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  • Herziger, Atar
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Cologne Grad Sch Management Econ & Social Sci, Cologne, Germany..
    Benzerga, Amel
    UCL, Div Psychol & Language Sci, London, England..
    Berkessel, Jana
    Univ Cologne, Dept Psychol, Cologne, Germany..
    Dinartika, Niken L.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Psychol, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Franklin, Matija
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, England..
    Steinnes, Kamilla K.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway..
    Sundström, Felicia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  • Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England..
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England..
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England..
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Univ Ioannina, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, Ioannina, Greece.;Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Sect Epidemiol, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Katzke, Verena
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Canc Epidemiol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kuehn, Tilman
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Canc Epidemiol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece.;Univ Athens, Med Sch, Unit Nutr Epidemiol & Nutr Publ Hlth,WHO, Collaborating Ctr Nutr & Hlth,Dept Hyg Epidemiol, Athens, Greece..
    Peppa, Eleni
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece..
    Kritikou, Maria
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece..
    Sieri, Sabina
    Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Epidemiol & Prevent Unit, Milan, Italy..
    Palli, Domenico
    Canc Res & Prevent Inst ISPO, Canc Risk Factors & Life Style Epidemiol Unit, Florence, Italy..
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Univ Turin, AO Citta Salute & Sci, Unit Canc Epidemiol, Turin, Italy.;Ctr Canc Prevent CPO Piemonte, Turin, Italy..
    Tumino, Rosario
    Civ MP Arezzo Hosp ASP Ragusa, Canc Registry & Histopathol Unit, Ragusa, Italy..
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as)
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.;Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, Dept Determinants Chron Dis DCD, Bilthoven, Netherlands.;Univ Malaya, Fac Med, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Agudo, Antonio
    Catalan Inst Oncol IDIBELL, Canc Epidemiol Res Program, Unit Nutr & Canc, Barcelona, Spain..
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Reg Govt Basque Country, Publ Hlth Div Gipuzkoa, Vitoria, Spain.;CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain..
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Granada, Hosp Univ Granada, GRANADA, Escuela Andaluza Salud Publ,Inst Invest Biosanita, Granada, Spain..
    Ardanaz, Eva
    CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain.;Navarra Publ Hlth Inst, Pamplona, Spain.;Navarra Inst Hlth Res IdiSNA Pamplona, Pamplona, Spain..
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    CIBER Epidemiol & Publ Hlth CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain.;IMIB Arrixaca, Reg Hlth Council, Dept Epidemiol, Murcia, Spain.;Univ Murcia, Dept Hlth & Social Sci, Murcia, Spain..
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Univ Oviedo, Fac Med, Dept Funct Biol, Asturias, Spain..
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden..
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umea Univ, Nutr Res, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Drake, Isabel
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Diabet & Cardiovasc Dis Genet Epidemiol, Lund, Sweden..
    Malm, Johan
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Translat Med Clin Chem, Malmo, Sweden..
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England..
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England..
    Gunter, Marc
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Sect Nutr & Metab, Lyon, France..
    Freisling, Heinz
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Sect Nutr & Metab, Lyon, France..
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Sect Nutr & Metab, Lyon, France..
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England..
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England..
    Riboli, Elio
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England..
    Key, Timothy J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Oxford, England..
    Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, no 2, 287-297 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dietary factors have been studied in relation to prostate cancer; however, most studies have not reported on subtypes of fruit and vegetables or tumor characteristics, and results obtained so far are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the prospective association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the incidence of prostate cancer overall, by grade and stage of disease, and prostate cancer death. Lifestyle information for 142,239 men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition from 8 European countries was collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases were identified. Compared with the lowest fifth, those in the highest fifth of total fruit intake had a significantly reduced prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.83-0.99; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between fruit subtypes and prostate cancer risk were observed, except for citrus fruits, where a significant trend was found (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.86-1.02; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between total and subtypes of vegetables and prostate cancer risk were observed. We found no evidence of heterogeneity in these associations by tumor grade and stage, with the exception of significant heterogeneity by tumor grade (p(heterogeneity)<0.001) for leafy vegetables. No significant associations with prostate cancer death were observed. The main finding of this prospective study was that a higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk. Whether this association is causal remains unclear. What's new? The role of diet in prostate-cancer etiology is uncertain, and associations may vary by tumor characteristics. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the authors examined the association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the overall incidence of prostate cancer. They then analyzed incidence by grade, stage of disease, and prostate-cancer death. They found that higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk, and that this association did not differ by tumor characteristics.

  • Stattin, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden..
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Uppsala Orebro, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebk
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Urol, Copenhagen Prostate Canc Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Reg Canc Ctr Uppsala Orebro, Uppsala, Sweden.;Kings Coll London, Sch Med, Div Canc Studies, Canc Epidemiol Grp, London, England..
    Robinson, David
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden.;Ryhov Hosp, Dept Urol, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Lissbrant, Ingela Franck
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Oncol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Hakan
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Bratt, Ola
    Lund Univ, Div Urol Canc, Dept Translat Med, Lund, Sweden.;Cambridge Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, CamPARI Clin, Cambridge, England..
    Association of Radical Local Treatment with Mortality in Men with Very High-risk Prostate Cancer: A Semiecologic, Nationwide, Population-based Study2017In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 72, no 1, 125-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current guidelines recommend androgen deprivation therapy only for men with very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but there is little evidence to support this stance. Objective: To investigate the association between radical local treatment and mortality in men with very high-risk PCa. Design, setting, and participants: Semiecologic study of men aged < 80 yr within the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, diagnosed in 1998-2012 with very high-risk PCa (local clinical stage T4 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level 50-200 ng/ml, any N, and M0). Men with locally advanced PCa (local clinical stage T3 and PSA level < 50 ng/ml, any N, and M0) were used as positive controls. Intervention: Proportion of men who received prostatectomy or full-dose radiotherapy in 640 experimental units defined by county, diagnostic period, and age at diagnosis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: PCa and all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs). Results and limitations: Both PCa and all-cause mortality were half as high in units in the highest tertile of exposure to radical local treatment compared with units in the lowest tertile (PCa MRR: 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.95; and all-cause MRR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.92). The results observed for locally advanced PCa for highest versus lowest tertile of exposurewere in agreement with results fromrandomized trials (PCaMRR: 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.94; and all-cause MRR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00). Although the semiecologic design minimized selection bias on an individual level, the effect of high therapeutic activity could not be separated from that of high diagnostic activity. Conclusions: The substantially lower mortality in units with the highest exposure to radical local treatment suggests that radical treatment decreases mortality even in men with very high-risk PCa for whom such treatment has been considered ineffective. Patient summary: Menwith very high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed and treated in units with the highest exposure to surgery or radiotherapy had a substantially lower mortality.

  • Granados, Carlos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics. Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Ave, Newport News, VA 23606 USA..
    Leupold, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    Perotti, Elisabetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics.
    The electromagnetic Sigma-to-Lambda hyperon transition form factors at low energies2017In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 53, no 6, 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using dispersion theory the low-energy electromagnetic form factors for the transition of a Sigma to a Lambda hyperon are related to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the two-pion-Sigma-Lambda amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the baryons from the octet and optionally from the decuplet. Pion rescattering is again taken into account by dispersion theory. It turns out that the inclusion of decuplet baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The electric transition form factor remains very small in the whole low-energy region. The magnetic transition form factor depends strongly on one not very well determined low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. One obtains reasonable predictive power if this low-energy constant is determined from a measurement of the magnetic transition radius. Such a measurement can be performed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).

  • Halldórsson, Guðmundur
    et al.
    Ágústsdóttir, Anna María
    Aradóttir, Ása L.
    Arnalds, Ólafur
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Mortensen, Lis
    Nilsson, Christer
    Óskarsson, Hreinn
    Pagneux, Emmanuel
    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Ecosystem Restoration for Mitigation of Natural Disasters2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic network ERMOND, Ecosystem Resilience for Mitigation of Natural Disasters, reviewed information on natural hazards and ecosystem conditions in the Nordic countries. Many natural hazards put pressure on Nordic societies, primarily floods, landslides, storms, snow avalanches and volcanic activity. Intensified land use and predicted climate change are likely to increase the impacts of natural hazards in the future. Ecosystems in good condition have the ability to reduce the impacts of natural hazards. Our study showed, however, that degradation of natural habitats in the Nordic countries may have reduced or even seriously damaged this ability. Nordic disaster risk reduction policies and strategies should recognize this situation and place restoration of degraded ecosystems on the agenda as an integrated part of future disaster risk reduction management in the Nordic countries.

  • Ivarsson Westerberg, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Det finns ett kaos mellan verkligheten och kartan: Rapport från Förvaltningsakademins seminarium om den stora polisreformen2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första januari 2015 sjösattes den kanske största organisationsreform som genomförts i Sveriges statsförvaltning – omorganisationen där de 21 länspolismyndigheterna slogs ihop till en enda nationell polismyndighet. Syftet med reformen var att komma närmare medborgarna samtidigt som förmågan att fatta beslut på en samordnad central nivå skulle stärkas.

    I november 2016 arrangerade Förvaltningsakademin ett seminarium om denna reform. I panelen deltog forskare, poliser, journalister och rikspolischef Dan Eliasson. Första delen av seminariet handlade om hur själva reformen blev till. Den andra delen var ett panelsamtal där deltagarna utifrån sina olika perspektiv diskuterade kring frågor som: Vilka negativa och positiva effekter kan vi se så här långt? Hur ser vi på framtiden?

    I denna skrift presenteras en utskrift av seminariet. Här ges även ett teoretiskt perspektiv samt en översikt över de reformer den svenska polisen genomgått sedan mitten av 1960-talet.

    Anders Ivarsson Westerberg är docent i företagsekonomi och verksam vid Förvaltningsakademin, Södertörns högskola.

  • Vigerland, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Borg, Erik A.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Towman, Peter
    Högtflygande planer: En intervjuundersökning avseende skälen till marknadsnotering av små och medelstora företag samt dess effekter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har utgått från marknadsnotering av små och medelstora företag (SMF), vilka inte beforskats i Sverige sedan tidigare. Eftersom området är outforskat föll valet på en intervjustudie innebärande djuplodande empiri med stor nyansrikedom för att erhålla nödvändig kunskap om marknadens och företagens förutsättningar. Vidare föll urvalsramen på AktieTorget (sic), som är en marknadsplats för transaktioner av finansiella instrument, i huvudsak aktier, specifikt inriktat på just SMF, varför valet av AktieTorget var strategiskt. Tio semistrukturerade intervjuer med en blandning av olika typer av branscher och företagsstorlekar valdes ut från de 160 företag som är noterade på AktieTorgets lista. Dessa tio företag utgör således studiens nettourval. Intervjuerna genomfördes under perioden november 2016 till januari 2017. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är i huvudsak nätverksteorier, Schumpeters teori om innovatör och entreprenör, agentteorin om principal och agent, informations- asymmetri samt effektiva marknadshypotesen (EMH). Studiens i huvudsak viktigaste resultat för företagen att marknadsnoteras är, förutom det vanligaste i.) att erhålla externt kapital, ii.) att markwnadsföra sig både internt mot aktieägare och anställda och mot externa aktörer som potentiella nya kunder, anställda och samhällsinstitutioner genom den ökade legitimitet en marknadsnotering innebär samt iii.) att erhålla ett uppdaterat marknadspris på företagets värde underlättande eller t.o.m. möjliggörande exit för företagens initiala ägare och att möjliggöra expansion genom att köpa upp andra verksamheter med egna marknadsnoterade aktier. I studien diskuteras att en marknadsnotering leder till en effektivare prissättning på företagets verksamhet innebärande en mer korrekt värdering av företaget, vilket har positiva effekter på samhällsnyttan. Några nackdelar som lyfts fram med marknadsnotering är i.) den ökade transparens marknadsnotering kräver innebärande ökade formella krav på verksamheten samt ii.) den ökade publicitet marknadsnotering innebär och som kan vara negativt vid tillfällen då företagen måste delge marknaden dålig information. En kvantitativ studie planeras som uppföljning till denna.

  • Dutoit, Ludovic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Burri, Reto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nater, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Mugal, Carina F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Hans, Ellegren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Genomic distribution and estimation of nucleotide diversity in natural populations: perspectives from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome2017In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 17, no 4, 586-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properly estimating genetic diversity in populations of nonmodel species requires a basic understanding of how diversity is distributed across the genome and among individuals. To this end, we analysed whole-genome resequencing data from 20 collared flycatchers (genome size approximate to 1.1 Gb; 10.13 million single nucleotide polymorphisms detected). Genomewide nucleotide diversity was almost identical among individuals (mean = 0.00394, range = 0.00384-0.00401), but diversity levels varied extensively across the genome (95% confidence interval for 200-kb windows = 0.0013-0.0053). Diversity was related to selective constraint such that in comparison with intergenic DNA, diversity at fourfold degenerate sites was reduced to 85%, 3' UTRs to 82%, 5' UTRs to 70% and nondegenerate sites to 12%. There was a strong positive correlation between diversity and chromosome size, probably driven by a higher density of targets for selection on smaller chromosomes increasing the diversity-reducing effect of linked selection. Simulations exploring the ability of sequence data from a small number of genetic markers to capture the observed diversity clearly demonstrated that diversity estimation from finite sampling of such data is bound to be associated with large confidence intervals. Nevertheless, we show that precision in diversity estimation in large out-bred population benefits from increasing the number of loci rather than the number of individuals. Simulations mimicking RAD sequencing showed that this approach gives accurate estimates of genomewide diversity. Based on the patterns of observed diversity and the performed simulations, we provide broad recommendations for how genetic diversity should be estimated in natural populations.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-16 13:15 Fåhraeussalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet Hus 5, Uppsala
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    New Insights in Adrenal Tumourigenesis.2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unilateral cortisol producing adenoma (CPA) is the most common cause of ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome and is surgically curable. On the other hand, adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare and aggressive tumours. Although the overall survival of the patients with ACC is very poor, the outcome can be heterogeneous and vary significantly between the patients. This thesis comprises studies showing genetic and genomic events occurring in CPAs and ACCs, their functional impact and clinical correlations.

    The Wnt/β-catenin and cAMP/PKA signalling pathways are crucial in adrenal homeostasis and frequent mutations in members of these pathways (CTNNB1, GNAS, and PRKACA) are found in CPAs. Mutational analysis revealed that ~60% of the CPAs harboured mutations in either of these genes. Transcriptome signature exhibited increased expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis in PRKACA/GNAS mutated (Cluster1) tumours in comparison to CTNNB1 mutated /wildtype (Cluster2) tumours. In addition we have also observed that gain of chromosome arm 9q was the most frequent arm level copy number variation (CNV) occurring in CPAs and were exclusively present in Cluster2 tumours. We also discovered novel PRKACA mutations occurring in ACCs, causing activation of cAMP/signalling pathway.   

    Comprehensive analysis of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in ACCs revealed novel interstitial deletions occurring in CTNNB1 leading to deletion of the N-terminus of β-catenin. This is a novel and yet another frequent event leading to activated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and downstream targets in ACCs. Both, mutations occurring in CTNNB1 and nuclear expression of its protein were associated with poor overall survival. Through multiregional sampling approach we discovered intra-tumour heterogeneity in ACC tumours. Although all the multiregions within a tumour showed presence of shared basal CNVs, they encompassed private CNVs, different ploidy levels and private mutations in known driver genes. We found intra-tumour heterogeneity in CTNNB1, PRKACA, TERT promoter and TP53 mutations as well as ZNRF3 and CDKN2A/2B homozygous deletions.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-26 13:15 Ada Lovelace, Linköping
    Dragisic, Zlatan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Completion of Ontologies and Ontology Networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Wide Web contains large amounts of data, and in most cases this data has no explicit structure. The lack of structure makes it difficult for automated agents to understand and use such data. A step towards a more structured World Wide Web is the Semantic Web, which aims at introducing semantics to data on the World Wide Web. One of the key technologies in this endeavour are ontologies, which provide a means for modeling a domain of interest and are used for search and integration of data.

    In recent years many ontologies have been developed. To be able to use multiple ontologies it is necessary to align them, i.e., find inter-ontology relationships. However, developing and aligning ontologies is not an easy task and it is often the case that ontologies and their alignments are incorrect and incomplete. This can be a problem for semantically-enabled applications. Incorrect and incomplete ontologies and alignments directly influence the quality of the results of such applications, as wrong results can be returned and correct results can be missed. This thesis focuses on the problem of completing ontologies and ontology networks.

    The contributions of the thesis are threefold. First, we address the issue of completing the is-a structure and alignment in ontologies and ontology networks. We have formalized the problem of completing the is-a structure in ontologies as an abductive reasoning problem and developed algorithms as well as systems for dealing with the problem. With respect to the completion of alignments, we have studied system performance in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative, a yearly evaluation campaign for ontology alignment systems. We have also addressed the scalability of ontology matching, which is one of the current challenges, by developing an approach for reducing the search space when generating the alignment.Second, high quality completion requires user involvement. As users' time and effort are a limited resource we address the issue of limiting and facilitating user interaction in the completion process. We have conducted a broad study of state-of-the-art ontology alignment systems and identified different issues related to the process. We have also conducted experiments to assess the impact of user errors in the completion process.

    While the completion of ontologies and ontology networks can be done at any point in the life-cycle of ontologies and ontology networks, some of the issues can be addressed already in the development phase. The third contribution of the thesis addresses this by introducing ontology completion and ontology alignment into an existing ontology development methodology.

  • Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergianalys – en användbar metod för utvärdering av svenska miljömål på systemnivå och i ett scenarioperspektiv?2017Report (Other academic)
  • Hassellund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Numerical analysis of an upstream tailings dam2016In: Proceedings of Nordic Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical NGM: Reykjavik, Iceland 25th – 28th of May 2016, 2016, 727-736 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of how the finite element methodcan be utilized to analyze stability of upstream tailings dams. Upstream tailings dams are usually raised gradually and the increased load normallyinfluencesthe stability in an unfavorableway;the load generatesexcess pore water pressures and reduced stability. In this study, an upstream tailings dam in Northern Sweden wasnumericallysimulated with the finite element software PLAXIS 2D in order to assess the stability of the dam. Upstream tailings dams are sensitive to high raising rates since initiated excess pore water pressures might not have time to dissipate. Stability analysis of a tailings damis an application that is very suitable to carry out using finite element software; once a finite element model of thecomplex geometry of adam has been established, it is easy to stepwiseadd new soil volumes, associated with each new raising, to the model.In this case study, it was found that strengthening actions were needed in order to maintain a stable structure. Rockfill berms weregradually added onthe downstream slope of the model to obtaina factor of safety above a recommended value. The volumes of rockfill needed for the berms wereminimized by numerical optimization to reduce costs. The stability betweenthe years2024 and2034 was analyzed; with an annual deposition cycle. The performednumerical studyresulted in a future plan for placement of rockfill berms to establishsufficient stability ofthe tailings dam. It was found that the volume of rockfill in the berms needed, varied during the years studied. Numerical modeling, as presented in this paper, is a useful tool for the dam owner to plan and design for future raisings of a tailings dam

  • Public defence: 2017-09-15 10:00 E1405 (Gjuterisalen), Jönköping
    Bjurenstedt, Anton
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    On the influence of imperfections on microstructure and properties of recycled Al-Si casting alloys2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are great energy savings to be made by recycling aluminium; as little as 5% of the energy needed for primary aluminium production may be required. Striving to produce high quality aluminium castings requires knowledge of microstructural imperfections, which is extra important when casting recycled aluminium that generally contains higher levels of imperfections compared to primary aluminium. Imperfections include amongst others Si, Fe, and Mn as well as oxides. Si is needed for castability, but it may also initiate fracture. There are different types of Fe-rich intermetallics influencing properties of castings, generally in a negative direction. Oxides constitute cracks and they are elusive because they are difficult to quantify.

    This thesis aims to increase knowledge about imperfections in recycled aluminium castings originating from alloying elements and the melt. Experiments were performed in advanced laboratory equipment, including X-radiographic imaging during solidification and in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope. Experiments were also performed at industrial foundry facilities.

    The experiments showed that the nucleation temperature of primary α-Fe intermetallics increased with higher Fe, Mn, and Cr contents. Primary α-Fe are strongly suggested to nucleate on oxides and to grow in four basic morphologies. Lower nucleation frequency of α-Fe promoted faster growth and hopper crystals while higher nucleation frequency promoted slower growth rates and massive crystals. Results also showed that a decrease in the size of the eutectic Si and plate-like β-Fe intermetallics improved tensile properties, foremost the elongation to fracture. In β-Fe containing alloys the transversely oriented intermetallics initiated macrocracks that are potential fracture initiation sites. In alloys with primary α-Fe foremost clusters of intermetallics promoted macrocracks. In fatigue testing, a transition from β-Fe to α-Fe shifted the initiation sites from oxides and pores to the α-Fe, resulting in a decrease of fatigue strength. Oxides in Al-Si alloys continue to be elusive; no correlations between efforts to quantify the oxides and tensile properties could be observed.

  • Eklund, Britt
    Institute for Language and Folklore.
    Dräktalmanacka: Boda socken, Dalarna2016Book (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 10:00 Föreläsningssal 5
    Borg, Farhana
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Caring for people and the planet: preschool children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children across the globe today are continuously being exposed to and affected by various kinds of real-world complexities and challenges; however, research on their knowledge and practices in terms of sustainability is limited, in particular with regards to how preschool- and home-related factors are associated with their learning for sustainability. Since 1998, different types of eco-certification have been awarded by the Swedish National Agency for Education and Keep Sweden Tidy Foundation to promote education for sustainability (EfS) in all areas of education and learning. Despite certificates having been granted in Sweden since 1998, no studies have been conducted at the national level to investigate whether eco-certification has any role to play in children’s learning for environmental and sustainability issues. This knowledge is important to develop pedagogical activities to engage young children meaningfully in learning for sustainability at preschool. This study was undertaken so as to address this research gap in a Swedish context.

    The overall aim of this study was to enhance the existing knowledge about preschool children’s learning for sustainability in Sweden. The objectives of this study have been to investigate and compare the knowledge and self-reported practices of sustainability among children attending eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools, respectively, and to explore the extent to which preschool- and home-related factors are associated with children’s knowledge and practices of sustainability. Further, this study explored children’s perceived sources of such knowledge. The term ‘knowledge’ in this text refers to the descriptions of children’s ideas and thoughts. Similarly, eco-certified preschool refers to a school that work explicitly with EfS.

    The study was designed from a "child’s perspective": this means that it was designed by adults to understand children’s perceptions and actions. Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory and Bruner’s (1961) iconic (image-based) modes of representation were applied in various stages of the study. A conceptual framework was developed within the three-interlocking-circles model of sustainability that illustrates how environmental, social and economic dimensions are interconnected. The concept of sustainability was operationalized in four themes: economic equality, resource sharing, recycling and transport use.

    With the use of illustrations and semi-structured questions, final-year preschool children (n=53), aged five to six years, and the directors (n=7) at six eco-certified and six non-eco-certified preschools were interviewed, while guardians (n=89) and teachers (n=74) filled out questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), respectively. The quality and complexity of children’s responses were assessed and classified using the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982).

    The results showed that by the time the children completed preschool, many had acquired some knowledge about how to use money, about the sorting of different recyclable items at home and at preschool, and about the impact of different modes of transport on the environment and people’s lives. They also had ideas about the lives of other children in the world and what it can mean to share resources with other people. There was a positive relationship between children’s declarative (understanding) and functional (practice) knowledge of sustainability issues and the involvement of teachers and guardians in sustainability-related discussions and activities. No statistically significant differences between eco-certified and non-eco-certified preschools in terms of children’s declarative and functional knowledge were found. Parents were reported to be the main sources of children’s knowledge along with the children themselves, teachers and media.

    The findings offer support for integrating environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainability into the daily pedagogical activities of preschools and for giving children opportunities to participate in discussions and practical activities that concern their lives. Further studies are needed to investigate the extent to which different educational activities contribute to developing children’s understanding and behavior when it comes to a sustainable society.

  • Nigrisoli Wärnhjelm, Vera
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Italian.
    Medical Minutes of the 17th Century2017In: Queen Christina of Sweden, the European: Contribution to Seminars 2014-2015 / [ed] Mats Liljefors, Kersti Schold Linnér, Stockholm: Royal Festivals AB , 2017, 89-96 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Participatory Constitution-Building in Nepal: A Comparison of the 2008-2012 and the 2013-2015 Process2017In: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, no 4, 29-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory constitution-building is a trend that appears to be here to stay; particularly when new constitutions are drafted in the aftermath of war or during transitions from authoritarian to democratic rule. Anticipations as to what the involvement of the public will achieve are several, and scholars are only recently starting to systematically investigate whether or not these expectations find empirical support. Previous research has shown that public participation in the making of the constitution can have certain positive effects at an individual level of analysis, but that the actions of political elites during constitutional negotiations might affect outcomes at a macro level of analysis more than what has hitherto be acknowledged in this strand of research. Nepal is one of the most recent cases of participatory constitution-building, and the country carried out not only one, but two, such processes within a time period of only seven years. The first resulted in failure as a draft constitution was never finalized; the other in success with the adoption of a constitution in 2015. This article takes an interest in exploring and comparing these two separate processes as regards the extent of public participation vis-à-vis political elite negotiations and bargaining behind closed doors. The article finds that what primarily sets the two processes apart, is how broad based public participation and secluded elite negotiations were sequenced. In light of other empirical examples, the article also discusses if elite bargains ought to be struck before the general public are invited to participate.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-13 09:00 B7 111:a, BMC, Uppsala
    Zhao, Jin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Sequence based identification of genetic variation associated with intellectual disability2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common neurodevelopmental condition, often caused by genetic defects. De novo variation (DNV) is an important cause of ID, especially in severe or syndromic forms of the disorder. Next generation sequencing has been a successful application for finding pathogenic variation in ID patients. The main focus of this thesis is to use whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify pathogenic variants in undiagnosed ID patients. In Paper I, WES was used in family trios to identify pathogenic DNVs in patients diagnosed with ID in combination with epilepsy. This work led to the identification of several DNVs in both new and known disease genes, including the first report of variation in the HECW2 gene in association with neurodevelopmental disorder and epilepsy. Paper II is the first independent validation of PIGG as a disease-causing gene in patients with developmental disorder. We used WES to identify the homozygous variation in PIGG, and transcriptome analysis as well as flow-cytometry studies were used to validate the pathogenicity of the PIGG variation. We discovered that PIGG variation give different effects in different cell types, contributing new insights into the disease mechanism. Paper III is also an application of WES in trio families with patients diagnosed with ID in order to identify causal variants, a strategy similar to that of Paper I. Several pathogenic variants were identified in this study; in particular, the gene NAA15 is highlighted as a new disease gene, and was recently confirmed in independent studies. This study also adds evidence to support that variation in the PUF60 gene is causing the symptoms in patients with Verheij syndrome. In Paper IV, WGS was used to analyze families with consanguineous marriages. All families in this study had been previously analyzed with WES without finding a disease cause. A number of new disease-causing variants were identified in the study, including a first validation of FRMD4A as a disease-associated gene. This study also shows that WGS performs better than WES in finding variants, even for variants in coding parts of the genome.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 16:04
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Personal Autonomy and Informed Consent: Conceptual and Normative Analyses2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is comprised of a “kappa” and two articles. The kappa includes an account of personal autonomy and informed consent, an explanation of how the concepts and articles relate to each other, and a summary in Swedish.

    Article 1 treats one problem with the argument that a patient’s consent to treatment is valid only if it is authentic, i.e., if it is “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. As interventions with a patient’s life and liberties must be justified, the argument presupposes that the authenticity of desires can be reliably determined. If the status of a desire in terms of authenticity cannot be reliably determined, discarding the desire-holder’s treatment decision on the basis that it is inauthentic is morally unjustified. In the article, I argue that no theory of authenticity that is present in the relevant literature can render reliably observable consequences. Therefore, the concept of authenticity, as it is understood in those theories, should not be part of informed consent practices.

    Article 2 discusses the problem of what it is to consent or refuse voluntarily. In it, I argue that voluntariness should be more narrowly understood than what is common. My main point is that a conceptualization of voluntariness should be agent-centered, i.e., take into account the agent’s view of her actions. Among other things, I argue that an action is non-voluntary only if the agent thinks of it as such when being coerced. This notion, which at first look may seem uncontroversial, entails the counterintuitive conclusion that an action can be voluntary although the agent has been manipulated or coerced into doing it. In defense of the notion, I argue that if the agent’s point of view is not considered accordingly, describing her actions as non-voluntary can be alien to how she leads her life. There are other moral concepts available to describe what is wrong with manipulation and coercion, i.e., to make sense of the counterintuitive conclusion. Voluntariness should be reserved to fewer cases than what is commonly assumed.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-04 11:38 E10:2309, Uppsala
    Steinhauf, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Importance of the Clr2 protein in heterochromatin formation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetics is an area of biology that studies heritable changes in gene ex- pression without any change in the DNA sequence. The most studied epige- netic mechanisms are DNA methylation, RNA interference and histone mod- ifications. There are over 130 different modifications that can be attached to histones, and the most commonly studied are methylation, acetylation, phos- phorylation, sumoylation and ubiquitination. The modifications, spread out through the genome, form the histone code, which recruits transcription fac- tors and modifies the accessibility of the DNA, which results in either active or silenced transcription. The silenced form of chromatin is known as heter- ochromatin and is usually found in regions of the chromosome that need to be highly regulated. To study epigenetics, the model organism Schizosac- charomyces pombe is used widely used. S. pombe is a single cell, rod shaped, fission yeast. The simplicity of S. pombe and its similarities to high- er eukaryotes makes it a good model organism for studying epigenetics. We find that, when mutating evolutionary conserved amino acids in the Clr2 protein, which is involved in heterochromatin formation in S. pombe, there is a change in silencing in different heterochromatic regions. When constructs of Clr2 with the BAH domain deleted are overexpressed, there is an increase in silencing in the central core centromere of chromosome II of S. pombe. 

  • Norström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Is unemployment in young adulthood related to self-rated health later in life?: Results from the Northern Swedish cohort2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many studies have reported that unemployment has a negative effect on health. However, little is known about the long-term effect for those who become unemployed when they are young adults. Our aim was to examine how unemployment is related to long-term self-rated health among 30 year olds, with an emphasis on how health differs in relation to education level, marital status, previous health, occupation, and gender. Methods: In the Northern Swedish Cohort, 1083 teenagers (similar to 16 years old) were originally invited in 1981. Of these, 1001 participated in the follow-up surveys in 1995 and 2007. In our study, we included participants with either self-reported unemployment or activity in the labor force during the previous three years in the 1995 follow-up so long as they had no self-reported unemployment between the follow-up surveys. Labor market status was studied in relation to self-reported health in the 2007 follow-up. Information from the 1995 follow-up for education level, marital status, self-reported health, and occupation were part of the statistical analyses. Analyses were stratified for these variables and for gender. Analyses were performed with logistic regression, G-computation, and a method based on propensity scores. Results: Poor self-rated health in 2007 was reported among 43 of the 98 (44%) unemployed and 159 (30%) of the 522 employed subjects. Unemployment had a long-term negative effect on health (odds ratio with logistic regression 1.74 and absolute difference estimates of 0.11 (G-computation) and 0.10 (propensity score method)). At the group level, the most pronounced effects on health were seen in those with upper secondary school as their highest education level, those who were single, low-level white-collar workers, and women. Conclusions: Even among those becoming unemployed during young adulthood, unemployment is related to a negative long-term health effect. However, the effect varies among different groups of individuals. Increased emphasis on understanding the groups for whom unemployment is most strongly related to ill health is important for future research so that efforts can be put towards those with the biggest need. Still, our results can be used as the basis for deciding which groups should be prioritized for labor-market interventions.

  • Riede, Felix
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ.
    Andersen, Per
    Aarhus Univ.
    Price, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Does environmental archaeology need an ethical promise?2017In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 48, no 4, 466-481 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental catastrophes represent profound challenges faced by societies today. Numerous scholars in the climate sciences and the humanities have argued for a greater ethical engagement with these pressing issues. At the same time, several disciplines concerned with hazards are moving towards formalized ethical codes or promises that not only guide the dissemination of data but oblige scientists to relate to fundamentally political issues. This article couples a survey of the recent environmental ethics literature with two case studies of how past natural hazards have affected vulnerable societies in Europe's prehistory. We ask whether cases of past calamities and their societal effects should play a greater role in public debates and whether archaeologists working with past environmental hazards should be more outspoken in their ethical considerations. We offer no firm answers, but suggest that archaeologists engage with debates in human-environment relations at this interface between politics, public affairs and science.

  • Nyberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Aune, Marie
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Awad, Raed
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Benskin, Jon
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Bergh, Arpi
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Bignert, Anders
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU.
    Egebäck, Anna-Lena
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Ek, Caroline
    Executive, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, NRM.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Kruså, Martin
    Executive, Universitet, Stockholms universitet, SU, Stockholms universitet, institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap, ITM.
    Näslund, Matilda
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Executive, Universitet, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborgs universitet, arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Monitoring of POPs in human milk from Stockholm and Gothenburg, 1972-20152017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental contaminants examined in this report can be classified into five groups –organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs and HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCDD), dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs (PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFASs). Each of these contaminants has been examined in human milk from Stockholm and Gothenburg. The following summary examines overall trends, both spatial and temporal, for the five groups and also individual differences in PFASs concentration between Stockholm and Gothenburg.

    Fat Content

    Human milk from Stockholm displayed an upward trend in fat content during the whole monitoring period, although a downward trend was observed during the most recent ten years. However, a change in analythical method in 2011 might have had an impact on the trend during the most recent ten years. Increasing fat content was indicated in human milk from Gothenburg (2007-2015). The fat content estimated from the smoothed line was slightly higher in the milk from Gothenburg than in the milk from Stockholm.

    PCBs

    Generally, a downward trend was observed for all congeners measured i.e. CB-180, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-118 in human milk from both Stockholm and Gothenburg, with the exception of CB-28 for which no trend was detected. The concentrations of the measured congeners were comparable between Stockholm and Gothenburg and there was no significant difference in PCB congener pattern between the two cities.

    DDTs, HCHs and HCB

    The concentrations of DDE, DDT and HCB in human milk from Stockholm decreased significantly during the whole monitoring period and so did DDE and DDT in the milk from Gothenburg during the most recent ten years. The concentrations of DDE/DDT and β-HCH estimated from the smoothed line were slightly higher in Stockholm than in Gothenburg whereas HCB was slightly higher in Gothenburg. There was no significant difference in the DDE, DDT, HCB and β-HCH pattern between Stockholm and Gothenburg.

    PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs

    The concentrations of ΣPCDDs, ΣPCDFs, Σdl-PCBs and ΣPCDDs+PCDFs+dl-PCBs in human milk from Stockholm and Gothenburg decreased significantly during the whole monitoring period. However during the most recent ten years no trends were observed for the Stockholm milk. The concentrations were comparable between Stockholm and Gothenburg and there was no significant difference in the pattern for ΣPCDDs, ΣPCDFs, Σdl-PCBs between Stockholm and Gothenburg.

    PBDEs and HBCDD

    The concentrations of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 in human milk from Gothenburg decreased significantly during 2007-2015 whereas no trends were observed in the milk from Stockholm. The concentrations estimated from the smoothed line were higher in Stockholm than in Gothenburg for all BFRs reported here (i.e. BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and HBCDD). There was no significant difference in the pattern for BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153 and HBCDD between Stockholm and Gothenburg. 11

    PFASs

    The concentrations of PFDA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFTriDA and PFUDA in human milk from Stockholm increased significantly during the whole monitoring period, whereas PFOA concentrations were decreasing. In the human milk samples from Gothenburg significant downward trends were detected for PFDoDA, PFHxS and PFOA and that was also the case for PFOS in Stockholm for the most recent ten years. The concentrations estimated from the smoothed line were in general higher in Stockholm than in Gothenburg, with the exception of FOSA, PFTeDA and PFTriDA. There was no significant difference in the pattern for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUDA and PFTriDA between Stockholm and Gothenburg.

  • Ruan, Changqing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lindh, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Favored Surface-limited Oxidation of Cellulose with Oxone® in Water2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, 40600-40607 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for favored primary alcohol oxidation of cellulose was developed. Cellulose pulp andCladophora nanocellulose were oxidized in a one-pot procedure by Oxone® (2KHSO5$KHSO4$K2SO4)and efficient reaction conditions were identified. The effects of the reaction on the morphology,viscosity and chemical structure of the products obtained were studied. The primary alcohol groupswere oxidized to carboxyl groups and the content of carboxyl groups was determined byconductometric titration. SEM, capillary-type viscometry and XRD were applied to characterize theproducts and to investigate the influence of oxidation. For the first time, low-cost and stable Oxone®was used as a single oxidant to oxidize cellulose into carboxyl cellulose. The oxidation is an inexpensiveand convenient process to produce carboxylic groups on the surface of the cellulose fibers and to makethe cellulose fibers charged. Particularly, this method can avoid the use of halogens and potentially toxicradicals and constitute a green route to access carboxylated cellulose. Further, sodium bromide could beused as a co-oxidant to the Oxone® and increase the carboxylic acid content by 10–20%. The Oxone®oxidation is a promising method for oxidation of cellulose and might facilitate the production of CNC.

  • Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Berg, Charlotte
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linneaus University.
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective2017In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  • Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Likvärdigt arbete och teorin om mellanbegrepp2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i många fall viktigt att skilja mellan deskriptiva begrepp som används för att uttrycka fakta och normativa begrepp som används för att formulera värderingar och normer. Men det gäller inte att alla begrepp antingen är enbart deskriptiva el. normativa. Istället kan många begrepp sägas vara både och, vilket innebär att de ”ligger mellan” de deskriptiva och de normativa. Dylika mellanbegrepp, också kallade kopplingstermer (på engelska intermediate concepts el. intermediaries), är vanligt förekommande i samband med många mänskliga aktiviteter, t.ex. vid utvärdering, beslutsfattande och regelstyrning. Det hävdas inte sällan att inom juridiken är huvuddelen av de intressanta begreppen mellanbegrepp och i Skandinavien fördes på 40- och 50-talen en djuplodande rättsfilosofisk diskussion om mellanbegreppens funktion vid utformningen av lagar och andra regelsystem. Inte minst diskuterades äganderättsbegreppet.

    I denna rapport presenteras en teori om mellanbegrepp. Enligt denna har mellanbegrepp två sidor, en grundsida som vetter mot det deskriptiva och en följdsida som vetter mot det normativa. Dessa begrepp har därför funktionen att koppla ihop deskriptivt med normativt och har karaktären av en sorts mellanstationer i begreppsbildningen. Som grund för framställningen ligger en logisk och formaliserad teoribildning, men syftet med rapporten är beskriva teorin utan att förutsätta speciella logisk-matematiska förkunskaper. Framställningen fokuserar därför på tillämpning inom ett speciellt problemområde, nämligen arbetsvärdering med fokus på begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' och därmed sammanhängande begrepp. Rapporten är således avsedd att vara en introducerande framställning av teorin om mellanbegrepp exemplifierad med problemområdet arbetsvärdering. Läsaren kan sedan tillämpa teorin på andra problemområden. Ett tema som berörs i rapporten med relevans för diskussionen om mellanbegrepp är det ofta missförstådda förhållandet mellan mätning och värdering.

    Om man förbiser att ett begrepp egentligen är ett mellanbegrepp så kan det leda till allvarliga begreppsliga och teoretiska oklarheter. När begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' missförstås i detta avseende leder det till missuppfattning av vad arbetsvärderingsmetoder egentligen är och hur de kan användas. Gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' föreligger inte bara en gängse uppfattning av likvärdigt arbete som är felaktig utan det tycks föreligga minst två vanliga uppfattningar av 'likvärdigt arbete' som är helt olika men båda felaktiga. Den ena uppfattningen skulle kunna kallas realism- el. deskriptivism-misstaget och den andra relativism- el. subjektivism-misstaget. Ett av syftena med denna rapport är att visa att vissa missförstånd gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' och många andra begrepp upplöses om man förstår dem som mellanbegrepp, dvs. begrepp som kopplar deskriptiva grunder till normativa följder.

  • Svidró, Judit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Tóth, L.
    University Of Miskolc, Department of Foundry Technology, Miskolc, Hungary.
    Svidró, József Tamás
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    The influence of thermal expansion of unbonded foundry sands on the deformation of resin bonded cores2017In: Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, ISSN 1733-3490, E-ISSN 2300-1909, Vol. 62, no 2, 795-798 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the preparation and the applied materials, moulds and cores can be of high rigidity or can be flexible. Although, chemically bonded moulding materials have relatively good flexibility, their high temperature behaviour determines the dimensional accuracy, the stresses in the castings and can induce several casting defects, such as rattail, veining, etc. The phenomenon is based on two major effects: the thermal expansion of the unbonded foundry sands and the deformation of the sand mixtures. The main objective of the present work was to study the relationship between these two effects, and to improve the knowledge related to the thermo-mechanical interactions between the casting and the mould. Dilatometric analysis of unbonded sand samples were performed and compared to the results of hot distortion tests of moulding mixture specimens. The results showed, that the thermal expansion of foundry sand largely influences the hot distortion behaviour, but depending on the type of binder used.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-13 09:00 A1:111 BMC, Uppsala
    Bauer, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Computational modelling of enzyme selectivity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enantioselective reactions are one of the ways to produce pure chiral compounds. Understanding the basis of this selectivity makes it possible to guide enzyme design towards more efficient catalysts. One approach to study enzymes involved in chiral chemistry is through the use of computational models that are able to simulate the chemical reaction taking place. The potato epoxide hydrolase is one enzyme that is known to be both highly enantioselective, while still being robust upon mutation of residues to change substrate scope. The enzyme was used to investigate the epoxide hydrolysis mechanism for a number of different substrates, using the EVB approach to the reaction both in solution and in several enzyme variants. In addition to this, work has been performed on new ways of performing simulations of divalent transition metals, as well as development of new simulation software.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-10 10:30 N320, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Presence through actions: theories, concepts, and implementations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During face-to-face meetings, humans use multimodal information, including verbal information, visual information, body language, facial expressions, and other non-verbal gestures. In contrast, during computer-mediated-communication (CMC), humans rely either on mono-modal information such as text-only, voice-only, or video-only or on bi-modal information by using audiovisual modalities such as video teleconferencing. Psychologically, the difference between the two lies in the level of the subjective experience of presence, where people perceive a reduced feeling of presence in the case of CMC. Despite the current advancements in CMC, it is still far from face-to-face communication, especially in terms of the experience of presence.

    This thesis aims to introduce new concepts, theories, and technologies for presence design where the core is actions for creating presence. Thus, the contribution of the thesis can be divided into a technical contribution and a knowledge contribution. Technically, this thesis details novel technologies for improving presence experience during mediated communication (video teleconferencing). The proposed technologies include action robots (including a telepresence mechatronic robot (TEBoT) and a face robot), embodied control techniques (head orientation modeling and virtual reality headset based collaboration), and face reconstruction/retrieval algorithms. The introduced technologies enable action possibilities and embodied interactions that improve the presence experience between the distantly located participants. The novel setups were put into real experimental scenarios, and the well-known social, spatial, and gaze related problems were analyzed.

    The developed technologies and the results of the experiments led to the knowledge contribution of this thesis. In terms of knowledge contribution, this thesis presents a more general theoretical conceptual framework for mediated communication technologies. This conceptual framework can guide telepresence researchers toward the development of appropriate technologies for mediated communication applications. Furthermore, this thesis also presents a novel strong concept – presence through actions - that brings in philosophical understandings for developing presence- related technologies. The strong concept - presence through actions is an intermediate-level knowledge that proposes a new way of creating and developing future 'presence artifacts'. Presence- through actions is an action-oriented phenomenological approach to presence that differs from traditional immersive presence approaches that are based (implicitly) on rationalist, internalist views.

  • Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Presentation av licentiatavhandlingen ”Etik och normkonflikter inom miljörättslig lagstiftning”2017In: The Philosophy Days in Uppsala / Filosofidagarna i Uppsala 25—27 August 2017: Book of abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Morén, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    Samhällsfrågor som didaktiskt begrepp i samhällskunskap på gymnasieskolan: En potential för undervisningen2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis examines and discusses the potential of the subject social studies by way of an analysis of the concept social issues. It comprises three articles which are based on three separate studies. The first was a discourse analysis on the concept of social issues in steering documents for social studies in upper secondary school from the 1960’s until the current curriculum. The second was a questionnaire in which 74 social studies teachers answered questions regarding their understanding and teaching of social studies, specifically in relation to the concept of social issues. The third study was based on interviews with seven teachers who had completed the questionnaire.

    The study allows for a shift in focus between structure and agency. Whereas the structure dominates the analysis in the first article the teachers, with agency, gradually move into the foreground in the other articles. With a social-constructionist perspective, phenomena like a school subject and teaching practice are seen as formed by both structure, such as discourse, and agents, in this case professional teachers.

    The text analysis shows that social issues as a didactical concept is shifting in its meaning and didactical function for the subject depending on the discourse. It is argued that social issues, in the current steering documents, are downplayed in relation to concepts like “core content” and “knowledge requirements”. The questionnaire that followed showed that teachers had an understanding of social issues that challenged the logic of the previous discourse analysis. They seemed to find it possible to combine “teaching with social issues as the point of departure” with the predefined content and knowledge requirements of the subject syllabus. Based on the results of the final interview study the third article argues that the subject social studies, when seen through the lens of social issues, is one that is open, strives beyond the limitations of  core content and calls for  authentic, sometimes controversial content.

    The conclusion of the licentiate thesis is that the concept of social issues carries the potential to create a subject that is meaningful for students and that challenges the risk of school becoming instrumental.

  • Morén, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    "Social Issues Open up Social Studies": Upper Secondary Teachers' Coneptions of, and Didactial Reflections upon the Subject.2017In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, 1-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and discusses conceptions of the Swedish school subject social studies in upper secondary school through an empirical study consisting of qualitative interviews with seven teachers of social studies. The curriculum declares that teaching social studies shall be done with “social issues as the point of departure”. The analysis focuses on the teachers’ didactical reflections on the subject specific concept of social issues in relation to their own teaching practice. Conclusions that are made are that the approach of teaching social studies with ‘social issues as the  point of departure’ leads to conceptions of social studies as being a subject that is open to the unexpected and that transcends its borders, and with its purpose seen as its content, or put differently: the ‘what’ defined through, or as, its ‘why’. It seems more relevant to discuss what the social issues, as a didactical concept, do to the subject rather than what they are. The very quest for a certain core in the subject is being challenged. A reflection on these results leads to a discussion on the potential intrinsic value of social issues in teaching social studies.  

  • Morén, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    Samhällsfrågor i samhällskunskaps­undervisningen2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 1, 95-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln är en del av ett licentiatprojekt om samhällsfrågor som didaktiskt utmaning. Utgångspunkten är begreppet samhällsfrågor, som förekommer i ämnesplanen för samhällskunskap i gymnasieskolan. Detta är den andra delstudien i projektet, som också innehåller en läroplansstudie och en kommande intervjustudie. Empirin för denna artikel utgörs av en enkät med 74 gymnasielärare i samhällskunskap där de fått redogöra för hur de uppfattar begreppet samhällsfrågor som det framträder i styrdokumenten, vilken innebörd det har för och i deras undervisning och hur det förhåller sig till andra centrala begrepp i ämnesplanen, företrädesvis centralt innehåll och förmågor (som ska bedömas enligt kunskapskraven). En grund för analysen hämtas från tidigare forskning och läroplansstudien av begreppet samhällsfrågor, där ett dubbelt spänningsfält gällande såväl undervisningens upplägg som syfte tecknas. Detta spänningsfält ses som utgångspunkten för en möjlig logik. Resultatet visar att det inte var lätt att positionera lärarna utifrån det konstaterade spänningsfältet. Den dominerande bilden från lärarenkäten uppvisar en alternativ logik. Enligt den framhäver man inte spänningen mellan en undervisning med utgångspunkt i frågor och en undervisning med utgångspunkt i ett förutbestämt innehåll. Man tonar också ner spänningen mellan ett syfte i form av utvecklandet av förmågor och ett syfte i form av förmedlandet av ett bestämt innehåll.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-19 10:00 Stora bion, Stockholms dramatiska högskola, Stockholm
    Claesson, Nils
    Stockholm University of the Arts, The Film and Media Department.
    Spökmaskinen: Sju förändringar och förflyttning – gestaltningsprocesser i animerad film2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ghost Machine is a practice-based research project that explores the process of embodiment in animated film. It describes the process of transfiguration from the artist’s/auteur’s point of view and not from an outside position. The dissertation follows the embodiment of a dramatic text, the Ghost Sonata by August Strindberg (1907), into an animated film. The starting point is my experience of the drama, at the age of thirteen, when staged by Ingmar Bergman at the Royal Dramatic Theatre. As a teenager, the world of the grown-ups seemed to be corrupt, twisted and ruled by violent power plays and economic sanctions, and this play confirmed my world view. Was I right, as a thirteen-year-old boy? What kind of world emerges in my version of the Ghost Sonata? In this thesis work, the films and the experimental research process meet the practice and art of writing. Using text, not as “theory” separated from “practice” but as a bodily art practice, creates a shifting border between the results and intentions of art and filmmaking, and the results of writing. At the same time a unity emerges where the results of the research process can be seen and experienced in the interaction between the texts and the artwork. The Ghost Machine is a totality where the text, films and artworks included in the project are equally important and must be seen as a unity. The Ghost Machine is a work journey where travelling, animated film practice, networking with colleagues and collecting data are mixed with experiments using methods from contemporary arts practice, performance, reenactment, appropriation and transfiguration, blended with traditional puppet animation in classic Czech style. In collaboration with actors, mime artists, puppet makers, musicians and a minimal film crew, century old stop-motion animation is combined with computer animation.  The textual part of the work falls into two categories: life stories and work stories. The work stories traces the forming of an artwork in all aspects. The life stories are related to the subject of ghosts. Suddenly, dead friends and dear family members claimed their space. The understanding of the Ghost Sonata came to be a process of sorting out and following lines of memory using an inverted version of the Orpheus myth as a guide. Instead of never turning around, when walking the dead out of oblivion, I chose to look back, again and again, until I hit something and could not write anymore.

  • Mattera, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    nIGISOL 2016: Measurement of n-induced fission yields of tin and antimony2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first run of neutron-induced fission yields measurement at IGISOL-4 was performed from Friday December 9th to Monday December 12th, 2016.

    After mass separation of the fission products with the dipole magnets, ions were implanted on a movable tape and identified using γ-spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out using a Canberra GC7020 70% coaxial p-type HPGe detector.

    In this report, some details of the detector calibration and of the analysis procedure will be described.

  • Almén, Edgar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Furenhed, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hartman, Sven G.
    Lärarhögskolan, Stockholm.
    Skogar, Björn
    Lärarutbildningen, Karlstad och Södertörn.
    Livstolkning och värdegrund: Att undervisa om religion, livsfrågor och etik2000Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans värdegrund har på senare år lyfts fram i många olika sammanhang. Uppgiften att undervisa om religion, etik, och livsfrågor har också debatterats. Detta undervisningsområde hör till skolans svåraste uppgifter - men kanske också till de viktigaste. Denna antologi ger ett bidrag till utvecklingen av ett professionellt lärarkunnande i frågor som gäller skolans värdegrund och undervisning på livsåskådningsområdet.

    Författarna ger utifrån sina respektive kompetensområden en belysning av några av ämnesområdets centrala aspekter.

    De texter som ingår har skrivits särskilt för lärarutbildningen men kan också användas i andra sammanhang. Avsikten har varit att via texterna föra de studerande i kontakt med såväl aktuell forskning som professionell lärarkunskap av annat slag.

  • Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Nilsson, Hans
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Schillings, Audrey
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 4, 869-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s(-1), respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0 : 5 x w10(25)s(-1), which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows (< 100 km s(-1)) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • Norris, Shane A.
    et al.
    Daar, Abdallah
    Balasubramanian, Dorairajan
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Stellenbosch Univ, Wallenberg Res Ctr, Stellenbosch Inst Adv Study STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
    Macnab, Andrew
    Pauw, Christoff
    Singhal, Atul
    Yajnik, Chittaranjan
    Akazili, James
    Levitt, Naomi
    Maatoug, Jihene
    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi
    Moore, Sophie E.
    Nyirenda, Moffat
    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.
    Rochat, Tamsen
    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Toska, Elona
    van Schalkwyk, Cari
    Understanding and acting on the developmental origins of health and disease in Africa would improve health across generations2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, 1334985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease. This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations. To increase DOHaD research and its application in Africa, we need to mobilise multisectoral partners, utilise existing data and expertise on the continent, and foster a new generation of young African scientists engrossed in DOHaD.

  • Lind, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Max Planck Inst Astron, Germany..
    Amarsi, A. M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Cotter Rd, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Cotter Rd, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Bautista, M.
    Western Michigan Univ, Dept Phys, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 USA..
    Bergemann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Collet, R.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Kiselman, D.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Astron, Inst Solar Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leenaarts, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Astron, Inst Solar Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pereira, T. M. D.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, POB 1029, N-0315 Oslo, Norway..
    Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - IV. Modelling of the solar centre-to-limb variation in 3D2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 4, 4311-4322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ability to model the shapes and strengths of iron lines in the solar spectrum is a critical test of the accuracy of the solar iron abundance, which sets the absolute zero-point of all stellar metallicities. We use an extensive 463-level Fe atom with new photoionization cross-sections for Fe I and quantum mechanical calculations of collisional excitation and charge transfer with neutral hydrogen; the latter effectively remove a free parameter that has hampered all previous line formation studies of Fe in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE). For the first time, we use realistic 3D NLTE calculations of Fe for a quantitative comparison to solar observations. We confront our theoretical line profiles with observations taken at different viewing angles across the solar disc with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We find that 3D modelling well reproduces the observed centre-to-limb behaviour of spectral lines overall, but highlight aspects that may require further work, especially cross-sections for inelastic collisions with electrons. Our inferred solar iron abundance is log(epsilon(Fe)) = 7.48 +/- 0.04 dex.

  • Whittle, Thomas A.
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Chem, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Brant, William R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Univ Sydney, Sch Chem, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Hester, James R.
    Australian Nucl Sci & Technol Org, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2253, Australia..
    Gu, Qinfen
    Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton, Vic 3168, Australia..
    Schmid, Siegbert
    Univ Sydney, Sch Chem, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Tailoring phase transition temperatures in perovskites via A-site vacancy generation2017In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 46, no 22, 7253-7260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structures across the Sr0.8Ti0.6-xZrxNb0.4O3, 0 <= x <= 0.6, defect perovskite series were investigated using complementary synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. The locations of second order compositional and temperature dependent phase transitions between the high symmetry cubic Pm (3) over barm phase and the lower symmetry tetragonal I4/mcm phase were determined. Deviation of the oxygen x coordinate from the high symmetry value and the B-O-B bond angle from 180 degrees as well as the tetragonal strain squared were each found to be suitable order parameters to monitor the transitions. Tolerance factor calculations confirmed that these A-site deficient perovskites retain a higher symmetry to a lower value than their fully occupied counterparts. Therefore, adjusting vacancy concentrations can be employed as a general strategy to design compounds with specifically tailored phase transition temperatures.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Maddocks, H. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Search for new phenomena in events containing a same-flavour opposite-sign dilepton pair, jets, and large missing transverse momentum in √s = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector2017In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 77, no 3, 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two searches for new phenomena in final states containing a same-flavour opposite-sign lepton (electron or muon) pair, jets, and large missing transverse momentum are presented. These searches make use of proton-proton collision data, collected during 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 13 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider, which correspond to an integrated luminosity of 14.7 fb(-1). Both searches target the pair production of supersymmetric particles, squarks or gluinos, which decay to final states containing a same-flavour opposite-sign lepton pair via one of two mechanisms: a leptonically decaying Z boson in the final state, leading to a peak in the dilepton invariant-mass distribution around the Z boson mass; and decays of neutralinos (e.g.. (chi) over tilde (0)(2) -> l(+)l(-1)(chi) over tilde (0)(1)), yielding a kinematic endpoint in the dilepton invariant-mass spectrum. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectation. Results are interpreted in simplified models of gluino-pair (squark-pair) production, and provide sensitivity to gluinos (squarks) with masses as large as 1.70 TeV (980 GeV).

  • Fredriksson, Mio
    et al.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tritter, Jonathan
    Who wants to be involved in health care decisions?: Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results: Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions: An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear related to judgements of the impact of involvement on health care decisions.

  • Koller-Smith, Louise I. M.
    et al.
    Shahr, Prakesh S.
    Ye, Xiang Y.
    Sjoers, Gunnar
    Wang, Yueping A.
    Chow, Sharon S. W.
    Darlow, Brian A.
    Lee, Shoo K.
    Håkansson, Stellan
    Umeå University.
    Lui, Kei
    Comparing very low birth weight versus very low gestation cohort methods for outcome analysis of high risk preterm infants2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compared to very low gestational age (<32 weeks, VLGA) cohorts, very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) cohorts are more prone to selection bias toward small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants, which may impact upon the validity of data for benchmarking purposes. Method: Data from all VLGA or VLBW infants admitted in the 3 Networks between 2008 and 2011 were used. Two-thirds of each network cohort was randomly selected to develop prediction models for mortality and composite adverse outcome (CAO: mortality or cerebral injuries, chronic lung disease, severe retinopathy or necrotizing enterocolitis) and the remaining for internal validation. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of themodels were compared. Results: VLBW cohort (24,335 infants) had twice more SGA infants (20.4% vs. 9.3%) than the VLGA cohort (29,180 infants) and had a higher rate of CAO (36.5% vs. 32.6%). The two models had equal prediction power for mortality and CAO (AUC 0.83), and similarly for all other cross-cohort validations (AUC 0.81-0.85). Neither model performed well for the extremes of birth weight for gestation (<1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.50-0.65; >= 1500 g and >= 32 weeks, AUC 0.60-0.62). Conclusion: There was no difference in prediction power for adverse outcome between cohorting VLGA or VLBW despite substantial bias in SGA population. Either cohorting practises are suitable for international benchmarking.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-15 10:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-29 10:00 Östersund
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Imagining Tourist Spaces as Living Spaces: Towards a Relational Approach to Alternatives and Morals in Tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many actors are taking advantage of the flexible barriers to entry of the tourist industry to engage in the production of varied forms of tourism closely related to their lifestyle, professional and communal ambitions. With the increased popularity of forms of tourism bringing the guest close to the host, it becomes relevant to ask questions related to lived experiences and close encounters in tourism scholarship. This is a moral conviction that the plurality of human experiences and critical reflexivity matter in the conception of tourist spaces and their management. In this thesis, I look for new ways to conceptually embed local people in their living spaces by approaching forms of tourism displaying non-economic elements as phenomena that create new and complex relations imbued with various implications. Tourism geography highlights the negotiated and fragmented nature of tourism, and its performative and embodied character. I apply relational geography to apprehend the multiple relations that make up local spaces and identities. With its post-structural character, relational geography uncovers voices once neglected in research, and proposes new ways of being in the world. My two qualitative case studies reflect my interest in exploring the northern European context. Firstly, I investigate craft-artists on Bornholm, Denmark and their relation to the tourist season. I do this through interviews and narrative analysis. My second case study, a focused ethnography at Sólheimar eco-village, Iceland, centres on the management of host and guest interactions.  In terms of spatial formation, results show that local actors have the agency to form networks and redefine their identities in the wake of tourism development. They form a hybrid space by fulfilling goals related to their lifestyle, livelihood and professional ambitions simultaneously. Moreover, mundane practices are presented as an integral part of a tourist landscape. In terms of management, results show that the various spatial complexities faced by communities exacerbate host and guest relations. This will require a commitment from local coordinators and managers to promote a reflexive and critical exchange during these close encounters. I ultimately argue for the imagination of tourist spaces as living spaces, where I conceptualize tourism as a mundane, yet complex, material and social experience for those living in tourist spaces. I propose two new discursive anchors that reflect the metaphor of the living space: dwelling in the tourist landscape, and sincere encounters. I contend that researching living spaces finds its moral grounds in its openness to the various ways local people dwell and encounter during tourism, and to the diverse ways researchers make sense of these practices, and of their own.

  • Elgh, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    André, Samuel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Johansson, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Stolt, Roland
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Design Platform: A Coherent Model for Management and Use of Mixed Design Assets2017In: Transdisciplinary Engineering: A Paradigm Shift: Proceedings of the 24th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering / [ed] Chen, C.-H., Trappey, A.C., Peruzzini, M., Stjepandić, J., Wognum, N., IOS Press, 2017, no 3-4, 703-712 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many companies, it is a challenge to balance product variety and cost, i.e. external and internal efficiency. Product platforms has been the dominant solution for a business targeting mass-customization. The main idea is to dived the product into modules that can be shared among different product variants. This has been a success on the consumer market, however, many manufacturing companies are engineer-to-order (ETO) oriented, such as original equipment suppliers (OES). They design a unique solution, often in close collaboration with other companies, based on different product concepts and/or core technologies. For these companies, there is a strategic need for a platform model influenced by the principles of masscustomization, although, not limited to only include modules. In this work, a novel platform model, called Design Platform is described. The model has been developed and applied in cooperation with four companies. The Design Platform provides a coherent environment for management of heterogeneous design assets to be used in product development and supports an improved ability to master fluctuating requirements and systematic introduction of new technologies.

  • Nordström, B.
    et al.
    SCA R&D Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Effect of fiber length on formation and strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 1, 119-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A change in fiber length is known to change fiber flocculation and formation of machine-made paper, but it has been unclear how a change in formation through fiber length affects strength efficiency. (The strength efficiency reflects how well the furnish strength, as indicated by the handsheet strength, is utilized in the machine-made paper.) The effect of fiber length on strength efficiency in twin-wire roll forming was presently investigated by examining two furnishes with different average fiber length, prepared from the same batch of softwood kraft pulp, over a wide range of headbox consistencies on a pilot machine. An increase in fiber length resulted not only in worse Ambertec formation over the whole range of headbox consistencies but also in faster relative deterioration of the formation with increasing consistency. Tensile strength efficiency and Z-strength efficiency were both reduced when the formation was impaired through increased fiber length, and the effect was similar to the effect of a corresponding change in formation through headbox consistency. A given change in formation, through fiber length or headbox consistency, had a larger relative effect on Z-strength efficiency than on tensile strength efficiency.

  • Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norstedt, Anna
    Linköping University.
    New ways and actors when diplomacy goes digital: The e-Diplomacy Campaign “Midwives4All2017In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2017, Waikoloa: University of Hawaii , 2017, 2438-2447 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on Midwives4All, an e-diplomacy campaign launched by the Swedish MFA in 2015. The campaign aims to spread knowledge about the benefits of midwives and evidence-based midwifery. Within the campaign, the Swedish MFA, and in particular its Communications Department (UD-KOM), combines e-diplomacy and networking and the campaign has become one key activity within the Swedish feminist foreign policy. It is organizing diplomacy in new ways that regards both choices of channels and the networking with inter- and nongovernmental organizations. The limited impacts of the campaign are seen as consequences of the peripheral status of the issue and the lack of systematic structures for e-diplomacy so far. In spite of this the case indicates that e-diplomacy has the potential to raise and empower both new actor groups and new issues on the diplomatic agenda.

  • Euler, Marianna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Euler, Norbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Théorie et Problémes Résolus d'Algèbre Linéaire: Volume 1: Espaces Euclidiens2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Ce livre est le premier d'une série de trois ouvrages intitulés Théorie et Problèmes Résolus d'algèbre linéaire. Cette première partie contient plus de 100 problèmes résolus et plus de 100 exercices sur les vecteurs en espaces euclidiens, les matrices, les systèmes linéaires ainsi que les applications linéaires entre espaces euclidiens. Le but de cette série est de fournir aux étudiants de filières scientifiques et techniques un ensemble structuré de problèmes soigneusement choisis ainsi qu'une opportunité d'approfondir leurs connaissances acquises en cours d'algèbre linéaire.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 09:00 Sal IX, Gamla universitetshuset, Uppsala
    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Acceptance for persons suffering from pain: Evaluation of acceptance-based interventions for adults with chronic pain and children with cancer experiencing acute pain2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is increasingly clear that pain and emotions are closely interconnected. Pain does not only cause psychological distress, but psychological distress also amplifies pain through neurological mechanisms. Treatment of both chronic and acute pain would benefit from acknowledging the psychological mechanisms of pain neurophysiology. Psychological acceptance predicts increased pain tolerance and decreased pain intensity and discomfort in experimentally induced pain and improved physical and psychosocial functioning for persons with chronic pain.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate acceptance-based interventions for persons suffering from pain.

    In Study I the effect of a manualised ACT-based self-help intervention for adults with chronic pain was evaluated in an RCT (n=90). The results showed improvements in satisfaction with life, physical functioning and pain intensity for the ACT group. Both the ACT and the control group improved regarding depression and anxiety. In Study II the mediating effect of acceptance for treatment change was evaluated, using data from Study I (n=64). The results showed indirect effects of treatment via acceptance for physical functioning but not for satisfaction with life. In Studies III and IV, instruments to measure psychological flexibility in relation to pain were developed for children with cancer, and their parents respectively, using factor analysis. The results showed that a two-factor solution for the child scale (n=61) and a three-factor solution for the parent scale (n=243), best represented the data. In Study V, an acceptance-based intervention was preliminarily evaluated in a single-subject study (n=5) for children reporting pain during cancer treatment. The intervention consisted of an approximately 15-minute long pain exposure exercise. All participants reported reduced discomfort of pain, and three of the participants reported reduced pain intensity.

    The results suggest that a manualised ACT-based self-help intervention is a valuable addition to the treatment repertoire for persons with chronic pain and that acceptance may mediate the effect of treatment on physical functioning. Furthermore, instruments to measure acceptance in the context of acute pain in children with cancer are now available, although further validation is needed. Lastly, the results indicate that an acceptance-based intervention may help children undergoing cancer treatment to cope with pain.