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  • Sepulveda, Jorge I. Ramirez
    et al.
    Kvarnstrom, Marika
    Eriksson, Per
    Mandl, Thomas
    Norheim, Katrine Braekke
    Johnsen, Svein Joar
    Hammenfors, Daniel
    Jonsson, Malin V.
    Skarstein, Kathrine
    Brun, Johan G.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Bucher, Sara Magnusson
    Baecklund, Eva
    Theander, Elke
    Omdal, Roald
    Jonsson, Roland
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Long-term follow-up in primary Sjogren's syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients2017In: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 8, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. Methods: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers. The mean follow-up time (years) was 8.8 +/- 7.6 for women and 8.5 +/- 6.2 for men (ns). Clinical data including serological and hematological parameters and glandular and extraglandular manifestations were compared between men and women. Results: Male patient serology was characterized by more frequent positivity for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB (p = 0. 02), and ANA (p = 0.02). Further, men with pSS were more frequently diagnosed with interstitial lung disease (p = 0. 008), lymphadenopathy (p = 0.04) and lymphoma (p = 0.007). Conversely, concomitant hypothyroidism was more common among female patients (p = 0.009). Conclusions: We observe enhanced serological responses and higher frequencies of lymphoma-related extraglandular manifestations in men with pSS. Notably, lymphoma itself was also significantly more common in men. These observations may reflect an aggravated immune activation and a more severe pathophysiological state in male patients with pSS and indicate a personalized managing of the disease due to the influence of the sex of patients with pSS.

  • Zhu, Huimin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pan, Mingao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    High Photon-to-Current Conversion in Solar Cells Based on Light-Absorbing Silver Bismuth Iodide2017In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 12, 2592-2596 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, a lead-free silver bismuth iodide (AgI/BiI3) with a crystal structure with space group R (3) over barm is investigated for use in solar cells. Devices based on the silver bismuth iodide deposited from solution on top of TiO2 and the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as a hole-transport layer are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is very promising with a power conversion efficiency over 2%, which is higher than the performance of previously reported bismuth-halide materials for solar cells. Photocurrent generation is observed between 350 and 700 nm, and the maximum external quantum efficiency is around 45%. The results are compared to solar cells based on the previously reported material AgBi2I7, and we observe a clearly higher performance for the devices with the new silver and bismuth iodides composition and different crystal structure. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the most efficient silver bismuth iodide material shows a hexagonal crystal structure with space group R (3) over barm, and from the light absorption spectrum we obtain an indirect band gap energy of 1.62 eV and a direct band gap energy of 1.85 eV. This report shows the possibility for finding new structures of metal-halides efficient in solar cells and points out new directions for further exploration of lead-free metal-halide solar cells.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-19 09:15 Rudbecksalen, Uppsala
    Bhoi, Sujata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala University.
    Prognostic markers and DNA methylation profiling in lymphoid malignancies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, great progress has been achieved towards identifying novel biomarkers in lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), at the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic level for accurate risk-stratification and prediction of treatment response. In paper I, we validated the prognostic relevance of a recently proposed RNA-based marker in CLL, UGT2B17, and analyzed its expression levels in 253 early-stage patients. Besides confirming its prognostic impact in multivariate analysis, we could identify 30% of IGHV-mutated CLL (M-CLL) cases with high expression and poor outcome, which otherwise lacked any other poor-prognostic marker. In paper II, we investigated the prognostic impact of a previously reported 5 CpG signature that divides CLL patients into three clinico-biological subgroups, namely naive B-cell-like CLL (n-CLL), memory B-cell-like CLL (m-CLL) and intermediate CLL (i-CLL), in 135 CLL patients using pyrosequencing. We validated the signature as an independent marker in multivariate analysis and further reported that subset #2 cases were predominantly classified as i-CLL, although displaying a similar outcome as n-CLL. In paper III, we investigated the methylation status and expression level of miR26A1 in both CLL (n=70) and MCL (n=65) cohorts. High miR26A1 methylation was associated with IGHV-unmutated (U-CLL) and shorter overall survival (OS) in CLL, while it was uniformly hypermethylated in MCL. Furthermore, overexpression of miR26A1 resulted in significant downregulation of EZH2 that in turn led to increased apoptosis. In paper IV, we performed DNA methylation profiling in 176 CLL cases assigned to one of 8 major stereotyped subsets (#1-8) in relation to non-subset CLL (n=325) and different normal B-cell subpopulations. Principal component analysis of subset vs. non-subset CLL revealed that U-CLL and M-CLL subsets generally clustered with n-CLL and m-CLL, respectively, indicating common cellular origins. In contrast, subset #2 emerged as the first defined member of the i-CLL subgroup, which in turn alludes to a distinct cellular origin for subset #2 and i-CLL patients. Altogether, this thesis confirms the prognostic significance of RNA and epigenetic-based markers in CLL, provides insight into the mechanism of miRNA deregulation in lymphoid malignancies and further unravels the DNA methylation landscape in stereotyped subsets of CLL.

     

  • Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    et al.
    Houle, Brian
    Collinson, Mark A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Clark, Samuel
    Assessing Changes in Household Socioeconomic Status in Rural South Africa, 2001-2013: A Distributional Analysis Using Household Asset Indicators2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 133, no 3, 1047-1073 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and its temporal dynamics within a population is critical to ensure that policies and interventions adequately and equitably contribute to the well-being and life chances of all individuals. This study assesses the dynamics of SES in a typical rural South African setting over the period 2001-2013 using data on household assets from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Three SES indices, an absolute index, principal component analysis index and multiple correspondence analysis index, are constructed from the household asset indicators. Relative distribution methods are then applied to the indices to assess changes over time in the distribution of SES with special focus on location and shape shifts. Results show that the proportion of households that own assets associated with greater modern wealth has substantially increased over time. In addition, relative distributions in all three indices show that the median SES index value has shifted up and the distribution has become less polarized and is converging towards the middle. However, the convergence is larger from the upper tail than from the lower tail, which suggests that the improvement in SES has been slower for poorer households. The results also show persistent ethnic differences in SES with households of former Mozambican refugees being at a disadvantage. From a methodological perspective, the study findings demonstrate the comparability of the easy-to-compute absolute index to other SES indices constructed using more advanced statistical techniques in assessing household SES.

  • Poma, Giulia
    et al.
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Glynn, Anders
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Malarvannan, Govindan
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Executive, Myndigheter, Livsmedelsverket, SLV.
    Dietary intake of phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) using Swedish food market basket estimations2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of eight phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 53 composite food samples from 12 food categories, collected in 2015 for a Swedish food market basket study. 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), detected in most food categories, had the highest median concentrations (9 ng/g ww, pastries). It was followed by triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) (2.6 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(1,3- (TCIPP) (0.80 ng/g ww, pastries). Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were not detected in the analyzed food samples. The major contributor to the total dietary intake was EHDPHP (57%), and the food categories which contributed the most to the total intake of PFRs were processed food, such as cereals (26%), pastries (10%), sugar/sweets (11%), and beverages (17%). The daily per capita intake of PFRs (TCEP, TPHP, EHDPHP, TDCIPP, TCIPP) from food ranged from 406 to 3266 ng/day (or 6e49 ng/kg bw/day), lower than the health-based reference doses. This is the first study reporting PFR intakes from other food categories than fish (here accounting for 3%). Our results suggest that the estimated human dietary exposure to PFRs may be equally important to the ingestion of dust.

  • Samuelson, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Arbetsskador i byggverksamhet 2016: Privat och offentlig verksamhet: Bygg- och anläggning, Byggnadsplåtslageri, Elinstallation, Ventilation, VVS, Måleri, Glasmästeri, Maskinentreprenad2017Report (Other academic)
  • Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup
    et al.
    University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard
    University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Holton, Judith A.
    Mount Allison University, Canada.
    Intacting Integrity in Coping with Health Issues2017In: The Grounded Theory Review, ISSN 1556-1542, E-ISSN 1556-1550, Vol. 16, no 1, 10-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to discover and elaborate a general substantive theory (GST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this GST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep intact their integrity not only on an individual level but also as members of a group or a system. The intacting process is executed by attunement, continuously minimizing the discrepancy between personal values, personal health, self-expectations, and external conditions as health-and culturally-related recommendations and demands. Multifaceted coping strategies are available and used as implements in the attuning process.

  • Granberg, Albina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    The recipe literacy concept: capturing important aspects of learning how to cook in school2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In Sweden, the school subject Home Economics (HE) is a potential context for children to learn how to cook and to master artefacts in the cooking practice. The learning process entails a number of events that can be coupled to the children themselves, to the teachers and to various learning tools, like the recipes.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to investigate various aspects of the process that occur when children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) learn how to cook in the subject of Home Economics.

    Methods

    Data was collected using two different methods; firstly, using an ethnographic inspired design, sixteen accompanying observations were implemented at lessons in HE. The observations were carried out in kitchen classroom settings where teaching and learning about cooking took place. The field notes were thematically analyzed.

    Secondly, in total 22 qualitative interviews with HE teachers of students with mild ID were conducted. The transcripts were analyzed thematically using the sociocultural approach on learning and knowledge as a theoretical framework.

    Result

    The findings reveal both that recipes are central artefacts during the cooking lessons and that the students have various difficulties using the recipes. Regarding the teachers, it was found that the skills that they emphasized in relation to learning how to cook included mastering the language of cooking, measuring and following recipes.

    Conclusion

    The results provide an insight into cooking lessons in HE in schools, not only regarding the focus that teachers give to cooking skills, but also to how cooking skills can be understood on a theoretical level. Attention was drawn to the complex set of knowledge needed to be able to use and understand a recipe in order to learn how to cook. We therefore suggest that the knowledge needed to make use of a recipe can be conceptualized in the novel concept of recipe literacy.

     

  • Recensioner1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 105-114 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet.
    Debatt: Inkonsistenta flyktingvänner eller inkompetent forskning? Kommentar till José Alberto Diaz1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 101-104 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Klintman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet.
    Miljöhandlingars socialpsykologiska förutsättningar och hinder - ett teoretisk tperspektiv1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 82-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-psychological conditions and obstacles to environmentally responsible agency - a theoretical perspective

    The aim in this article has been to go beyond the individual level in theoretically analyzing the preconditions for people to adopt a more environmentally responsible behavior within daily activities. In the first part, I have examined some overlapping social characteristics of modernity. The chief concepts here have been risk, time-space distanciation, disembeddedness and reflexivity. Anthony Giddens (1990) and Ulrich Beck (1986/1992) are referred to in this part. These modem characteristics have been put in relation to the motivational factors of behavior change offered in modem urban society. In the second part, the question of environmentally related agency has been placed into three social-psychological contexts: the public, the private, and the parochial realms of social life. I have argued that the different realms to various extents are affected by the modem characteristics, and that the different realms, therefore, offer different conditions for the environmentally responsible behavior to be supported by socially, ethically and, practically motivating factors. Emphasis has been given upon motivating factors within the local realm, mainly within neighborhoods. In neighborhoods, I have claimed, social ties, trust between neighbors, and a shared interest for the neighborhood may be used as an intermediate variable between the leading institutions of society and the individual lifestyle in solving environmental problems. This is true both when the environmental goals of the leading institutions, are communicated to the parochial sphere and vice versa. I have also suggested further theoretical analyses as well as possible empirical applications to the theoretical framework of the article.

  • Lindquist, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Samhällsvetenskapen och miljöproblemens sociala ekologi1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 64-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the problems of the natural environment, presently taking a central part of the societal agenda, reveals a situation in which social science in general, and sociology in particular, is confronted with two major questions: the first one concerns how environmental problems are to be conceptualized from a strict social scientific, as distinguished from a natural scientific point of view; the second one has to do with the normative relation of social science to the political problematization of environmental concerns. Taking a communication theoretical point of departure, mainly following the ideas of Niklas Luhmann and Ulrich Beck, it is argued in this article that the environmental problem may be conceptualized in terms of the internal, social, as opposed to the external, natural ecology of the functionally differentiated modem society. As sociologists we are returned to the original intention of the discipline, namely, that social facts can be explained only by social facts. In this context the notion of risk - conceived of as the problem of decision-making in the face of a spatially and temporally contingent and uncertain environment - will be of central importance. The perspective presented here suggests a sociological reconceptualization meant to grasping the idea of a societal system no longer having the achievement of security as its primary goal, but rather the exploitation of uncertainty and contingency itself: scientifically, ethically and politically.

  • Sungqvist, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Risk och kärnavfall - en studie av det moderna samhällets experter1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 37-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk and nuclear waste - a study of the experts in modern society

    Modem societies are characterized by their extensive expert systems, which penetrate all aspects of social life. The point of departure in this article is Anthony Giddens’ theory of expert systems. The theory is criticized and said to be both wide and vague, and depend too much on the notion of trust. It is in the article argued that there are life worlds outside the expert systems, with their own rationalities, which possibly can work as counter forces and sometimes also are able to change the expert systems. Giddens’ theory, based on the notions of trust and weak inductive knowledge, ignores the independent cognitive capacities among the laymen. Supplementing Giddens’ theory with some results from the sociology of science it is argued that both the experts’ and the laymen’s relations to the expert systems should be understood as alternating between trust and a cognitive attitude. The theory of expert systems is illustrated by the history of nuclear waste management in Sweden, which is an activity highly dependent on trust and legitimacy among the general public. The opposition to nuclear waste among lay persons during the last decades have in some respect changed the expert systems involved.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Mellan sociologi och ekologi? Om det sociologiska studiet av miljöfrågan1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 7-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociology, as it came to be constructed from the late 19th century onwards, deliberately concentrated on human societies, giving little attention to the natural world which constitutes the very condition of its existence and development. Today, some sociologists claim that the environmental problems of today constitute a challenge to this classical sociological understanding. By critically discussing environmental sociologists’ claim for the necessity to include biophysical facts in sociological analysis, this article seeks to elaborate a sociological perspective on environmental problems. From the point of view of epistemology and the sociology of knowledge, the article contrasts naive realism with social constructivism. It is here stated that even though social constructivism seems to be more in line with sociological thought a realistic standpoint regarding the environmental threat seem to be a necessity. By way of conclusion it is stated that a proper sociological understanding has to take into account nature’s constructedness as well as realistic side. Thus nature cannot be understood outside of society or society outside of nature.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Miljö och risk: en kort introduktion1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 5-6 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Från redaktionen1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 2-3 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1995:21995Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2017-10-27 13:30 Rum 3085, L-huset, Stockholm
    Håkansson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Lantmäteriet.
    Hardware biases and their impact on GNSS positioning2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS hardware biases appear in code and phase observations, and originates both from the receiver and satellite hardware. These biases influence the accuracy in precise GNSS positioning if not handled properly.

    This thesis is based on two papers, where one is a review paper published in GPS Solutions, and the other is a research paper currently in review (resubmitted after minor revision) for Journal of Geodetic Science. The first paper compiles current results and gives an overview of those situations where biases are of the greatest importance for precise positioning. The second paper investigates the satellite dependency in two cases of relative phase biases.

    In the first paper, a review is given on how hardware biases influence precise GNSS positioning in various situations. These can roughly be divided into five cases: positioning not employing the ionosphere free combination to which the satellite clock corrections are aligned, GNSS based ionospheric modeling, determination of the phase ambiguity as an integer in PPP, and positioning with GLONASS.

    In the second paper, the satellite dependency for two cases of relative phase biases are investigated: relative between-receiver biases in single differenced phase observations from two receivers, relative between-signals biases in observation differences between two signals recorded by the same receiver and associated with the same carrier frequency. In both these cases a satellite dependency was discovered. The first case showed a difference of 0.8 mm between the greatest and smallest values, while the corresponding difference in the second case was 3.5 mm.

    It was also discovered that the biases in the first case varied periodically over time, and with a period of one sidereal day. The exact cause for these variations could however not be determined in the experiment, even though multipath could be excluded as their source.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 11D257, Agardhsalen, Karlstad
    Brandheim, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    A systemic stigmatization of fat people2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to develop knowledge about and awareness of fatness stigmatization from a systemic perspective. The stigmatization of fat people was located as a social problem in a second-order reality in which human fatness is observed and responded to, in turn providing it with negative meaning. Four separate studies of processes involved in this systemic stigmatization were performed.

    In study I, the association between weight and psychological distress was investigated. When controlling for an age-gender variable, this association was almost erased, questioning the certainty by which a higher weight in general is approached as a medical issue. In study II, the focus was on stigma internalization where negative and positive responses combined were connected to fat individuals’ distress. We found that both responses seemed to have a larger impact on fat individuals, suggesting that the embodied stigma of being fat sensitizes them to responses in general. In study III, justifications of fatness stigmatization was explored by a content analysis of a reality TV weight-loss show. The analysis showed how explicit bullying of a fat partner could be justified by animating the thin Self as violated by the fat Other, thus downplaying the evils of the bullying act in favor of highlighting the ideological value of thinness.

    The implications of these studies were related and seated in a context comprising a historical aversion toward the fat body, a declared obesity epidemic, a new public health ideology, a documented failure to reverse this obesity epidemic, and a market of weight-loss stakeholders who thrive on keeping the negative meanings of being fat alive.

    The stigmatization of fat people was intelligible from a systemic perspective, where processes of structural ignorance, internalized self-discrimination, and applied prejudice reinforce each other to form a larger stigmatizing process. In paper IV, it was argued that viewing fatness stigmatization as oppression rather than misrecognition could hold transformative keys to social change.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Aronsson, Martin
    SICS.
    Optimering och tidtabelläggning: slutrapportering av förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study has been to assess the potential for developing an optimization tool for time-tabling of railway traffic. The study is based on a 20-year-old paper that the authors of the pilot study co-authored. The subsequent papers published in this field of research provide a basis for considering the further development of the original model architecture. A crucial component in this is the rapid capacity improvement of computer capacity. A second issue has been to consider the possibilities to speed up the solution to the large and complex algorithms used for identifying an optimal solution.

    The mimeo demonstrates that the preconditions for improving the performance of the original model are very good. In three background papers, different dimensions of this potential are addressed. The description concludes by suggesting the design of a further test of the method on a shorter section of the national grid. Importantly, the test would be realized in parallel with the annual development of a new time-table for the coming year.

  • Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Res Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Per-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    A case of long QT syndrome: challenges on a bumpy road2017In: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 5, no 6, 954-960 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Clinical Message Beta-agonist treatment during pregnancy may unmask the diagnosis of long QT syndrome. The QT prolongation can result in functional AV block. A history of seizure and/or sudden death in a family member should raise suspicion of ventricular tachycardia. More than one mutation may coexist. Refusal of betablocker therapy complicates risk stratification.

  • Demmelmair, Hans
    et al.
    Prell, Christine
    Timby, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants2017In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 8, 817Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow's milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants.

  • Mengel, Friederike
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    GENDER BIAS IN TEACHING EVALUATIONS2017Other (Other academic)
  • Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Örnerheim, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementering av patientlagstiftning: En lång resa från goda intentioner till nya förhållningssätt i vårdvardagen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten belyser och analyserar svårigheterna att implementera lagstiftning som tillkommit under senare år för att ge patienter bättre möjligheter att påverka den vård de får. I patientmaktsutredningens delbetänkande om Patientlag (SOU 2013:2) uppmärksammas eftersläpning i implementeringen av flera av de åtgärder som trädde i kraft år 2010 som vårdgaranti, fast vårdkontakt och förnyad medicinsk bedömning (prop. 2009 /10:67 Stärkt ställning för patienten). De mest framträdande lagändringar som skett under senare år för att stärka patienters ställning är rätten till vårdval, det vill säga att välja vårdgivare inom och utom regionen (SFS 1982:763), rätten att få en förnyad medicinsk bedömning en så kallad second opinion (3 a § SFS 1982:763), rätten att få vård inom viss tid, den så kallade vårdgarantin (SFS 1982:763), samt möjligheten att välja vårdgivare inom EU. Sammantaget handlar det om åtgärder som ska stärka patientens ställning och ge den enskilde patienten inflytande över hälso- och sjukvården (SOU 2013:44).

    Frågor om patienters inflytande i vården är inte nya. De har successivt vuxit fram. Ett viktigt steg togs redan år 1990 då patienter i de flesta landsting fick möjlighet att välja vård utanför det egna landstinget. Det dåvarande Landstingsförbundet rekommenderade då landstingen att utöka patientens valmöjligheter av utförare över landstingsgränserna (SOU 2013:2). Sedan dess har policyer för att stärka patienters inflytande, engagemang och delaktighet i sin egen vård och hälsa uppmärksammats i flera utredningar och lagförslag.

    Denna rapport analyserar implementeringen av patientlagstiftning. Syftet är dels att utifrån fallstudier belysa hur lagstiftning om vårdens skyldigheter i förhållande till patienter implementeras och dels att analysera hur och varför utfallet varierar, för att kunna diskutera möjliga sätt att förstärka implementeringen av denna lagstiftning. Syftet konkretiseras i dessa övergripande forskningsfrågor:

    1. Hur påverkas implementeringen av patientlagstiftning av det regionskommunala självstyret?
    2. Hur påverkas implementeringen av patientlagstiftning av lagstiftningens utformning?
    3. Hur bidrar eller hindrar sjukvårdens professioner implementeringen av lagstiftningsåtgärder som syftar till att stärka patienters inflytande i vården?
    4. Hur bidrar eller hindrar medborgarna implementeringen av lagstiftningsåtgärder som syftar till att stärka patienters inflytande i vården?....
  • Lindahl, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Arbring, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Wallstedt, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rånby, Mats
    Zafena AB, Borensberg, Sweden.
    A novel prothrombin time method to measure all non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs)2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a clinical need for point-of-care (POC) methods for non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We modified a routine POC procedure: Zafena’s Simple Simon™ PT-INR, a room-temperature, wet-chemistry prothrombin time method of the Owren-type.

    Methods: To either increase or decrease NOAC interference, two assay variants were devised by replacing the standard 10 µL end-to-end capillary used to add the citrated plasma sample to 200 µL of prothrombin time (PT) reagent by either a 20 µL or a 5 µL capillary. All assay variants were calibrated to show correct PT results in plasma samples from healthy and warfarin-treated persons.

    Results: For plasmas spiked with dabigatran, apixaban, or rivaroxaban, the 20 µL variant showed markedly higher PT results than the 5 µL. The effects were even more pronounced at room temperature than at +37 °C. In plasmas from patients treated with NOACs (n = 30 for each) there was a strong correlation between the PT results and the concentration of NOACs as determined by the central hospital laboratory. For the 20 µL variant the PT response of linear correlation coefficient averaged 0.90. The PT range was INR 1.1–2.1 for dabigatran and apixaban, and INR 1.1–5.0 for rivaroxaban. Using an INR ratio between the 20 µL and 5 µL variants (PTr20/5) made the NOAC assay more robust and independent of the patient sample INR value in the absence of NOAC. Detection limits were 80 µg/L for apixaban, 60 µg/L for dabigatran, and 20 µg/L for rivaroxaban.

    Conclusions: A wet-chemistry POC PT procedure was modified to measure the concentrations of three NOACs using a single reagent.

  • Trillo, Paz
    et al.
    Slagbrand, Tove
    Tinnis, Fredrik
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mild Reductive Functionalization of Amides into N-Sulfonylformamidines2017In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 6, no 4, 484-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a protocol for the reductive functionalization of amides into N-sulfonylformamidines is reported. The one-pot procedure is based on a mild catalytic reduction of tertiary amides into the corresponding enamines by the use of Mo(CO)(6) (molybdenum hexacarbonyl) and TMDS (1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane). The formed enamines were allowed to react with sulfonyl azides to give the target compounds in moderate to good yields.

  • Korolczuk, Elżbieta
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Bunt kobiet AD 2016: skąd się wziął i czego nas uczy?2016In: Przebudzona rewolucja: Prawa reprodukcyjne kobiet w Polsce. Raport 2016 / [ed] Agata Czarnacka, Warsaw: Fundacja im. Izabeli Jarugi-Nowackiej , 2016, 31-42 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    Masowe protesty przeciwko projektowi całkowitego zakazu aborcji w 2016 okazały się sukcesem. Udało się nie tylko zmobilizować do działania setki tysięcy kobiet, ale też wymusić na rządzących zmianę decyzji. Projekt Ordo Iuris został odrzucony po pierwszym czytaniu w Sejmie i choć nie była to z pewnością ostatnia próba zaostrzenia prawa aborcyjnego w Polsce, udało się wygrać przynajmniej tę bitwę. Skala i zasięg protestów pokazują ogromny potencjał zaangażowania kobiet, które nie mieszkają w wielkich miastach i które nie uczestniczyły do tej pory w życiu politycznym, a przynajmniej nie tak aktywnie jak przy okazji Czarnych Protestów. Okazało się, że polskie społeczeństwo obywatelskie nie jest bynajmniej uśpione i apatyczne, ale aktywne i gotowe do wyjścia na ulice, gdy sytuacja tego wymaga. Ten rozdział stara się odpowiedzieć na pytania: dlaczego kobiety zmobilizowały się właśnie w tym momencie i jak to się stało, że w 2016 roku doszło do masowego buntu Polek.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 V159, Kalmar
    Rask, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result: - experiences and impact on health-related quality of life2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate experiences of receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result and its impact on women’s health-related quality of life as well as to investigate women’s awareness of human papillomavirus.

     

    Methods: In total, 176 women and 20 healthcare professionals participated. Data were collected through individual interviews (I, II) and a questionnaire (IV) including the instrument Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). For the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FACIT-CD, and for evaluation of its linguistic validity and reliability, cognitive debriefing interviews and a questionnaire consisting of the Swedish instrument FACIT-CD was used. Data were analysed by content analysis (I, II) and by using statistical analysis (III, IV), while one part (III) was analysed according to FACIT translation methodology.  

     

    Results: Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result have good overall HRQoL; they become anxious but not depressed. Reasons for anxiety were mainly that women misinterpreted the result as cancer, which could lead to lower attendance for further investigation, treatment and follow-up. To cope with the anxiety, women sought emotional support and information. They primarily used the Internet for information but also turned to healthcare professionals for information needs. Moreover, women had low awareness of HPV, its sexually transmitted nature, and its relationship to abnormal Pap smear results and cervical cancer. An awareness of HPV as a sexually transmitted infection did not lead to higher level of anxiety or more depression symptoms or worse HRQoL, compared to not being aware. Finally, the Swedish FACIT-CD is equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid and exhibited good internal consistency reliability.

     

    Conclusion: Women have low awareness of HPV and abnormal Pap smear results, whereupon they misinterpret their test result as cancer. It is of importance that women understand their test result, in order to minimise anxiety as well as to maintain high attendance for investigation, treatment and follow-up of abnormalities.

  • Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Waris, Otto
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Rinne, Juha O.
    Alakurtti, Kati
    Soveri, Anna
    Laine, Matti
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Increased dopamine release after working-memory updating training: Neurochemical correlates of transfer2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 7160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work demonstrates that working-memory (WM) updating training results in improved performance on a letter-memory criterion task, transfers to an untrained n-back task, and increases striatal dopamine (DA) activity during the criterion task. Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings by also examining neurochemical correlates of transfer. Four positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the radioligand raclopride were performed. Two of these assessed DAD2 binding (letter memory; n-back) before 5 weeks of updating training, and the same two scans were performed post training. Key findings were (a) pronounced training-related behavioral gains in the lettermemory criterion task, (b) altered striatal DAD2 binding potential after training during letter-memory performance, suggesting training-induced increases in DA release, and (c) increased striatal DA activity also during the n-back transfer task after the intervention, but no concomitant behavioral transfer. The fact that the training-related DA alterations during the transfer task were not accompanied by behavioral transfer suggests that increased DA release may be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for behavioral transfer to occur.

  • Korolczuk, Elżbieta
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies. Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland.
    ‘The purest citizens’ and ‘IVF children’: Reproductive citizenship in contemporary Poland2016In: Reproductive BioMedicine and Society Online, ISSN 2405-6618, Vol. 3, 126-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the public debate on reproductive technologies in contemporary Poland, focusing on the rhetoricalstrategies used by the main opponents of IVF: conservative politicians representing the leading parties in the Polish parliament andthe representatives of the Catholic Church. The analysis highlights the exclusionary logic inscribed in the construction of the maincategories of political subjects in this debate, revealing important limitations of reproductive citizenship in the Polish context. Thestudy draws on a variety of texts published in print and electronic media between 2007 and 2015, including articles on infertility andreproductive technologies published in the main Polish daily and weekly print publications, online resources (web pages, forums andFacebook pages), documents issued by the representatives of the Church, politicians and experts, e.g. open letters, commentaries,information for the media and interviews.

  • Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt
    et al.
    Mohlkert, Lilly-Ann
    Hallberg, Jenny
    Liuba, Petru
    Fellman, Vineta
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Norman, Mikael
    Blood Pressure in 6-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 8, e005858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Advances in perinatal medicine have increased infant survival after very preterm birth. Although this progress is welcome, there is increasing concern that preterm birth is an emerging risk factor for hypertension at young age, with implications for the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results-We measured casual blood pressures (BPs) in a population-based cohort of 6-year-old survivors of extremely preterm birth (< 27 gestational weeks; n=171) and in age-and sex-matched controls born at term (n=172). Measured BP did not differ, but sex, age-, and height-adjusted median z scores were 0.14 SD higher (P=0.02) for systolic BP and 0.10 SD higher (P=0.01) for diastolic BP in children born extremely preterm than in controls. Among children born extremely preterm, shorter gestation, higher body mass index, and higher heart rate at follow-up were all independently associated with higher BP at 6 years of age, whereas preeclampsia, smoking in pregnancy, neonatal morbidity, and perinatal corticosteroid therapy were not. In multivariate regression analyses, systolic BP decreased by 0.10 SD (P=0.08) and diastolic BP by 0.09 SD (P=0.02) for each week-longer gestation. Conclusions-Six-year-old children born extremely preterm have normal but slightly higher BP than their peers born at term. Although this finding is reassuring for children born preterm and their families, follow-up at older age is warranted.

  • Datasets (primärdata) till: Tillsyn enligt miljöbalken –möjligheter till utveckling och förbättring2017Data set
    Abstract [sv]

    Dessa 12 Excel-ark innehåller information om länsstyrelsers och kommuners tillsynsverksamhet enligt miljöbalken för 2016. Informationen är ett underlag till Naturvårdsverkets årliga redovisning av hur tillsynen kan utvecklas och förbättras. Informationen är inhämtad med hjälp av enkäter samt insamlade från Svenska Miljörapporteringsportalen, Kammarkollegiet och Länsstyrelsernas tidsrapportering.

  • Tillsyn enligt miljöbalken – möjligheter till utveckling och förbättring: Redovisning till regeringen enligt 1 kap. 28 § miljötillsynsförordningen den 15 april 20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket ska senast den 15 april varje år lämna en redovisning av hur tillsynenkan utvecklas och förbättras. Redovisningen ska omfatta de brister i tillsynen somNaturvårdsverket identifierat och en beskrivning av hur de kan åtgärdas. I år är det andra gången som arbetet sker enligt den modell som beskrivits i en redovisning av ett regeringsuppdrag 2015. Arbetet med tillsynsuppföljningen har genomförts i en arbetsgrupp där Folkhälsomyndigheten, Havs- och vattenmyndigheten,Jordbruksverket, Kemikalieinspektionen och representant för länsstyrelserna ingått. Fokus för årets redovisning är att redogöra för underlag och analys när det gäller behovsutredningar och tillsynsplaner, personresurser, kompetensutveckling och länsstyrelsernas uppföljning av kommunernas tillsyn. Redovisningen omfattar även förra årets fördjupningsområden som rörde vattenverksamheter, skyddade områden och artskydd. Det ingår även en sammanställning av de uppgifter om miljöbalkstillsyn som hämtats in via enkäter, befintliga datakällor och rapporter. Slutsatser och förslag på flera av dessa områden har Naturvårdsverket framfört inom ramen för den pågående Miljötillsynsutredningen. Därför framförs inga förslag till åtgärder i årets tillsynsuppföljning. Till redovisningen bifogas några av de inspel som Naturvårdsverkets expert lämnat till utredningen.

  • Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, 49-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • Broqvist, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Widenlou Nordmark, Arvid
    Socialstyrelsen.
    Edin, Ulrike
    Region Skåne.
    Nationell modell för öppna prioriteringar inom hälso- och sjukvård: ett verktyg för rangordning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention with the National Model for Transparent Prioritisation in Swedish Health Care is to provide a tool for systematic ranking of different health conditions and their interventions, based on the existing parliamentary decision on priority settings within healthcare in Sweden. In short, this means that the model is based on the parliamentary decision that more resources will be allocated for the effective care of those in great need of care, provided there is a reasonable relationship between patient benefit and cost, and that human dignity is respected.

    The national model is intended to be used to produce rankings:

    • of state of health (both for confirmed ill health/suspected ill health, as well as the risk of future ill health) combined with its interventions.
    • at group level (i.e. for ranking of patient groups and/or groups at risk of future ill health).
    • both within a patient group with similar ill health and between patient groups with different types of ill health.
    • primarily in publicly financed healthcare controlled by the Health and Medical Services Act, HSL, but also within other health and social care services, taking into account the applicable laws.

    The model should, on the other hand, not be seen as a tool for how a prioritisation process as a whole is organised, or what acceptable needs coverage or cost limitations should be. This type of question must be answered locally/regionally.

    The model comprises the following steps:

    1. Defining of purpose and area of prioritisation
    2. Identification of what should be ranked (so-called prioritisation object)
    3. Appraisal of severity
    4. Appraisal of patient benefit
    5. Appraisal of cost in relation to patient benefit
    6. Valuation of the quality in the basis for assessment
    7. Weighing and ranking Ranking is on a scale of ten where 1 represents the highest priority and 10 the lowest. The logic of the model is based on the fact that lesser severity and little patient benefit cannot give rise to high prioritisation.
    8. Presentation of ranking and its basis
  • Bäckman, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prioriteringar över kommunala förvaltningsområden: ett utvecklingsarbete i Motala kommun2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motala municipality is the first municipality which has, systematically, taken on priority setting and resource allocation within all its administrative areas, based on the ethical principles and guidelines for priority settings applicable to health care. The work comprises development of a tool for priority setting, adapted to a municipal context, and using it in systematic setting of priorities combined with political goals and visions. The intention is that the setting of priorities will be developed into a sustainable routine, integrated into the existing budget process.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the first stage of the development work with the associated work processes, and to analyse it from an improvement and implementation perspective. The report spans the years 2013-2015.

    The involvement of the National Centre for Priority Setting in Health Care in Motala municipality has meant that we, by so called action research, have studied the development of the priority-setting work, while giving support to the municipality and participating in the development of tools and processes. Data collection was undertaken through observations, documents, surveys and contacts of varying kinds.

    In Motala municipality the priority setting process and its tools were developed in close collaboration with the actors involved, those who would become the users. Priority setting has been integrated into the municipality’s existing management system and routines. The development has taken place gradually in small improvement cycles. In this way, knowledge and learning was built up within the organisation and the work has been characterised by long-term sustainability.

    Motala municipality’s development of tools and processes for priority setting shows that it is possible to be guided by national ethical principles for priority setting within health care, and it is feasible to combine this with political goals and visions. It has also been possible to include all the administrations of the municipality in the setting of priorities, in an open, systematic process linked to regular budgeting.

  • Nordvall, Henrik (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pastuhov, Annika (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Mimerbladet September 20172017Other (Other academic)
  • Edueng, Khadijah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Kulliyyah Pharm, Jalan Istana, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia..
    Mahlin, Denny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Larsson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Mechanism-based selection of stabilization strategy for amorphous formulations: Insights into crystallization pathways2017In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 256, 193-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (mu DISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 13:00 Nyqvistsalen, 9c203, Karlstad
    Öhman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Återkoppling i interaktion: En studie av klassrumsbaserad bedömning i frisörutbildningen2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation concerns social organization of feedback in ongoing hairdressing education. The central aim is to explore feedback between teacher and student in multimodal interaction within classroom assessment, as co-production of action and student’s participation. Classroom assessment and feedback are understood as social actions situated in interaction.

    The empirical data consists of video recordings from two vocational schools. From 31 hours of video material, selections of feedback interactions were made. At first, teacher and student communication in feedback cycles and loops was analysed from a social semiotic perspective. Secondly, examples of student initiated feedback loops were analysed from a conversation analytic perspective. Thirdly, a single case of a teacher and a student interacting through feedback related to creative subject content was analysed from a conversation analytic perspective. 

    The analyses show the importance of collaborative use of artefacts and embodied communication in the production of mutual understanding; opening for student initiatives in actions of assessment as well as feedback. Silence and body position were found to be important resources giving the student space to display concern. Participation in feedback practices within creative subject content emerged in a trajectory of problem detection to problem solving, resulting in tacit dimensions of hairdressers’ knowing made explicit.

    The findings indicate the importance of taking a participatory perspective on multimodal interaction when exploring actions of assessment and feedback between teacher and student. This study shows how feedback is not only given from the teacher, but also locally produced as a collaborative practice between teachers and students, displaying tacit dimensions of professional knowledge and subject content.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-26 13:00 Ka-Sal C, Electrum, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista
    Celik, Haris
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    On the Performance of Dynamic TDD in Ultra-Dense Wireless Access Networks2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The appetite for wireless high-data rate services is expected to continue for many years to come and drive the need for more capacity. Ultra-dense networks (UDNs) represent a paradigm shift where each base station (BS) serves only a few user equipments (UEs). By most accounts, most of the traffic will be generated indoor and operate in time-division duplex (TDD). This thesis considers dynamic TDD which has shown to perform well indoor for fluctuating traffic where the shorter communication range enables similar transmit powers to be used in uplink and downlink, but also generates potentially more harmful same-entity interference. Because of the sheer number of cells in UDN, the interference management needs to be both effective and scalable.

     

    In the first part of the thesis, we compare static TDD with non-cooperative dynamic TDD and show that flexible time resource allocation is preferred for indoor UDNs. However, since it only provides a lower bound on performance, additional interference coordination is required. Unfortunately, existing schemes often consider either too few, too many, or simply the wrong interferers. We introduce a scheduling model that relates BS-to-BS interferences measured offline to individual BS activation probability taking into account traffic and propagation environment. Results show that the proposed scheme performs well when interference is high, and optimally when interference is low.

     

    In the second part, we introduce cooperation to utilize the otherwise idle BSs and mitigate same- and other entity interference. Zero forcing (ZF) is employed in the downlink where not only downlink UEs but also uplink BSs are included in the precoding. Since downlink BSs do not know the information to be sent by uplink UEs beforehand, dummy symbols with zero power are transmitted. It shown that both uplink and downlink performance improves at low and medium load. Furthermore, it is possible to trade performance in the two directions at high load.

  • Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case StudyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software projects frequently incur schedule and budget overruns. Planning and estimation are particularlychallenging in large and globally distributed projects. While software engineering researchers have beeninvestigating effort estimation for many years to help practitioners to improve their estimation processes, there is littleresearch about effort estimation in large-scale distributed agile projects.Objective: The main objective of this paper is three-fold: i) to identify how effort estimation is carried out in largescaledistributed agile projects; ii) to analyze the accuracy of the effort estimation processes in large-scale distributedagile projects; and iii) to identify the factors that impact the accuracy of effort estimates in large-scale distributed agileprojects.Method: We performed an exploratory longitudinal case study. The data collection was operationalized througharchival research and semi-structured interviews.Results: The main findings of this study are: 1) underestimation is the dominant trend in the studied case, 2) reestimationat the analysis stage improves the accuracy of the effort estimates, 3) requirements with large size/scopeincur larger effort overruns, 4) immature teams incur larger effort overruns, 5) requirements developed in multi-sitesettings incur larger effort overruns as compared to requirements developed in a collocated setting, and 6) requirementspriorities impact the accuracy of the effort estimates.Conclusion: Effort estimation is carried out at quotation and analysis stages in the studied case. It is a challengingtask involving coordination amongst many different stakeholders. Furthermore, lack of details and changes in requirements,immaturity of the newly on-boarded teams and the challenges associated with the large-scale add complexitiesin the effort estimation process.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-12 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Li, Bing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Impact Evaluation of Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) on Targeted Loads in Complex Networks Using Analytical Investigations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the proliferation of various electronic and electrical devices, IEMI has become a critical issue that may severely threaten the modern society. For practical protection considerations, it is crucial to comprehensively evaluate the potential damages resulted by IEMI. The major objective of this thesis is to study the impacts of IEMI on the targeted load in complex networks. More exactly, with respect to certain IEMI, the characteristics of the resulting frequency response on the targeted load are studied, and the effects of network configurations, i.e., the attribute of load impedances, lengths of lines, parameters of disturbance source, location of source and network structures, are also investigated.

    First, we developed a novel efficient method to solve the frequency response, which is applicable for arbitrary networks. The key idea is decomposing the whole complex network into multiple equivalent units, and performing a recursive approach to efficiently compute the frequency response without losing the precision.

    Subsequently, we studied the periodicity of the load response in the frequency domain. Starting with a simple network, we derived and verified the period of the frequency response. During the study, the periodicity with respect to load and media was discussed.

    Furthermore, with respect to five important time-domain norms, i.e., time-domain peak, total signal energy, peak signal power, peak time rate of change, and peak time integral of the pulse, we considered a parameterized ultra-wideband (UWB) transient as the disturbance source, and thoroughly studied its impacts on the targeted load regarding network configurations, which include load impedance, the lengths of lines and parameters of the UWB transient.

    Finally, we adopted a statistical approach to investigate the receptivity at the targeted load in a network. Via complementary cumulative distribution function, the stochastic IEMI and its effects on the targeted load were studied. Moreover, by statistical approach, we also investigated how the network structure affects the frequency response of the targeted load. The results give suggestions on how to protect the targeted load by varying network structures.

  • Syrjänen, Elmeri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Magna Græcia University, Catanzaro, Italy.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Do Valenced Odors and Trait Body Odor Disgust Affect Evaluation of Emotion in Dynamic Faces?2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information. In this preregistered study, we tested whether a classification of dynamic facial expressions as happy or disgusted, and an emotional evaluation of these facial expressions, would be affected by individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity, and by exposure to a sweat-like, negatively valenced odor (valeric acid), as compared with a soap-like, positively valenced odor (lilac essence) or a no-odor control. Using Bayesian hypothesis testing, we found evidence that odors do not affect recognition of emotion in dynamic faces even when body odor disgust sensitivity was used as moderator. However, an exploratory analysis suggested that an unpleasant odor context may cause faster RTs for faces, independent of their emotional expression. Our results further our understanding of the scope and limits of odor effects on facial perception affect and suggest further studies should focus on reproducibility, specifying experimental circumstances where odor effects on facial expressions may be present versus absent.

  • Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Experiences from Measuring Learning and Performance in Large-Scale Distributed Software Development2016In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM Digital Library, 2016, 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developers and development teams in large-scale software development are often required to learn continuously. Organizations also face the need to train and support new developers and teams on-boarded in ongoing projects. Although learning is associated with performance improvements, experience shows that training and learning does not always result in a better performance or significant improvements might take too long.

    Aims: In this paper, we report our experiences from establishing an approach to measure learning results and associated performance impact for developers and teams in Ericsson.

    Method: Experiences reported herein are a part of an exploratory case study of an on-going large-scale distributed project in Ericsson. The data collected for our measurements included archival data and expert knowledge acquired through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews. While performing the measurements, we faced a number of challenges, documented in the form of lessons learned.

    Results: We aggregated our experience in eight lessons learned related to collection, preparation and analysis of data for further measurement of learning potential and performance in large-scale distributed software development.

    Conclusions: Measuring learning and performance is a challenging task. Major problems were related to data inconsistencies caused by, among other factors, distributed nature of the project. We believe that the documented experiences shared herein can help other researchers and practitioners to perform similar measurements and overcome the challenges of large-scale distributed software projects, as well as proactively address these challenges when establishing project measurement programs.

  • Lundqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Edfors, Fredrik
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Sivertsson, Åsa
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Hallström, Björn M
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Hudson, Elton P.
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Tegel, Hanna
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Rockberg, Johan
    KTH, Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Solid-phase cloning for high-throughput assembly of single and multiple DNA parts2015In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 43, no 7, e49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe solid-phase cloning (SPC) for high-throughput assembly of expression plasmids. Our method allows PCR products to be put directly into a liquid handler for capture and purification using paramagnetic streptavidin beads and conversion into constructs by subsequent cloning reactions. We present a robust automated protocol for restriction enzyme based SPC and its performance for the cloning of >60 000 unique human gene fragments into expression vectors. In addition, we report on SPC-based single-strand assembly for applications where exact control of the sequence between fragments is needed or where multiple inserts are to be assembled. In this approach, the solid support allows for head-to-tail assembly of DNA fragments based on hybridization and polymerase fill-in. The usefulness of head-to-tail SPC was demonstrated by assembly of >150 constructs with up to four DNA parts at an average success rate above 80%. We report on several applications for SPC and we suggest it to be particularly suitable for high-throughput efforts using laboratory workstations.

  • Sociologförbundet har ordet. Sociologidagarna 2018: Sociology in a polarized world2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 267-268 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 245-265 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Heidegran, Carl-Göran
    Lunds universitet.
    An interview with Hans Joas2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 233-243 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview with Hans Joas

    This interview took place at Lund University on January 18, 2017. In the interview Joas talks about the continuities and orientations of his own work, explains some of his key conceptual and theoretical insights, and comments on the state of sociology today.

  • Westerstrand, Jenny
    Kontextualiseringens svåra konst: Kunskap, kön och förbindelselinjer i en förundersökningom ”hedersvåld”2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 209-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextualizing Violence: Knowledge, gender and lines of connection in apreliminary investigation on “honour violence”

    I discuss some practical and theoretical problems related to the feminist project of re-contextualizing law in order to acknowledge women’s experiences. Nicola Lacey warns us that re-contextualization might result in existing misogynist presumptions being re-inscribed in “new” lines of thoughts, making the problem of gender inequality even harder to address. In this article my analytical focus is set on two cultural contexts constructed as different – a “Swedish gender equal context” and a “non-Swedish honour related context” – and the attempts made by the prosecutor and the police “to contextualize” the latter. I highlight, in the light of Lacey’s warnings, the need for a careful and grounded analysis of the issues being “contextualized” as well as a careful analysis of the norms that are supposed to guide the process of contextualization. I take my point of departure in the example of a police investigation of suspected honor related violence, committed in the context of a compulsory school.

  • Lindblom, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Qaderi, Josef
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Massmedias hantering av vetenskaplig kritik mot Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera: Ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv på psykofarmaka2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 181-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass media’s handling of scientific critique of Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera: a social constructionist perspective on psychotropic agents

    This article aims to examine how scientific critique of pharmacological treatment with Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera for ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is handled in eight of the largest newspapers in Sweden, 2002–2015 (n=183 articles). The media study explores the terminology used; the depiction of long-term harmful effects; the actors given space to express their views; the attention displayed to alternative treatments; the representation of pharmaceutical studies; the role of news and debate articles; the significance of conflicts of interest; and whether ADHD is portrayed as a medical condition. The results show that mass media, in numerous ways, neglects or undermines the critique of pharmacological interventions for ADHD put forward in the scientific literature. In the article a social constructionist approach to psychotropic agents is developed, highlighting the significance of what the authors call “psychopharmacological elasticity.” The concept illustrates that the boundary between medicines and harmful agents, such as drugs, is flexible from a scientific standpoint and depends on collective definitional processes in society.