the articles and offers recommendations towards implementing an efficient framework for SVMs regarding large-scale problems.

  • Lars, Bröndum
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Graphic Notation, Indeterminacy and Improvisation: Implementing Choice Within a Compositional Framework2018In: Open Cultural Studies, ISSN 2451-3474, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 639-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the use of graphic notation in relation to improvisation and indeterminacy in practice. The paper opens with a background context around terms and ideas about improvisation and indeterminate music pioneered by composers in the 20th century. The techniques the author used in the pieces Fluttering (Brondum 2015) and Serpentine Line (Brondum 2010) are examined and discussed in informal interviews with four musicians. The paper closes with a discussion and conclusions gained from the interviews and from working with musicians in the context of using graphic notation as a bridge between improvisation and notated music. Documentation of the author’s practice and research of these methodological and aesthetical issues may be of interest to composers and musicians that work with similar techniques. It may also add to theory by developing the understanding of a composer’s own approach, and in extension, to ask questions on how to develop these theories further.

  • Ahlskog-Björkman, Eva
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa Finland.
    Barn och fred. En pilotstudie om förskolebarns förståelse av fred2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 65-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt FN:s mål om hållbar utveckling (Agenda 2030) betonas bland annat främjandet av en kultur av fred och icke-våld. Utvecklingen i finländska styrdokument för förskolan visar däremot att temat fred har nedtonats. Denna studie vill genom ämnesdidaktisk samverkan mellan bildkonst och religion synliggöra 6-åringars förståelse av fred, deras sätt att samtala om och i teckningar gestalta ett liv i fred med varandra. Den kvalitativa temaanalysen visade att barn i denna pilotstudie förstår fred som tillstånd, fred som relationer, fred som förhandlingar och fred som möte och handling. Samtal kring barnens teckningar och de visuella konkretiseringarna stöder tolkningen. Pilotstudien har genom pedagogiska och ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv på lärande för fred uppmärksammat vikten av att barns lärandeprocesser om fred, icke-våld och globalt medborgaskap behöver beakta kravet på tid, rum, språk och struktur för interaktion, tolkning, fördjupning och handling.

  • Karpaty, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson
    Stockholm School of Economics and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Offshoring of Services and Corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze how the offshoring of services by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in target economies. Taking stance from the gravity model of trade, we analyze how the choice of country, volume and composition of offshored services is affected by the presence of corruption in target economies. The results suggest that corruption is a deterrent for service offshoring. Firms avoid corrupt countries, and corruption reduces the amount of offshored services. In addition, the sensitivity to corruption is highest for poor countries, and large and internationalized firms are the ones that tend to be the most sensitive to corruption. Given the importance of large firms as international investors and subcontractors, this adds yet another argument for fighting corruption.

  • Tväråna, Malin
    Stockholm University.
    Theories of justice among eight-year-olds: Exploring teaching for an emerging ability to critically analyse justice issues in social science2018In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2018:4, p. 43-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study addresses the question of what conditions of teaching that benefits the development of the ability to critically analyse issues of justice in early social science and civics education. It also presents some indications of this emerging ability, where students treat the concept of justice not as a stated or explained fact or viewpoint but as a contested concept that needs critical examination. The analysis shows the possibility for eight-year-olds to start learning how to reason about justice as an essentially contested concept and to start participating in critical analyses of societal issues of distributive justice in a qualified way. This article discusses how teaching can be designed to help younger students develop and qualify the ability to analyse justice issues and proposes indications of such an ability.