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  • Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Förares användning av kommunikationsutrustning under färd: Del 1: Enkätstudie. Del 2: Användning enligt objektiv mätning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av resultaten från denna enkät är något av det mest tydliga att saker som funnits i en bil en längre tid, exempelvis att ställa in radio, använda navigationsutrustning och prata i telefon, görs i betydligt högre utsträckning än nyare saker som att skicka meddelanden, surfa på internet eller spela spel. Överlag tycks det vara låg acceptans för de nyare företeelserna och en stor andel av urvalet tycker att det är felaktigt eller olämpligt att hålla på med dessa aktiviteter. Att prata i telefon med handsfree tycks uppfattas av många som säkrare och mer lämpligt än att inte använda det. Detta avspeglas även i inställning till införandet av förbud, där en relativt stor andel accepterar att det ska vara lagligt att använda handsfreefunktioner men att annan användning av kommunikationsutrustning borde förbjudas.

    I den andra delen genomfördes en mätning av mobilanvändning under färd genom installerande tav en mobilapp. Den genomförda undersökningen är den första av sitt slag åtminstone i Sverige, så att den, trots vissa brister och begränsningar, kan leverera information som hittills har varit okänt. I detta del diskuteras resultaten, även i förhållande till enkätsvaren, följt av en reflektion över metoden och möjliga förbättringar, som är önskvärda inför en fortsättningsstudie.

  • Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Urbino, Physiol Sect, Dept Biomol Sci, Urbino, Italy.;Grp Bohio Estudio, Observ Cubano Neurociencias, Yaguajay, Cuba..
    Carlsson, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Ambrogini, Patricia
    Univ Urbino, Physiol Sect, Dept Biomol Sci, Urbino, Italy..
    Narvaez, Manuel
    Univ Malaga, Inst Invest Biomed Malaga, Fac Med, Malaga, Spain..
    Wydra, Karolina
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Pharmacol, Dept Pharmacol, Labo Drug Addict Pharmacol, Krakow, Poland..
    Tarakanov, Alexander O.
    Russian Acad Sci, St Petersburg Inst Informat & Automat, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Li, Xiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Millon, Carmelo
    Univ Malaga, Inst Invest Biomed Malaga, Fac Med, Malaga, Spain..
    Ferraro, Luca
    Univ Ferrara, Dept Life Sci & Biotechnol, Ferrara, Italy..
    Cuppini, Riccardo
    Univ Urbino, Physiol Sect, Dept Biomol Sci, Urbino, Italy..
    Tanganelli, Sergio
    Univ Ferrara, Dept Med Sci, Ferrara, Italy..
    Liu, Fang
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Campbell Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Filip, Malgorzata
    Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland.
    Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida
    Univ Malaga, Inst Invest Biomed Malaga, Fac Med, Malaga, Spain..
    Fuxe, Kjell
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Understanding the Role of GPCR Heteroreceptor Complexes in Modulating the Brain Networks in Health and Disease2017In: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5102, E-ISSN 1662-5102, Vol. 11, 37Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins. The observation of the GPCR heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) indicated that the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions dramatically increase GPCR diversity and biased recognition and signaling leading to enhanced specificity in signaling. Dysfunction of the GPCR heteroreceptor complexes can lead to brain disease. The findings of serotonin (5-HT) hetero and isoreceptor complexes in the brain over the last decade give new targets for drug development in major depression. Neuromodulation of neuronal networks in depression via 5-HT, galanin peptides and zinc involve a number of GPCR heteroreceptor complexes in the raphe-hippocampal system: GalR1-5-HT1A, GalR1-5-HT1A-GPR39, GalR1-GalR2, and putative GalR1-GalR2-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes. The 5-HT1A receptor protomer remains a receptor enhancing antidepressant actions through its participation in hetero- and homoreceptor complexes listed above in balance with each other. In depression, neuromodulation of neuronal networks in the raphe-hippocampal system and the cortical regions via 5-HT and fibroblast growth factor 2 involves either FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes or the 5-HT isoreceptor complexes such as 5-HT1A-5-HT7 and 5-HT1A-5-HT2A. Neuromodulation of neuronal networks in cocaine use disorder via dopamine (DA) and adenosine signals involve A2AR-D2R and A2AR-D2R-Sigma1R heteroreceptor complexes in the dorsal and ventral striatum. The excitatory modulation by A2AR agonists of the ventral striato-pallidal GABA anti-reward system via targeting the A2AR-D2R and A2AR-D2R-Sigma1R heteroreceptor complex holds high promise as a new way to treat cocaine use disorders. Neuromodulation of neuronal networks in schizophrenia via DA, adenosine, glutamate, 5-HT and neurotensin peptides and oxytocin, involving A2AR-D2R, D2R-NMDAR, A2AR-D2R-mGluR5, D2R-5-HT2A and D2R-oxytocinR heteroreceptor complexes opens up a new world of D2R protomer targets in the listed heterocomplexes for treatment of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  • Funda, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, UPSCSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wennström, Ulfstand
    Almqvist, Curt
    Andersson Gull, Bengt
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mating dynamics of Scots pine in isolation tents2016In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 12, no 6, 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed orchards are forest tree production populations for supplying the forest industry with consistent and abundant seed crops of superior genetic quality. However, genetic quality can be severely affected by non-random mating among parents and the occurrence of background pollination. This study analyzed mating structure and background pollination in six large isolation tents established in a clonal Scots pine seed orchard in northern Sweden. The isolation tents were intended to form a physical barrier against background pollen and induce earlier flowering relative to the surrounding trees. We scored flowering phenology inside and outside the tents and tracked airborne pollen density inside and outside the seed orchard in three consecutive pollination seasons. We genotyped 5683 offspring collected from the tents and open controls using nine microsatellite loci, and assigned paternity using simple exclusion method. We found that tent trees shed pollen and exhibited maximum female receptivity approximately 1 week earlier than trees in open control. The majority of matings in tents (78.3 %) occurred at distances within two trees apart (about 5 m). Self-fertilization was relatively high (average 21.8 %) in tents without supplemental pollination (SP), but it was substantially reduced in tents with SP (average 7.7 %). Pollen contamination was low in open controls (4.8-7.1 %), and all tents remained entirely free of foreign pollen. Our study demonstrates that tent isolation is effective in blocking pollen immigration and in manipulating flowering phenology. When complimented with supplemental pollination, it could become a useful seed orchard management practice to optimize the gain and diversity of seed orchard crops.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:00 FA31, Stockholm
    Shabbir, Saroosh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Majorana Representation in Quantum Optics: SU(2) Interferometry and Uncertainty Relations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The algebra of SU(2) is ubiquitous in physics, applicable both to the atomic spin states and the polarisation states of light. The method developed by Majorana and Schwinger to represent pure, symmetric spin-states of arbitrary value as a product of spin-1/2 states is a powerful tool that allows for a great conceptual and practical simplification. Foremost, it allows the representation of a qudit on the same geometry as a qubit, i.e., the Bloch sphere.

    An experimental implementation of the Majorana representation in the realm of quantum optics is presented. The technique allows the projection of arbitrary quantum states from a coherent state input. It is also shown that the method can be used to synthesise arbitrary interference patterns with unit visibility, and without resorting to quantum resources. In this context, it is argued that neither the shape nor the visibility of the interference pattern is a good measure of quantumness. It is only the measurement scheme that allows for the perceived quantum behaviour.

    The Majorana representation also proves useful in delineating uncertainty limits of states with a particular spin value. Issues with traditional uncertainty relations involving the SU(2) operators, such as trivial bounds for certain states and non-invariance, are thereby resolved with the presented pictorial solution.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-02 09:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Tracking Emissions Reductions and Energy Efficiency in the Steel Industry2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry has become increasingly globalised. Market conditions are also changing and de-carbonisation of production is challenging.

    The objective of this thesis is to assess how energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions can be promoted and effectively monitored in the steel industry. The thesis contributes with analyses based on the Malmquist Productivity Index for a top-down analysis of the energy efficiency of EU Member States’ iron and steel production, and Partial Least Squares regression for bottom-up assessments of different monitoring tools. The thesis also contributes with a scrap availability assessment module to enhance the energy system model ETSAP-TIAM.

    The first phase of the research showed that future production needs to shift towards innovative low-CO2 technologies even when all available recycled material is fully used. Techniques using carbon capture and storage (CCS) as well as hydrogen-based technologies can be expected to become economically viable under tightened climate policies.

    The second phase of the research showed that current indicators are insufficient. System boundaries of energy use and emissions data do not align with production statistics. Indicators based on energy use or emissions in relation to production in physical terms may be useful to track specific processes. However, current indicators fail to reflect the companies’ product mix. Enhanced energy and climate indicators that adjust for the product mix provide better estimates while failing to reflect the increasing globalisation.

    Effective monitoring of industrial transformation will be increasingly important as pressure from climate policy via global CO2-pricing is unlikely in the short term. Current or enhanced indicators do not fully capture industrial transformation and are not recommended. Future research should focus on defining indicators to estimate energy use and emissions along industrial value chains in climate policy contexts.

  • Olsson, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    GeoGebra, Enhancing Creative Mathematical Reasoning2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of four articles and this summarizing part. All parts have focused on bringing some insights into how to design a didactical situation including dynamic software (GeoGebra) to support students’ mathematical problem solving and creative reasoning as means for learning. The four included articles are:

    I. Granberg, C., & Olsson, J. (2015). ICT-supported problem solving and collaborative creative reasoning: Exploring linear functions using dynamic mathematics software. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 37, 48-62.

    II. Olsson, J. (2017). The Contribution of Reasoning to the Utilization of Feedback from Software When Solving Mathematical Problems. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1-21.

    III. Olsson, J. Relations between task design and students’ utilization of GeoGebra. Mathematical Thinking and Learning. (Under review)

    IV. Olsson, J., & Granberg, C. Dynamic software, problem solving with or without guidelines, and learning outcome. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. (Under review)

    Background

    A common way of teaching mathematics is to provide students with solution methods, for example strategies and algorithms that, if followed correctly, will solve specific tasks. However, questions have been raised whether these teaching methods will support students to develop general mathematical competencies, such as problem solving skills, ability to reason and acquire mathematical knowledge. To merely follow provided methods students might develop strategies of memorizing procedures usable to solve specific tasks rather than drawing general conclusions. If students instead of being provided with algorithms, are given the responsibility to construct solution methods, they may produce arguments for why the method will solve the task. There is research suggesting that if those arguments are based on mathematics they are more likely to develop problem solving and reasoning-skill, and learn the included mathematics better. In such didactic situations, where students construct solutions, it is important that students have instructions and tasks that frame the activity and clarify goals without revealing solution methods. Furthermore, the environment must be responsive. That is, students need to receive responses on their actions. If students have an idea on how to solve (parts of) the given problem they need to test their method and receive feedback to verify or falsify ideas and/or hypotheses. Such activities could be supported by dynamic software. Dynamic software such as GeoGebra provides features that support students to quickly and easily create mathematical objects that GeoGebra will display as visual representations like algebraic expressions and corresponding graphs. These representations are dynamically linked, if anything is changed in one representation the other representations will be altered accordingly, circumstances that could be used to explore and investigate different aspects and relations of these objects. The first three studies included in the thesis investigate in what way GeoGebra supports creative reasoning and collaboration. These studies focus questions about how students apply feedback from GeoGebra to support their reasoning and how students utilize the potentials of GeoGebra to construct solutions during problem solving. The fourth study examine students’ learning outcome from solving tasks by constructing their methods.

    Methods

    A didactical situation was designed to engage students in problem solving and reasoning supported by GeoGebra. That is, the given problems were not accompanied with any guidelines how to solve the task and the students were supposed to construct their own methods supported by GeoGebra. The students were working in pairs and their activities and dialogues were recorded and used as data to analyse their engagement in reasoning and problem solving together with their use of GeoGebra. This design was used in all four studies. A second didactical situation, differing only with respect of providing students with guidelines how to solve the task was designed. These didactical situations were used to compare students’ use of GeoGebra, their engagement in problem solving and reasoning (study III) and students’ learning outcome (study IV) whether the students solved the task with or without guidelines. In the fourth study a quantitative method was applied. The data from study IV consisted of students’ results during training (whether they managed to solve the task or not), their results on the post-test, and their grades. Statistical analysis where applied.

    Results

    The results of the first three studies show qualitative aspects of students solving of task with assistance of GeoGebra. GeoGebra was shown to support collaboration, creative mathematical reasoning, and problem solving by providing students with a shared working space and feedback on their actions. Students used GeoGebra to test their ideas by formulating and submitting input according to their questions and hypotheses. GeoGebra’ s output was then used as feedback to answer questions and verify/falsify hypotheses. These interactions with GeoGebra were used to move the constructing of solutions forward. However, the way students engage in problem solving and reasoning, and using GeoGebra to do so, is dependent on whether they were provided with guidelines or not. Study III and IV showed that merely the students who solved unguided tasks utilized the potential of GeoGebra to explore and investigate the given task. Furthermore, the unguided students engaged to a larger extent in problem solving and creative reasoning and they expressed a greater understanding of their solutions. Finally study IV showed that the students who managed to solve the unguided task outperformed, on posttest the students who successfully solved the guided task.

    Conclusions

    The aim of this thesis was to bring some insights into how to design a didactical situation, including dynamic software (GeoGebra), to support students' mathematical problem solving and creative reasoning as means for learning. Taking the results of the four studies included in this thesis as a starting point, one conclusion is that a didactical design that engage students to construct solutions by creative reasoning supported by GeoGebra may enhance their learning of mathematics. Furthermore, the mere presence of GeoGebra will not ensure that students will utilize its potential for exploration and analysis of mathematical concepts and relations during problem solving. The design of the given tasks will affect if this will happen or not. The instructions of the task should include clear goals and frames for the activity, but no guidelines for how to construct the solution. It was also found that when students reasoning included predictive argumentation for the outcomes of operations carried out by the software, they could better utilize the potential of GeoGebra than if they just, for example, submitted an algebraic representation of a linear function and then focused on interpreting the graphical output.

  • Persson, Marie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena
    Medical Management Centre (MMC), SWE.
    Unbeck, Maria
    Danderyds sjukhus, SWE.
    Sköldenberg, Olof Gustaf
    Danderyds sjukhus, SWE.
    Stark, Andreas
    Danderyds sjukhus, SWE.
    Kelly-Pettersson, Paula
    Danderyds sjukhus, SWE.
    Mazzocato, Pamela
    Medical Management Centre (MMC), SWE.
    Operational strategies to manage non-elective orthopaedic surgical flows: A simulation modelling study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 4, e013303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To explore the value of simulation modelling in evaluating the effects of strategies to plan and schedule operating room (OR) resources aimed at reducing time to surgery for non-elective orthopaedic inpatients at a Swedish hospital. Methods We applied discrete-event simulation modelling. The model was populated with real world data from a university hospital with a strong focus on reducing waiting time to surgery for patients with hip fracture. The system modelled concerned two patient groups that share the same OR resources: hip-fracture and other non-elective orthopaedic patients in need of surgical treatment. We simulated three scenarios based on the literature and interaction with staff and managers: (1) baseline; (2) reduced turnover time between surgeries by 20â €..min and (3) one extra OR during the day, Monday to Friday. The outcome variables were waiting time to surgery and the percentage of patients who waited longer than 24â €..hours for surgery. Results The mean waiting time in hours was significantly reduced from 16.2â €..hours in scenario 1 (baseline) to 13.3â €..hours in scenario 2 and 13.6â €..hours in scenario 3 for hip-fracture surgery and from 26.0â €..hours in baseline to 18.9â €..hours in scenario 2 and 18.5â €..hours in scenario 3 for other non-elective patients. The percentage of patients who were treated within 24â €..hours significantly increased from 86.4% (baseline) to 96.1% (scenario 2) and 95.1% (scenario 3) for hip-fracture patients and from 60.2% (baseline) to 79.8% (scenario 2) and 79.8% (scenario 3) for patients with other non-elective patients. Conclusions Healthcare managers who strive to improve the timelines of non-elective orthopaedic surgeries may benefit from using simulation modelling to analyse different strategies to support their decisions. In this specific case, the simulation results showed that the reduction of surgery turnover times could yield the same results as an extra OR. © 2017 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-22 09:00 Frödingsalen, Uppsala
    Fu, Xi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Self-rated health and respiratory symptoms among civil aviation pilots: Occupational and non-occupational risk factors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern about the indoor environment in aircraft but few stud-ies exist on self-rated health (SRH) and respiratory symptoms among pilots. Occupational and non-occupational risk factors for SRH, respira-tory symptoms and other symptoms among commercial pilots were investigated in this thesis. One cohort study and one prevalence study were performed among pilots in one Scandinavian airline company. Fungal DNA, furry pet allergens and volatile organic compounds of microbial origin (MVOC) were measured on board. Cat (fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse (Ecu cx) allergens were found in all dust samples and allergen levels were 27-75 times higher in aircraft with textile seats as compared to leather surfaces. The sum of MVOCs in the cabin air was 3.7 times higher than in homes in Uppsala and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher. Asper-gillus/Penicillium DNA and Aspergillus versicolor DNA were more common in aircraft with textile seats. One fifth reported SRH as poor or fair, 62% had fatigue, 46% overweight/obesity and 71% insomnia. Poor or fair SRH was associated with overweight/obesity, lack of exercise, insomnia, low sense of coherence (SOC) and high work demand. Re-covery from work was worse among those with insomnia and low social support at work. Fatigue was more common among young or female pilots and related to insomnia and high work demand. Pilots flying MD80 or Saab 2000 aircraft had less fatigue. Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco (ETS) on board had more eye symptoms and fatigue which were reduced after the ban of smoking (in 1997). Pilots with increased work demand developed more rhinitis, dermal symptoms and fartigue and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. The incidence of doctors’ diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight got more airway infections. Those reporting decreased work control had a higher incidence of atopy. Risk factors in the home environment included ETS, dampness or mould, window pane condensation in winter and living in houses built after 1975. In conclusion, SRH and respiratory health among pilots are associated with specific occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  • Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Behov av statistik om godstågens tillförlitlighet: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the official statistics on rail traffic in Sweden only comprise passenger trains. The reliability of freight trains should also be included in the statistics. This leads to questions on which information should be included and how it should be described. This pre-study is a knowledge base of the necessary development of the official statistics in Sweden, and is centered on the users’ current and potential needs of statistics on freight train reliability.

    In this context, reliability is the ability of a transport system to follow the timetable, upon which users have organized their activities. A traffic disturbance, such as delays or cancelled trains, creates unreliability in the transport system, which should be characterized in more ways than the frequency of the disturbances in order to meet different users’ needs of statistics. To produce the necessary statistics, one must answer the following questions. Which units and variables should be included? Which domains should be included? Which statistical measures should be presented?

    This study shows that the relevant units are vehicles and traffic disturbances. The necessary variables are scheduled, arrived and cancelled vehicles, as well as vehicles that are adjustments/late changes of the timetable. Variables on timetable deviations for vehicles running on the network are also necessary. In this aspect, there are differences between passenger and freight trains as the latter group relatively often depart or arrive ahead of schedule, which is also important to capture with statistics.

  • Public defence: 2017-06-02 10:00 Sal B2, Stockholm
    Delandar, Arash Hosseinzadeh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Modeling defect structure evolution in spent nuclear fuel container materials2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials intended for disposal of spent nuclear fuel require a particular combination of physical and chemical properties. The driving forces and mechanisms underlying the material’s behavior must be scientifically understood in order to enable modeling at the relevant time- and length-scales. The processes that determine the mechanical behavior of copper canisters and iron inserts, as well as the evolution of their mechanical properties, are strongly dependent on the properties of various defects in the bulk copper and iron alloys.

    The first part of the present thesis deals with precipitation in the cast iron insert. A nodular cast iron insert will be used as the inner container of the spent nuclear fuel. Precipitation is investigated by computing effective interaction energies for point defect pairs (solute–solute and vacancy–solute) in bcc iron using first-principles calculations. The main considered impurities in the iron matrix include 3sp (Si, P, S) and 3d (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu) solute elements. By computing interaction energies possibility of formation of different second phase particles such as late blooming phases (LBPs) in the cast iron insert is evaluated.

    The second part is devoted to the fundamentals of dislocations and their role in plastic deformation of metals. Deformation of single-crystal copper under high strain rates is simulated by employing dislocation dynamics (DD) method to examine the effect of strain rate on mechanical properties as well as dislocation microstructure development.

    Creep deformation of copper canister at low temperatures is studied. The copper canister will be used in the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel as the outer shell of the waste package to provide corrosion protection. A glide rate is derived based on the assumption that at low temperatures it is controlled by the climb rate of jogs on the dislocations. Using DD simulation creep deformation of copper at low temperatures is modeled by taking glide but not climb into account. Moreover, effective stresses acting on dislocations are computed using the data extracted from DD simulations.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-22 13:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Vural, Derya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Disclosing the Books: Evidence on Swedish publicly listed firms' accounting disclosure practices2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosure of accounting information is crucial in facilitating efficient contracts in the publicly listed firm and in reducing information asymmetries in capital markets. A well-known perception in disclosure literature is that, as the separation between managers and owners increases, so does the demand for publicly available disclosure. Many publicly listed firms around the world are controlled by a few large owners that obtain information through their insider positions in the firm. Thus, variations in ownership structures have a considerable effect on how firms’ disclosure practices are resolved. Despite the increased attention paid to the identity of controlling owners and their influence on financial reporting practices, little is known about how owner types and governance mechanisms influence corporate disclosures and capital-market effects. This thesis contributes to the disclosure literature by studying a context in which controlling owners have a large influence on the governance and disclosure practices of firms. This contrasts with the much-studied setting in which management influences the governance and reporting decisions of firms. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to examine the determinants and capital-market effects of Swedish listed firms’ annual report disclosure.

    This thesis uses a self-constructed disclosure index from manually gathered data from the annual reports of Swedish publicly listed firms during the years 2001 to 2013. This includes information on the notes to the financial statements, corporate governance and strategy. The findings of the four empirical studies show that the ownership structure of firms and the various contractual relationships that firms are engaged in, drive the disclosure practices. Additionally, the results indicate that higher levels of disclosure decrease information asymmetries between capital-market participants and increase trading activity. However, the findings also show that firms with controlling owners are less forthcoming with disclosure, even after a new disclosure reform. Considering the large influence of controlling owners in the studied context, these are important findings in the research field and in regulators’ processes of deriving disclosure regulation. The thesis concludes that the variety in firms’ disclosure incentives and local governance structures are important disclosure determinants to understand in framing international accounting standards.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bokan, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mårtensson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Measurements of top-quark pair to Z-boson cross-section ratios at root s=13, 8, 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 2, 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ratios of top-quark pair to Z-boson cross sections measured from proton-proton collisions at the LHC centre-of-mass energies of s√=13s=13 TeV, 8 TeV, and 7 TeV are presented by the ATLAS Collaboration. Single ratios, at a given s√s for the two processes and at different s√s for each process, as well as double ratios of the two processes at different s√s , are evaluated. The ratios are constructed using previously published ATLAS measurements of the tt¯tt¯ and Z-boson production cross sections, corrected to a common phase space where required, and a new analysis of Z → ℓ+ℓ− where ℓ = e, μ at s√=13s=13 TeV performed with data collected in 2015 with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account when evaluating the uncertainties in the ratios. The correlation model is also used to evaluate the combined cross section of the Z → e+e− and the Z → μ+μ− channels for each s√s value. The results are compared to calculations performed at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy using recent sets of parton distribution functions. The data demonstrate significant power to constrain the gluon distribution function for the Bjorken-x values near 0.1 and the light-quark sea for x < 0.02.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-20 10:15 Rosénsalen, Uppsala
    Mgaya, Andrew Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Improving the quality of caesarean section in a low-resource setting: An intervention by criteria-based audit at a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sharp increase in caesarean section (CS) rates at the Muhimbili National Referral Hospital (MNH) – a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania – by 50% in 2000–2011, was associated with concomitant increase in maternal complications and deaths and inconsistent improvement in newborn outcomes. The aims of this thesis were to explore care providers’ in-depth perspective of the reasons for these high rates of CS, and to evaluate and improve standards of care for the most common indica-tions of CS, obstructed labour and fetal distress, which are also major causes of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    This thesis reports an investigation performed at MNH, Tanzania. For Paper I, qualitative methods were employed and demonstrated how care providers dismissed their responsibility for the rising CS rate; and, instead, projected the causes onto factors beyond their control. Additionally, dysfunctinal teamwork, transparency, and previous poorly conducted clinical audits led to fear of blame among care providers in cases of poor outcome that subsequently encougared defensive practise by assigning unnecessary CS. Papers II and III evaluated stand-ards of care using a criteria-based audit (CBA) of obstructed labour and fetal dis-tress. After implementing audit-feedback recommendations, the standards of diag-nosis of fetal distress improved by 16% and obstructed labour by 7%. Similarly, the standards of management preceding CS improved tenfold for fetal distress and doubled for obstructed labour. The impact of the CBA process was evaluated by comparing the maternal and perinatal outcomes categorized into Robson groups (Paper IV) of all deliveries occurring before and after the audit process (n=27,960). After the CBA process, there was a 50% risk reduction of severe perinatal morbidi-ty/mortality for patients with obstructed labour. The overall CS rates increased by 10%, and this was attributed to an increase in the CS rate among breech, term preg-nancies (Robson group 6), and preterm pregnancies (Robson group 10) that specifi-cally had reduced risk of poor perinatal outcome. The overall neonatal distress rates were also reduced by 20%, and this was attributed to a decrease in the neonatal distress rate among low-risk, term pregnancies (Robson group 3). Importantly, the increased rates of poor perinatal outcomes were associated with referred patients that had higher risk of neonatal distress and PMR than non–referred patients, after CBA process. 

    In conclusion, the studies managed to educate the care providers to take on their roles as decision-makers and medical experts to minimize unnecessary CS, using the available resources. Care providers’ commitment to achieve the best practice should be sustained and effort for stepwise upgrading quality of obstetric care should be supported by the hospital management from the primary to tertiary referral level.

  • Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Bergeås, Elin Kuutmann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gradin, P.O. Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Madsen, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Öhman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Rangel-Smith, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    Measurements of charge and CP asymmetries in b-hadron decays using top-quark events collected by the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV2017In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 2, 071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Same- and opposite-sign charge asymmetries are measured in lepton+jets tt¯tt¯ events in which a b-hadron decays semileptonically to a soft muon, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb−1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s√=8s=8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The charge asymmetries are based on the charge of the lepton from the top-quark decay and the charge of the soft muon from the semileptonic decay of a b-hadron and are measured in a fiducial region corresponding to the experimental acceptance. Four CP asymmetries (one mixing and three direct) are measured and are found to be compatible with zero and consistent with the Standard Model.

  • Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire safety and FRP composite structures in maritime applications2017In: Proceedings of the Energy, Material & Nanotechnology Meeting on Smart & Multifunctional Material - ENM-SMM, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2017-05-20 14:00 BMC sal B22, Uppsala
    Lai, Kuei-Hung
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.

    In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (II-1II-6). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated in vitro using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.

    The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of Carteriospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (III-1 and III-2) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (III-3). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound III-1 might target Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of III-3 was supported by in vivo experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.

    In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge Luffariella sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (IV-1IV-10) were isolated from Luffariella sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24R,25S-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound IV-7 against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound IV-7 also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The in vivo experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of IV-7 with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.

  • Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Paving the way for lightweight constructions on cruise ships through the LASS-C project2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Light Weight Marine Structures, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LASS-C project, "Lightweight construction of a cruise vessel", expanded the concept of making lightweight structures in SOLAS vessels by considering not only superstructures, glass and internal design, but also elements which are part of the hull girder, affecting the ship's global strength. The existing Panamax cruise ship the Norwegian Gem worked as application case in the project where the uppermost five decks were redesigned in lightweight fibre reinforced polymer composite material. Comparing with the previous design, weight savings calculations showed that about 1 200 tons could be saved in load-bearing structures. FEM simulations showed that the weakening of the global strength from using lightweight structures could be compensated by reinforcing the lower decks, still making the residual weight savings economically interesting. Environmental and economic assessments were carried out from a life cycle perspective, proving the lightweight construction has less impact to surroundings and that additional costs would pay back in 2.5 years. The key issue for building ships in plastic composite, namely fire safety, was addressed by performing a risk assessment in line with the method provided for alternative fire safety design and arrangements in SOLAS II-2/17. A preliminary analysis report for the fire safety design was delivered to the Swedish Flag for approval as part of the project.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 10:15 Hörsal 2, Uppsala
    Valli, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pushing borders: Cultural workers in the restructuring of post-industrial cities2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the agency and positioning of cultural workers in the restructuring of contemporary cities. This positioning is ambiguous. Cultural workers often lead precarious professional lives, yet their significant symbolic and cultural capital is widely mobilised in the service of neoliberal urban restructuring, including ‘creative city’ flagship developments and gentrification. But cultural workers’ actual agency, their reactions to urban processes that exploit their presence, and their relations to other urban social groups, are poorly understood and hard to decipher. This thesis addresses these issues through three articles.

    Paper I examines a process of artist-led gentrification ongoing in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York. It shows that artists, gallerists and other members of the local art scene contribute to sustaining gentrification through their everyday practices and discourses. The gentrification frontier is constructed on an everyday level as a transitional space and time in the scene members’ lives. Gentrification is de-politicised by discursively underplaying its conflictual components of class and racial struggle. Forms of resistance to gentrification amongst scene members are found, but they appear to be sector-specific and exclusive. Finally, scene members tend to fail at establishing meaningful relationships with long-time residents.

    Paper II brings the perspectives of long-time residents in Bushwick to the forefront. Examination of the emotional and affectual components of displacement reveals that these aspects are as important as material re-location to understanding displacement and gentrification. The encounter with newcomers’ bodies in neighbourhood spaces triggers a deep sense of displacement for long-time residents, evoking deep-rooted structural inequalities of which gentrification is one spatial expression.

    Paper III examines the case of Macao, a collective mobilisation of cultural workers in Milan, Italy. There, cultural workers have mobilised against neoliberal urbanism, top-down gentrification, corruption, growing labour precarity and other regressive urban and social issues. The paper considers the distinctive resources, aesthetic tactics and inaugurative practices mobilised and enacted in the urban space by Macao and it argues that by deploying their cultural and symbolic capital, cultural workers can reframe the relations between bodies, space and time, and hence challenge power structures.

    Cultural workers might not have the power to determine the structural boundaries and hierarchies that organize urban society, including their own positioning in it. Nonetheless, through their actions and discourses and subjectification processes, they can reinforce or challenge those borders. 

  • Evegren, Franz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire protection of FRP composite ship balconies2016In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Sandwich Structures, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-05-20 13:15 Ihresalen, Uppsala
    Pereswetoff-Morath, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Vikingatida runbleck: Läsningar och tolkningar2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to represent as clearly as possible the genre of Viking-Age runic plates by developing readings and interpretations of the inscriptions on the 46 metal plates with runes from the Viking Age known today. Several investigations of the runic plates have been conducted with a stereomicroscope for this purpose. On the basis of the new readings thus established, new interpretations have been proposed for the most problematic sections of previously interpreted inscriptions. New interpretations are also offered for inscriptions on runic plates which have previously been considered non-lexical. As well as providing new readings and interpretations, this study has resulted in clarification of the relationship between the form and content of the inscriptions on the runic plates on the one hand and on their find circumstances and appearance on the other. 

  • Yang, Runkuan
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, 10 Biokatu, Tampere 33014, Finland.;Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Crit Care Med, 3550 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Emergencies & Crit Care, 4950 Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway..
    Tenhunen, Jyrki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, 10 Biokatu, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Tonnessen, Tor Inge
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Emergencies & Crit Care, 4950 Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis2017In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFLAMMATION, ISSN 2090-8040, UNSP 1817564Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  • Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Länsstyrelser, Länsstyrelsen i Kronobergs län. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund .
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Universitet, Lunds universitet, LU.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krondroppsnätet i södra Sverige: Övervakning av luftföroreningar och dess effekter i skogsmiljön. Resultat till och med september 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I denna andra omgång av årsrapporter inom Krondroppsnätets Program 2015-2020 fokuserar vi på en analys av hur atmosfäriskt nedfall, och effekterna på markvattenkemi, av försurande och övergödande ämnen har förändrats under de senaste 19 åren. Vi redovisar denna analys såväl nationellt som för södra Sverige separat. Vi visar även resultaten för samtliga mätstationer i södra Sverige var för sig i Bilaga 1.

    De europeiska utsläppen till luft av svavel har minskat med nästan 90 % mellan 1990 och 2014. Motsvarande minskning för kväveoxider är drygt 50 %. Sverige har minskat sina utsläpp i ungefär samma omfattning. Mer problematiskt är det med ammoniak, där Europas utsläpp endast minskat 24 % och Sveriges utsläpp knappt förändrats alls. Lufthalterna av svavel- och kväveoxider på olika platser i Sverige har generellt minskat i samma utsträckning som rapporterade utsläppsminskningar, vilket utgör en värdefull bekräftelse av metodiken för svensk och europeisk utsläppsrapportering.

    De minskade svavelutsläppen i Europa har kraftigt reducerat svavelnedfallet i Sverige sedan slutet av 1980-talet. I de högst belastade sydvästra delarna av södra Sverige har nedfallet minskat från omkring 20 till under 4 kg per hektar och år. Under det hydrologiska året 2015/16 understeg svavelnedfallet 1 kg per hektar och år på flertalet mätplatser i Sverige. En bidragande orsak till den låga nivån på nedfallet 2015/16 var de låga nederbördsmängderna i stora delar av landet.

    Effekterna av det minskade svavelnedfallet syns även tydligt i minskade svavelhalter i markvattnet på 50 cm markdjup vid flertalet platser i Sverige, även om svavelprocesser i marken gör att minskningen ofta inte är lika kraftig som nedfallsminskningen.

    Markvattnet är dock fortfarande försurat på många platser, framför allt i stora delar av södra Sverige. Den syraneutraliserande förmågan, ANC, har varit negativ på flertalet platser under den senaste treårsperioden, och pH har varierat från mycket surt, mindre än 4.4, på flera av platserna i söder, till över 5.2 på några platser i de mellersta/norra delarna av södra Sverige. Ungefär hälften av mätplatserna i södra Sverige visar på en signifikant, men långsam, återhämtning från försurning. Den långsamma återhämtningen beror dels på frigörelse av tidigare i marken adsorberat svavel (svaveldesorption), dels på att vittringen, som är den process som motverkar försurningen, generellt är långsam i de relativt näringsfattiga moränmarker som finns i södra Sverige.

    Det samlade nedfallet av oorganiskt kväve (nitrat + ammonium), uppmätt som våtdeposition på öppet fält, har under perioden mellan 1996/97 och 2015/16 minskat statistiskt säkerställt vid 7 av 24 platser i Sverige. Av de 10 platserna i södra Sverige minskade våtdepositionen av kväve vid två av dessa. Beräknat totalt nedfall av oorganiskt kväve, som summan av torr- och våtdeposition till skogsmark, har för de tre senaste hydrologiska åren överskridit den kritiska belastningen för barrskog, 5 kg N/ha/år, i hela södra och drygt hälften av mellersta Sverige. Även den kritiska belastningen för lövskog, 10 kg N/ha/år, överskrids i stora delar av sydvästra Sverige, där lövskogsandelen är hög. Överskridanden kan leda till påverkan på markvegetationen i skogsekosystemen, samt risk för läckage av nitrat till yt- och grundvatten.

    Nitrat förekommer dock hittills sällan i markvattnet i ostörda skogsekosystem, förutom i de sydvästligaste delarna av Sverige. Som våra mätningar i södra Sverige inom Krondroppsnätet visat kan dock halterna av nitrat öka till ganska höga nivåer i markvattnet efter relativt begränsade stormskador.

  • Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    On a prolonged interval between rectal cancer (chemo) radiotherapy and surgery2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, 1-10 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is often required before rectal cancer surgery to obtain low local recurrence rates or, in locally advanced tumours, to radically remove the tumour. RT/CRT in tumours responding completely can allow an organ-preserving strategy. The time from the end of the RT/CRT to surgery or to the decision not to operate has been prolonged during recent years. After a brief review of the literature, the relevance of the time interval to surgery is discussed depending upon the indication for RT/CRT. In intermediate rectal cancers, where the aim is to decrease local recurrence rates without any need for down-sizing/-staging, short-course RT with immediate surgery is appropriate. In elderly patients at risk for surgical complications, surgery could be delayed 5-8 weeks. If CRT is used, surgery should be performed when the acute radiation reaction has subsided or after 5-6 weeks. In locally advanced tumours, where CRT is indicated, the optimal delay is 6-8 weeks. In patients not tolerating CRT, short-course RT with a 6-8-week delay is an alternative. If organ preservation is a goal, a first evaluation should preferably be carried out after about 6 weeks, with planned surgery for week 8 if the response is inadequate. In case the response is good, a new evaluation should be carried out after about 12 weeks, with a decision to start a 'watch-and-wait' programme or operate. Chemotherapy in the waiting period is an interesting option, and has been the subject of recent trials with promising results.

  • Alhashimi, Anas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Calibrating distance sensors for terrestrial applications without groundtruth information2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new calibration procedure for distance sensors that does not require independent sources of groundtruth information, i.e., that is not based on comparing the measurements from the uncalibrated sensor against measurements from a precise device assumed as the groundtruth. Alternatively, the procedure assumes that the uncalibrated distance sensor moves in space on a straight line in an environment with fixed targets, so that the intrinsic parameters of the statistical model of the sensor readings are calibrated without requiring tests in controlled environments, but rather in environments where the sensor follows linear movement and objects do not move. The proposed calibration procedure exploits an approximated EM scheme on top of two ingredients: an heteroscedastic statistical model describing the measurement process, and a simplified dynamical model describing the linear sensor movement. The procedure is designed to be capable of not just estimating the parameters of one generic distance sensor, but rather integrating the most common sensors in robotic applications, such as Lidars, odometers and sonar rangers and learn the intrinsic parameters of all these sensors simultaneously. Tests in a controlled environment led to a reduction of the MSE of the measurements returned by a commercial triangulation Lidar by a factor between 3 and 6, comparable to the efficiency of other state-of-the art groundtruth-based calibration procedures. Adding odometric and ultrasonic information further improved the performance index of the overall distance estimation strategy by a factor of up to 1.2. Tests also show high robustness against violating the linear movements assumption.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 13:15 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Pullen, Sonja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Mimicking the Outer Coordination Sphere in [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site Models: From Extended Ligand Design to Metal-Organic Frameworks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimetic catalysis is an important research field, as a better understanding of nature´s powerful toolbox for the conversion of molecules can lead to technological progress. [FeFe]-hydrogenases are very efficient catalysts for hydrogen production. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of green algae and certain cyanobacteria. Their active site consists of a diiron complex that is embedded in an interactive protein matrix.

    In this thesis, two pathways for mimicking the outer coordination sphere effects resulting from the protein matrix are explored.

    The first is the construction of model complexes containing phosphine ligands that are coordinated to the iron center as well as covalently linked to the bridging ligand of the complex. The effect of such linkers is an increased energy barrier for the rotation of the Fe(CO2)(PL3)-subunit, which potentially could stabilize a terminal hydride that is an important intermediate in the proton reduction cycle.

    The second pathway follows the incorporation of [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site model complexes into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Resulting MOF-catalysts exhibit increased photocatalytic activity compared to homogenous references due to a stabilizing effect on catalytic intermediates by the surrounding framework. Catalyst accessibility within the MOF and the influence of the framework on chemical reactivity are examined in the work presented. Furthermore, an initial step towards application of MOF-catalysts in a device was made by interfacing them with electrodes.

    The work of this thesis highlights strategies for the improvement of biomimetic model catalysts and the knowledge gained can be transferred to other systems mimicking the function of enzymes. 

  • Kharazmi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Vastmanland Hosp Vasteras, Dept Oral & Maxillofacial Surg, SE-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Scheer, Hakan
    Vastmanland Hosp Vasteras, Dept Anaesthesiol & Intens Care, SE-73130 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Hallberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Reduced obstacles, maximized vision (ROMV): a new technique to facilitate laryngoscopy for endotracheal intubation2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, 68-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Hallgren Larsson, Eva
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Kronobergs luftvårdsförbund.
    Tätortsprogram i Kronobergs län: Resultat 2007-20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tätortsprogram i Kronobergs län, resultat 2016

    Sammanfattning

    Sedan 2007 utgör Kronobergs län samverkansområde för kontroll av luftkvalitet. Samtliga kommuner deltar och Kronobergs Luftvårdsförbund samordnar verksamheten. Programmet är en kombination av mätningar och beräkningar. Samverkan ger underlag för en mer samlad bedömning av situationen i länet och resultat från enskilda kommuner kan lättare jämföras med varandra. Denna redovisning är den sista för det avtal som gällt 2012-2016.

    Såväl mätningar som beräkningar tyder på att luftkvaliteten är relativt god i länet. Resultaten visar inga överskridanden av miljökvalitetsnormer. För kvävedioxid och riktigt små partiklar (PM2,5) ligger nivåerna under riktvärdena i berörda preciseringar inom miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk Luft som är ambitionsnivån till och med år 2020. Det vi har mest problem med är förhöjda halter av ”grova partiklar”, PM10, under enskilda dygn. Detta gäller även merparten övriga tätorter i Sverige. Situationen i Kronobergs län ser ut att ha förbättrats och visar färre antal dygn med förhöjda halter under den senaste femårsperioden jämfört med perioden 2008-2011, vilket är positivt. Halterna av dessa grova partiklar har dock varit på en sådan nivå att mätningar med dygnsupplösning och godkänd utrustning krävs på minst en plats inom samverkansområdet.

    Värt att notera är tydligt förhöjda halter av butylacetat i Älmhult. Detta är ett flyktigt organiskt ämne som förknippas med påverkan från någon industri eller hantering av lösningsmedel. Butylacetat bidrar också till bildning av marknära ozon, vilket inte är bra. Utredning pågår.

    För kvävedioxid kan vi konstatera att en stor del är egenproducerat i våra tätorter. Vi har alltså själva relativt stor möjlighet att påverka halterna av kvävedioxid på dessa platser. På landsbygd i länet är halterna ofta under 2 mikrogram per kubikmeter (μg/m3). Motsvarande i tätort utan direkt trafikpåverkan har oftast varit 7-10 μg/m3. Liksom tidigare noterades det högsta årsmedelvärdet av kvävedioxid under 2016 vid den trafikbelastade lokalen i Växjö, 14 μg/m3. Luftvårdsförbundet genomför inga egna mätningar av kvävedioxid på landsbygd och 2016 års lägsta värde rapporteras från Uppvidinge, 5,6 g/m3.

    För partiklar av den grövre fraktionen, PM10, är bakgrundsbelastningen förhållandevis större än för kvävedioxid. Under 2012-2016 har mätningarna visat 6-9 μg/m3 på ren landsbygd, 11-15 i tätort utan direkt trafikpåverkan och 11-17 μg/m3 som årsmedelvärden för partiklar (PM10) i trafikbelastade miljöer.

    Värt att nämna är att innebörden av detta begrepp varierar. I riktigt trafikbelastad miljö kan dygnsvariationen vara stor. Mindre partiklar, PM2,5, transporteras generellt längre sträckor och för dessa är bakgrundsbelastningen förhållandevis större än för de grövre partiklarna.

    2016 års medelvärde för bensen i Älmhult var 0,6 μg/m3, vilket är lågt, bra och under politiskt beslutad precisering inom miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft (max 1 μg/m3).

    Luftkvaliteten är viktig för vårt generella hälsotillstånd. Även i ett land som Sverige, där vi generellt anses ha väldigt ren och fin luft, beräknas tjugo gånger fler människor dö av luftföroreningar (5 500 per år) än av trafikolyckor (250 per år). Hälsoeffekter finns sammanställda i Folkhälsomyndighetens miljöhälsorapport.

    Tidigare års resultat från samverkansområdet finns på förbundets hemsida, www.kronobergsluft.se.

  • Perjo, Liisa
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Redeveloping brownfields in the Central Baltic region2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high demand for redeveloping brownfield areas to make European cities grow in a more sustainable manner. As brownfield areas are often located within the urban structure, redeveloping them reduces the need to use green areas for new developments, and creates more compact cities. Remediating contaminated land in former industrial sites or harbour areas will also reduce environmental risks. This policy brief gives an overview of challenges for brownfield redevelopment in the Central Baltic region and is published as part of the Central Baltic INTERREG Baltic Urban Lab project.There is a high demand for redeveloping brownfield areas to make European cities grow in a more sustainable manner. As brownfield areas are often located within the urban structure, redeveloping them reduces the need to use green areas for new developments, and creates more compact cities. Remediating contaminated land in former industrial sites or harbour areas will also reduce environmental risks. This policy brief gives an overview of challenges for brownfield redevelopment in the Central Baltic region and is published as part of the Central Baltic INTERREG Baltic Urban Lab project.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 09:15 BMC A1:111A, Uppsala
    Hamnevik, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Characterization and Directed Evolution of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A Study Towards Understanding of Three Central Aspects of Substrate Selectivity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different chemicals are used in the everyday life, like detergents and pharmaceuticals. However, their production has a big impact on health and environment as much of the raw materials are not renewable and the standard ways of production in many cases includes toxic and environmentally hazardous components. As the population and as the life standard increases all over the planet, the demand for different important chemicals, like pharmaceuticals, will increase. A way to handle this is to apply the concept of Green chemistry, where biocatalysis, in the form of enzymes, is a very good alternative. Enzymes do not normally function in industrial processes and needs modifications through protein engineering to cope in such conditions. To be able to efficiently improve an enzyme, there is a need to understand the mechanism and characteristics of that enzyme.

    Acyloins (α-hydroxy ketones) are important building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. In this thesis, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase A (ADH-A) from Rhodococcus ruber has been in focus, as it has been shown to display a wide substrate scope, also accepting aryl-substituted alcohols. The aim has been to study the usefulness of ADH-A as a biocatalyst towards production of acyloins and its activity with aryl-substituted vicinal diols and to study substrate-, regio-, and enantioselectivity of this enzyme.

    This thesis is based on four different papers where the focus of the first has been to biochemically characterize ADH-A and determine its mechanism, kinetics and its substrate-, regio-, and enantioselectivity. The second and third paper aims towards deeper understanding of some aspects of selectivity of ADH-A. Non-productive binding and its importance for enantioselectivity is studied in the second paper by evolving ADH-A towards increased activity with the least favored enantiomer through protein engineering. In the third paper, regioselectivity is in focus, where an evolved variant displaying reversed regioselectivity is studied. In the fourth and last paper ADH-A is studied towards the possibility to increase its activity towards aryl-substituted vicinal diols, with R-1-phenyl ethane-1,2-diol as the model substrate, and the possibility to link ADH-A with an epoxide hydrolase to produce acyloins from racemic epoxides.

  • Copus, Andrew
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Perjo, Liisa
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Berlina, Anna
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Jungsberg, Leneisja
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Randall, Linda
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Hjördís Rut
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordregio.
    Social innovation in local development: Lessons from the Nordic countries and Scotland2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents background research on the work carried out by Nordregio in the project “Social Innovation in Local Development in the Nordic Countries and Scotland”, which was commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Working Group on Demography and Welfare. The main objectives of the project were to investigate the concept of social innovation in relation to local and rural development, study the governance context in social innovation in rural areas in the Nordics and Scotland, conduct case studies in rural areas in all the Nordic countries and Scotland, as well as study the existing support systems for social innovation in particular in rural areas. The case studies are summarised in a separate document and on the project’s website.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-19 13:15 Polhemsalen, Ångtröm 10134, Uppsala
    Yang, Weijia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hydropower plants and power systems: Dynamic processes and control for stable and efficient operation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the largest global renewable source, hydropower shoulders a large portion of the regulation duty in many power systems. New challenges are emerging from variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, the increasing scale and complexity of hydropower plants (HPPs) and power grid. Stable and efficient operation of HPPs and their interaction with power systems is of great importance.

    Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and on-site measurement are adopted as main study methods in this thesis. Various numerical models of HPPs are established, with different degrees of complexity for different purposes. The majority of the analysis and results are based on eight HPPs in Sweden and China.

    Stable operation (frequency stability and rotor angle stability) and efficient operation are two important goals. Regarding the stable operation, various operating conditions are analysed; the response time of primary frequency control (PFC) and the system stability of isolated operation are investigated. A fundamental study on hydraulic-mechanical-electrical coupling mechanisms for small signal stability of HPPs is conducted. A methodology is proposed to quantify the contribution to the damping of low frequency oscillations from hydraulic turbines. The oscillations, with periods ranging from less than one up to hundreds of seconds, are analysed.

    Regarding the efficient operation, a description and an initial analysis of wear and tear of turbines are presented; a controller filter is proposed as a solution for wear reduction of turbines and maintaining the frequency quality of power systems; then the study is further extended by proposing a framework that combines technical plant operation with economic indicators, to obtain relative values of regulation burden and performance of PFC.

    The results show that the coupling between the hydraulic-mechanical subsystem and the electrical subsystem can be considerable and should be considered with higher attention. Effectiveness and applicability of different numerical models are shown, supplying suggestions for further model optimization. For the influence from power systems on HPPs, the dynamic processes and corresponding control strategies of HPPs under diverse disturbances and requirements from power systems are addressed. For the influence from HPPs on power systems, quantifications of frequency quality and the hydraulic damping are conducted utilising proposed methodologies.

  • Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Forskning av och om praktik2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 239-242 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Karnatz, Sara
    Gävle kommun.
    Gör det med ett leende: skötbordet som en kommunikativ möjlighet?2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 215-238 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Ahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Gävle kommun.
    Från pedagogisk lunch till måltidspedagogik: en het potatis i förskolan?2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 193-213 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Mattsson, Marie
    Gävle kommun.
    Soffan en möjlighet till social kommunikation?2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 181-192 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Eriksson, Jeanette
    Gävle kommun.
    Förskolans hall: en kommunikativ möjlighet?2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 161-180 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Karman, Ylva
    Gävle kommun.
    Genom figurer, papper och pennor finns något att berätta för den som lyssnar2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 131-159 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hjelm-Wigren, Eva
    Gävle kommun.
    Babblarna en bra metod för att främja social kommunikation?2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 109-130 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Kommunikativa aktiviteter och miljöer i förskolan2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 105-107 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Yngvesson, Anna
    Gävle kommun.
    Social kommunikation - mer än bara samtal: en intervjustudie om några förskollärares vardag2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 83-104 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2017-05-24 10:00 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Hedberg, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sea cages, seaweeds and seascapes: Causes and consequences of spatial links between aquaculture and ecosystems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is of growing importance in the global seafood production. The environmental impact of aquaculture will largely depend on the type of environment in which the aquaculture system is placed. Sometimes, due to the abiotic or biotic conditions of the seascape, certain aquaculture systems tend to be placed within or near specific ecosystems, a phenomenon that in this thesis is referred to as aquaculture system - ecosystem links. The exposed ecosystems can be more or less sensitive to the system specific impacts. Some links are known to be widespread and especially hazardous for the subjected ecosystem such as the one between the shrimp aquaculture and the mangrove forest ecosystem. The aim of this thesis was to identify and investigate causes and consequences of other spatial links between aquaculture and ecosystems in the tropical seascape.

    Two different aquaculture system - ecosystem links were identified by using high resolution satellite maps and coastal habitat maps; the link between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs, and the one between seaweed farms and seagrass beds. This was followed by interviews with the sea cage- and seaweed farmers to find the drivers behind the farm site selection. Many seaweed farmers actively choose to establish their farms on sea grass beds but sea cage farmers did not consider coral reefs when choosing location for their farms. The investigated environmental consequences of the spatial link between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs were considerable both on the local coral reef structure, and coral associated bacterial community. Furthermore, coral reef associated fish are used as seedlings and feed on the farms, which likely alter the coral food web and lower the ecosystem resilience. Unregulated use of last resort antibiotics in both fish- and lobster farms were also found to be a wide spread practice within the sea cage aquaculture system, suggesting a high risk for development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effects of seaweed farms on seagrass beds were not studied in this thesis but have earlier been shown to be rather substantial within the borders of the farm but less so outside the farm.

    Further, a nomenclature is presented to facilitate the discussion about production system - ecosystem links, which may also be used to be able to incorporate the landscape level within eco-certifying schemes or environmental risk assessments. Finally - increased awareness of the mechanisms that link specific aquaculture to specific habitats, would improve management practices and increase sustainability of an important and still growing food producing sector - the marine aquaculture.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-24 10:00 Aula Svea, Stockholm
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Cannabis discourses in contemporary Sweden: Continuity and change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study how cannabis is constructed in contemporary Sweden, which policy responses are promoted as rational, and how international cannabis trends are received in this context. The four papers are the result of analyzing empirical material from three different sub-studies: 1) a qualitative study of online discussions about cannabis and drug policy, 2) a qualitative and comparative study of print media articles from 2002 and 2012, and 3) a qualitative study of oral presentations from cannabis information symposia. All papers are based on a social constructionist approach.

    A point of departure is that attitudes and regulations on cannabis have changed in large parts of the Western world. In Sweden, however, strict prohibition of cannabis is still central in the national drug laws. Some of the main findings can thus be gathered in discussions on continuity and change. In Swedish online discussions, there seems to be a strong desire to change the national cannabis policy in line with international developments. This discussion propagates alternative views on cannabis, in which comparisons to alcohol become vital and more liberal cannabis policies become logical. These discussions are also characterized by continuity, as many arguments for liberal cannabis policies seem to be based on traditional social democratic values and prohibitionist “scaremongering” arguments. Continuity is also what seems to characterize traditional print media, where cannabis is generally portrayed as a potent and illegal drug producing social problems. However, this arena also shows signs of change, as the material from 2012 includes stories on cannabis as an economic asset as well as a recreational substance. Both traditional print media and cannabis information symposia focus on youth consumers, who are seen as particularly vulnerable to cannabis effects. Such constructions seem important for protecting prohibition from international influences and for a continuous discourse centered on the dangers of cannabis.

    It is concluded that cannabis appears to be able to represent almost anything. As such it can be “used” for any purpose to promote a whole set of ideas related to policy often based on what is considered as scientific evidence. Depending on the context, it thus seems possible that cannabis is medicinal, recreational, harmful, and addictive. If so, and if all of these constructions are in some way “real,” then it is suggested that cannabis necessitates a much more tailored and nuanced response than that which prohibition can offer.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-24 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Stockholm
    Pihl Skoog, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Kraftkarlar och knockouts: Kraftsporter, kropp och klass i Sverige 1920–19602017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis analyses representations of body and class, and their wider ideological meaning, in Swedish power sports from 1920 to 1960. Boxing and weightlifting – sports dominated by manual workers – are chosen as study objects. The sources used are magazines connected to the power sports, and autobiographies by four prominent athletes. The thesis relates to different areas of previous research. One concerns the body as such, from a social and cultural history perspective, another revolves around medial and autobiographical representations in relation to sports, and a third is about the relationships between body, class and sport.

    In the analysis, the Bourdieusian concepts capital and hexis are added to a discussion on the ways that value is attached to the body, linked to the notions of use value and exchange value. The content analysis of the source material makes ground for an analysis of more implicit ideological aspects, e.g. using Barthes’s theory on mythology.

    Manual labour and working life appear as central organising themes in the source material. Boxing and weightlifting were largely regarded and designated as professions, challenging ideals of amateurism. A physically demanding manual work was depicted as natural breeding grounds where sports practitioners became skilled. This masculine ideal united people from various manual working groups (not only from the working class in its socio-economic sense) where the emphasis was put on the physical strength and ability of the athlete to work hard.

    The body was used in a form of class polemics, preferably against middle and upper class people. Certain aspects of strength and style of athletic performance were related to particular levels of intelligence and education. Power athletes from the manual working groups were depicted as “natural”, with associations to rural areas, not least working in the forest. The ideas of naturalness in its most derogatory sense of being close to animals and lacking civilisation, was however mostly used in connections with black athletes.

    Success stories were common narratives about power sports as arenas of success. They included a powerful norm that success must be cultivated, where the responsibility was put upon the athlete himself. Successful athletes from manual working groups could transform their physical capital into economic capital, which was often depicted as short-lived because of aging and individual shortcomings.

    A commercial consumer culture became more explicit in the 1950s, when bodybuilding had its Swedish breakthrough within weightlifting. Sports training was rationalised and largely decoupled from its associations with manual work. This led to an increased reification of the body as pure surface, which was attributed a value itself. The body became an area of consumption, a commodity with an exchange value, when decoupled from its use value as labour or tool for sporting success.

    As to the ideological aspects of the development, it is shown that there was a widespread individualist norm. Only the individual himself had the possibility to rise up and achieve success. The ideal of manual work was more of a moral and cultural nature, than political. Although there were some collectivist features in that rhetoric, the manual worker idealisation fundamentally carried an individualistic tendency. It is argued that this idealisation, or workerism, is a fruitful object for further analyses.

  • Wenngren Sälj, Karin
    Samtalet i förskolan: förskollärarens möjligheter till social kommunikation2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 51-81 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bäck, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Egebrand, Sigrid
    Social kommunikation: om att göra ett begrepp pedagogiskt2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 25-50 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Ett ord och dess betydelse2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 21-23 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Inledning: Social kommunikation i ett sammanhang2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 13-20 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Bäck, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Egebrand, Sigrid
    Prolog: Från idé till projekt2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, 7-12 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2017-05-22 09:15 Room E10:1309 (BMC Navet), Uppsala
    Nowak, Christoph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Insulin Resistance: Causes, biomarkers and consequences2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide increasing number of persons affected by largely preventable diseases like diabetes demands better prevention and treatment. Insulin is required for effective utilisation of circulating nutrients. Impaired responsiveness to insulin (insulin resistance, IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and independently raises the risk of heart attack and stroke. The pathophysiology of IR is incompletely understood. High-throughput measurement of large numbers of circulating biomarkers may provide new insights beyond established risk factors.

    The aims of this thesis were to (i) use proteomics, metabolomics and genomics methods in large community samples to identify biomarkers of IR; (ii) assess biomarkers for risk prediction and insights into aetiology and consequences of IR; and (iii) use Mendelian randomisation analysis to assess causality.

    In Study I, analysis of 80 circulating proteins in 70-to-77-year-old Swedes identified cathepsin D as a biomarker for IR and highlighted a tentative causal effect of IR on raised plasma tissue plasminogen activator levels. In Study II, nontargeted fasting plasma metabolomics was used to discover 52 metabolites associated with glycaemic traits in non-diabetic 70-year-old men. Replication in independent samples of several thousand persons provided evidence for a causal effect of IR on reduced plasma oleic acid and palmitoleic acid levels. In Study III, nontargeted metabolomics in plasma samples obtained at three time points during an oral glucose challenge in 70-year-old men identified associations between a physiologic measure of IR and concentration changes in medium-chain acylcarnitines, monounsaturated fatty acids, bile acids and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Study IV provided evidence in two large longitudinal cohorts for causal effects of type 2 diabetes and impaired insulin secretion on raised coronary artery disease risk.

    In conclusion, the Studies in this thesis provide new insights into the pathophysiology and adverse health consequences of IR and illustrate the value of combining traditional epidemiologic designs with recent molecular techniques and bioinformatics methods. The results provide limited evidence for the role of circulating proteins and small molecules in IR and require replication in separate studies and validation in experimental designs.

  • Pammi, Mohan
    et al.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Pediat, Sect Neonatol, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Texas Childrens Hosp, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Cope, Julia
    Baylor Coll Med, Alkek Ctr Metagen & Microbiome Res, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Tarr, Phillip I.
    Washington Univ, Dept Pediat, St Louis Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Warner, Barbara B.
    Washington Univ, Dept Pediat, St Louis Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Morrow, Ardythe L.
    Univ Cincinnati, Cincinnati Childrens Hosp Med Ctr, Coll Med, Perinatal Inst,Dept Pediat, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA..
    Mai, Volker
    Univ Florida, Coll Publ Hlth & Hlth Profess, Dept Epidemiol, Gainesville, FL USA.;Univ Florida, Coll Med, Gainesville, FL USA.;Univ Florida, Emerging Pathogens Inst, Gainesville, FL USA..
    Gregory, Katherine E.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Newborn Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kroll, J. Simon
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Med, Sect Pediat, London, England..
    McMurtry, Valerie
    Childrens Hosp, Dept Microbiol Immunol & Parasitol, New Orleans, LA USA..
    Ferris, Michael J.
    Childrens Hosp, Dept Microbiol Immunol & Parasitol, New Orleans, LA USA..
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Director Clin Genom, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Surgery.
    Hollister, Emily B.
    Texas Childrens Hosp, Texas Childrens Microbiome Ctr, Dept Pathol, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Versalovic, James
    Texas Childrens Hosp, Texas Childrens Microbiome Ctr, Dept Pathol, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Baylor Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Neu, Josef
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Pediat, Sect Neonatol, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Texas Childrens Hosp, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Microbiome, ISSN 0026-2633, E-ISSN 2049-2618, Vol. 5, 31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease of preterm infants, and microbial dysbiosis has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies evaluating the microbiome in NEC and preterm infants lack power and have reported inconsistent results. Methods and results: Our objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analyses of stool microbiome profiles in preterm infants to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis prior to the onset of NEC and to explore heterogeneity among studies. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and conference abstracts from the proceedings of Pediatric Academic Societies and reference lists of relevant identified articles in April 2016. Studies comparing the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants who developed NEC to those of controls, using cultureindependent molecular techniques and reported a and beta-diversity metrics, and microbial profiles were included. In addition, 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence data with clinical meta-data were requested from the authors of included studies or searched in public data repositories. We reprocessed the 16S rRNA sequence data through a uniform analysis pipeline, which were then synthesized by meta-analysis. We included 14 studies in this review, and data from eight studies were available for quantitative synthesis (106 NEC cases, 278 controls, 2944 samples). The age of NEC onset was at a mean +/- SD of 30.1 +/- 2.4 weeks post-conception (n = 61). Fecal microbiome from preterm infants with NEC had increased relative abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes prior to NEC onset. Alpha-or beta-diversity indices in preterm infants with NEC were not consistently different from controls, but we found differences in taxonomic profiles related to antibiotic exposure, formula feeding, and mode of delivery. Exploring heterogeneity revealed differences in microbial profiles by study and the target region of the 16S rRNA gene (V1-V3 or V3-V5). Conclusions: Microbial dysbiosis preceding NEC in preterm infants is characterized by increased relative abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Microbiome optimization may provide a novel strategy for preventing NEC.