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  • Ringholm, Toril
    et al.
    Norway Inland University of Applied Sciences.
    Nyseth, Torill
    University of Tromsø.
    Gro, Sandkjær Hanssen
    NIBRHiOA.
    Participation according to the law?: The research-based knowledge on citizen participation in Norwegian municipal planning2018In: European Journal of Spatial Development, ISSN 1650-9544, E-ISSN 1650-9544, Vol. 67, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Sopher, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Converting scanned images of seismic reflection data into SEG-Y format2018In: EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATICS, ISSN 1865-0473, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archives across the world contain vast amounts of old or "vintage" seismic reflection data, which are largely inaccessible for geo-scientific research, due to the out-dated media on which they are stored. Despite the age of these data, they often have great potential to be of use in modern day research. It is often the case that seismic reflection data within these archives are only available as a processed stacked section, printed on paper or film. In this study, a method for the conversion (vectorization) of scanned images of stacked reflection seismic data to standard SEG-Y format is presented. The method addresses data displayed with a line denoting the waveform, where areas on one side of the baseline are shaded (i.e. wiggle trace, variable fill). The method provides an improvement on other published methods utilized within currently available academic software. Unlike previous studies, the method used to detect trace baselines and to detect and remove timelines on the seismic image is described in detail. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the performance of the method is presented, showing that an average trace-to-trace correlation coefficient of between 0.8 and 0.95 can be achieved for typical plotting styles. Finally, a case study where the method is applied to vectorize over 1700 km of land seismic data from the island of Gotland (Sweden) is presented.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-21 10:00 Videoconferencing Sal C, Kista
    Apolonia, Nuno
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Barcelona, Spain.
    On Service Optimization in Community Network Micro-Clouds2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet coverage in the world is still weak and local communities are required to come together and build their own network infrastructures. People collaborate for the common goal of accessing the Internet and cloud services by building Community networks (CNs).The use of Internet cloud services has grown over the last decade. Community network cloud infrastructures (i.e. micro-clouds) have been introduced to run services inside the network, without the need to consume them from the Internet. CN micro-clouds aims for not only an improved service performance, but also an entry point for an alternative to Internet cloud services in CNs. However, the adaptation of the services to be used in CN micro-clouds have their own challenges since the use of low-capacity devices and wireless connections without a central management is predominant in CNs. Further, large and irregular topology of the network, high software and hardware diversity and different service requirements in CNs, makes the CN micro-clouds a challenging environment to run local services, and to achieve service performance and quality similar to Internet cloud services. In this thesis, our main objective is the optimization of services (performance, quality) in CN micro-clouds, facilitating entrance to other services and motivating members to make use of CN micro-cloud services as an alternative to Internet services. We present an approach to handle services in CN micro-cloud environments in order to improve service performance and quality that can be approximated to Internet services, while also giving to the community motivation to use CN micro-cloud services. Furthermore, we break the problem into different levels (resource, service and middleware), propose a model that provides improvements for each level and contribute with information that helps to support the improvements (in terms of service performance and quality) in the other levels.At the resource level, we facilitate the use of community devices by utilizing virtualization techniques that isolate and manage CN micro-cloud services in order to have a multi-purpose environment that fosters services in the CN micro-cloud environment.At the service level, we build a monitoring tool tailored for CN micro-clouds that helps us to analyze service behavior and performance in CN micro-clouds. Subsequently, the information gathered enables adaptation of the services to the environment in order to improve their quality and performance under CN environments. At the middleware level, we build overlay networks as the main communication system according to the social information in order to improve paths and routes of the nodes, and improve transmission of data across the network by utilizing the relationships already established in the social network or community of practices that are related to the CNs. Therefore, service performance in CN micro-clouds can become more stable with respect to resource usage, performance and user perceived quality.

  • Zhou, Ang
    et al.
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Taylor, Amy E.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Karhunen, Ville
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovio, Suvi P.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
    Lahti, Jari
    Helsinki Collegium Adv Studies, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Fac Med, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lyall, Donald M.
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Hlth & Wellbeing, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Auvinen, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Hutri-Kahonen, Nina
    Univ Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Tampere, Finland.
    Perala, Mia Maria
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Publ Hlth Solut, Helsinki, Finland.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Power, Chris
    UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, Helsinki, Finland;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland;Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland.
    Hagg, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Veijola, Juha
    Univ Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Res Unit Clin Neurosci, Oulu, Finland;Univ Hosp Oulu, Dept Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland;Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Munafo, Marcus R.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit IEU, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, UKCTAS, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford Univ, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Sch Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Stanford Cardiovasc Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Llewellyn, David J.
    Univ Exeter, Med Sch, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Hypponen, Elina
    Univ South Australia, Australian Ctr Precis Hlth, Adelaide, SA, Australia;UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in up to 415,530 participants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid-to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests. A genetic score derived using CYP1A1/2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs6968865) was chosen as a proxy for habitual coffee consumption. Null associations were observed when examining the associations of the genetic score with global and memory cognition (beta = -0.0007, 95% C.I. -0.009 to 0.008, P = 0.87; beta = -0.001, 95% C.I. -0.005 to 0.002, P = 0.51, respectively), with high consistency between studies (P-heterogeneity > 0.4 for both). Domain specific analyses using available cognitive measures in the UK Biobank also did not support effects by habitual coffee intake for reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning or prospective memory (P >= 0.05 for all). Despite the power to detect very small effects, our meta-analysis provided no evidence for causal long-term effects of habitual coffee consumption on global cognition or memory.

  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Förstudie av isenergins användningsområden1989Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    Kunce, Warren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sub-lethal Effects of Anthropogenic Contaminants on Aquatic Invertebrates2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic contaminants are considered to play a substantial role in the decline of freshwater invertebrate diversity. Sub-lethal effects of many of these contaminants on behaviour and life-history traits of aquatic invertebrates may contribute to their decline. As contaminants are rarely present in the environment alone, the effects of mixture exposures are highly relevant in assessing the risk these substances pose to the biota. This thesis focuses on sub-lethal effects of exposure to aquatic pollutants, separately and in combination, on fresh-water invertebrates. To investigate the single and combined effects of pesticides, larvae of the midge, Chironomus riparius were exposed to a 1 hour pulse of two neonicotinoids and two pyrethroids.  This short exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides decreased the survival and delayed development in C. riparius.  The combination of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids did not produce synergistic effects; however, there was some indication of antagonism. Additionally, larvae of the damselfly, Coenagrion puella, were exposed for 14 hours to two environmentally relevant concentrations of pyrethroid pesticides, alone and in combination. Exposure to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin, reduced the larvae’s predatory ability. Combined exposure to both deltamethrin and esfenvalerate inhibited the Glutathione S-transferase detoxification pathway and may have additive toxic effects on the larvae’s predatory ability. Microplastics are increasingly gaining attention as an aquatic pollutant of major concern with respect to the toxicity of the microplastics themselves as well as their capacity to adsorb persistent organic pollutants like pesticides. To investigate the effects of microplastics and a pyrethroid, alone and in combination, C. riparius larvae were raised in sediment spiked with two sizes of polystyrene-based latex microbeads and an environmentally relevant concentration of esfenvalerate under normal and food-restricted conditions. Exposure to both sizes of microplastics and esfenvalerate lead to equally decreased emergence under food-restricted conditions. Additionally, exposure to esfenvalerate led to decreases in survival when food was scarce that did not occur when microplastics were co-present. Antishistamines are also an emerging aquatic contaminant of concern with very little known about their biological effects on aquatic wildlife. Antihistamines could potentially interfere with the histaminergic pathways and thus affect thermal tolerance and temperature preference in aquatic invertebrates. The freshwater snail, Planorbarius corneus, was exposed for 24 hours to the antihistamine, diphenhydramine. This exposure increased thermal tolerance and righting time, but did not affect temperature preference. The results of the investigation suggest that anthropogenic contaminates alone and/or in combination have sub-lethal effects on life history, behavior and physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Such sub-lethal effects have the potential to affect populations and community structure in the aquatic and terrestrial environment.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:25 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Yang, Jiaojiao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High surface-to-volume ratio materials, including nanoparticles and mesoporous materials, have a number of applications due to their large surface area and special structures. Traditional approaches for synthesizing high surface-to-volume ratio nanomaterials are often complicated, expensive or environmentally unfriendly. Considering aspects such as availability and safety in terms of environmental or biological contact, magnesium carbonate-based nanomaterials are an interesting and potentially valuable candidate for novel applications. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop novel high surface-to-volume ratio amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials and investigating their possible applications.

    Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanoparticles (AMN) were successfully synthesized via a simple and low-temperature pathway. The structure and resulting properties of the material can be tailored by changing the final steps in the synthesis process.

    The ability of AMN to stabilize ibuprofen (IBU) in the amorphous state was investigated. Nanocomposites with IBU:AMN mass ratios as high as to 5:1 were shown to enhance the release rate of IBU in vitro by as much as 83 times compared to IBU in crystalline form. A related nanostructured material, mesoporous magnesium carbonate (MMC), was evaluated as a drug carrier for stabilizing amorphous drugs through the incorporation of the drug within its pores. In this study, MMC was used to release and sustain two poorly soluble drugs (tolfenamic acid and rimonabant) in the supersaturated state with the assistance of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    AMN was also used to synthesize a novel adhesive together with IBU without the addition of a polymer. This adhesive was transparent, self-healing, shapeable, stretchable and reusable. In addition, the adhesive was able to glue a variety of materials, including metals, glass, paper and plastics (even Teflon).

    Finally, AMN was used to prepare flexible, transparent and UV-shielding films when incorporated into a PMMA matrix. These films exhibited both UV-shielding properties and moisture absorbance and retention abilities. In addition, the UV- and thermo-stability of these films were enhanced by the addition of AMN.

    The work presented in this thesis show that the nanomaterials AMN and MMC possess great potential for an extremely broad range of applications, from pharmaceutical applications dealing with poorly soluble drugs to structural applications such as adhesives to applications in optics or electronics such as UV-shielding or moisture barrier films.

  • Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Affärsmodeller för solcellsinstallation i flerbostadshus och kommersiella fastigheter – en handbok2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Priset på solceller har stadigt minskat under senare år, samtidigt som effektiviteten har ökat. Alltfler, både privatpersoner och företag, väljer att investera i solcellsanläggningar. Drivkrafterna för att genomföra en installation är många och varierande, men vägen mot beslut är inte alltid enkel. Denna handbok riktar sig främst mot fastighetsägare till bostadsfastigheter och lokalfastigheter samt bostadsrättsföreningar. Syftet är att stödja dessa aktörsgrupper inför beslut om en eventuell solcellsinstallation. Innehållet i handboken bygger på resultat från workshops och intervjuer med representanter från de olika grupperna.

    Handboken beskriver möjliga affärsmodeller för solel uppdelat på de olika aktörsgrupperna, men även såväl ekonomiska som icke-ekonomiska nyttor med att installera en solelanläggning. Tre huvudtyper av affärsmodell presenteras:

    - Fastighetsägaren investerar och äger solcellsanläggningen.

    - Anläggningen leasas från ett leasingbolag, med eller utan avbetalning.

    - Fastighetsägaren upplåter takytor till en annan aktör som investerar i solceller.

    Affärsmodellsbeskrivningarna inkluderar ägarförhållanden, lönsamhet, hur den producerade solelen kan användas samt för- och nackdelar med modellen. Styrmedel i form av regler, stöd och ersättningar kan dessutom påverka både anläggningens storlek och dess lönsamhet. Aktuella regler beskrivs i handboken. Eftersom solelmarknaden och regelverk är i ständig förändring bör man alltid kontrollera vad som gäller inför en installation. I slutet på

    handboken finns därför tips på vidare läsning och relevanta myndigheter.

  • Teknisk Und Informerar 2018:42018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:15 Polhemsalen, Uppsala
    Zimmermann, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Algebra and Geometry.
    Classification of simple transitive 2-representations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation theory of finitary 2-categories is a generalization of the classical representation theory of finite dimensional associative algebras. A key notion in classical representation theory is the notion of simple modules as those are in some sense the building blocks of all modules. A correct analogue of simple modules in the realm of 2-representations is the notion of simple transitive 2-representations since those also turn out to be building blocks of 2-representations.

    This thesis is concerned with the classification of simple transitive 2-representations for a number of different interesting 2-categories. In Paper I we study simple transitive 2-representations of Soergel bimodules in Coxeter type I2(4) and show that all simple transitive 2-representations in this case are equivalent to cell 2-representations. In Paper II we classify simple transitive 2-representations for the quotient of the 2-category of Soergel bimodules over the coinvariant algebra which is associated to the two-sided cell that is the closest to the two-sided cell containing the identity element, in all Coxeter types but I2(12), I2(18) and I2(30). It turns out that, in most of the cases, simple transitive 2-representations are exhausted by cell 2-representations. However, in Coxeter types I2(2k), where k ≥ 3, there exist simple transitive 2-representations which are not equivalent to cell 2-representations. In Paper III we show that for any complex polynomial p(X) the set of irreducible, integer matrices which are annihilated by p(X) is finite. Moreover, we study the set of irreducible, integral matrices satisfying X² = nX, for n ≥ 1, and count its elements. In Paper IV we show that every simple transitive 2-representations of the 2-category of projective functors for a certain quotient of the quadratic dual of the preprojective algebra associated with a tree is equivalent to a cell 2-representation. Finally, in Paper V we study simple transitive 2-representations of certain 2-subcategories of the 2-categories of projective functors over star algebras. In the simplest case, which is associated with Dynkin type A2, we show that simple transitive 2-representations are classified by cell 2-representations. However, in the general case we conjecture that there exist many more simple transitive 2-representations.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-14 13:15 Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Linköping
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blind Massive MIMO Base Stations: Downlink Transmission and Jamming2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO (Multiple-Input--Multiple-Output) is a cellular-network technology in which the base station is equipped with a large number of antennas and aims to serve several different users simultaneously, on the same frequency resource through spatial multiplexing. This is made possible by employing efficient beamforming, based on channel estimates acquired from uplink reference signals, where the base station can transmit the signals in such a way that they add up constructively at the users and destructively elsewhere. The multiplexing together with the array gain from the beamforming can increase the spectral efficiency over contemporary systems.

    One challenge of practical importance is how to transmit data in the downlink when no channel state information is available. When a user initially joins the network, prior to transmitting uplink reference signals that enable beamforming, it needs system information---instructions on how to properly function within the network. It is transmission of system information that is the main focus of this thesis. In particular, the thesis analyzes how the reliability of the transmission of system information depends on the available amount of diversity. It is shown how downlink reference signals, space-time block codes, and power allocation can be used to improve the reliability of this transmission.

    In order to estimate the uplink and downlink channels from uplink reference signals, which is imperative to ensure scalability in the number of base station antennas, massive MIMO relies on channel reciprocity. This thesis shows that the principles of channel reciprocity can also be exploited by a jammer, a malicious transmitter, aiming to disrupt legitimate communication between two single-antenna devices. A heuristic scheme is proposed in which the jammer estimates the channel to a target device blindly, without any knowledge of the transmitted legitimate signals, and subsequently beamforms noise towards the target. Under the same power constraint, the proposed jammer can disrupt the legitimate link more effectively than a conventional omnidirectional jammer in many cases.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Metacognitive Aspects of Learning: What Influences Magnitude and Accuracy of Ease-of-Learning Judgments?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To learn efficiently, many situations require people to judge what will be easy or difficult to learn, or how well it has been stored in memory. These metacognitive judgments are important to understand because they most likely guide how people behave when they learn, and consequently how much they learn. In this thesis, I focus on what is referred to as ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments, that is judgments about how easy or difficult a material will be to learn. EOL judgments have received relatively limited attention in the metacognitive literature. Therefore, this thesis also considers for comparison the more extensively researched judgments of learning (JOL), which are judgments of how well a studied material has been learned or how likely it is to be remembered on a later memory test. I had two major aims with my research. First, I aimed to investigate how accurate EOL judgments are, that is, how well they can predict the ease of future learning, and what moderates this accuracy. More precisely, I investigated what affects EOL judgment accuracy by varying how much an item-set varies in a predictive item characteristic, as well as varying methodological aspects of the judgment situation. The second major aim was to investigate what sources of information people use to make EOL judgments and how the information is used to make metacognitive judgments. In three studies, participants made EOL judgments for word pairs (e.g., sun – warm), or single words (e.g., bucket), studied the items, and tried to recall them on memory tests. In Study II, participants also made JOLs after studying the items. To estimate the accuracy of the judgments, the judgments were correlated with recall performance on memory tests. The results of the thesis show that EOL judgments can be accurate when they are made on a to-be-learned material which varies in a predictive item characteristic (Study I and II). In some conditions, EOL judgments are even as accurate as JOLs (Study II). Study II also supports the cue competition hypothesis, which predicts that, when people judge memory and learning, they sometimes rely less on one source of information if other information is available. Furthermore, Study III shows that processing fluency (the experience of effort associated with processing information), may be an important source of information for EOL judgments, and that people’s beliefs about available information can moderate how the information is used to make EOL judgments. Overall, the results show when EOL judgments will be accurate and when they will not, and provides evidence that people may use processing fluency to make EOL judgments even when it contradicts their beliefs. Importantly, the results also indicate that when multiple sources of information are available, information may compete for influence over metacognitive judgments.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Wang, Dong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    New Reactions with Allyl- and Allenylboron Reagents: Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Transition-Metal-Free Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Processes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organoboron compounds have been widely used in carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in organic synthesis and catalysis. This thesis is focused on cross-coupling reactions of allyl-, allenylboronic acids and their ester derivatives via transition metal catalysis or transition-metal-free processes.

    The first part of the thesis describes Cu-catalyzed C(sp3)-C(sp3) formation reactions involving allylboronic acids and α-diazoketones. This coupling process shows high γ-regioselectivity, resulting in branched allylic products. When stereodefined cyclic allylboronic acids were employed as the substrate, the relative facial configuration was retained in the reaction product.

    The second part involves Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones. The reaction proceeds with high α-regioselectivity, affording linear allylic products. Accordingly, the palladium- and copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones occurs with opposite regioselectivity.

    The third part concerns a new transition-metal-free carbon-carbon bond formation between allenylboronic acids and in situ generated diazo compounds. The diazo compounds are generated from tosylhydrazones in the presence of base. The reaction is suitable for synthesis of densely substituted conjugated dienes with high Z-selectivity.

    In the final part, the allylation of quinones with allylboronates is presented. The reaction was performed without any catalyst or additive. Various quinones can be employed as substrates, including unsubstituted, monosubstituted benzoquinones and naphthoquinones.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 sal FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Robustini, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The dynamic chromosphere: Results and techniques with an observational approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chromosphere is a critical interface between the relatively cold photosphere and the hot corona. Its landscape is rich in very dynamic phenomena such as jets, spicules, and surges, which are thought to play an important role in the heating of the Sun’s upper atmosphere. However, these events are often driven by mechanisms that are not entirely understood owing to the complex physical conditions governing the chromosphere. In the average chromosphere, the magnetic pressure often dominates over the gas pressure. Thus the structure and dynamics of this layer are mainly regulated by the magnetic field configuration.

    This thesis is based on three projects that investigate some chromospheric dynamic phenomena and their relation with the magnetic field. In these projects, we follow an experimental approach, by analysing high-resolution ground-based observations with spectropolarimetry as well as satellite co-observations.

    The first project focuses on exotic fan-shaped jets that are sometimes observed above sunspot light bridges. We investigate the thermal properties and the dynamics of these jets, and suggest magnetic reconnection as the mechanism producing these events.

    In the second project, we study a δ-sunspot penumbra that harbours fan-shaped jets. By using inversion techniques, we retrieve the 3D structure of the magnetic field and temperature, which reveal that the magnetic reconnection driving the fan-shaped jets occurs in the lower chromosphere.

    In the third project, we investigate the role of the magnetic field in a unipolar supergranular network cell having a radial arrangement of the fibrils. For this chromospheric structure, we suggest a model of the magnetic topology based on multiwavelength observations and inversion techniques.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Thorslund, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Do You Have a TV?: Negotiating Swedish Public Service through 1950's Programming, "Americanization," and Domesticity2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents a cultural history of early Swedish television. The focus is on the investigation of 1950s programming, intermedial connections, processes of “Americanization,” and domestic, socio-cultural change in direct relation to the new medium. By using a wide range of sources—archival materials, official records, newspaper articles, advertisements, and more—the dissertation examines discourses on how television was experienced during its installation years in Swedish homes, as well as how U.S. television contents were perceived and came to be a sizeable part of early Swedish television. This thesis thereby endeavors to contribute to a wider, transnational framing of Swedish television history.  

    The first chapter examines the scheduling practices and ideas of television programming in the 1950s. The engagement is with notions of medium specificity and intermedial connections between television, radio and film. The chapter further provides a background to how principles for programming were discussed before the televisual start and during the medium’s first years of operation in Sweden. 

    The second chapter offers a case study of television program schedules between 1956 and 1959. It addresses the kind of programs, or categories, the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation invested in; patterns in the daily, weekly and seasonal schedule; increase in broadcasting hours; and prominent countries within the international television material. The case study primarily displays a hitherto largely overlooked influence that came from the U.S. and its commercial television program model.

    The third chapter discusses various forms of American influences on early Swedish television. A recurring cause of concern in Swedish media in the 1950s was that the Swedish public service television could be, and at times was, associated with “Americanization” and commercial popular culture at large. However, instead of defining Swedish public service television in contrast to the U.S. commercial television model, this dissertation argues that the formative years of Swedish television, in various ways, was a convergence of the British public service model and of U.S. program techniques, ideas and formats. 

    Lastly, the forth chapter deals with the cultural changes that resulted from television’s incursion into private homes and living rooms. The chapter examines the television set as a new furniture, within a broader framework of the “people’s home” and the functionalistic ideals of the 1950s. It further addresses how the new medium was marketed to the public, and states that the excitement for television segued to a variety of product advertisements that used the new media as a promoter for an array of commodities.

    The study concludes that programs, formats, and ideas from the U.S., and not—as one might have thought—the UK, constituted the largest number of imported materials on Swedish television during the 1950s. Swedish public service television thus made use of transnational flows from U.S. commercial television networks right from the start, while simultaneously discursively distancing itself from this model of television. Furthermore, the dissertation shows that these programs and formats were pivotal for rapidly turning television into a popular media of entertainment, and a soon-to-be-natural part of the Swedish domestic setting in the 1950s. 

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Resisting feminised precarity: Farm workers in post-strike Western Cape, South Africa2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to contribute to the body of research on gender, neoliberal globalisation and work, and on the forms of resistance people engage in within a deeply unequal global order. It was devised in relation to developments during and after widespread, unprecedented labour and social protests among farm workers in export-oriented agriculture in the Western Cape, South Africa, 2012–2013. The protests, referred to in popular discourse as the ‘farm worker strike’, are widely held to have been spearheaded by people in the most precarious positions: seasonal workers, including migrants both from within and outside South Africa, many of whom were women. The dissertation draws on multi-sited ethnography conducted among farm workers in several of the areas to which the protests spread, during what I refer to as the post-strike moment.

    The aim of the study is to contribute to an understanding of differently positioned farm workers’ experiences of work and life precarity, organising and resistance – as well as to the interlinkages between these phenomena. Using intersectionality as an ‘analytic sensibility’, the dissertation explores how power relations linked to gender, race/ethnicity and nationality/migration status may be understood as shaped by, and contributing to shaping, work and life precarity. It also looks at how these hierarchies are articulated through labour regimes on farms and through workers’ resistance. Moreover, it interrogates labour activism as a route to resisting not only socio-economic deprivation and apartheid legacies, but further to restoring a sense of dignity (of labour).

    The dissertation engages with various broader theoretical discussions. It deliberates on the overlaps between the notions of feminisation of labour, precarious work and precarity – conceiving of precarity as a feminised phenomenon. Experiences of precarity in the Western Cape farmlands, it suggests, are shaped by the devaluing of some workers, linked to racism, sexism and global inequalities, as well as to historical and contemporary processes of dispossession. The dissertation also describes how (some) female farm workers, through presenting themselves as knowledgeable about their rights, and through accentuating feminised aspects of care and responsibility in their activism, position themselves as respectable. Furthermore, through identifying silences and exclusions in representations of farm workers, it contributes to writing black/African female migrant workers back into the strike narrative as important and militant actors. Finally, the dissertation argues that attention to multiple forms of violence – slow, structural, symbolic and direct – and the violence of globalisation under neoliberalism is crucial in order to understand the messy and violent aspects of the ‘farm worker strike’. Importantly, it explores these topics as informed by broader global developments, through which power, control and the retention of value are increasingly placed outside of the deeply unequal spaces that constitute commercial farming areas, discussing links with Sweden as a destination for South African wine and deciduous fruit.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Ahlmannsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Jennische, Ulrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Small-Small: Moral Economy and the Marketspace in Northern Ghana2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the Ghanaian government has tried to include and accommodate the many people working in the so-called informal economy. This formalization process is in line with a global market-driven development discourse. The small-scale traders selling their goods from marketplaces and along the streets in major cities have been of particular interest.

    While the Ghanaian government defines these actors as working in an “informal sector” and thus beyond the formal political and economic system, it simultaneously targets them with welfare services and various policies with the purpose of including them in the creation of a modern welfare state and shaping them into moral and entrepreneurial citizens.

    In Tamale in northern Ghana, years of political neglect, violence, and structural adjustment have led to small-scale traders taking over streets, sidewalks, and infrastructure, which has created a boundless and dynamic marketspace that far exceeds the delimited and politically defined marketplaces. For the state, therefore, much of the formalization process is about restoring the control and power of public space through evictions and relocations of traders. In conjunction with the inclusive welfare services, this demonstrates the contradictions entailed in the politics of informality.

    The study is based on an ethnographic fieldwork among small-scale traders in northern Ghana with a specific interest in the events that occur at the intersection where state, market, and citizenship meet. By asking what it means to be a trader in this contradictory process of formalization, the dissertation aims to understand this transformative moment in Ghana’s political and economic history.

    In this study the emic notion of small-small is used to frame the norms of gradual progress and letting others in that define the moral economy of small-scale trade. Norms, values, and obligations generate trust and solidarity within the marketspace. But more than that, small-small produces a form of politics against an obstructive and unreliable state and it guides traders into the future by shaping dreams, aspirations, and possibilities. Situated in traders’ daily lives, work, and relationships, and through the small-small lens, this thesis investigates the underlying moralities of formalization. It describes the politics of the Ghanaian state, which in its attempt to create an inclusive welfare society, struggles to both protect the moral dynamics of small-scale trade while adhering to the norms and standards of an open liberalized economy.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hansman, Reuben Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cryptic Orogeny: uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains at an alleged passive margin2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountains evolve and grow because of the large forces that occur from the collision of tectonic plates. Plate boundaries change and move through time, and regions that were once stable, shallow-marine environments can be dragged into subduction zones and get transformed into vast mountain ranges. The Al Hajar Mountains in Oman consist of carbonate rocks which show that during most of the Mesozoic (c. 268 Ma – 95 Ma) they had not yet formed but were flat and below sea level. Following this, in the Late Cretaceous (c. 95 Ma), a major tectonic event caused oceanic crust to be obducted onto this Mesozoic carbonate platform. Then after obduction a shallow marine environment resumed, and Paleogene sedimentary rocks were deposited. Currently, the central mountains are located on the Arabian Plate and are 200 km away from the convergent plate boundary with Eurasia. Here, Arabia is being subducted. Further towards the northwest Arabia and Eurasia are colliding, forming the Zagros Mountains which initiated no earlier than the Oligocene (c. 30 Ma). At this time the mountains were even further away from the plate boundary. The problem with the Al Hajar Mountains is that they record a collision, but are not in a collisional zone. To better understand the formation of the Al Hajar Mountains, a multidiscipline approach was used to investigate the timing at which they developed. This included applying low-temperature thermochronology, U-Pb dating of brittle structures, and balanced cross-sections. Results indicate that the orogeny began in the late Eocene and had concluded by the early Miocene (40 Ma – 15 Ma). Therefore, the uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains is not related to either the older Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the younger Zagros collision, and a new tectonic model is proposed. This research shows that the Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Oman is more cryptic than what has been formerly presented.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 09:30 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Kari, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Light conditions in seasonally ice-covered waters: within the Baltic Sea region2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal ice cover is a major driver of seasonality in aquatic ecosystems in the Baltic Sea region. Ice cover influences the underwater light conditions directly by limiting the light transfer and indirectly by modifying the mixing and circulation under the ice. Light conditions and stratification are key factors controlling the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom. Therefore, the seasonal ice cover has an important role in setting the time frames for the primary production and in influencing the seasonality of the ecological processes. This thesis investigates the optical properties of the ice cover and the bio-optical substances in the water column.

    Bio-optical substances, suspended particulate matter (SPM), Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), determine the availability and spectral distribution of light. Measuring turbidity is quick and easy compared to the gravimetrical determination of the SPM concentration. Paper I provides a new model to estimate the concentration of SPM from turbidity. The new SPM-turbidity model predicts SPM concentrations well, despite the high CDOM absorption and the optical differences in the coastal northwestern and southeastern Baltic proper. Therefore, the new SPM-turbidity model offers a cost-effective and reliable method to monitor SPM concentration.

    The light transfer through the snow and ice cover was studied both in freshwater lake ice and in brackish sea ice (Papers II and III). Additionally, the seasonal evolution of light transmission through lake ice was investigated during spring. The crystal structure of the ice cover was analysed both in the coastal fast ice zone and in drift ice in the open Baltic Sea. The snow and ice cover was found not only to reduce the amount of light, but also to change its spectral and directional distribution. The light field under ice depended strongly on the snow cover. In addition, the bio-optical substances were analysed within sea ice and in the underlying water, as well as their effect on the light conditions.

    The seasonal sea ice cover also limits the wind-driven mixing of the water column. The development of stratification was investigated in a coastal bay in the northwestern Baltic proper (Paper IV). The preconditions for an under-ice plume development were defined along with the spatial and temporal dimensions of the stratification pattern. Furthermore, an under-ice plume was found to cause a delay in the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom, but the timing of the Chl-a maximum was not affected. The results also show that although diatoms dominate the phytoplankton community with and without under-ice plume, the dynamic conditions without under-ice plume seem to favour the motile photosynthetic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Overall, this thesis contributes to better understanding of the current role of seasonal ice cover on the light conditions and consequently on to the ecosystem.

  • Arıs, Ahmet
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Oktug, Sema F.
    Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Security of internet of things for a reliable internet of services2018In: Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10768), 2018, p. 337-370Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of resource-constrained devices (e.g., sensors and actuators) which form low power and lossy networks to connect to the Internet. With billions of devices deployed in various environments, IoT is one of the main building blocks of future Internet of Services (IoS). Limited power, processing, storage and radio dictate extremely efficient usage of these resources to achieve high reliability and availability in IoS. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks aim to misuse the resources and cause interruptions, delays, losses and degrade the offered services in IoT. DoS attacks are clearly threats for availability and reliability of IoT, and thus of IoS. For highly reliable and available IoS, such attacks have to be prevented, detected or mitigated autonomously. In this study, we propose a comprehensive investigation of Internet of Things security for reliable Internet of Services. We review the characteristics of IoT environments, cryptography-based security mechanisms and D/DoS attacks targeting IoT networks. In addition to these, we extensively analyze the intrusion detection and mitigation mechanisms proposed for IoT and evaluate them from various points of view. Lastly, we consider and discuss the open issues yet to be researched for more reliable and available IoT and IoS. © The Author(s) 2018.

  • Nygren, Eeva
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sutinen, Erkki
    University of Turku.
    Dynamics between Disturbances and Motivations in Educational Mobile Games2018In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 120-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding engagement in games provides great opportuni- ties for developing motivating educational games. However, even good games may induce disturbances on the learner. Therefore, we go further than present- ing only results and discussion related to the motivation aspects and disturbance factors of the playing experience in UFractions (Ubiquitous fractions) storytell- ing mobile game. Namely, we define the dynamics between these two important game features. Sample of the case study was 305 middle school pupils in South Africa, Finland, and Mozambique.

    Guidelines for game developers, users and educators were derived from the interplay of disturbance factors and motivations. Furthermore, we defined six different learning zones deriving from disturbances the player is facing and the player’s motivation level.

  • Public defence: 2018-08-29 10:00 Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå
    Anchev, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Information and financial markets2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results in this thesis are consistent with the hypotheses that: 1) the incomplete dissemination of information across investors helps in explaining the occurrence and the persistence of cross-sectional stock return anomalies, 2) the properties of the investor base of a stock have implications for the informativeness of the stock's price and 3) a greater quantity of firm disclosure places less sophisticated investors at an information disadvantage. Overall, the thesis provides new empirical evidence about the role of information in financial markets.

    Investor Base and Stock Return Anomalies

    After controlling for market capitalization, the predictability of future stock returns associated with each of the earnings-to-price ratio, the book-to-market ratio, the past return, the total volatility of returns and the return on assets is more pronounced among stocks with smaller total and/or institutional investor bases. These results appear even after controlling for several other stock characteristics and potential risk factors and they are both statistically and economically meaningful. Thus, they are consistent with the hypothesis that the incomplete dissemination of information across investors helps in explaining the occurrence and the persistence of cross-sectional stock return anomalies.

    Investor Base and Stock Price Informativeness

    The relative idiosyncratic volatility of future stock returns is: 1) negatively associated with the absolute size of the total and the institutional investor base, 2) positively associated with the institutional ownership, 3) negatively (positively) associated with the average stock portfolio size (Herfindahl index) of the investor base and 4) positively associated with the indirect (i.e., through nominees) ownership. These results appear after controlling for several other stock characteristics and they are both statistically and economically meaningful. Thus, they are consistent with the hypothesis that the properties of the investor base of a stock have implications for the informativeness of the stock's price.

    Individual Investors and Quantity of Firm Disclosure

    When the amount of information disclosed by a firm is greater (or increases), the stock portfolio weights that individual investors allocate (through trading) to that firm's stock are lower (or decrease) and suboptimal. The former result is less pronounced or nonexistent for more financially competent individuals and for positions in firms with a poorer information environment. When they do allocate greater portfolio weights to the stock of a firm that discloses more, individuals, regardless of their financial competence, earn lower returns. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a greater quantity of firm disclosure places less sophisticated investors at an information disadvantage.

  • Sandström, Josef
    The Nordic Museum.
    Några drag af öfvertro från Västergötland1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 58-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Modin, Erik
    The Nordic Museum.
    Vårdkasar1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 54-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nilsson, Axel
    The Nordic Museum.
    Kryptbilderna i Lunds domkyrka1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 42-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Weibull, Lauritz
    The Nordic Museum.
    Den lundensiska Finnsägen1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 28-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sydow, C W von
    The Nordic Museum.
    Studier i Finnsägen och besläktade byggmästarsägner (3)1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 19-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Wistrand, Per Gustaf
    The Nordic Museum.
    Bohusländska folkdräkter1908In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1908, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • NN, nn
    The Nordic Museum.
    Vargjakt i Kalmar län på 1850- och 1860-talen1907In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1907, p. 18-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Exploring design content in cad-models and knowledge bases using graph theory and filtering2017In: Machine Dynamics Research, ISSN 2080-9948, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focus on what types of relations exist within CAD-models and in KBE-systems connected to them. It describes how engineering knowledge stored in CAD-models and KBEsystems can be analysed through the application of graph theory, visualization and filtering. The paper is organised as follows: First the information models for CAD-models and KBEsystems are introduced and graph theory in connection with these information models is presented. The theory is then applied to a real case which is a CAD-model that was automated using a commercial KBE-system where the number of rules made it hard to engineers to grasp the model. By applying the concepts presented in this paper it was possible to identify critical design parameters and to inspect the logical model of the product.

  • Molinder, Roger
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Almqvist, Jonna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Extractives in theScandinavian pulp and paperindustry : Current and possible future applications2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest industry is one of Sweden’s most important business sectors. Thanks to its biobased rawmaterials and products, the forest industry plays a key role in the development towards asustainable, circular economy. To meet market needs, and to drive the growth of the circulareconomy, the forest industry is continually developing its processes and products. It is seeking to useits raw material, the forest, as efficiently as possible and is constantly seeking to improve quality andincorporate new functions into materials and products.Pulp and paper makes up the largest part of the forest industry, followed by sawn wood productsand products made from paper and paperboard. 3.9 million tons of pulp and 10.1 million tons ofpaper were produced in Sweden in 2016.The pulp and paper industry uses stem wood as its raw material. Stem wood consists of cellulose,hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives. Cellulose and hemicellulose are separated in the pulpingprocess and the economically most important components in wood. Lignin and extractives areusually burned to provide the mill with heat and power, but the use/needs has changed over timedue to development of more energy efficient mills. Today lignin is extracted from the black liquor forexternal use, while extractives are fractionated and used for production of a wide range of productssuch as, biodiesel, adhesives, and chemical intermediates.The extractives make up between 3 and 5 weight-% of the wood and consists of a wide range ofcompounds. The majority of those compounds are fatty acids such as oleic- and linoleic acid androsin acids, such as abietic- and pimaric acid. The remaining compounds are commonly referred to as“neutrals” and are dominated by β-sitosterol. The extractives in Scots pine for example, consist of 70% fatty acids, 20 % rosin acids and 5 % neutrals.Today, the extractives are separated at the pulp and paper mills during the regeneration of cookingchemicals into a product called crude tall oil (CTO). 2.5 million metric tons of CTO is producedglobally with 80% of the production situated in North America and Scandinavia. 1.3 million tons isproduced in North America and 600 000 tons is produced in Scandinavia. 2.0 million metric tons iscurrently refined globally, while the rest is used internally by the mills for the production of heat andpower.CTO is currently refined into a range of products which can be divided up into (i) chemicalintermediates, (ii) biodiesel, and (iii) tall oil pitch. The chemical intermediates are mostly used for theproduction of adhesives, while the biodiesel is used as a transport fuel, and the tall oil pitch is usedfor production of heat and power.To meet market needs, and to drive the growth of the circular economy, extractives could potentiallybe used for the production of other products, either through new refinement routes of CTO or novelextraction and separation methods from the raw material. In order to identify opportunities for theproduction of other extractives based products, the extractives value chain must first be mapped.Second, refinement routes as well as extraction and separation methods suitable for isolation andprocessing of valuable compounds must be identified.

  • Cederblom, Gerda
    The Nordic Museum.
    Linnedamast i Nordiska Museet1907In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1907, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sumaya, Wael
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Infect Immun & Cardiovasc Dis, Beech Hill Rd, Sheffield S10 2RX, S Yorkshire, England..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    James, Stefan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Gabrysch, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bertilsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Himmelmann, Anders
    AstraZeneca Res & Dev, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ajjan, Ramzi A.
    Univ Leeds, Leeds Inst Cardiovasc & Metab Med, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Storey, Robert F.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Infect Immun & Cardiovasc Dis, Beech Hill Rd, Sheffield S10 2RX, S Yorkshire, England..
    Fibrin clot properties independently predict adverse clinical outcome following acute coronary syndrome: a PLATO substudy2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, no 13, p. 1078-1085Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To determine whether fibrin clot properties are associated with clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods and results Plasma samples were collected at hospital discharge from 4354 ACS patients randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. A validated turbidimetric assay was employed to study plasma clot lysis time and maximum turbidity (a measure of clot density). One-year rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and PLATO-defined major bleeding events were assessed after sample collection. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. After adjusting for CV risk factors, each 50% increase in lysis time was associated with CV death/spontaneous MI [HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.31; P < 0.01] and CV death alone (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59; P < 0.001). Similarly, each 50% increase in maximum turbidity was associated with increased risk of CV death (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50; P = 0.024). After adjustment for other prognostic biomarkers (leukocyte count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, cystatin C, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and growth differentiation factor15), the association with CV death remained significant for lysis time (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.42; P = 0.042) but not for maximum turbidity. These associations were consistent regardless of randomized antiplatelet treatment (all interaction P > 0.05). Neither lysis time nor maximum turbidity was associated with major bleeding events. Conclusion Fibrin clots that are resistant to lysis independently predict adverse outcome in ACS patients. Novel therapies targeting fibrin clot properties might be a new avenue for improving prognosis in patients with ACS.

  • Sjöberg, N
    The Nordic Museum.
    Från ett julgille i början av 1500-talet1907In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1907, p. 241-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Lithberg, Nils
    The Nordic Museum.
    Gräupacken1907In: Fataburen – Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1907, p. 236-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Branting, Agnes
    The Nordic Museum.
    Medeltida stola med knypplad ornering1907In: Fataburen - Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1907, p. 231-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sundqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    de Bruin, Julia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lean in project-based organizations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on the application of Lean in project-based organizations (PBOs) is scarce. This paper presents findings from two case studies of early efforts to implement Lean in subsidiary PBOs. By focusing on Lean principles we provide insight into how PBO operations are, and potentially could be, aligned with Lean thinking. The findings suggest a fit on an overall level, but that principles need to be aligned with PM methods and tools to allow for flexibility.

  • Tärnlund, Sten-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    P is not equal to NP2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Axiom 1 extends Turing’s, first order, theory of computing, so, computations are proofs in Robinson resolution. Then, SAT is not in P, is proved using Hilbert’s proof theory. Therefore, P is not equal to NP.

  • Sundqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring the complexity surrounding barriers of learning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is seen as important both within and between projects so that the whole organization can benefits from the lessons learned, and achieve competitive success. Also, projects are seen as suitable organizational units for stimulating learning and creating knowledge. However, organizations have difficulties in dissemination, and applications of lessons learned fail to deliver the intended results. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to explore the complexity surrounding barriers of learning in a project environment, and to present suggestions of how to overcome them in practice. That is, to give examples of means that can support learning in a project environment. Findings are based on a literature review, and findings from a longitudinal case study within a project@based organization. 

    We argue, in accordance with Duffield and Whitty (2015) that there is a need of a new paradigm for organizational learning in the project management field that conceptualises and articulates how projects are interlinked and generate value to a higher order learning purpose. Especially in project@based organizations (PBOs) where the main part of business is conducted in project form. This paper aims to explore the complexity surrounding barriers of learning, which exist between different levels of learning in organizations, but also in relation to different approaches to learning, e.g. hard focusing on control and quantitative measurement or soft focusing on social processes and qualitative aspects. 

    The tentative results, based on a case study, show that even though learning is brought up on the agenda and discussed as important in the PBO, learning is often marginalized, and treated as a separate activity. Also, results from a literature review reveals that the view of learning can be described from different perspectives and approaches, either scientific/hard with a focus on capturing and storing learning, or social/soft with a focus on disseminating and unleashing learning. The first could be regarded as rigid, while the latter could be seen as vague. We adopt a push/pull analogy of learning in project environments, suggesting the increased need to foster a pull approach, in which a demand for learning is facilitated, and hence supporting value creation.

  • Lindstrom, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys.
    Andersson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Dogan, Jakob
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys.
    The transition state structure for binding between TAZ1 of CBP and the disordered Hif-1 alpha CAD2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in eukaryotes. However, relatively few experimental studies have addressed the nature of the rate-limiting transition state for the coupled binding and folding reactions involving IDPs. By using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetics measurements we have here characterized the transition state for binding between the globular TAZ1 domain of CREB binding protein and the intrinsically disordered C-terminal activation domain of Hif-1 alpha (Hif-1 alpha CAD). A total of 17 Hif-1 alpha CAD point-mutations were generated and a F-value binding analysis was carried out. We found that native hydrophobic binding interactions are not formed at the transition state. We also investigated the effect the biologically important Hif-1 alpha CAD Asn-803 hydroxylation has on the binding kinetics, and found that the whole destabilization effect due the hydroxylation is within the dissociation rate constant. Thus, the rate-limiting transition state is "disordered-like", with native hydrophobic binding contacts being formed cooperatively after the rate-limiting barrier, which is clearly shown by linear free energy relationships. The same behavior was observed in a previously characterized TAZ1/IDP interaction, which may suggest common features for the rate-limiting transition state for TAZ1/IDP interactions.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Zhang, Teng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Synchrotron Radiation Studies of Molecular Building Blocks for Functional Materials2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research on new materials is a primary driving force for progress in human society. One of the most significant research topic nowadays is the development of new functional materials for technological applications, like perovskite implemented in solar cells, and graphene as a representative for the new 2D materials family. It is then crucial to fully understand the functionality of such materials from a fundamental point of view, as a complementary and useful guide to develop/design new devices of improved performance and energy efficiency.

    In the thesis, comprehensive characterizations of molecular building blocks used in i) novel energy conversion devices (CoPc, TPA, DPTA and m-MTDATA), and ii) in 2D materials (biphenylene and melamine) have been performed by PhotoElectron Spectroscopy (PES), and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy carried out at synchrotron radiation facilities, representing effective, powerful light source dedicated to the front-line materials research of great value in both science and industry. PES and NEXAFS spectroscopy, in combination with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have provided a deep understanding of the electronic structure of the investigated systems in relation to their functionality. The investigations always included the combination and comparison between experimental and theoretical results. The studied molecules were characterized as free and adsorbed on surfaces, from the simple building blocks to more complex molecular systems. The characterizations allowed us to identify the electronic structure modifications due to substitutions (Paper III), increasing complexity of the molecules (Paper V), molecule-substrate interactions (Paper I, II, IV, V) and intra-molecular H-bonding interactions (Paper VI).

  • Leijon, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Freshwater production from the motion of ocean waves - A review2018In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 435, p. 161-171Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater scarcity and insufficient sanitation are global urgent problems, affecting billions of people. In this review paper, the process of desalination powered by wave power has been investigated as a potential sustainable solution to water shortage. The different desalination techniques suitable for this type of combined system, i.e. reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and mechanical vapor compression, have been outlined, as well as the different wave energy converters possible to power the desalination process, i.e. oscillating water columns, oscillating bodies (wave activated bodies) and overtopping systems. Some necessary considerations for this type of project are identified. The different wave power/desalination projects and how they have proceeded are presented. The most common design of a wave energy and desalination system includes a wave activated body to pressurize seawater; the seawater flows through a reverse osmosis membrane, resulting in freshwater. Some successful (freshwater producing) wave energy/desalination projects were identified: Delbuoy, the oscillating water column in Vizhinjam, CETO Freshwater, SAROS and Odyssee. It is concluded that wave power and desalination can be combined in a sustainable and autonomous system, generating freshwater from the ocean waves. However, questions regarding cost of produced water, variations in power production due to intermittency and environmental effects still remain.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 MA624, Huddinge
    Mangold, Marcel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Securing the working democracy: Inventive arrangements to guarantee circulation and the emergence of democracy policy2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, Swedish democracy's ability to remain strong and renew itself became increasingly questioned in government commission reports and social-scientific writings. The perceptions of the financial crisis in 1992– 1994, new identities, immigration and changes in participation in civic associations and organizations were listed as challenges to democracy. Together, they helped constitute an understanding of an emerging gap between the population and existing representative democratic forms. In response, the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s saw the emergence of several discourses, political initiatives and scientific contributions that articulated and responded to the need to secure a “working democracy”. By analyzing theoretically the arrangements of elements in policy and in attempts to shape the population's habits, dispositions and behavior, the thesis illuminates the role of aesthetics in the knowledge and power effects of these efforts. Methodologically, the thesis draws on Michel Foucault's genealogical approach in four empirical chapters. In doing so, the thesis displays why, when and how the efforts to secure a working democracy emerged, and analyzes the politics inherent to them. The chapters consist, first, of a study of the birth and changes in “democracy policy” as a distinct political domain; second, a mapping of the emergence of the discourse and dispositif of “valuefoundation”; third, a mapping of the discourse on exclusion and the discourse on and apparatus to combat “violence-promoting extremism”, and, finally, a mapping of inventive approaches in survey research that articulated how to secure a working democracy. This mapping exposes a vision of democratic dis-involvement and how to contain it infused by risk-management, benchmarking and a monitoring of changes in the population. Taken together, the chapters demonstrate the emergence of a complex network of power relations and knowledge used to achieve congruence between the population and governmental aims. This, the thesis underscores, marginalizes the role of dissent and interruptions in democratic life, to instead equate democracy with a system of congruence, smooth interactions and overall alignment to demands on circulation.

  • Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Grillo, Claudia A.
    Univ South Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol Physiol & Neurosci, Columbia, SC 29208 USA..
    Insulin Resistance as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review2018In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 12, article id 215Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in animals and humans has shown that type 2 diabetes and its prodromal state, insulin resistance, promote major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Worrisomely, dysregulated amyloid beta (A beta) metabolism has also been shown to promote central nervous system insulin resistance; although the role of tau metabolism remains controversial. Collectively, as proposed in this review, these findings suggest the existence of a mechanistic interplay between AD pathogenesis and disrupted insulin signaling. They also provide strong support for the hypothesis that pharmacologically restoring brain insulin signaling could represent a promising strategy to curb the development and progression of AD. In this context, great hopes have been attached to the use of intranasal insulin. This drug delivery method increases cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of insulin in the absence of peripheral side effects, such as hypoglycemia. With this in mind, the present review will also summarize current knowledge on the efficacy of intranasal insulin to mitigate major pathological symptoms of AD, i.e., cognitive impairment and deregulation of A beta and tau metabolism.

  • Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Haapalar, Irja
    Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V
    Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C M
    Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M
    Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review2018In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • Danielsson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Jones, Douglas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Kylberg, Eva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Strömquist, Jenny
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring.
    Johansson, Ann-Marie
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Hjelmquist, Pär
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Mechedal, Jan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University..
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University..
    Bizkarguenaga, E
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Benskin., Jonathan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    de Wit,, Cynthia
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Egebäck, Anna-Lena
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Kruså, Martin
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Distribution and conversions of metal-and POP concentrations among various tissues in herring2018Report (Other academic)
  • Lusey, Hendrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. World Council of Churches, Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative and Advocacy (EHAIA), Kinshasa Gombe, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Edin, Kerstin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Prevalence and correlates of gender inequitable norms among young, church-going women and men in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged political instability may have exacerbated gender inequitable beliefs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The aim of this study was to assess attitudes related to gender-equitable norms and its determinants among young, church-going women and men in Kinshasa, DRC.

    METHOD: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with 291 church-going women and 289 men aged 18-24 years old, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality, and responses to issues related to the gender-equitable men (GEM) scale. The GEM scale is a 24 item-questionnaire developed to measure attitudes towards gender equitable norms. Logistic regression was applied to discover the associations between the independent variables and the GEM outcome.

    RESULTS: Our study reflected the existence of attitudes hampering gender equality that were endorsed by both women and men. For example, 91.4% of women and 83% of men agreed with the statement "a woman's most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family". Similarly, 88.3% of women and 82.9% of men concurred with the idea that men need more sex than women. These findings coexisted with a few equitable norms, because 93.7% of women and 92.3% of men agreed that a man and a woman should decide together if they want to have children. A positive association was found in both women and men between being educated, being single and separated and having supportive attitudes towards gender equality and a higher GEM scale score. Residency in Camp Luka and Masina was also a significant social determinant associated with equitable gender norms among men whilst job status was only significant among women.

    CONCLUSION: While both women and men had high levels of gender inequitable norms, those with more education, single, and with supportive attitudes to gender equality had high GEM scale scores. The results highlight an urgent need for the church to challenge and change gender norms among church youths.

  • Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Oncare Medical Technology Company Limited , Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nguyen, Viet
    Tuan, Le Thanh
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Views by health professionals on the responsiveness of commune health stations regarding non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative study2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Primary health care plays an important role in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries. In light of the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, this study aims to explore health professionals' views about the responsiveness of primary health care services at commune health stations, particularly regarding the increase of NCDs in urban settings.

    METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Hanoi from July to August 2015. We implemented 19 in-depth interviews with health staff at four purposely selected commune health stations and conducted a brief inventory of existing NCD activities at these commune health stations. We also interviewed NCD managers at national, provincial, and district levels. The interview guides reflected six components of the WHO health system framework, including service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership/governance. A thematic analysis approach was applied to analyze the interview data in this study.

    RESULTS: Six themes, related to the six building blocks of the WHO health systems framework, were identified. These themes explored the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi. Health staff at commune health stations were not aware of the national strategy for NCDs. Health workers noted the lack of NCD informational materials for management and planning. The limited workforce at health commune stations would benefit from more health workers in general and those with NCD-specific training and skills. In addition, the budget for NCDs at commune health stations remains very limited, with large differences in the implementation of national targeted NCD programs. Some commune health stations had no NCD services available, while others had some programming. A lack of NCD treatment drugs was also noted, with a negative impact on the provision of NCD-related services at commune health stations. These themes were also reflected in the inventory of existing NCD related activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals view the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi, Vietnam as weak. Appropriate policies should be implemented to improve the primary health care services on NCDs at commune health stations in urban Hanoi, Vietnam.

  • von Rosen, Tatjana
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bilinear regression with rank restrictions on the mean and the dispersion matrix2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A bilinear regression model with rank restrictions imposed on the mean-parameter matrix and on the dispersion matrix is studied. Maximum likelihood inspired estimates are derived. The approach generalizes classical reduced rank regression analysis and principal component analysis. It is shown via a simulation study and a real example that even for small dimensions the method works as well as reduced rank regression analysis whereas the approach in this article also can be used when the dimension is large.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-08 09:00 Room 22-0008, Uppsala
    Basirat, Ali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Principal Word Vectors2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Word embedding is a technique for associating the words of a language with real-valued vectors, enabling us to use algebraic methods to reason about their semantic and grammatical properties. This thesis introduces a word embedding method called principal word embedding, which makes use of principal component analysis (PCA) to train a set of word embeddings for words of a language. The principal word embedding method involves performing a PCA on a data matrix whose elements are the frequency of seeing words in different contexts. We address two challenges that arise in the application of PCA to create word embeddings. The first challenge is related to the size of the data matrix on which PCA is performed and affects the efficiency of the word embedding method. The data matrix is usually a large matrix that requires a very large amount of memory and CPU time to be processed. The second challenge is related to the distribution of word frequencies in the data matrix and affects the quality of the word embeddings. We provide an extensive study of the distribution of the elements of the data matrix and show that it is unsuitable for PCA in its unmodified form.

    We overcome the two challenges in principal word embedding by using a generalized PCA method. The problem with the size of the data matrix is mitigated by a randomized singular value decomposition (SVD) procedure, which improves the performance of PCA on the data matrix. The data distribution is reshaped by an adaptive transformation function, which makes it more suitable for PCA. These techniques, together with a weighting mechanism that generalizes many different weighting and transformation approaches used in literature, enable the principal word embedding to train high quality word embeddings in an efficient way.

    We also provide a study on how principal word embedding is connected to other word embedding methods. We compare it to a number of word embedding methods and study how the two challenges in principal word embedding are addressed in those methods. We show that the other word embedding methods are closely related to principal word embedding and, in many instances, they can be seen as special cases of it.

    The principal word embeddings are evaluated in both intrinsic and extrinsic ways. The intrinsic evaluations are directed towards the study of the distribution of word vectors. The extrinsic evaluations measure the contribution of principal word embeddings to some standard NLP tasks. The experimental results confirm that the newly proposed features of principal word embedding (i.e., the randomized SVD algorithm, the adaptive transformation function, and the weighting mechanism) are beneficial to the method and lead to significant improvements in the results. A comparison between principal word embedding and other popular word embedding methods shows that, in many instances, the proposed method is able to generate word embeddings that are better than or as good as other word embeddings while being faster than several popular word embedding methods.