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  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:00 Nathan Milsteinsalen, Stockholm
    Hagerman, Frans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Hagerman, Frans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    ”Det är ur görandet tankarna föds” – från idé till komposition : En studie av kompositionsprocesser i högre musikutbildning.2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Doing gives birth to ideas”. From ideas to composition: a study of composition processes in higher music education. Recent technological developments have challenged the historical methods of composing music for acoustical instruments using traditional scores. However, composers in the Western art music traditionstill continue to use them when they explore the realm of sounds intraditional instruments and possible ways to communicate their intentions. The aim of the present study is to describe the development process in the composition of score-based music intended to be performed by a mixed ensemble of wind, string and percussion instruments. Three composer students from an undergraduate program in Western art music composition each participated during two semesters in the data collection. The data consists of a series of composition sketches, qualitative interviews, voice logs, music recordings and observations of rehearsals and concerts. The analysis focused on shedding light on the participants’ ways of developing the content as the processes of composition unfold. The main methods of analysis were to compare different versions of the same composition and, on the basis of this comparison, to ask analytical questions of the participants. A result common to the three participants, is the conclusion that they start with rudimentary structures and gradually elaborate them so that they become more detailed and sophisticated, for example, more varied in instrumentation. This elaboration is supported by the use of written notes – scaffolds – that guide the development of the structure in different directions. Seven types of scaffolds, that represent different strategies to formulate and solve compositional problems, were found in the empirical data. The study contributes to wider understanding of the importance of making handwritten sketches throughout the process of developing musical ideas. Despite recent technological developments, there is evidence that hand-sketching still serves as an intuitive tool for meaningmaking, in combination with other tools such as acoustical instruments and new music technology.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 14:00 Sal M108, Stockholm
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Optimal Design of District Energy Systems: a Multi-Objective Approach2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a holistic approach to the optimal design of energy systems for building clusters or districts. The emerging Albano university campus, which is planned to be a vivid example of sustainable urban development, is used as a case study through collaboration with the property owners, Akademiska Hus and Svenska Bostäder. The design addresses aspects of energy performance, environmental performance, economic performance, and exergy performance of the energy system. A multi-objective optimization approach is applied to minimize objectives such as non-renewable primary energy consumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions, the life cycle cost, and the net exergy deficit. These objectives reflect both practical requirements and research interest. The optimization results are presented in the form of Pareto fronts, through which decision-makers can understand the options and limitations more clearly and ultimately make better and more informed decisions. Sensitivity analyses show that solutions could be sensitive to certain system parameters. To overcome this, a robust design optimization method is also developed and employed to find robust optimal solutions, which are less sensitive to the variation of system parameters. The influence of different preferences for objectives on the selection of optimal solutions is examined. Energy components of the selected solutions under different preference scenarios are analyzed, which illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of certain energy conversion technologies in the pursuit of various objectives. As optimal solutions depend on the system parameters, a parametric analysis is also conducted to investigate how the composition of optimal solutions varies to the changes of certain parameters. In virtue of the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), the planned buildings on the Albano campus are further compared to the existing buildings on KTH campus, based on energy and exergy analysis. Four proposed alternative energy supply scenarios as well as the present case are analyzed. REMM shows that the proposed scenarios have better levels of match between supply and demand of exergy and result in lower avoidable CO2 emissions, which promise cleaner energy structures.

  • Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    Kilkis, Siir
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    CLEANER ENERGY SUPPLY STRUCTURES FOR CAMPUS BUILDING CLUSTERSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of building clusters based on energy and the quality of energy (exergy) is a

    key aspect for determining steps towards cleaner energy supply structures. This paper

    compares two building clusters based on an integrated approach that involves building and

    energy system level analyses. The first cluster involves 8 buildings with diverse energy profiles

    at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus, including faculty buildings, laboratories, and

    a data center with waste heat recovery. The second cluster involves planned buildings in the

    Albano district in the vicinity of the KTH campus that will be a joint area with lecture buildings

    and accommodation for 3 universities in Stockholm. The present energy supply structure for

    the campus and the surrounding urban area includes a local combined heat and power (CHP)

    plant. The comparison of the building clusters involve analyses based on the Rational Exergy

    Management Model. Four scenarios, which involve different shares for the existing CHP units,

    new biofuel CHP unit, seawater heat pumps, peak load boilers, electric boilers, large scale

    aquifer thermal energy storage, heat supply from solar collectors, and electricity and heat from

    photovoltaic thermal arrays are devised for comparison. The scenarios have at most an exergy

    match of 0.81. The paper concludes with useful results that are in line with the aims of IEA

    Annex 64 on Optimised Performance of Energy Supply Systems with Exergy Principles.

  • Aries, Myriam
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Built Environment.
    Aries, Myriam
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Built Environment.
    Rosemann, Alexander
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Built Environment.
    Westerhout, Wies
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Built Environment.
    Hordijk, Truus
    Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment.
    Visser, Rienk
    Rienk Visser Lichtontwerp en - Advies.
    Pacey, Betty Lou
    BL Innovative Lighting - Vancouver.
    Energy efficient facade lighting: highlighting facade structure2014In: Spool, ISSN 2215-0900, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The project set out to proof that a conventional optical fibre lighting system for highlighting the structure of a façade can be operated more energy-efficiently through the substitution of the projector using a metal halide reflector lamp by a laser. This is investigated by looking into the photometric assessment of such systems as well as the electric power draw during operation. In preparation for a potential exterior demonstration installation, an additional focal point of the research was the design and testing of a weatherproof case that provides protection to the laser and the ballast. The final stage brought the different aspects of the research together and resulted in a temporary experimental setup (pilot installation) in order to showcase the validity of this novel approach.

  • Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Magny, Alessandro
    MULTI-OBJECTIVE ROBUST OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE DISTRICT IN STOCKHOLM2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies a multi-objective robust design

    optimization approach to the energy system design of

    a sustainable district. The life cycle cost and the

    greenhouse gas emissions are the two objectives that

    are minimized. In order to investigate the possbility

    to implement a nearly zero energy district, the nonrenewable

    primary energy consumption is kept below

    a certain value, handled as a constraint in the

    optimization. Through the proposed robust design

    optimization methodology, the robust Pareto optimal

    solutions are obtained, which are less sensitive than

    the deterministic ones to the uncertainties assumed in

    the selected most influential economic and technical

    paramers as well as design variables.

  • Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Magny, Alessandro
    MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEM DESIGNS FOR THE ALBANO UNIVERSITY CAMPUS IN STOCKHOLM2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is applied to the energy system design of a sustainable district – the new Albano university campus in Stockholm. The study aims to help district planners find optimal energy solutions that have good energy, environmental and economic performances. Three objectives are minimized: the non-renewable primary energy consumption, the greenhouse gas emissions, and the levelized life cycle cost. A wide range of energy conversion technologies and energy sources including both renewables and non-renewables have been modeled. The potential to recover waste heat from greywater and a prospective IT/Data center is analyzed. The energy system is modelled in steady-state and simulated in an hourly resolution with renewable energy production determined at real time. The optimization results are presented in the form of Pareto fronts, which helps district planners understand more clearly the trade-off between conflicting objectives and make more informed decisions.

  • Aries, Myriam
    et al.
    Building Physics and Systems, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Delft, Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Building Physics and Systems, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Delft, Netherlands.
    Bluyssen, P. M.
    Building Physics and Systems, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Delft, Netherlands.
    Climate change consequences for the indoor environment2009In: Heron, ISSN 0046-7316, E-ISSN 1574-4078, Vol. 54, no 1, 49-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor environment. Buildings will require less heating in the winter and more cooling in the summer, resulting in an increase use of air conditioning systems. Increasing relative humidity indoors and rising moisture from the ground will cause significantly more mould problems resulting in further health risks. Additionally, effects on lighting and acoustical quality, but also several psycho-social effects seem likely to occur. It is concluded that possible adaptations, whether performed at the source of climate change effects, the building or by involving people, can only be executed properly when the possible effects of climate changes on occupant wishes and needs as well as the interactions of these occupants with their environment are well understood.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ziaei, Shirin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Women’s status and child nutrition: Findings from community studies in Bangladesh and Nicaragua2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of women’s status for child nutrition has recently been recognized. However, pathways through which women’s status can affect their caretaking practices and child nutrition have not been fully determined. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate associations between aspects of women’s status – including exposure to domestic violence and level of autonomy and social support – with their level of stress, feeding practices and child nutritional status in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua.

    Data were acquired from population-based studies. For Study I we used data from the Bangladesh 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, and Study II was embedded in the 2009 Health and Demographic Surveillance System conducted in Los Cuatro Santos, rural Nicaragua. Studies III and IV were part of the MINIMat study, conducted in rural Bangladesh. In-person interviews were conducted and validated questionnaires were used in each of the studies. Anthropometric characteristics of the children were recorded based on standardized World Health Organization techniques.

    In Bangladesh, we found women with lifetime experience of domestic violence to be more likely to report emotional distress during pregnancy, cease exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months and have a stunted child. Further, we found a negative association between experience of domestic violence and duration of excusive breastfeeding to be mitigated with breastfeeding counseling. In Nicaragua, a lower level of maternal autonomy was associated with more appropriate breastfeeding practices such as higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding and longer continuation of breastfeeding. Further, a maternal lower level of social support was associated with better child nutritional status.

    In conclusion, this investigation showed that different dimensions of women’s status were associated with their feeding practices and child nutritional status and also revealed that the strength and direction of these associations may vary by the child’s age, setting and other contextual factors. These findings suggest that women’s status might have an important public health impact on child health and its role should be considered in programs and policies aiming to improve child health and nutrition.

  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aad, G.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P. O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Measurement of the inclusive isolated prompt photon cross section in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector2016In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 8, 1-42 p., 005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement of the cross section for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8 TeV is presented. The measurement covers the pseudorapidity ranges vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar < 1.37 and 1.56 aecurrency sign vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar < 2.37 in the transverse energy range 25 < E-T(gamma) < 1500 GeV. The results are based on an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb(-1), recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Photon candidates are identified by combining information from the calorimeters and the inner tracker. The background is subtracted using a data-driven technique, based on the observed calorimeter shower-shape variables and the deposition of hadronic energy in a narrow cone around the photon candidate. The measured cross sections are compared with leading-order and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and are found to be in a good agreement over ten orders of magnitude.

  • Smeds, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Smeds, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Direct estimate of the rate of germline mutation in a bird2016In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 26, no 9, 1211-1218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fidelity of DNA replication together with repair mechanisms ensure that the genetic material is properly copied from one generation to another. However, on extremely rare occasions when damages to DNA or replication errors are not repaired, germline mutations can be transmitted to the next generation. Because of the rarity of these events, studying the rate at which new mutations arise across organisms has been a great challenge, especially in multicellular nonmodel organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the genomes of 11 birds from a three-generation pedigree of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) and used highly stringent bioinformatic criteria for mutation detection and used several procedures to validate mutations, including following the stable inheritance of new mutations to subsequent generations. We identified 55 de novo mutations with a 10-fold enrichment of mutations at CpG sites and with only a modest male mutation bias. The estimated rate of mutation per site per generation was 4.6 x 10(-9), which corresponds to 2.3 x 10(-9) mutations per site per year. Compared to mammals, this is similar to mouse but about half of that reported for humans, which may be due to the higher frequency of male mutations in humans. We confirm that mutation rate scales positively with genome size and that there is a strong negative relationship between mutation rate and effective population size, in line with the drift-barrier hypothesis. Our study illustrates that it should be feasible to obtain direct estimates of the rate of mutation in essentially any organism from which family material can be obtained.

  • Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Marchal, Bruno
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Searching for best practices of youth friendly services - a study protocol using qualitative comparative analysis in Sweden2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, 321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish youth clinics constitute one of the most comprehensive and consolidated examples of a nationwide network of health care services for young people. However, studies evaluating their 'youth-friendliness' and the combination of factors that makes them more or less 'youth-friendly' have not been conducted. This protocol will scrutinise the current youth-friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden and identify the best combination of conditions needed in order to implement the criteria of youth-friendliness within Swedish youth clinics and elsewhere.

    Methods/design: In this study, we will use qualitative comparative analysis to analyse the conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to implement Youth Friendly Health Services in 20 selected youth-clinics (cases). In order to conduct Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we will first identify the outcomes and the conditions to be assessed. The overall outcome - youth-friendliness - will be assessed together with specific outcomes for each of the five domains - accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective. This will be done using a questionnaire to be applied to a sample of young people coming to the youth clinics. In terms of conditions, we will first identify what might be the key conditions, to ensure the youth friendliness of health care services, through literature review, interviews with professionals working at youth clinics, and with young people. The combination of conditions and outcomes will form the hypothesis to be further tested later on in the qualitative comparative analysis of the 20 cases. Once information on outcomes and conditions is gathered from each of the 20 clinics, it will be analysed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Discussion: The added value of this study in relation to the findings is twofold: on the one hand it will allow a thorough assessment of the youth-friendliness of northern Swedish youth clinics. On the other hand, it will extract lessons from one of the most consolidated examples of differentiated services for young people. Methodologically, this study can contribute to expanding the use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis in health systems research.

  • van der Laan, Sander W.
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, INSERM, U1219, Team Vintage, Bordeaux, France..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Dept SHIP KEF, Greifswald, Germany.;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany..
    Sedaghat, Sanaz
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Baumert, Jens
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Zabaneh, Delilah
    UCL, Dept Genet Environm & Evolut, London, England.;UCL, Genet Inst, London, England..
    van Setten, Jessica
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Isgum, Ivana
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Image Sci Inst, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Galesloot, Tessel E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Arpegard, Johannes
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, INSERM, Lille, France.;Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol P C5, Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Gerontol & Geriatr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Doerr, Marcus
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B, Greifswald, Germany..
    Magnusson, Patrik K.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England..
    Felix, Janine F.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Morrison, Alanna C.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Dept Epidemiol Human Genet & Environm Sci, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Franceschini, Nora
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA..
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    O'Donnell, Christopher
    Boston Vet Adm Healthcare, Dept Cardiol, West Roxbury, MA USA.;NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA USA..
    Drenos, Fotios
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Ctr Cardiovasc Genet, London, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Tragante, Vinicius
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, London, England..
    Malik, Rainer
    Univ Munich, Klinikum Univ Munchen, Inst Stroke & Dementia Res, Munich, Germany..
    Dichgans, Martin
    Univ Munich, Klinikum Univ Munchen, Inst Stroke & Dementia Res, Munich, Germany.;Munich Cluster Syst Neurol SyNergy, Munich, Germany..
    Worrall, Bradford B.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Neurol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Hlth Evaluat Sci, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Erdmann, Jeanette
    Univ Lubeck, Inst Integrat & Expt Genom, Lubeck, Germany..
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, British Heart Fdn Cardiovasc, Res Ctr,Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res Leicester, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, British Heart Fdn Cardiovasc, Res Ctr,Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res Leicester, Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Schunkert, Heribert
    Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Munich Heart Alliance, Partner Site, Munich, Germany..
    Marchini, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Dept Stat, Oxford, England..
    Patel, Riyaz S.
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Genet Epidemiol Res Grp, London, England.;Barts Heart Ctr, London, England.;UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat, London, England..
    Hingorani, Aroon D.
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Genet Epidemiol Res Grp, London, England..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    de Graaf, Jacqueline
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Baumeister, Sebastian E.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Dept SHIP KEF, Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Regensburg, Germany..
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Koenig, Wolfgang
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Deutsch Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.;Univ Ulm, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med Cardiol 2, Ulm, Germany..
    Meisinger, Christa
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Peters, Annette
    German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, DZHK, Partner Site, Greifswald, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Thorand, Barbara
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol P C5, Leiden, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Eriksen, Bjorn Odvar
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Metab & Renal Res Grp, Tromso, Norway.;Univ Hosp North Norway, Nephrol Sect, Tromso, Norway..
    Toft, Ingrid
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Nephrol Sect, Tromso, Norway..
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway..
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Debette, Stephanie
    Univ Bordeaux, INSERM, U1219, Team Vintage, Bordeaux, France..
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Biol & Social Epidemiol, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester CO4 3SQ, Essex, England..
    Svensson, Per
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Dept Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    van der Harst, Pim
    ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Keating, Brendan J.
    Univ Penn, Dept Surg, Div Transplantat, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Sattar, Naveed
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    den Ruijter, Hester M.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Genet, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Labs & Pharm, Lab Clin Chem & Hematol, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Holmes, Michael V.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Richard Doll Bldg,Old Rd Campus,Roosevelt Dr, Oxford OX3 7LF, England.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Epidemiol Studies Unit CTSU, Richard Doll Bldg,Old Rd Campus,Roosevelt Dr, Oxford OX3 7LF, England..
    Asselbergs, Folkert W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Heidelberglaan 100, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;UCL, Fac Populat Hlth Sci, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England..
    Cystatin C and Cardiovascular Disease A Mendelian Randomization Study2016In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 68, no 9, 934-945 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding, and/or is a consequence of reverse causation. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization to investigate whether cystatin C is causally related to CVD in the general population. METHODS We incorporated participant data from 16 prospective cohorts (n = 76,481) with 37,126 measures of cystatin C and added genetic data from 43 studies (n = 252,216) with 63,292 CVD events. We used the common variant rs911119 in CST3 as an instrumental variable to investigate the causal role of cystatin C in CVD, including coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. RESULTS Cystatin C concentrations were associated with CVD risk after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors (relative risk: 1.82 per doubling of cystatin C; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56 to 2.13; p = 2.12 x 10(-14)). The minor allele of rs911119 was associated with decreased serum cystatin C (6.13% per allele; 95% CI: 5.75 to 6.50; p = 5.95 x 10(-211)), explaining 2.8% of the observed variation in cystatin C. Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide evidence fora causal role of cystatin C, with a causal relative risk for CVD of 1.00 per doubling cystatin C (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.22; p = 0,994), which was statistically different from the observational estimate (p = 1.6 x 10(-5)). A causal effect of cystatin C was not detected for any individual component of CVD. CONCLUSIONS Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal role of cystatin C in the etiology of CVD. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering circulating cystatin C are unlikely to be effective in preventing CVD.

  • Kudryashova, Elena
    et al.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Kudryashova, Elena
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Koneru, Pratibha C.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Retroviral Res, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Coll Pharm, 500 W 12Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Retroviral Res, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Coll Pharm, 500 W 12Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Strömstedt, Adam A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Lu, Wuyuan
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Human Virol, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Kudryashov, Dmitri S.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Publ Hlth Preparedness Infect Dis Program, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Thermodynamic instability of viral proteins is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern targeted by human defensins2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 32499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human defensins are innate immune defense peptides with a remarkably broad repertoire of anti-pathogen activities. In addition to modulating immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis, disintegrating bacterial membranes, and inactivating bacterial toxins, defensins are known to intercept various viruses at different stages of their life cycles, while remaining relatively benign towards human cells and proteins. Recently we have found that human defensins inactivate proteinaceous bacterial toxins by taking advantage of their low thermodynamic stability and acting as natural "anti-chaperones", i.e. destabilizing the native conformation of the toxins. In the present study we tested various proteins produced by several viruses (HIV-1, PFV, and TEV) and found them to be susceptible to destabilizing effects of human alpha-defensins HNP-1 and HD-5 and the synthetic theta-defensin RC-101, but not beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 or structurally related plant-derived peptides. Defensin-induced unfolding promoted exposure of hydrophobic groups otherwise confined to the core of the viral proteins. This resulted in precipitation, an enhanced susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, and a loss of viral protein activities. We propose, that defensins recognize and target a common and essential physico-chemical property shared by many bacterial toxins and viral proteins - the intrinsically low thermodynamic protein stability.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 14:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Geo-environmental considerations in transport infrastructure planning2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure constitutes one of the key factors to a country’s economic growth. Investment in new transport infrastructure might cause potential environmental impacts, and if a project has several alternative corridors open for suggestion then each alternative corridor will have a different impact on the environment. The European Commission has stated that the natural resources are important to the quality of life. Therefore, the efficient use of resources will be a key towards meeting future climate change and reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This implies that in an evergrowing global society the resource efficiency as well as the choice of transport infrastructure corridor becomes even more important to consider. The aim of this research project was to contribute to early transport infrastructure planning by the development of methods for and implementation of easy understandable geological criteria and models for decision support. Moreover, the intention was to assess how geological information can be developed and extracted from existing spatial data and coupled with other areas of interest, such as ecology and life cycle assessment. It has previously been established that geological information plays an important role in transport infrastructure planning, as the geological characteristics of the proposed area as well as the possibilities of material use influences the project. Therefore, in order to couple geological information for early transport infrastructure planning, four studies (Paper I-IV) were undertaken where methods were developed and tested for the inclusion of geological information. The first study (Paper I) demonstate how optional road corridors could be evaluated using geological information of soil thickness, soil type and rock outcrops, bedrock quality and slope in combination with ecological information. The second study (Paper II) shows how geological information of soil thickness and stratigraphy can be combined with life cycle assessments (LCA) to assess the corresponding greenhouse gas emission and energy use for the proposed road corridors. The difficulty of using expert knowledge for susceptibility assessment of natural hazards, i.e. flooding, landslide and debris flow, for early transport infrastructure planning was presented in the third study (Paper III). In this study the expert knowledge was used in a multi-criteria analysis where the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was chosen as a decision rule. This decision rule was compared to the decision rule weighted linear combination (WLC) using two different schemes of weighting. In all the mentioned studies the importance of soil thickness information was highlighted. Therefore, the fourth and final study (Paper IV) presented a new methodology for modelling the soil thickness in areas where data is sparse. A simplified regolith model (SRM) was developed in order to estimate the regolith thickness, i.e. soil thickness, for previously glaciate terrain with a high frequency of rock outcrops. SRM was based on a digital elevation model (DEM) and an optimized search algorithm. The methods developed in order to couple geological information with other areas of interest is a tentative step towards an earlier geo-environmental planning process. However, the methods need to be tested in other areas with different geological conditions. The combination of geological information in GIS with MCA enabled the integration of knowledge for decision making; it also allowed influencing the importance between various aspects of geological information as well as the importance between geological information and other fields of interest, such as ecology, through the selected weighting schemes. The results showed that synergies exist between ecology and geology, where important geological considerations could also have positive effects on ecological consideration. Soil thickness was very important for GHG emission and energy whereas stratigraphical knowledge had a minor influence. When using expert knowledge the consistency in the expert judgements also needs to be considered. It was shown that experts tended to be inconsistent in their judgements, and that some consistency could be reached if the judgements were aggregated instead of used separately. The results also showed that the developed SRM had relatively accurate results for data sparse areas, and that this model could be used in several projects where the knowledge of soil thickness is important but lacking. It was concluded that geological information should be considered. By using GIS and MCA it is possible to evaluate different aspects of geological information in order to improve decision making.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-22 13:15 Auditorium minus, Gustavianum, Uppsala
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Sörelius, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery.
    Aortic infections: The Nadir of Vascular Surgery2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aortic infections are rare, life-threatening and constitute a major challenge in surgical management. This thesis aims to evaluate short – and long-term outcome of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAA) and the subsequent risk of recurrent infections, changes in surgical practice over time for abdominal MAAs in Sweden and outcome for different treatment modalities, as well as the risk of secondary vascular infection after treatment with Open abdomen after aortic surgery.

    Paper I, a retrospective single centre study of patients with MAA treated with EVAR, demonstrated a good short-term outcome, 91% survival at 30-days, and acceptable mid-term survival, 73% at 1-year.

    Paper II, a retrospective international multicentre study of patients treated with EVAR for MAA, confirmed the results in paper I, and showed that EVAR is feasible and for most MAA patients a durable treatment option, 5-year survival was 55% and 10-year 41%. A total of 19% died from an infection-related complication, mostly during the first postoperative year. Non-Salmonella-positive culture was a predictor for late infection–related death.

    Paper III, a population-based cohort study on all abdominal MAAs operated on between 1994-2014 in Sweden. Overall survival was 86% at 3-months, 79% at 1-year and 59% at 5-years. The survival was significantly better after endovascular compared to open repair up to 1-year without increasing recurrence of infection or reoperation, thereafter there was no difference. After 2001 EVAR constituted 60 % of all repairs, thus indicating a paradigm shift in treatment for abdominal MAAs in Sweden.

    Paper IV, a prospective multicentre study of patients treated with open abdomen after aortic surgery. Infectious complications, such as graft infections, occurred after intestinal ischaemia and prolonged OA-treatment, and were often fatal.

  • Dahl, Michael
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Dahl, Michael
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Hayes, Chris
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Intens Care Med, Hobrovej 18-21, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Secher, Niels H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Anesthesiol, Copenhagen Muscle Res Ctr, Rigshosp 2043, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?2016In: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 16, 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced cardiac output (CO). This study tested that hypothesis in healthy volunteers exposed to central hypovolemia by head-up tilt. Methods: Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to central hypovolemia by 45 degrees head-up tilt while breathing through a facemask with 7.5 cmH(2)O inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors. A brachial arterial catheter was used to measure blood pressure and thus systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. Pulse contour analysis determined stroke volume (SV) and CO and we evaluated whether APV could detect a 10 % decrease in CO. Results: During head-up tilt SV decreased form 91 (+/- 46) to 55 (+/- 24) mL (mean +/- SD) and CO from 5.8 (+/- 2.9) to 4.0 (+/- 1.8) L/min (p < 0.05), while heart rate increased (65 (+/- 11) to 75 (+/- 13) bpm; P < 0.05). Systolic pressure decreased from 127 (+/- 14) to 121 (+/- 13) mmHg during head-up tilt, while SPV tended to increase (from 21 (+/- 15)% to 30 (+/- 13) %). Yet during head-up tilt, a SPV >= 37 % predicted a decrease in CO >= 10 % with a sensitivity and specificity of 78 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers combined inspiratory and expiratory resistors enhance SPV during head-up tilted induced central hypovolemia and allow identifying a 10 % reduction in CO. Applying inspiratory and expiratory resistors might detect a fluid deficit in spontaneously breathing patients.

  • Simeon, Saw
    et al.
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Simeon, Saw
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Shoombuatong, Watshara
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Prachayasittikul, Virapong
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Dept Clin Microbiol & Appl Technol, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Wikberg, Jarl E. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nantasenamat, Chanin
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Med Technol, Ctr Data Min & Biomed Informat, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Probing the origins of human acetylcholinesterase inhibition via QSAR modeling and molecular docking2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, e2322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which leads to the gradual loss of neuronal cells. Several hypotheses for AD exists (e.g., cholinergic, amyloid, tau hypotheses, etc.). As per the cholinergic hypothesis, the deficiency of choline is responsible for AD; therefore, the inhibition of AChE is a lucrative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that is essential Ifor cognition arid memory. A large non-redundant data set of 2,570 compounds with reported IC50 values against AChE was obtained frorn ChEMBL and employed in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study so as to gain insights on their origin of bioactivity. AChE inhibitors were described by a set of 12 fingerprint descriptors and predictive rnodels were constructed from 100 different data splits using random forest. Generated models afforded R-2, Q(cv)(2) and Q(Ext)(2) values in ranges of 0.66-0.93, 0.55-0.79 and 0.56-0.81 for the training set, 10-fold cross-validated set and lexternal set, respectively. The best model built using the substructure count was selected according to the OECD guidelines and it afforded R-2, Q(CV)(2) and Q(Ext)(2) values of 0.92 +/- 0.01, 0.78 +/- 0.06 and 018 +/- 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, IT-scrambling was applied to evaluate the possibility of chance correlation of the predictive model. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of the substructure fingerprint count was conducted to provide informative insights on the inhibitory activity of AChE inhibitors. Moreover Kennard Stone sampling of the actives were applied to select 30 diverse compounds for further molecular docking studies in order to gain structural insights on the origin of AChE inhibition. Site-moiety mapping of compounds from the diversity set revealed three binding anchors encompassing both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. Molecular docking revealed that compounds 13, 5 and 28 exhibited the lowest binding energies of -12.2, -12.0 and -12.0 kcal/mol, respectively, against human AChE, which is modulated by, hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking and hydrophobic interaction inside the binding pocket. These information may be used as guidelines for the design of novel and robust AChE inhibitors.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Farooqui, Maaz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Farooqui, Maaz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Innovative noise control in ducts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this doctoral thesis is to study three different innovative noise control techniques in ducts namely: acoustic metamaterials, porous absorbers and microperforates. There has been a lot of research done on all these three topics in the context of duct acoustics. This research will assess the potential of the acoustic metamaterial technique and compare to the use of conventional methods using microperforated plates and/or porous materials. 

    The objective of the metamaterials part is to develop a physical approach to model and synthesize bulk moduli and densities to feasibly control the wave propagation pattern, creating quiet zones in the targeted fluid domain. This is achieved using an array of locally resonant metallic patches. In addition to this, a novel thin slow sound material is also proposed in the acoustic metamaterial part of this thesis. This slow sound material is a quasi-labyrinthine structure flush mounted to a duct, comprising of coplanar quarter wavelength resonators that aims to slow the speed of sound at selective resonance frequencies. A good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental measurements is demonstrated.

    The second technique is based on acoustic porous foam and it is about modeling and characterization of a novel porous metallic foam absorber inside ducts. This material proved to be a similar or better sound absorber compared to the conventional porous absorbers, but with robust and less degradable properties. Material characterization of this porous absorber from a simple transfer matrix measurement is proposed.The last part of this research is focused on impedance of perforates with grazing flow on both sides. Modeling of the double sided grazing flow impedance is done using a modified version of an inverse semi-analytical technique. A minimization scheme is used to find the liner impedance value in the complex plane to match the calculated sound field to the measured one at the microphone positions.

  • Norling, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Norling, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Karlsson-Lindsjo, Oskar E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth BVF, Uppsala, Sweden.;OIE Collaborating Ctr Biotechnol Based Diag Infec, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gourle, Hadrien
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hayer, Juliette
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet HGEN, SLU Global Bioinformat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    MetLab: An In Silico Experimental Design, Simulation and Analysis Tool for Viral Metagenomics Studies2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, e0160334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metagenomics, the sequence characterization of all genomes within a sample, is widely used as a virus discovery tool as well as a tool to study viral diversity of animals. Metagenomics can be considered to have three main steps; sample collection and preparation, sequencing and finally bioinformatics. Bioinformatic analysis of metagenomic datasets is in itself a complex process, involving few standardized methodologies, thereby hampering comparison of metagenomics studies between research groups. In this publication the new bioinformatics framework MetLab is presented, aimed at providing scientists with an integrated tool for experimental design and analysis of viral metagenomes. MetLab provides support in designing the metagenomics experiment by estimating the sequencing depth needed for the complete coverage of a species. This is achieved by applying a methodology to calculate the probability of coverage using an adaptation of Stevens' theorem. It also provides scientists with several pipelines aimed at simplifying the analysis of viral metagenomes, including; quality control, assembly and taxonomic binning. We also implement a tool for simulating metagenomics datasets from several sequencing platforms. The overall aim is to provide virologists with an easy to use tool for designing, simulating and analyzing viral metagenomes. The results presented here include a benchmark towards other existing software, with emphasis on detection of viruses as well as speed of applications. This is packaged, as comprehensive software, readily available for Linux and OSX users at https://github.com/norling/metlab.

  • McFarlane, S. Eryn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Söderberg, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development2016In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 12, no 7, 20160234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatty with closely related species.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 10:00 Hörsal 1031, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå
    Bergman, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bergman, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Poliser som utbildar poliser: Reflexivitet, meningsskapande och professionell utveckling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis concerns how an educator task in Swedish police education context can be understood as individual and collective meaning making and professional development. The main actors in this thesis are police teachers, police supervisors and field training officers (FTOs), and have a mutual task in educating new police officers and hence preparing for a complex occupation. However, due to varied educating preparations these three groups of police educators seem to perform their task with different prerequisites in a constantly revised and developed Swedish police education. During the last twenty years research and literature regarding occupational and professional education concern, among other issues, professional development and professionalization, frequently from a learner orientated and lifelong learning perspective. Hence, as ideas of transferring occupational knowledge from person to person increasingly appears to be regarded as obsolete, internship education through supervising pedagogies seems to have evolved during the last decades. The rarely investigated intra-professional educators (e.g., police officers educating new police officers) have an important role in this kind of learning process, especially due to socialisation phenomena frequently described in worldwide research regarding the police occupation. The conceptions of Swedish intra-professional police educators are investigated through an exploratory and qualitative design using mainly focus-group interviews and with a reflexive approach and hermeneutic analyse models. Viewed through a theoretical framework based on meaning making, reflexivity and thought styles/thought collectives, the findings disclose that the Swedish police educators clearly share similar views on pedagogies although they have disparate preparations before the task. Their conceptions reveal how the police educating task works as an incentive for increased insights in the police task, as well as in the educating task. These findings are also conceptualized as a collective process in interacting with police students and police probationers, with reflexivity as a main tool for meaning making, especially in the educating task. In conclusion this thesis argues how the conceptions of the Swedish police educators can vitalize the discussion about how police educators better can be prepared, especially through courses with reflexive pedagogies. The conclusion also emphasizes on how the positive, reflexive and creative intentions within the intra-professional police educators can be used as a role model and as an incentive in developing the Swedish police force, and that these ideas can be applied on other occupations and professions.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 14:00 Lilla Hörsalen (KB3A9), KBC-huset, Umeå
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Trametes versicolor as biodegrader and biocatalyst when using lignocellulose for ethanol production2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption has increased rapidly during the last century due to population growth and greater industrialization. Lignocellulosic-based biofuels are being developed as alternatives to fossil fuels. For many years the question of how 5-carbon sugars in biomass are utilized in nature has been a vexed one. A patent by Sellstedt and Holmgren (2005) showed increased ethanol production, compared with fermentation using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae, through the use of a fungal mix from a degraded wood sample found in a forest.

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to find a fungus that naturally utilizes 5-carbon sugars and metabolizes these sugars to ethanol; elucidate the capacity of this fungus to utilize 5-carbon and 6-carbon sugars simultaneously; assess the ability of the fungus to metabolize the inhibitors produced when lignocellulose is used; and find out whether this fungus could be used for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose to replace industrially produced enzymes.

    The results showed that the fungal mix grew well on glucose, xylose, hemicellulose and cellulose. In addition, we were able to identify the fungi present, by using PCR-amplification and sequencing of DNA, as Chalara parvispora, Xylaria sp and Trametes hirsutaTrametes versicolor. In a reconstitution study, the fungi so identified were shown to produce an amount of ethanol equal to that of the fungal mix. We were also able to show that C. parvispora could produce ethanol from xylose.

    T. versicolor could be grown in culture, under hypoxic conditions, with various mixtures of hexoses and xylose and with xylose alone. After 354 h of culture we found very strong correlations between ethanol fermentation (alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol production), sugar consumption and xylose catabolism (xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase activities) in the cultures. In a medium containing a 1:1 glucose/xylose ratio, the efficiency of fermentation of total sugars into ethanol was 80 %.

    A variety of inhibitors are formed during pretreatment procedures; they include, for example, phenolics, levulinic acid, HMF and furfural. These inhibitors were used in this study in order to reveal their effects on the growth of cells as well as on sugar utilization, enzyme activities and ethanol production by the white-rot fungus T. versicolor. The inhibitors had a positive effect on fresh weight, the largest increase being observed with the inhibitor furfural. T. versicolor metabolized all the inhibitors during 15 days of experimentation.

    It is known that fungi can degrade cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin through a series of enzymatic reactions. Is it possible to eliminate chemical pretreatment and instead use a biological pretreatment? If T. versicolor could serve as both a biodegrader and a biocatalyst it would lead to reductions in the costs of ethanol production and lower costs for pretreatments for other renewable fuels too. Experiments with different pretreatments applied to Salix viminalis and Populus tremula were conducted with and without fungi, as well as with enzymes, to evaluate whether T. versicolor was suitable as a biodegrader. The results showed that T. versicolor was able to degrade lignocellulose to glucose, and thus is suitable as a biodegrader and in addition has xylanase and beta-glucosidase enzymes that are related to similar enzymes in other fungi.

  • Schock, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
    Schock, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lakso, Hans-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Idahl, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Lehtinen, Matti
    Surcel, Heljä-Marja
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Hormone concentrations throughout uncomplicated pregnancies: a longitudinal study2016In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 16, 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence suggests that the hormonal milieu of pregnancy is an important determinant of subsequent cancer and other chronic diseases in both the mother and the offspring. Many of the existing maternity and birth cohorts include specimens drawn only once during pregnancy. How well a single blood specimen collected during a pregnancy characterizes exposure to these hormones throughout gestation, and also in subsequent pregnancies, is not well understood.

    Methods: We used serial serum samples from 71 pregnant women (25 primiparous, 25 multiparous, and 21 with two consecutive pregnancies) with natural, complication-free pregnancies and a healthy offspring at term who participated in a population-based screening trial for congenital infections in Finland between January 1st, 1988 and June 30, 1989 and provided a blood sample in each trimester.

    Results: Hormone levels were more strongly correlated between consecutive trimesters of a pregnancy than between the 1st and 3rd trimester (e.g., estradiol, r(T1 vs. T2) = 0.51 and r(T2 vs. T3) = 0.60, p < 0.01; r(T1 vs. T3) = 0.32, p < 0.05). Concentrations of sRANKL remained stable throughout gestation, whereas estradiol, estrone, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, and osteoprotegerin increased throughout pregnancy. First trimester hormone concentrations explained less of the variation in the third trimester on their own than second trimester hormone levels (e.g. estradiol R-T1(2) = 16 % and R-T2(2) = 42 %). Addition of maternal (e.g., smoking) and/or child characteristics (e.g., sex) improved the accuracy of the 3rd trimester estimates for some of the hormones.

    Conclusions: One hormone measurement in early pregnancy, in conjunction with maternal and fetal characteristics, permits estimation of 3rd trimester hormone concentrations. Therefore, single hormone measurements available from maternity cohorts are suitable to quantify hormone exposure during pregnancy. To our knowledge, we provide the first data on correlations between hormone concentrations both across trimesters of a single pregnancy, as well as between two subsequent pregnancies.

  • Salari, Raziye
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Filus, Ania
    Center for Self-Report Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles USA; Department of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers’ and Fathers’ Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs2016In: Prevention Science, ISSN 1389-4986, E-ISSN 1573-6695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents’ intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers’ and fathers’ participation rates in parenting programs.

  • Paul, Ruma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS. Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium .
    Paul, Ruma
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS. Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium .
    Van Roy, Peter
    Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium .
    Building Distributed Applications for Stressful Environments using Reversibility and Phase-Awareness2016In: 2016 Conference on Complex Systems, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale applications for mobile devices and Internet of Things live in stressful real-world environments: they have both continuous faults and bursts of high faults. Typical faults are node crashes, network partitions, and communication delays. We give a principled way to build applications that survive in such environments by using the concepts of Reversibility and Phase [1].  A system is Reversible if the set of operations it provides depends on its current fault rate and not on the history of the fault rate.  Reversibility generalizes standard fault tolerance with nested fault models.  When the fault rate goes outside one model then it is still inside the next model.  Phase is a per-node property that gives a qualitative indication of what system operations are available at each node, given the current fault rate.  Phase can be determined with no additional distributed computation. We present two case studies.  First, we present a transactional key-value store built on a structured overlay network and we explain how to make it Reversible [2].  Second, we present a distributed collaborative graphic editor built on top of the key-value store, and we explain how to make it Phase-Aware, i.e., it optimizes its behavior according to a real-time observation of phase at each node using a Phase API.  This shows the usefulness of Reversibility and Phase-Awareness for building large-scale Internet applications.

    [1] Ruma R. Paul, Peter Van Roy, and Vladimir Vlassov.  Reversible Phase Transitions in a Structured Overlay Network with Churn. NETYS 2016, Marrakech, Morocco, May 18-20, 2016.

    [2] Ruma R. Paul, Peter Van Roy, and Vladimir Vlassov.  Interaction Between Network Partitioning and Churn in a Self-Healing Structured Overlay Network. ICPADS 2015, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 14-17, 2015.

  • A united Nordic Region on green energy policy: A summary from the original report2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Energy issues are also a high priority in the Nordic Council. In light of this, the Nordic Council’s Environment and Natural Resources Committee and Business and Industry Committee established a working group – the Energy Group – in the spring of 2015. The group was tasked with evaluating the need for Nordic co-operation on energy policy and developing proposals for how this co-operation can be developed going forwards. The Energy Group submitted its report in the spring of 2016.

    The proposals put forward by the Energy Group are concrete and provide guidance as to how future co-operation on energy could be developed.

  • Paul, Ruma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Paul, Ruma
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Van Roy, Peter
    Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Reversible Phase Transitions in a Structured Overlay Network with Churn2016In: 4th International Conference on Networked Systems (NETYS), May 18-20, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed applications break down when the underlying system has too many node or communication failures. In this paper, we propose a general approach to building distributed applications that lets them survive hostile conditions such as these failures. We extend an existing Structured Overlay Network (SON) that hosts a transactional replicated key/value store to be Reversible, i.e., it is able to regain its original functionality as the environment hostility recedes. For this paper we consider the environment hostility to be measured by the Churn parameter, i.e., the rate of node turnover (nodes failing and being replaced by new correct nodes). In order to describe the qualitative behavior of the SON at high churn, we introduce the concept of Phase of the SON. All nodes in a phase exhibit the same qualitative properties, which are different for the nodes in different phases. We demonstrate the existence of Phase Transitions (i.e., a significant fraction of nodes changes phase) as churn varies and show that our concept of phase is analogous to the macroscopic phase of physical systems. We empirically identify the Critical Points (i.e., when there exists more than one phase simultaneously in significant fractions of the system) observed in our experiments. We propose an API to allow the application layer to be informed about the current phase of a node.We analyze how the application layer can use this knowledge for self-adaptation, self-optimization and achieve reversibility in the application-level semantics.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 11:00 K1, Stockholm
    Vardanyan, Yelena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vardanyan, Yelena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Optimal bidding of a hydropower producer insequential power markets with riskassessment: Stochastic programming approach2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term hydropower planning and bidding under uncertainty is a complicated task. The problem became more challenging with the liberalized market environment within the last two decades. Apart from this new reform taking place in the electricity market, the electricity market participants including hydropower producers experienced the second change in the form of intermittent wind power integration into power systems. Thus, previous decision support tools are not capable of fulfilling market participants’ expectations in the new competitive and highly uncertain environment. Intermittent power sources, namely wind power, increase the imbalances in the power system, which in turn increases the need of the regulating power sources. Being a flexible energy source, hydropower can provide regulating power. For this purpose, new hydropower planning and bidding models must be developed, capable of addressing uncertainties and the dynamics existing within market places.

    In this dissertation, a set of new short-term hydropower planning and bidding models are developed for sequential electricity markets under price uncertainties. Developed stochastic coordinated hydropower planning and bidding tools can be classified into two classes, as models with exogenousand endogenous prices.

    In the first class, developed coordinated bidding tools address the price uncertainties using scenario trees, which are built based on the distribution function of the unknown variables. Thus, the proposed coordinated bidding and planning tools consider all possible future prices and market outcomes together with the likelihood of these market outcomes. To reflect the continuously clearing nature of intra-day and real-time markets rolling planning is applied. In addition, models apply risk measures as another way to hedge against uncertain prices.

    In the second class, hydropower stochastic strategic bidding models are developed using stochastic bi-level optimization methodology. Here market prices are calculated internally as dual variables of the load balance constraints in the lower level ED problems. To be able to solve the stochastic bilevel optimization problem, KKT optimality conditions are applied. By this transformation the problem is converted to a single-level stochastic program, which is simplified further using a corresponding discretization technique.

  • Spjut, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Spjut, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Den envise bonden och Nordens fransmän: svensk och finsk etnicitet samt nationell historieskrivning i svenska och finlandssvenska läroböcker 1866-19392014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Finland were one country for more than 600 years and there are many remaining links between the two countries. Throughout the period, but even today there are Swedish and Finnish populations on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. When Russia conquered the Finnish part of the country in 1809, the state and its population were separated and the situations for the language groups changed and developed differently in Sweden and Finland. During the period studied in this thesis, 1866-1939, a new type of nation emerged in Europe, based on versions of nationalism constructed on ethnicity and language. Elementary schools played an important role in this nation building, spreading the mother language and the nation’s history. Elementary school textbooks were designed in relation to nation building, language and ethnic identification.  The thesis compares how Swedish and Finland-Swedish textbooks describe ethnicity and common history in Sweden and Finland in a period of nationalism.

    The main aim of the thesis is to compare how two textbooks-traditions describes their Swedish and Finnish populations and if, or how, the textbook history is to be seen as related to these descriptions. The textbooks examined were written for elementary schools from 1866-1939 to be used in the teaching of history and geography. The research question focuses on descriptions of Swedes and Finns and whether it is possible to see differences in the nation’s historiography. Patterns of reproduction or transformation are also analysed in the textbooks.

    In the study 105 textbooks were examined and the quotations from the textbooks connected to the aim are sorted and analysed using Critical Discourse Analysis. 

    The results show that Finns are rendered invisible in Swedish history textbooks. The geography textbooks describe Swedes as cultural and civilised with a peace-loving national character, while Finns are described as uncultured, peripheral and stubborn. This pattern is similar in Swedish and Finland-Swedish geography textbooks. At the beginning of the study it is a positive stubbornness, portrayed as brave and truthful to Sweden. Later on, the stubborn Finn is described negatively as old-fashioned and clinging to old habits. The Swede´s are described as more flexible through time; they have refined their national character and developed cultivation and democracy. 

    The historiography differs in what is described, and how. One example is that the Finns´ contribution to the common country is quite hard to find in the textbooks.  Swedish textbooks also seem to want to steal the honour from any Finnish success by placing Swedish ethnicity before Finnish national identity in cases where Swedish-speaking Finns have done great things. These types of descriptions are both reproduced and transformed as the actual relations between Finland and Sweden change and it is obvious that textbook history does not tell about the past but rather the story that the present wants to propagate.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:00 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Norén, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    When water becomes a threat: Risk assessment and risk management plans for floods and drinking water in Swedish practice2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an essential but vulnerable resource. A shortage of good quality drinking water is a threat to human health and society as a whole. Abundance of water in the form of floods can also be a serious threat which can have consequences for the drinking water supply. To reduce these risks there is a need for systematic risk reduction. In the last decades a risk management approach has been developed in the management of both flood and drinking water risks. This means that a reactive, ad hoc management is being replaced by a more proactive and systematic approach where risks are analysed and evaluated as a basis for prioritising counter-measures. The complex nature of water issues has also made it evident that there is a need for a holistic view of the management, involving a variety of actors and sectors. An integrated management approach to floods and water resources has emerged.

    This thesis aims to examine how local level risk management, especially risk assessments, of floods and drinking water supply have been or can be performed in practice in Sweden. The existing practices have been characterised in relation to current risk management frameworks. Furthermore, the thesis aims to investigate how the effects of flood on drinking water supply have been considered in risk assessment methods and in flood risk management plans, as well as whether flood and drinking water risks have been considered in an integrated manner. The studies are based on interviews with flood risk managers in Swedish municipalities and Swedish water producers as well as on document studies of risk assessment methods and flood risk management plans.

    There are large variations between different municipalities and water producers in how, and to what extent, risk assessments have been performed. Some have performed very little, if any, risk assessment while others have worked systematically. The tools used are often those that are promoted by national agencies and are often less advanced than those described in the literature. The risk assessments do not always cover all relevant aspects of the risk and few actors have discussed an acceptable risk level. Flood risk assessments focus mostly on the exposure of objects to flood and investigate the consequences of such an exposure only to a limited extent. The incomplete risk assessments may result in a biased view of the risk which in turn can lead to poor decision-making. The theoretical knowledge about risk management is in many cases low and there is still often a practical approach. Strategic and holistic approaches are mostly lacking.

    The consequences of flood on drinking water supply are not known in detail and are not considered in detail in risk assessments commonly used in Sweden. There is an awareness of the need to coordinate the management of flood and water resources. However, despite the good intentions regarding integration, there are few signs in the risk assessments and risk management plans that integration is actually occurring.

    Both the risk management approach and integrated management have started to be implemented in Swedish flood and drinking water risk management. It is however on a basic level and it is still a long way to go. Further guidance and knowledge about risk management as well as commitment from and collaboration among all actors concerned is needed to make this development possible.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nygren, Kristian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Magnetron Sputtering of Nanocomposite Carbide Coatings for Electrical Contacts2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s electronic society relies on the functionality of electrical contacts. To achieve good contact properties, surface coatings are normally applied. Such coatings should ideally fulfill a combination of different properties, like high electrical conductivity, high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance and low cost. A common coating strategy is to use noble metals since these do not form insulating surface oxides. However, such coatings are expensive, have poor wear resistance and they are often applied by electroplating, which poses environmental and human health hazards.

    In this thesis, nanocomposite carbide-based coatings were studied and the aim was to evaluate if they could exhibit properties that were suitable for electrical contacts. Coatings in the Cr-C, Cr-C-Ag and Nb-C systems were deposited by magnetron sputtering using research-based equipment as well as industrial-based equipment designed for high-volume production. To achieve the aim, the microstructure and composition of the coatings were characterized, whereas mechanical, tribological, electrical, electrochemical and optical properties were evaluated. A method to optically measure the amount of carbon was developed.

    In the Cr-C system, a variety of deposition conditions were explored and amorphous carbide/amorphous carbon (a-C) nanocomposite coatings could be obtained at substrate temperatures up to 500 °C. The amount of a-C was highly dependent on the total carbon content. By co-sputtering with Ag, coatings comprising an amorphous carbide/carbon matrix, with embedded Ag nanoclusters, were obtained. Large numbers of Ag nanoparticles were also found on the surfaces. In the Nb-C system, nanocrystalline carbide/a-C coatings could be deposited. It was found that the nanocomposite coatings formed very thin passive films, consisting of both oxide and a-C.

    The Cr-C coatings exhibited low hardness and low-friction properties. In electrochemical experiments, the Cr-C coatings exhibited high oxidation resistance. For the Cr-C-Ag coatings, the Ag nanoparticles oxidized at much lower potentials than bulk Ag. Overall, electrical contact resistances for optimized samples were close to noble metal references at low contact load. Thus, the studied coatings were found to have properties that make them suitable for electrical contact applications.

  • Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016In: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, 34-39 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2016-10-21 10:15 Plank, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Novel Layered and 2D Materials for Functionality Enhancement of Contacts and Gas Sensors2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical gas sensors are widely-used electronic devices for detecting or measuring the density levels of desired gas species. In this study, materials with established or potential applications for gas sensors are treated. For the case of high-temperature applications (≈ 600 °C), semiconductor-based gas sensors suffer from rapid oxidation of the metallic ohmic contacts, the same cause-of-failure as for the general case of high-temperature semiconductor electronics. 4H-SiC is an ideal semiconductor for high-temperature applications. Ti3SiC2 is a known ohmic contact to 4H-SiC with the known two-step synthesis process of post-annealing of pre-deposited Ti/Al multilayers or sputter-deposition of Ti3SiC2 films at > 900 °C. Here, sputter-deposition of Ti on 4H-SiC at > 900 °C is presented as a novel single-step method for the synthesis of Ti3SiC2 ohmic contacts, based on a concurrent reaction between sputter-deposited Ti and 4HSiC. Ti3SiC2, similar to any other known ohmic contact, degrade rapidly in high-temperature oxidizing ambient. To try to overcome this obstacle, noble metal diffusion into Ti3SiC2 has been s studied with the goal to retain ohmic properties of Ti3SiC2 and harnessing oxidation resistivity of noble metals. A novel exchange intercalation between Ti3SiC2 and Au is discovered which results in the almost complete exchange of Si with Au giving rise to novel Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2. Ti3IrC2 is also synthesized through exchange intercalation of Ir into Ti3Au2C2. All the aforementioned phases showed ohmic properties to 4H-SiC. This technique is also studied based on Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 resulting in the synthesis of novel Ti2Au2C and Ti3Au2C2, respectively. Using Ti3AuC2 and an Au/IrOx capping layer, an ohmic contact was manufactured, which maintained ohmic properties and showed no structural defects after 1000 h of aging at 600 °C air.

    Ti3SiC2 is a member of a large family of materials known as Mn+1AXn phases. While exchange reactions of Si (or Al) planes in Ti3SiC2 (Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2) is presented here, a world-wide research already exists on chemical removal of the same atomic planes from different Mn+1AXn phases and the synthesis of Mn+1Xn sheets known as MXenes. I performed a theoretical study regarding simulation of electronic and structural properties of more than120 different possible MXene phases. The results show that some MXene phases, when terminated by particular gas species, turn into Dirac materials. That is, they possess massless Dirac fermions with different properties compared to graphene such as higher number of Dirac points at the Fermi level, giant spin orbit splitting, and preserved 2D-type electronic properties by extending the dimensionality. The general substantial change of the electronic properties of MXenes under different gas adsorption configurations stands out and can thus be harnessed for sensing applications.

    Growth of monolayer iron oxide on porous Pt sensing layers is another novel approach used in this study for applying the unique properties of 2D materials for gas sensors. A low temperature shift in CO oxidation characteristics is presented. The approach is similar to that previously reported using bulk single crystal Pt substrate, the latter being an unrealistic model for sensors and catalysts. Monolayer-coated Pt sensing layers were fabricated as the metal component of a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor device, whereby the electrical response of the MOS device could be used to map out the catalytic properties of the sensing layer. The monolayer-coated Pt surface showed to be stable with retained improved catalytic properties for > 200 h. The MOS device measurements are here utilized as a handy method for in-situ monitoring of the surface chemical properties of the monolayer-coated Pt and the approach is highly functional for use and characterization of monolayer coatings of widely used sensingor catalytic layers.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:15 Hambergsalen, Uppsala
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Natural resources and sustainable energy: Growth rates and resource flows for low-carbon systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies is important for counteracting anthropogenic climate change and achieving universal energy access. This thesis explores potential growth rates of technologies necessary to reach a more sustainable global energy system, the material and energy flows required to commission these technologies, and potential future availability of the required resources.

    These issues are investigated in five papers. Potential future growth rates of wind energy and solar photovoltaics, and the associated material requirements are explored, taking the expected service life of these technologies into account. Methodology for assessing net energy return and natural resource use for wind energy systems are analyzed. Potential future availability of lithium and phosphate rock are also investigated.

    Estimates of energy and materials required for technologies such as wind energy and photovoltaics vary, and depend on the assumptions made and methods used. Still, it is clear that commissioning of low-carbon technologies on the scale required to reach and sustain a low-carbon energy system in coming decades requires significant quantities of both bulk materials and scarcer resources. For some technologies, such as thin film solar cells and electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries, availability of materials could become an issue for potential growth rates. Future phosphate rock production could become highly dependent on few countries, and potential political, social and environmental aspects of this should be investigated in more detail.

    Material and energy flows should be considered when analyzing growth rates of low-carbon technologies. Their estimated service life can indicate sustainable growth rates of technologies, as well as when materials are available for end-of-life recycling. Resource constrained growth curve models can be used to explore future production of natural resources. A higher disaggregation of these models can enable more detailed analysis of potential constraints. This thesis contributes to the discussion on how to create a more sustainable global energy system, but the methods to assess current and future energy and material flows, and availability of natural resources, should be further developed in the future.

  • Magnusson, Sindri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Magnusson, Sindri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Enyioha, Chinwendu
    Li, Na
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Practical Coding Schemes For Bandwidth Limited One-Way Communication Resource Allocation2016In: 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE, 2016, Vol. 55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates resource allocation algorithms that use limited communication - where the supplier of a resource broadcasts a coordinating signal using one bit of information to users per iteration. Rather than relay anticipated consumption to the supplier, the users locally compute their allocation, while the supplier measures the total resource consumption. Since the users do not compare their local consumption against the supplier’s capacity at each iteration, they can easily overload the system and cause an outage (for example blackout in power networks). To address this challenge, this paper investigates pragmatic coding schemes, called PFcodes (Primal-Feasible codes), that not only allow the restriction of communication to a single bit of information, but also avoid system overload due to users’ heavy consumption. We derive a worst case lower bound on the number of bits needed to achieve any desired accuracy using PF-codes. In addition, we demonstrate how to construct time-invariant and time-varying PF-codes. We provide an upper bound on the number of bits needed to achieve any desired solution accuracy using time-invariant PF-codes. Remarkably, the difference between the upper and lower bound is only 2 bits. It is proved that the time-varying PF-codes asymptotically converge to the true primal/dual optimal solution. Simulations demonstrating accuracy of our theoretical analyses are presented.

  • Vardanyan, Yelena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vardanyan, Yelena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Modeling Regime Switching in Day-ahead MarketPrices Using Markov Model2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2016-10-27 09:00 N220, Umeå
    Karlsborn, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Karlsborn, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Physiological consequences of Elongator complex inactivation in Eukaryotes2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutations found in genes encoding human Elongator complex subunits have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as familial dysautonomia (FD), rolandic epilepsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding Elongator complex subunits cause defects in neurodevelopment and reduced neuronal function in both mice and nematodes. The Elongator complex is a conserved protein complex comprising six subunits (Elp1p-Elp6p) found in eukaryotes. The primary function of this complex in yeast is formation of the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) side chains found on wobble uridines (U34) in tRNAs. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the physiological consequences of Elongator complex inactivation in humans and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Inactivation of the Elongator complex causes widespread defects in a multitude of different cellular processes in S. cerevisiae. Thus, we investigated metabolic alterations resulting from Elongator complex inactivation. We show that deletion of the S. cerevisiae ELP3 gene leads to widespread metabolic alterations. Moreover, all global metabolic alterations observed in the elp3Δ strain are not restored in the presence of elevated levels of hypomodified tRNAs that normally have the modified nucleoside mcm5s2U. Collectively, we show that modified wobble nucleosides in tRNAs are required for metabolic homeostasis.

    Elongator mutants display sensitivity to DNA damage agents, but the underlying mechanism explaining this sensitivity remains elusive. We demonstrate that deletion of the S. cerevisiae ELP3 gene results in post-transcriptional reduction of Ixr1p levels. Further, we show that the reduced Ixr1p levels prevent adequate Rnr1p levels upon treatment with DNA damage agents. These findings suggest that reduced Ixr1p levels could in part explain why Elongator mutants are sensitive to DNA damage agents.

    Depletion of Elongator complex subunits results in loss of wobble uridine modifications in plants, nematodes, mice and yeast. Therefore, we investigated whether patients with the neurodegenerative disease familial dysautonomia (FD), who have lower levels of the ELP1 protein, display reduced amounts of modified wobble uridine nucleosides. We show that tRNA isolated from brain tissue and fibroblast cell lines derived from FD patients have 64–71% of the mcm5s2U nucleoside levels observed in total tRNA from non-FD brain tissue and non-FD fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that the cause for the neurodegenerative nature of FD could be translation impairment caused by reduced levels of modified wobble uridine nucleosides in tRNAs. Thus, our results give new insight on the importance of modified wobble uridine nucleosides for neurodevelopment.

  • Skoglund, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Skoglund, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Molecular Mechanisms of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic factors involved in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterised by a progressive change in personality, behaviour and language. FTLD is a genetically complex disorder and a positive family history is found in up to 40% of the cases.

    In 10-20% of the familial cases the disease can be explained by mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT). In the first study we describe the clinical and neuropathological features of a Finnish family with FTLD caused by a mutation in MAPT. We also provide evidence that the pathogenic mechanism of this mutation is through altered splicing of MAPT transcripts.

    Recently, mutations in the gene encoding progranulin (PGRN) were identified as a major cause of FTLD. In the second study we describe a Swedish family with FTLD caused by a frameshift mutation in PGRN. We provide a clinical and neuropathological description of the family, as well as evidence that the pathogenicity of this mutation is through nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant mRNA transcripts and PGRN haploinsufficiency.

    In the third study we describe a novel PGRN splice site mutation and a previously described PGRN frameshift mutation, found in a mutation screen of 51 FTLD patients. We describe the clinical and neuropathological characteristics of the mutation carriers and demonstrate that haploinsufficiency is the pathogenic mechanism of the two mutations.

    In the fourth study we investigate the prevalence of PGRN and MAPT gene dosage alterations in 39 patients with FTLD. No gene dosage alterations were identified, indicating that variations in copy number of the PGRN and MAPT genes are not a common cause of disease, at least not in this FTLD patient collection.

  • Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish. Uppsala universitet, Romanska språk.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish. Uppsala universitet, Romanska språk.
    Conversación digital: copresencia y disponibilidad: Estudio pragmático del preámbulo de reuniones multipartitas por videoconferencia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how interaction is initiated in multi-party meetings in Adobe Connect, 7.0, with a particular focus on how co-presence and mutual availability are established through the preambles of 18 meetings held in Spanish without a moderator. Taking Conversation Analysis (CA) as a methodological point of departure, this thesis comprises four different studies, each of them analyzing a particular phenomenon within the interaction of the preambles in a multimodal environment that allows simultaneous interaction through video, voice and text-chat.

    The first study (Artículo I) shows how participants solve jointly the issue of availability in a technological environment where being online is not necessarily understood as being available for communicating. The second study (Artículo II) focuses on the beginning of the audiovisual interaction; in particular on how participants check the right functioning of the audiovisual mode. The third study (Artículo III) explores silences within the interaction of the preamble. It shows that the length of gaps and lapses become a significant aspect the preambles and how they are connected to the issue of availability.  Finally, the four study introduces the notion of modal alignment, an interactional phenomenon that systematically appears in the beginnings of the encounters, which seems to be used and understood  as a strategy for the establishment of mutual availability and negotiation of the participation framework.

    As a whole, this research shows how participants, in order to establish mutual co-presence and availability, adapt to a particular technology in terms of participation management, deploying strategies and conveying successive actions which, as it is the case of the activation of their respective webcams, seem to be understood as predictable within the intricate process of establishing mutual availability before the meeting starts.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-13 09:00 N200, Umeå
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Influence of wobble uridine modifications on eukaryotic translation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elongator is a conserved six subunit protein (Elp1p-Elp6p) complex that is required for the formation of ncm5 and mcm5 side chains at wobble uridines in transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in any gene encoding an Elongator subunit results in translational defects and a multitude of phenotypic effects. This thesis is based on investigations of effects of wobble uridine modifications on translation.

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ncm5U34-, mcm5U34- and mcm5s2U34- modified wobble nucleosides in tRNAs are important for proper codonanticodon interactions. My colleagues and I (hereafter we) showed that mcm5 and s2 groups at wobble uridine in tRNAs are vital for maintaining the reading frame during translation, as absence of these modifications increases the frequency of +1 frameshifting. We also showed that +1 frameshifting events at lysine AAA codons in Elongator mutants are due to slow entry of the hypomodified tRNA Lyss2UUU to the ribosomal A-site.

    Ixr1p is a protein that plays a key role in increasing production of deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) in responses to DNA damage, via induction of Ribonucleotide reductase 1 (Rnr1p), in S. cerevisiae. We showed that expression of Ixr1p is reduced in elp3Δ mutants due to a post-transcriptional defect, which results in lower levels of Rnr1p in responses to DNA damage. Collectively, these results suggest that high sensitivity of Elongator mutants to DNA damaging agents might be partially due to reductions in Ixr1p expression and hence Rnr1p levels.

    Elongator mutant phenotypes are linked to several cellular processes. To probe the mechanisms involved we investigated the metabolic perturbations associated with absence of a functional ELP3 gene in S. cerevisiae. We found that its absence results in widespread metabolic perturbations under both optimal (30°C) and semi-permissive (34°C) growth conditions. We also found that changes in levels of certain metabolites (but not others) were ameliorated by elevated levels of hypomodified tRNAs, suggesting that amelioration of perturbations of these metabolites might be sufficient for suppression of the Elongator mutant phenotypes.

    A mutation in the IKBKAP (hELP1) gene results in lower levels of the full-length hELP1 protein, which causes a neurodegenerative disease in humans called familial dysautonomia (FD). We showed that the levels of mcm5s2U-modified wobble nucleoside in tRNAs are lower in both brain tissues and fibroblast cell lines derived from FD patients than in corresponding materials derived from healthy individuals. This suggests that FD may result from inefficient translation due to partial loss of mcm5s2U-modified nucleosides in tRNAs.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 B41, Uppsala
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Tamarit, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Evolution of symbiotic lineages and the origin of new traits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the genomic study of symbionts of two different groups of hymenopterans: bees and ants. Both groups of insects have major ecological impact, and investigating their microbiomes increases our understanding of their health, diversity and evolution.

    The study of the bee gut microbiome, including members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, revealed genomic processes related to the adaptation to the gut environment, such as the expansion of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and the acquisition of genes for interaction with the host. A broader genomic study of these genera demonstrated that some lineages evolve under strong and opposite substitution biases, leading to extreme GC content values. A comparison of codon usage patterns in these groups revealed ongoing shifts of optimal codons.

    In a separate study we analysed the genomes of several strains of Lactobacillus kunkeei, which inhabits the honey stomach of bees but is not found in their gut. We observed signatures of genome reduction and suggested candidate genes for host-interaction processes. We discovered a novel type of genome architecture where genes for metabolic functions are located in one half of the genome, whereas genes for information processes are located in the other half. This genome organization was also found in other Lactobacillus species, indicating that it was an ancestral feature that has since been retained. We suggest mechanisms and selective forces that may cause the observed organization, and describe processes leading to its loss in several lineages independently.

    We also studied the genome of a species of Rhizobiales bacteria found in ants. We discuss its metabolic capabilities and suggest scenarios for how it may affect the ants’ lifestyle. This genome contained a region with homology to the Bartonella gene transfer agent (GTA), which is a domesticated bacteriophage used to transfer bacterial DNA between cells. We propose that its unique behaviour as a specialist GTA, preferentially transferring host-interaction factors, originated from a generalist GTA that transferred random segments of chromosomal DNA.

    These bioinformatic analyses of previously uncharacterized bacterial lineages have increased our understanding of their physiology and evolution and provided answers to old and new questions in fundamental microbiology.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:53 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Colmenares, Juan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Colmenares, Juan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Extreme Implementations of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors in Power Electronics2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium-nitride (GaN) allow higher voltage ratings, lower on-state voltage drops, higher switching frequencies, and higher maximum temperatures. All these advantages make them an attractive choice when high-power density and high-efficiency converters are targeted. Two different gate-driver designs for SiC power devices are presented. First, a dual-function gate-driver for a power module populated with SiC junction field-effect transistors that finds a trade-off between fast switching speeds and a low oscillative performance has been presented and experimentally verified. Second, a gate-driver for SiC metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a short-circuit protection scheme that is able to protect the converter against short-circuit conditions without compromising the switching performance during normal operation is presented and experimentally validated. The benefits and issues of using parallel-connection as the design strategy for high-efficiency and high-power converters have been presented. In order to evaluate parallel connection, a 312 kVA three-phase SiC inverter with an efficiency of 99.3 % has been designed, built, and experimentally verified. If parallel connection is chosen as design direction, an undesired trade-off between reliability and efficiency is introduced. A reliability analysis has been performed, which has shown that the gate-source voltage stress determines the reliability of the entire system. Decreasing the positive gate-source voltage could increase the reliability without significantly affecting the efficiency. If high-temperature applications are considered, relatively little attention has been paid to passive components for harsh environments. This thesis also addresses high-temperature operation. The high-temperature performance of two different designs of inductors have been tested up to 600_C. Finally, a GaN power field-effect transistor was characterized down to cryogenic temperatures. An 85 % reduction of the on-state resistance was measured at −195_C. Finally, an experimental evaluation of a 1 kW singlephase inverter at low temperatures was performed. A 33 % reduction in losses compared to room temperature was achieved at rated power.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Ljungström, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Exploring next-generation sequencing in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have led to major breakthroughs in the characterization of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) genome with discovery of recurrent mutations of potential prognostic and/or predictive relevance. However, before NGS can be introduced into clinical practice, the precision of the techniques needs to be studied in better detail. Furthermore, much remains unknown about the genetic mechanisms leading to aggressive disease and resistance to treatment. Hence, in Paper I, the technical performance of a targeted deep sequencing panel including 9 genes was evaluated in 188 CLL patients. We were able to validate 143/155 (92%) selected mutations through Sanger sequencing and 77/82 mutations were concordant in a second targeted sequencing run, indicating that the technique can be introduced in clinical practice. In Paper II we screened 18 NF-κB pathway genes in 315 CLL patients through targeted deep sequencing which revealed a recurrent 4 base-pair deletion in the NFKBIE gene. Screening of NFKBIE in 377 additional cases identified the mutation in ~6% of all CLL patients. We demonstrate that the lesion lead to aberrant NF-κB signaling through impaired interaction with p65 and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. In Paper III we sought to delineate the genetic lesions that leads to relapse after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment. Through whole-exome sequencing of pre-treatment and relapse samples from 41 cases we found evidence of frequent selection of subclones harboring driver mutations and subsequent clonal evolution following treatment. We also detected mutations in the ribosomal protein RPS15 in 8 cases (19.5%) and characterization of the mutations through functional assays point to impaired p53 regulation in cells with mutated RPS15. Paper IV aimed at characterizing 70 patients assigned to three major subsets (#1, #2, and #4) through whole-genome sequencing. Besides recurrent exonic driver mutations, we report non-coding regions significantly enriched for mutations in subset #1 and #2 that may facilitate future molecular studies. Collectively, this thesis supports the potential of targeted sequencing for mutational screening of CLL in clinical practice, provides novel insight into the pathobiology of aggressive CLL, and demonstrates the clinical outcome and cellular effects of NFKBIE and RPS15 mutations. 

  • Berndt, Jaqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Berndt, Jaqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Manga beyond Critique?2016In: Kritika Kultura, a refereed electronic journal of literary/cultural and language studies, ISSN 2094-6937, no 26, 166-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:00 Forum Humanum, Jönköping
    Jansson, Peter M.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jansson, Peter M.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Våldets onda cirklar: En explorativ undersökning av mäns barndomsupplevelser, maskuliniteter, känslor, våld samt terapeutiska interventioner mot våld2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation’s objective is to explore the possibilities of an integrated research perspective on male violence and exemplify how such research can be conducted. The specific objective is to increase awareness of how men’s childhood experiences, socialization, masculinity and emotions are related to their violence against other men, against themselves and against women (Paper III and IV) and how therapeutic interventions against violence can be analyzed and developed in correspondence with this knowledge (Paper I and II).

    The research was conducted through qualitative studies. The data collection methods comprised a theoretical review (Paper I), group-interviews (Papers II and III) and interviews (Paper IV). Altogether, 25 men participated in the studies.

    Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the group-interviews (Paper II and III) and biographical analysis wasused to when analyzing the mens life-histories (Paper IV). The findings showed that an integrative perspective can reduce the risk of ecological fallacies and develop the understanding of the complex interaction between the factors behind men’s violence. These findings may also contribute to the development of violence therapies. The theoretical review article (Study I) exemplifies how the theoretical and methodological driven research on social bonds can be adjusted to treatment against male violence. The applied study on a CBT-therapy (Study II) exemplifies how operationalized indicators of pride and shame can be used to determine the quality of the social bonds between therapist and client. The comparison between two groups of men in two opposite masculinity positions (Study III) shows that both groups are carrying ambivalent attitudes towards violence and violence against women. Nevertheless the group’s masculinity constructions and attitudes towards violence correspond with their access to economic, social, political and cultural resources. The biographical focused qualitative study of men in violence treatment (Study IV) shows that the men who have been subjected to severe violence in their childhood are more shame-prone and tend to bypass shame with aggressions and violence. The other men generally describe their violent reaction as controlled.

    The findings point to the general conclusion that the further development of the understanding of men’s violence, and the development of effective therapies against violence are depending on our ability to integrate research from different scientific perspectives.

  • Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Systematic Generation of Risk Evaluation Systems basedon Temporal Motivational Theory2016In: USB Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Modeling Decisions for Artifical Intelligence  (MDAI2016) / [ed] Vicenc Torra, 2016, 122-132 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a schematic, systematic and structured approach todeveloping Bayesian belief networks to assess risks in contexts dened by activities.The method ameliorates elicitation, specication and validation of expert knowledgeby reusing a schematic structures based on reasoning of risks based on the temporal motivationaltheory. The method is based on earlier work that took a rst signicant steptowards reducing the complexity of development of Bayesian belief networks by clusteringand classifying variables in Bayesian belief networks as well as associating the processwith human deciions making. It may be possible to reduce the role of a facilitiatoror even remove the facilitator altogether by using this method. The method is partiallyvalidated and further work is required on this topic.

  • Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Stockholms universitet, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Stockholms universitet, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärares ledarskap som möjliggörande och begränsande i mötet med ’alla’ barn: En deltagarorienterad studie2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to, based on teachers’ experiences, describe and analyse meanings of teachers’ leadership in general, and in relation to children in need of special support in particular. The study was carried out within the tradition of participatory-oriented research, a research circle. The dialogues in the circle were based on the participants’ questions, experiences, interests, and knowledge. The circle included a researcher and nine teachers from the following types of schools: preschool, preschool class, compulsory school, and compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities.

    The study is based on an understanding of leadership as a relational practice. Leadership is practised in the interaction between teacher and child. Both parties exert influence over the practice of leadership. A central assumption in the study is that knowledge can develop through and in interactions between people, that knowledge and power are connected, and that knowledge and actions are intertwined. Another central assumption is that learning is a complex phenomenon.

    In the analysis of the research circle’s dialogues, the following meanings of teachers’ leadership emerge: to facilitate learning and discipline, and to promote different interests. The practice of leadership involves teachers handling complex situations in their interactions with ‘all’ children, i.e. children in need of special support and children without such needs. Leadership is practised between teachers and children, and the teachers have to consider the group of children as a collective in relation to the individual children. At the same time, the teachers have to consider their intentions versus what happens during the interactions. In addition, the teachers have to pay heed to the fact that their own actions and the children’s actions influence one another. Finally, the teachers have to consider the individual child’s ‘best interest’ in relation to the requirements of the policy documents. Furthermore, the results indicate that the practice of leadership is perceived as both unpredictable and, to some extent, predictable at the same time, which adds to the complexity of leadership. The teachers cannot know for sure what the children understand or if the children’s actions facilitate learning. However, the teachers can make certain assumptions about how to practice leadership in order to facilitate learning and discipline in children with different needs. The meanings of leadership were expressed in different ways in the circle’s dialogues; both as enabling and limiting in interactions with children in need of special support. One of the study’s conclusions is that leadership seems to be particularly complex in interactions with children in need of special support.

    The research circle’s dialogues served to promote a democratic knowledge process. The dialogues were characterised by respect for the participants’ different opinions; however, this does not mean that they were free from power structures.

  • Melin, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Persons: their identity and individuation1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the nature of persons and personal identity. It belongs to a tradition that maintains that in order to understand what it is to be a person we must clarify what personal identity consists in. In this pursuit, I differentiate between the problems (i) How do persons persist? and (ii) What facts, if any, does personal identity consist in?

    Concerning the first question, I argue that persons persist three-dimensionally (the endurance view), and not four-dimensionally (the perdurarne view), on the ground that objects must always fall under some substance sortal concept S (the sortal dependency of individuation), and that the concept person entails that objects falling under it are three-dimensional.

    Concerning the second question, I differentiate between Criterianists, who maintain that it is possible to specify a non-circular and informative criterion for personal identity, and Non-Criterianists, who deny that such a specification is possible. I argue against Criterianist accounts of personal identity on the ground that they are either (i) circular, (ii) violate the intrinsicality of identity or (iii) do not adequately represent what we are essentially. I further criticise three Psychological Non-Criterianist accounts of personal identity on the ground that they wrongly assume that 'person' refers to mental entities.

    Instead I formulate the Revised Animal Attribute View where person is understood as a basic sortal concept which picks out a biological sort of enduring animals. In this, I claim that the real essence of a person is determined by the real essence of the kind of animal he is, without thereby denying that persons have a real essence as persons.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-13 15:05 T2, Huddinge
    Widman, Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Widman, Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Ultrasonic Methods for Quantitative Carotid Plaque Characterization2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide and improved diagnostic methods are needed for early intervention and to select the most suitable treatment for patients. Currently, carotid artery plaque vulnerability is typically determined by visually assessing ultrasound B-mode images, which is influenced by user-subjectivity. Since plaque vulnerability is correlated to the mechanical properties of the plaque, quantitative techniques are needed to estimate plaque stiffness as a surrogate for plaque vulnerability, which would reduce subjectivity during plaque assessment. The work in this thesis focused on three noninvasive ultrasound-based techniques to quantitatively assess plaque vulnerability and measure arterial stiffness. In Study I, a speckle tracking algorithm was validated in vitro to assess strain in common carotid artery (CCA) phantom plaques and thereafter applied in vivo to carotid atherosclerotic plaques where the strain results were compared to visual assessments by experienced physicians. In Study II, hard and soft CCA phantom plaques were characterized with shear wave elastography (SWE) by using phase and group velocity analysis while being hydrostatically pressurized followed by validating the results with mechanical tensile testing. In Study III, feasibility of assessing the stiffness of simulated plaques and the arterial wall with SWE was demonstrated in an ex vivo setup in small porcine aortas used as a human CCA model. In Study IV, SWE and pulse wave imaging (PWI) were compared when characterizing homogeneous CCA soft phantom plaques. The techniques developed in this thesis have demonstrated potential to characterize carotid artery plaques. The results show that the techniques have the ability to noninvasively evaluate the mechanical properties of carotid artery plaques, provide additional data when visually assessing B-mode images, and potentially provide improved diagnoses for patients suffering from cerebrovascular diseases.

  • Maad, Johanne
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi.
    Maad, Johanne
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi.
    Selection and Floral Evolution in Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha (Orchidaceae)2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection mediated by pollinators has influenced the evolution of floral diversity of the flowering plants (angiosperms). The scope of this thesis was to study: 1) phenotypic selection, 2) mating systems, and 3) floral shifts involved in plant speciation. Model plant species were Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha (Orchidaceae). These orchids are moth-pollinated, strictly co-sexual (bisexual flowers), and produce a spike that displays 10-20 white flowers.

    I explored the influence of characters on plant fitness by using multiple linear regressions. Pollen removal (male fitness) and fruit set (female fitness) increased with more flowers per plant in three P. bifolia populations. There was selection towards longer spurs in a dry year when average spur length was shorter than in normal-wet years. Female function was sensitive to drought, which enabled an application of the male function hypothesis of floral evolution (Bateman's principle). The results show that selection may vary between populations, years, and sex-functions.

    I examined inbreeding by estimating levels of geitonogamy (self-pollination between flowers of an individual) with an emasculation method in two P. bifolia populations. Geitonogamy did not vary with inflorescence size. Levels of geitonogamy was 20-40% in the smaller, but non-significant in the larger population. This may relate to lower number of possible mates and pollinator activity in the smaller population.

    Platanthera bifolia exhibits the ancestral character state of tongue-attachment of pollinia on the pollinator. Its close relative P. chlorantha attaches its pollinia onto the pollinator's eyes. To explore the mechanism of a floral shift, pollination efficiency and speed was compared between the two species. The results showed no differences in pollination efficiency, but P. chlorantha had faster pollen export and import. Efficiency of pollination in terms of speed may cause floral shifts, and thus speciation.