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  • Goronzy, I. N.
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Chem, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Rawle, R. J.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Mol Physiol & Biomed Engn, Box 800886, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA..
    Boxer, S. G.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Chem, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Kasson, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Univ Virginia, Dept Mol Physiol & Biomed Engn, Box 800886, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA..
    Cholesterol enhances influenza binding avidity by controlling nanoscale receptor clustering2018In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 2340-2347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza virus infects cells by binding to sialylated glycans on the cell surface. While the chemical structure of these glycans determines hemagglutinin-glycan binding affinity, bimolecular affinities are weak, so binding is avidity-dominated and driven by multivalent interactions. Here, we show that membrane spatial organization can control viral binding. Using single-virus fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the sterol composition of the target membrane enhances viral binding avidity in a dose-dependent manner. Binding shows a cooperative dependence on concentration of receptors for influenza virus, as would be expected for a multivalent interaction. Surprisingly, the ability of sterols to promote viral binding is independent of their ability to support liquid-liquid phase separation in model systems. We develop a molecular explanation for this observation via molecular dynamics simulations, where we find that cholesterol promotes small-scale clusters of glycosphingolipid receptors. We propose a model whereby cholesterol orders the monomeric state of glycosphingolipid receptors, reducing the entropic penalty of receptor association and thus favoring multimeric complexes without phase separation. This model explains how cholesterol and other sterols control the spatial organization of membrane receptors for influenza and increase viral binding avidity. A natural consequence of this finding is that local cholesterol concentration in the plasma membrane of cells may alter the binding avidity of influenza virions. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a form of cholesterol-dependent membrane organization that does not involve lipid rafts, suggesting that cholesterol's effect on cell membrane heterogeneity is likely the interplay of several different factors.

  • Qvarfordt, Mikaela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Anderson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Quality and learning aspects of the first 9000 spirometries of the LifeGene study2018In: NPJ primary care respiratory medicine, ISSN 2055-1010, Vol. 28, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spirometry requires the patient to cooperate and do the manoeuvre 'right' for reliable results. Algorithms to assess test quality as well as educational recommendations for personnel are defined in guidelines. We compared the quality of forced spirometry tests performed by spirometry technicians with little or no previous experience of spirometry using spirometry systems with different modes of feedback. In both cases, the spirometry technician received general feedback on the screen based on ATS/ERS guidelines, such as 'exhale faster' and 'exhale longer'. The major difference was whether quality grading system of the complete session was available simultaneously on screen, or in the printed report afterwards. Two parts of the same population-based study (LifeGene), the pilot (LG1) and the first part (LG2) of the subsequent study, were compared retrospectively. In LG1 (on-screen grading) approved examination quality was achieved for 88% of the 10 first subjects for each spirometry technician compared to 70% in LG2 (printed grading afterwards). The corresponding values after 40 subjects was 94 % in LG1, compared to 73% in LG2, and after the first ten subjects there was no apparent quality improvement in either LG1 or LG2. The quality for LG1 is among the highest reported in the literature even though the spirometry technician were relatively inexperienced. We conclude that on-screen grading in addition to general technical quality feedback is powerful in enhancing the spirometry test session quality.

  • Boström, Curt-Åke
    et al.
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Flodström, Eje
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cooper, David
    Executive, Forskningsinstitut, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emissionsfaktorer för stationär förbränning2004Report (Other academic)
  • Blombäck, Karin
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Kristian
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Utveckling av mer platsberoende parameterisering av ICECREAMDB2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous comparisons of measured phosphorus (P) losses and simulated

    results obtained using the ICECREAMDB model revealed certain

    systematic deviations that could be attributed to soil texture in the study

    areas. In the previous investigation, simulations were performed with the

    standard parameterisations for different soil textures that are used for the

    PLC5 calculations. Before the next set of PLC we therefore deemed it

    important to review the generality of soil texture-related parameterisation

    and to make an assessment of its site-specificity. This report describes

    preliminary work in which soil texture-related PLC5 parameterisation and

    more site-specific parameterisation were tested in three different fields

    included in the environmental monitoring programme ‘Observation fields

    on arable land’. The soil texture in these fields consists of sandy loam and

    loam and the fields were chosen because they represent soils that occur in

    all leaching regions of Sweden, corresponding to over 50% of the

    agricultural area in 12 of the 22 regions, and therefore play an important role

    in calculation of the regional leaching coefficients.

    The results showed that the standard parameterisations from the PLC5

    calculations used for the ICECREAMDB model generally functioned well

    as regards capturing the run-off pattern in the three observation fields for

    simulation of 5-9 year periods. Starts and stops of run-off events were

    captured but the size of the peak flows as well as the accumulated run-off

    were underestimated. In contrast, the simulated results of P losses, both

    total-P and dissolved-P, were overestimated with the standard

    parameterisations.The site-specific parameterisation further underestimated

    run-off, while overestimation of total-P losses decreased.

    In the tests on site-specific parameterisation, the value given to the water

    storage capacity in the soil, i.e. porosity, field capacity and wilting point,

    was critically important for total run-off and for the distribution of flows

    between surface run-off, macropore flow and flow in the micropore region.

    Since water flows in turn control P flows in the model, these parameters

    were also highly important for the P flows. Small changes in clay content

    and pH both had a large impact on simulated P losses. Not in any of the

    cases did the site-specific parameterisation improve the simulated results

    compared to parameterisation according to PLC5.

    The study presented was an introductory test of a few of the standard

    parameterisations used for the PLC5 calculations. A continued study,

    financed by the SLU Environmental mentoring and assessment program will

    be performed during 2009 to cover more soil types and a broader spectrum

    of climatic variations.

  • Øian, Hogne
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Sandell, Klas
    Sæþórsdóttir, Anna Dóra
    Tyrväinen, Liisa
    Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
    Tourism, nature and sustainability: A review of policy instruments in the Nordic countries2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the Nordic countries have experienced a rapid growth in numbers of visitors. At some popular nature attractions this has resulted in crowding, environmental damage, costly rescue operations and overload on public infrastructure. Implementation of economic policy instruments have hence been suggested to secure a more sustainable development. While the applicability of e.g. entrance fees is restricted by the public rights of access, economic instruments tend to represent short-sighted solutions. Sustainable development requires holistic policies, which take environmental, social and economic aspects into consideration in a long-term perspective. To achieve a more sustainable development of tourism, it is suggested that a limited use of economic instrument should take place in combination with adaptive management strategies and available legal and administrative instruments.

  • Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Testplatser för 74 ton tunga fordon: två instrumenterade tunna vägkonstruktioner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI note describes briefly the construction and instrumentation of two new test road structures that have been built during the autumn 2017 on Lv373 and Lv515 respectively in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. One structure is placed on Lv373 east of the village Långträsk while the other structure is on Lv515 south if the intersection with Lv373. The distance between the two locations is about 10 km. Both structures are thin pavement structures. The main objective of the two new test sites is to estimate the impact that the new 74 tonnes vehicles have on the Swedish road network. This will be done through direct measurements of the pavement response from the road sensors. The sensors consist of horizontal strain sensors in both longitudinal and transversal direction at the bottom of the asphalt layer as well as vertical strain sensors over every layer down to 1.2 m depth. Soil pressure cells are further installed at two depths. The local ambient climate is monitored as well. A frost and a moisture rod were therefore installed. Further are temperature sensors installed in the asphalt concrete. Two weather stations are located within 20 km distances from the test structures. The first response measurements are planned in the late summer or early autumn 2018.

  • Nikander, Hannele
    et al.
    Andersson, Agnes
    Sverdlilje, Vanja
    Jakobsen, Dorte
    Shipping green-listed waste2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This guidance gives information on the requirements related to shipping of green-listed waste. As a general rule, a permit is required for transfrontier shipments of waste. Shipments of non-hazardous, so-called green-listed waste for recovery constitute an exception to this rule.

    The legal background is set forth in the Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 on shipments of waste. Articles 3 and 18 of the Regulation concern shipments of green-listed waste

  • Pröjts, Jan
    Ekologgruppen.
    Inventering av sirlig skivsnäcka (Anisus vorticulus) i Skåne 20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultatet från eftersök av sirlig skivsnäcka (Anisus vorticulus) på 49 potentiella lokaler i Skåne 2017. Inventeringen har gjorts på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen Östergötland inom ramen för biogeografisk uppföljning. Syftet har varit att återfinna arten på någon av sina få tidigare kända lokaler och om möjligt finna den på nya. Sirlig skivsnäcka är mycket sällsynt i Sverige och har aldrig hittats utanför Skåne. Arten är fridlyst och klassas som sårbar (VU) på den nationella rödlistan och är upptagen i Habitatdirektivets bilaga 2 och 4. Inga fynd av arten gjordes vid inventeringen men blåssnäcka och flera andra naturvårdsintressanta arter påträffades. Ytterligare lämpliga lokaler för sirlig skivsnäcka kan finnas att undersöka i "storklandskapet" längs med Klingavälsån mellan Sövdesjön och Kävlingeån.

  • Blombäck, Karin
    et al.
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Executive, Universitet, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Översyn av läckagekoefficienter för N-läckage från lerjordar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med retentionsberäkningar i vissa avrinningsområden med åker på ler-jordar har problem uppstått med låga bruttobelastningar. Detta skulle kunna bero på för låga kvävehalter för lerjordar som använts som indata. En översyn har därför utförts av de beräknade kväveläckagekoefficienterna för jordbruksmark för styv lera (clay) från TRK och PLC5.

    För att kunna jämföra utveckling och förändringar av metoden för beräkningar av läckagekoefficienterna (NLeCCS) mellan TRK och PLC5 har beräkningar för år 1999 utförda inom ramen för TRK projektet jämförts med senare utförda beräk-ningar för 1999 med PLC5-metoden. För att utvärdera hur förändringarna mellan de två metoderna påverkat utlakningen från lerjordarna har beräkningen för 1999 med PLC5-metoden använts som utgångspunkt och manipulerats för att utvärdera enskilda förändringar mellan de två metoderna. Effekten av förändringar av rotdjup för clay, ändrad klimatperiod (och målavrinning), ogräsupptag, vallinsådd, vårbe-arbetning, rotdjup för träda och halt organiskt material i marken beräknades. För-ändringen av rotdjup för vissa grödor påverkade bara beräkningen för clay medan de övriga förändringarna som testats även påverkade beräkningen för de övriga jordarna. Förändringen av rotdjupet av vissa grödor ökade koncentrationen för clay i alla regioner och ändrad klimatperiod gav både ökade och minskade koncentrat-ioner i regionerna. I region 4 och 6 gav ändrat rotdjup för clay och ändrad klimat-period ungefär samma koncentration med PLC5-metoden som med TRK-metoden.

    En genomgång av uppmätta kvävehalter från rutförsök, observationsfält och ty-pområden på jordbruksmark som domineras av styv lera har gjorts. I dessa områ-den varierade långtidsmedelvärdena mellan 3,3 och 5,3 mg NO3-N/l. I motsva-rande regioner (4, 5a och 6) var de beräknade koncentrationerna i TRK i samma storleksordning, medan koncentrationerna beräknade med PLC5-metodiken var något lägre.

    Med FyrisNP simulerades N-transport från ett avrinningsområde dominerat av styv lera med användning av läckagekoefficienter (PLC5-metodik), lokal grödfördel-ning och förbättrad jordartskarta. Simuleringarna kunde inte uppnå uppmätta N-koncentrationer i utloppspunkten för område U8 (Figur 27), varken med koeffici-enterna från TRK eller PLC5 med regional eller lokal grödfördelning. Den bästa överenskommelsen med uppmätta värden nåddes då läckagekoefficienterna från PLC5 räknades upp 2,5 gång.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-21 10:00 rum 4301, Stockholm
    Zheng, Weisen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermodynamic and kinetic investigation of systems related to lightweight steels2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight steels have attracted considerable interest for automobile applications due to the weight reduction without loss of high strength and with retained excellent plasticity. In austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-C steels, the nano-precipitation of the κ-carbide within the austenitic matrix significantly contributes to the increase in yield strength. In the present work, the precipitation strengthening simulation has been carried out within the framework of the ICME approach. Thermodynamic assessments of the quaternary Fe-Mn-Al-C system as well as its sub-ternary systems were performed with the CALPHAD method. All available information on phase equilibria and thermochemical properties were critically evaluated and used to optimize the thermodynamic model parameters. By means of the partitioning model, the κ-carbide was described using a five-sublattice model (four substitutional and one interstitial sublattice), which can reflect the ordering between metallic elements and reproduce the wide homogeneity range of the κ-carbide. Based on the present thermodynamic description, a thermodynamic database for lightweight steels was created. Using the database, the phase equilibria evolution in lightweight steels can be satisfactorily predicted, as well as the partition of alloying elements. In order to accelerate the development of a kinetic database for multicomponent systems, a high-throughput optimization method was adopted to optimize the diffusion mobilities. This method may largely reduce the necessary diffusion-couple experiments in multicomponent systems. Based on the developed thermodynamic and kinetic databases for lightweight steels, the precipitation of the κ-carbide was simulated using TC-PRISMA. The volume fraction and particle size were reasonably reproduced. Finally, the precipitation strengthening contribution to the yield strength was predicted. The calculation results show that the anti-phase boundary effect is predominant in the precipitation strengthening. Overall, the relationship between the composition, processing parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties are established in the thesis.

  • Ghosh, Arpan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozlov, Vladimir
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nazarov, Sergei A.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia; St Petersburg State Polytech University, Russia.
    Rule, David
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Two Dimensional Model of the Thin Laminar Wall of a Curvilinear Flexible Pipe2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a two dimensional model describing the elastic behaviour of the wall of a curved pipe to model blood vessels in particular. The wall has a laminate structure consisting of several anisotropic layers of varying thickness and is assumed to be much smaller in thickness than the radius of the vessel which itself is allowed to vary. Our two-dimensional model takes the interaction of the wall with the surrounding material and the fluid flowing inside into account and is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure. The curvature and twist of the vessel axis as well as the anisotropy of the laminate wallpresent the main challenges in applying the dimension reduction procedure so plenty of examples of canonical shapes of vessels and their walls are supplied with explicit systems of dierential equations at the end.

  • Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlblom, Josefin
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks2018Data set
    Abstract [en]
    1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
    2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
    3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
    4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
  • Svensson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska Universitet, SWE.
    How does a caller's anger, fear and sadness affect operators' decisions in emergency calls?2018In: International Review of Social Psychology, ISSN 2397-8570, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied how emergency operators' interpretation of callers' anger, fear, and sadness influenced emergency assessments in 146 authentic emergency calls. All emergency calls need to be decided on quickly and operators discriminated emotional expressions, by separating fear from other emotions across help need levels. Using path analysis and structural equation modeling, caller's fear, as opposed to expressions of anger and sadness, showed both direct and indirect effects on the intention to provide help. Based on the findings, emergency operators are argued to actively incorporate callers' expressions into emergency decisions, rather than peripherally processing emotional expression. Such findings allow for a discussion on the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions and, more practically, how fast help will be able to arrive to the location of the emergency. © 2018 Ubiquity Press Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of Mo- and W-based atomic laminates2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases are inherently nanolaminated compounds based on transition metals (M), A group elements (A), and carbon or/and nitrogen (X), which exhibit a unique combination of ceramic and metallic properties. My thesis work has focused on exploring novel MAX phase chemistries, including elemental combinations beyond those traditionally used for MAX phases, and their graphene-analogous 2D counterpart, MXenes.  

    The first part of the thesis investigates Mo-based MAX phases, which are among the least studied, despite indication of superconducting properties and potential for derivation of Mo-based MXenes. Initially, I performed theoretical calculations focused on evaluation of phase stability of the Mon+1GaCn MAX phases, and synthesized the predicted stable Mo2GaC in thin film form using DC magnetron sputtering. Close to phase pure epitaxial films were grown at ~590 °C, and electrical resistivity measurements using a four-point probe technique suggest a superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of ~7 K. The follow-up of this work, was synthesis of a new MAX related material, Mo2Ga2C, also by means of DC magnetron sputtering. The theoretical predictions as well as the materials characterization by X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction, suggested a Ga bilayer interleaved between a set of Mo2C blocks, arranged in a simple hexagonal structure.   

    It is known that selectively etching of the A-layer in a MAX phase, shown for A=Al, can lead to realization of a MXene. Hence, the next step in my research was to explore the possibility of etching of A=Ga in Mo2GaC as well as in Mo2Ga2C, targeting a Mo2C MXene, as motivated by theoretically proposed superior thermoelectric properties of this 2D material. While Mo2GaC did not allow removal of the A-layer, I showed that Mo2C MXene could be realized from etching Mo2Ga2C thin films, removing the Ga bilayer, in 50% hydrofluoric acid at a temperature of ~50 °C for a duration of ~3 h. Hence, the results did not only produce the first Mo-based MXene, it also showed that MXenes can be obtained for etching A-elements other than Al. This, in turn, increase the pathways for expanding the family of MXenes.    

    I thereafter set out to explore the magnetic properties resulting from Mn-alloying of the non-magnetic Mo2GaC MAX phase. For that purpose, (Mo,Mn)2GaC was synthesized using a  DC magnetron sputtering system with Ga and C as elemental targets and a 1:1 atomic ratio  Mo:Mn compound target. Heteroepitaxial films on MgO(111) substrates were grown at  ~530 °C, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Compositional analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a 2:1 ratio of the M- and A-elements and a 1:1 ratio for the Mo and Mn atoms in the film. Vibrating sample magnetometry was utilized to measure the magnetic behavior of the films, showing a magnetic response up to at least 300 K, and with a coercive field of 0.06 T, which is the highest reported for any MAX phase to date.  

    The second part of my research has been dedicated to realizing new MAX phase related, chemically ordered compounds and their MXene derivatives, and to initiate exploration of their properties. Materials synthesis was performed by pressureless bulk sintering, and inspired by theoretical calculations we showed evidence for a new so called o-MAX phase, Mo2ScAlC2, with an out-of-plane chemically ordered structure. It is the first experimentally verified Sc-containing MAX phase, which makes its corresponding MXene, Mo2ScC2, also presented in this work, the first MXene including Sc. Moreover, I discovered two so called i-MAX phases including W, (W2/3Sc1/3)2AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)2AlC, which display in-plane chemical ordering in the M-layer. Furthermore, both was shown to allow synthesis of their corresponding 2D counterpart; W1.33C MXene, with ordered vacancies.  Initial test on these novel MXenes showed a high potential for hydrogen evolution reaction.  

    Altogether, I have in my thesis work realized 6 novel MAX phases and related materials, and have shown evidence for 4 new MXenes. These materials inspire a wide range of future studies, with respect to fundamental properties as well as potential for future applications.   

  • Public defence: 2018-06-14 10:00 Zootissalen, Uppsala
    Trunschke, Judith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pollinator-mediated selection and the evolution of floral traits in orchids2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I combined manipulations of traits and pollination environment with analysis of phenotypic selection to examine causes of variation in strength and mode of selection on floral traits, and I conducted a reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation in germination success. I tested the following predictions (1) the opportunity for selection, and the strength of pollinator-mediated and net selection increase with increasing pollen limitation, (2) the effects of traits affecting pollinator attraction and traits affecting pollination efficiency are non-additive and this leads to pollinator-mediated correlational selection, (3) the effects of spur length on pollen removal, pollen receipt, and female fitness differ between populations with short-tongued and populations with long-tongued pollinators, and (4) local adaptation at the stage of germination contributes to the maintenance of ecotypes growing in grasslands and woodlands, respectively.

    A study including natural populations of 12 orchid species that varied widely in pollen limitation showed that opportunity for selection, pollinator-mediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas non-pollinator-mediated selection was not. In the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia, experimental reductions of plant height and spur length decreased pollen removal, pollen receipt and fruit production, but non-additive effects were not detected. Effects of plant height translated into pollinator-mediated selection for taller plants via female fitness, but there was no current pollinator-mediated selection on spur length. An experiment using artificial nectar spurs demonstrated that in P. bifolia pollen receipt saturated at shorter spur length in a population with short-tongued pollinators than in a population with a long-tongued pollinator. Effects of spur length on pollen receipt did not translate into current pollinator-mediated selection indicating that also plants with the shortest spurs for the most part received sufficient pollen for full seed set. Reciprocal sowing of seeds from grassland and woodland populations detected no evidence of local adaptation at the germination stage between ecotypes of P. bifolia.

    Taken together, the results illustrate how a combination of trait manipulation and analysis of strength and causes of selection can throw light on both the functional and adaptive significance of trait variation within and among natural populations.

  • Mathur, Aditya
    et al.
    RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Paediat, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Mehra, Love
    RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Paediat, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Diwan, Vishal
    RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Publ Hlth & Environm, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pathak, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). RD Gardi Med Coll, Dept Paediat, Madhya Pradesh, India.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Global Hlth Hlth Syst & Policy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Unintentional Childhood Injuries in Urban and Rural Ujjain, India: A Community-Based Survey2018In: Children (Basel), ISSN 2227-9067, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO) tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households. The annual incidence of all injuries was 16.6%, 95% Confidence Interval 15.7-17.5%, (n = 1049). The incidence was significantly higher among boys compared to girls (20.2% versus 12.7%, respectively), was highest in age group 6-10 years of age (18.9%), and in urban locations (17.5%). The most commonly identified injury types were: physical injuries (71%), burns (16%), poisonings (10%), agriculture-related injuries (2%), near drowning (2%), and suffocations (2%). The most common place of injury was streets followed by home. The study identified incidence of different types of unintentional childhood injuries and factors associated with increased risk of unintentional injuries. The results can help in designing injury prevention strategies and awareness programs in similar settings.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-15 10:00 Sal B Electrum, Kista
    Banuazizi, Seyed Amir Hossein
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Determining and Optimizing the Current and Magnetic Field Dependence of Spin-Torque and Spin Hall Nano-Oscillators: Toward Next-Generation Nanoelectronic Devices and Systems2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-torque and spin Hall nano-oscillators are nanoscale devices (about 100 nm)capable of producing tunable broadband high-frequency microwave signals ranging from 0.1 GHz to over 65 GHz that several research groups trying to reach up to200 - 300 GHz. Their development is ongoing for applications in high-frequency nanoelectronic devices and systems, such as mobile phones, wireless networks, base stations, vehicle radars and even medical applications.

    This thesis covers a wide range of characterizations of spin-torque and spin Hall nano-oscillator devices that aim to investigate their current and magnetic field dependency, as well as to suggest improvements in these devices to optimize their application in spintronics and magnonics. The work is primarily based on experimental methods for characterizing these devices by building up new measurement systems, but it also includes numerical and micromagnetic simulations.

    Experimental techniques: In order to characterize the fabricated nanodevices in a detailed and accurate manner through their electrical and microwave responses, new measurement systems capable of full 3D control over the external magnetic fields will be described. In addition, a new method of probing an operational device using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) will be presented.

    Spin-torque nano-oscillators: We will describe remarkable improvements in the performance of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that enhance their integration capability with applications in microwave systems. In nanocontact (NC-)STNOs made from a conventional spin-valve stack, though with thicker bottom electrodes, it is found the auto-oscillations can be excited with higher frequencies at lower threshold currents, and with higher output powers. We also find that this idea is useful for tuning spin-wave resonance and also controlling the thermal budget. Furthermore, a detailed study of magnetic droplet solitons and spin-wave dynamics in NC-STNOs will be described. Finally, we demonstrate ultra-high frequency tunability in low-current STNOs based on perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions(p-MTJs).

    Spin Hall nano-oscillators: Characterizations of spin Hall nano-oscillator(SHNO) devices based on different structures and materials with both conventional and novel methods will be described. A detailed study of the current, temperature, and magnetic field profiles of nanogap SHNOs will be presented. In addition, we show the current and magnetic field dependence of nanoconstriction-based SHNOs.Moreover, it is shown that multiple SHNOs can be serially synchronized, thereby increasing their output power and enhancing the usage of these devices in applications such as neuromorphic computing. We show synchronization of multiple nanoconstriction SHNOs in the presence of a low in-plane magnetic field. Finally, there is a demonstration of the results of a novel method for probing an operationalSHNO using MFM.

  • Svensson, Petra
    School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strategists in the intersection of logics: A study of job advertisements in the Swedish municipal administration2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a study of how public administrators responsible for horizontal perspectives in Swedish local government are handling their role as bureaucrats and political promoters. Gender equality, public health, human rights, rights of children, and environmental protection are examples of perspectives which local authorities are obliged to take into consideration when making political decisions. In order to ensure this, certain strategists are appointed who are supposed to work across all sectors promoting the values and goals of their specific perspective. The role of these strategists contains several paradoxes and complexities.

  • Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, SWE.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Math & Nat Sci, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Richter, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    NON-ASSOCIATIVE ORE EXTENSIONS2018In: Israel Journal of Mathematics, ISSN 0021-2172, E-ISSN 1565-8511, Vol. 224, no 1, p. 263-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce non-associative Ore extensions, S = R[X; sigma, delta], for any non-ssociative unital ring R and any additive maps sigma, delta : R -> R satisfying sigma(1) = 1 and delta(1) = 0. In the special case when delta is either left or right R-delta-linear, where R-delta = ker(delta), and R is delta-simple, i.e. {0} and R are the only delta-invariant ideals of R, we determine the ideal structure of the non-associative differential polynomial ring D = R[X; id(R),delta]. Namely, in that case, we show that all non-zero ideals of D are generated by monic polynomials in the center Z(D) of D. We also show that Z(D) = R-delta[p] for a monic p is an element of R-delta [X], unique up to addition of elements from Z(R)(delta) . Thereby, we generalize classical results by Amitsur on differential polynomial rings defined by derivations on associative and simple rings. Furthermore, we use the ideal structure of D to show that D is simple if and only if R is delta-simple and Z(D) equals the field R-delta boolean AND Z(R). This provides us with a non-associative generalization of a result by Oinert, Richter and Silve-strov. This result is in turn used to show a non-associative version of a classical result by Jordan concerning simplicity of D in the cases when the characteristic of the field R-delta boolean AND Z(R) is either zero or a prime. We use our findings to show simplicity results for both non-associative versions of Weyl algebras and non-associative differential polynomial rings defined by monoid/group actions on compact Hausdorff spaces.

  • Svensson, Petra
    Göteborgs universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, University of Gothenburg, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    ”Den nya svenskinspirerade föräldrapenningen har haft avsedd verkan”: En studie av den tyska föräldraförsäkringens förändring ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that political-administrative organizations are becoming increasingly complex with more horizontal governance required. In Swedish municipal administration, there is a group of administrators assigned the task of monitoring and promoting strategic topics that should be integrated horizontally within the organization. Examples of strategic topics are sustainability, safety/security, diversity, children/youth, public health, human rights, and gender equality. In the thesis, these administrators are called cross-sector strategists. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how cross-sector strategists become a part of the political-administrative organization when representing, enacting, and reflecting on values in the undertaking of their formal posts. They are situated between the tradition of vertical governance, with formal procedures and hierarchy as its foundation, and the tradition of horizontal governance, with informal networks and deliberation as its foundation. Previous research has shown that this is likely to give rise to value conflicts, and the question is if cross-sector strategists experience value conflicts, and if so, how they cope with them. The cross-sector strategists are studied in this thesis from the perspective of situated agency – focusing on both the contextual expectations of the cross-sector strategists and on their internal reflections to solve value conflicts – in order to explore their process of becoming a part of the local government administration. A mixed-methods design is applied, containing analysis of job advertisements for cross-sector strategists, public managers, and social workers; in-depth interviews with cross-sector strategists; and a survey of professional networks for cross-sector strategists. The results show that cross-sector strategists are subjects to ambivalent and often-contradictory contextual expectations. Cross-sector strategists use the ambivalence of their work for their strategic purposes, and such ambivalence allows them to reframe their topics, their methods, their arguments, and their identity according to current situation in order to increase the impact of their assigned topics and diminish the inner conflict of wanting to be both a responsive bureaucrat and an active lobbyist. Combining these two dedications requires them to be highly reflexive and flexible actors. The outcome of cross-sector strategists’ coping with value conflicts can be interpreted in two ways: 1) as if the cross-sector strategists are a formal tool to safeguard crucial democratic and ethical values due to the cross-sector strategists’ method of sneaking the strategic policy areas into the organization. Or 2) as a to democracy risky administrative behavior in the long-term due to the disguising of value conflicts and diminished possibilities to process these value conflicts

  • Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Åström, Stefan
    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth
    Saarinen, Kristina
    Potentials for reducing the health and climate impacts of residential biomass combustion in the Nordic countries2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential biomass combustion is a major source of PM2.5 and SLCP (Short Lived Climate Pollutants) emissions in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. SLCPs and PM2.5 have impact on climate, environment and health. When developing strategies for reduced emissions, reliable information on current emissions and assessments for how they can be reduced is essential. This report presents recommendations for how to further improve national activity data collection procedures for less uncertain emission inventory results. It also presents scenario results with estimated technical potentials for reduced emissions of SLCPs and PM2.5 from residential biomass combustion, transformed into potential impact on health and climate effects in 2035.

  • Fernandez-Reyes, Kiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Clarke, Dave
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Castegren, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Vo, Huu-Phuc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Forward to a Promising Future2018In: Conference proceedings COORDINATION 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many actor-based programming models, asynchronous method calls communicate their results using futures, where the fulfilment occurs under-the-hood. Promises play a similar role to futures, except that they must be explicitly created and explicitly fulfilled; this makes promises more flexible than futures, though promises lack fulfilment guarantees: they can be fulfilled once, multiple times or not at all. Unfortunately, futures are too rigid to exploit many available concurrent and parallel patterns. For instance, many computations block on a future to get its result only to return that result immediately (to fulfil their own future). To make futures more flexible, we explore a construct, forward, that delegates the responsibility for fulfilling the current implicit future to another computation. Forward reduces synchronisation and gives futures promise-like capabilities. This paper presents a formalisation of the forward construct, defined in a high-level source language, and a compilation strategy from the high-level language to a low-level, promised-based target language. The translation is shown to preserve semantics. Based on this foundation, we describe the implementation of forward in the parallel, actor-based language Encore, which compiles to C.

  • Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Ericson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo CE, Sweden.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    How to succeed with Co-production: Experiences from industrial researchers2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this handbook is to raise awareness of the differently organised systems when collaborations are to be set up between companies and universities. By presenting experiences from industrial researchers this handbook will be useful for persons that are going to work in a collaborative setting, regardless of whether they come from a company or a university.

  • Jeong, Yu Seon
    et al.
    KISTI, Natl Inst Supercomp & Networking, Daejeon 34141, South Korea..
    Bhattacharya, Atri
    Univ Liege, Space Sci Technol & Astrophys Res STAR Inst, Bat B5a, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Enberg, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Kim, C. S.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 03722, South Korea.;Yonsei Univ, IPAP, Seoul 03722, South Korea..
    Reno, Mary Hall
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Sarcevic, Ina
    Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Stasto, Anna
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Prompt atmospheric neutrino flux in perturbative QCD and its theoretical uncertainties2017In: XXVII International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (Neutrino2016), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017, article id 012117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the most recent PDFs and the cosmic ray spectrum, we evaluate the charm/bottom induced prompt atmospheric muon neutrino fluxes including nuclear corrections. We investigate their impact in perturbative QCD and estimate the comprehensive uncertainties from other various factors. The prompt atmospheric tau neutrino fluxes are also presented.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-14 15:15 Å2001, Uppsala
    Nilsson, Viktor
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Highly Concentrated Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: From fundamentals to cell tests2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrolyte is a crucial part of any lithium battery, strongly affecting longevity and safety. It has to survive rather severe conditions, not the least at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Current commercial electrolytes based on 1 M LiPF 6 in a mixture of organic solvents balance the requirements on conductivity and electrochemical stability, but they are volatile and degrade when operated at temperatures above ca. 70°C. The salt could potentially be replaced with e.g. LiTFSI, but corrosion of the aluminium current collector is an issue. Replacing the graphite negative electrode by Li metal for large gains in energy density challenges the electrolyte further by exposing it to freshly deposited Li, leading to poor coulombic efficiency (CE) and consumption of both Li and electrolyte. Highly concentrated electrolytes (up to > 4 M) have emerged as a possible remedy, by a changed solvation structure such that all solvent molecules are coordinated to cations – leading to a lowered volatility and melting point, an increased charge carrier density and electrochemical stability, but a higher viscosity and a lower ionic conductivity.

    Here two approaches to highly concentrated electrolytes are evaluated. First, LiTFSI and acetonitrile electrolytes with respect to increased electrochemical stability and in particular the passivating solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the anode is studied using electrochemical techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Second, lowering the liquidus temperature by high salt concentration is utilized to create an electrolyte solely of LiTFSI and ethylene carbonate, tested for application in Li metal batteries by characterizing the morphology of plated Li using scanning electron microscopy and the CE by galvanostatic polarization. While the first approach shows dramatic improvements, the inherent weaknesses cannot be completely avoided, the second approach provides some promising cycling results for Li metal based cells. This points towards further investigations of the SEI, and possibly long-term safe cycling of Li metal anodes.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-29 13:15 Norrköpings visualiseringscenter C, Norrköping
    Samini, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspective Correct Hand-held Augmented Reality for Improved Graphics and Interaction2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With Augmented Reality, also termed AR, a view of the real world is augmented by superimposing computer-generated graphics, thereby enriching or enhancing the perception of the reality. Today, lots of applications benefit from AR in different areas, such as education, medicine, navigation, construction, gaming, and multiple other areas, using primarily head-mounted AR displays and AR on hand-held smart devices. Tablets and phones are highly suitable for AR, as they are equipped with high resolution screens, good cameras and powerful processing units, while being readily available to both industry and home use. They are used with video see-through AR, were the live view of the world is captured by a camera in real time and subsequently presented together with the computer graphics on the display.

    In this thesis I put forth our recent work on improving video see-through Augmented Reality graphics and interaction for hand-held devices by applying and utilizing user perspective. On the rendering side, we introduce a geometry-based user perspective rending method aiming to align the on screen content with the real view of the world visible around the screen. Furthermore, we introduce a device calibration system to compensate for misalignment between system parts. On the interaction side we introduce two wand-like direct 3D pose manipulation techniques based on this user perspective. We also modified a selection technique and introduced a new one suitable to be used with our introduced manipulation techniques. Finally, I present several formal user studies, evaluating the introduced techniques and comparing them with concurrent state-of-the-art alternatives.

  • Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Model Driven Decision Arena: an aerospace study2018In: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] D. Marjanović, M. Štorga, S. Škec, N. Bojčetić, N. Pavković (eds.), The Design Society, 2018, p. 171-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Decision Theatre (DT) is of great interest to leverage knowledge sharing in early stage design decision events. Yet, few contributions show how to configure a DT to support design space exploration and concept selection in cross-functional teams. This paper describes the development of a model-driven decision arena (MDDA) for aero-engine sub-system design. After presenting the descriptive study findings, it illustrates the overall logic of the MDDA environment and exemplifies its use in a case study related to the design of a turbine real structure (TRS) for commercial use.

  • Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Chowdhery, Syed Azad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bellini, Anna
    Tetra Pak .
    Model-driven value assessment: a case from the food packaging industry2018In: Proceeedings of the International DESIGN Conference / [ed] D. Marjanović, M. Štorga, S. Škec, N. Bojčetić, N. Pavković (eds.), The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 161-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer perception of food packaging solutions is driven by early design decisions on paperboard configuration and manufacturing technologies. Simulation Driven Design is common to frontload design activities, but is confined to the engineering field and fails to capture higher-level value aspects. This paper presents an assessment framework connecting customer value dimensions with simulations conducted on the mechanical properties of the packaging material, and discusses how value modelling results can be visualised to support collaborative decision making in cross-functional teams.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-12 10:00 Sal M131 Sefström, STOCKHOLM
    Khan, Fareed Ashraf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Some aspects of convection as well as graphite and carbide formations during casting.2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is an established fact that segregation during casting affects the physical properties of carbon-based ferro alloys; this motivates the study of the segregation behaviour of carbon and carbide-forming solute elements. In this context, this thesis investigates two different situations: the effects of cooling rate and turbulence on the precipitation behaviour of the graphite nodules in nodular cast iron; the nature of carbide precipitation in a bearing steel grade and the effects of subsequent soaking on these carbides.

    The structures of boiling water reactor inserts cast by the uphill and downhill casting of nodular cast iron were examined. The samples were taken from representative locations in the top, middle and bottom cross sections of the castings. It was observed that in uphill-cast inserts the nodules were larger but fewer in number the bottom section, whereas in downhill-cast inserts the nodules in the bottom section were smaller, but greater in number. Variation in volume fraction of the graphite nodules across the inserts was also observed. The probable cause of this variation was the difference in cooling rate in different sections of the insert. Between the steel tubes located at the central part of the casting, the fraction of graphite was lower, which could be the result of carburization of the steel tubes.

    To study the effects of melt stirring during the solidification of nodular cast iron, several experiments were conducted at variable cooling rates and for different stirring times. Examination of the microstructure was conducted using Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that during stirring the melt oxidized and oxide nuclei were formed. The number of nucleation sites for the precipitation of graphite nodules increased, which raised the nodule count and the fraction of the graphite precipitated. The matrix transformed from pearlite to ferrite, which could be due to the fact that more carbon had diffused out of the matrix.

    The segregation behaviour in hypereutectoid bearing steel produced by ingot casting was also studied. The effects of soaking on micro and macro segregation was investigated in samples taken from as cast and soaked ingots; emphasis was laid on the bulk matrix and A-segregation channels. Samples were also taken from ingots which were soaked and then hot worked. The micro and macro examination of the microstructure was conducted using LOM and SEM. Quantitative and qualitative composition analysis was performed using Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and an electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA). It was observed that M3C, M2C and M6C had precipitated. The carbide morphology in the bulk matrix was different to that in the A-segregation channels. All the primary carbides in the bulk matrix were found to have dissolved after 4 hours of soaking at 1200oC.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-12 10:00 Eva Eriksson Room, Karlstad
    Vromans, Arthur
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Centre for Analysis, Computer Science and Applications (CASA), Department of Mathematics and Computers Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    A pseudoparabolic reaction-diffusion-mechanics system: Modeling, analysis and simulation2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, parabolic-pseudoparabolic equations are derived coupling chemical reactions, diffusion, flow and mechanics in a heterogeneous medium using the framework of mixture theory. The weak solvability in 1-D of the obtained models is studied. Furthermore, it is numerically illustrated that approximate solutions according to the Rothe method exhibit expected realistic behaviour. For a simpler model formulation, the periodic homogenization in higher space dimensions is performed.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:15 1B309
    Nguyen, Van-Giang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Towards SDN/NFV-based Mobile Packet Core: Benefits, Challenges, and Potential Solutions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile networks, the mobile core plays a crucial role in providing connectivity between mobile user devices and external packet data networks such as the Internet. Through the years, along with the dramatical changes in radio access networks, the mobile core has also been evolved from being a circuit-based analog telephony system in its first generation (1G) to become a purely packet-based network called the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) in the current generation (4G). In recent years, the explosion of mobile data traffic and devices and the advent of new services have led to the investigation of the next generation of mobile networks, i.e., 5G. A wide range of technologies has been proposed as candidates for the development of 5G. Among other technology candidates, Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have been widely considered to be key enablers for the network architecture of 5G, especially the mobile packet core (MPC) network.

    This thesis aims at identifying benefits and challenges of introducing SDN and NFV to re-achitect the current MPC network architecture towards 5G and addressing some of the challenges. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive literature review of the state-of-the-art work leveraging SDN and NFV to re-design the 4G EPC architecture. Through this survey work, several research questions for future work have been identified and we contribute to address two of them in this thesis. Firstly, since most of the current works focus on unicast services, we propose an SDN/NFV-based MPC architecture for providing multicast and broadcast services. Our numerical results show that the proposed architecture can reduce the total signaling cost compared to the traditional architecture. Secondly, we address the question regarding the scalability of the control plane. We take the Mobility Management Entity (MME) - one of the EPC key control plane entities - as a case study. In our work, the MME is deployed as a cluster of multiple virtual instances (vMMEs) and a front-end load balancer. We focus on investigating different approaches to achieve better load balancing among these vMMEs, which in turn improves scalability. Our experimental results suggest that carefully selected load balancing algorithms can significantly reduce the control plane latency.

  • Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    BTH Newsletter on Science Publishing and Information about Research Funding: May 20182018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-06-13 10:15 21A342, Karlstad
    Oljira, Dejene Boru
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Telecom Networks Virtualization: Overcoming the Latency Challenge2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Telecom service providers are adopting a Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) based service delivery model, in response to the unprecedented traffic growth and an increasing customers demand for new high-quality network services. In NFV, telecom network functions are virtualized and run on top of commodity servers. Ensuring network performance equivalent to the legacy non-virtualized system is a determining factor for the success of telecom networks virtualization. Whereas in virtualized systems, achieving carrier-grade network performance such as low latency, high throughput, and high availability to guarantee the quality of experience (QoE) for customer is challenging.

    In this thesis, we focus on addressing the latency challenge. We investigate the delay overhead of virtualization by comprehensive network performance measurements and analysis in a controlled virtualized environment. With this, a break-down of the latency incurred by the virtualization and the impact of co-locating virtual machines (VMs) of different workloads on the end-to-end latency is provided. We exploit this result to develop an optimization model for placement and provisioning of the virtualized telecom network functions to ensure both the latency and cost-efficiency requirements.

    To further alleviate the latency challenge, we propose a multipath transport protocol MDTCP, that leverage Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to quickly detect and react to an incipient congestion to minimize queuing delays, and achieve high network utilization in telecom datacenters.

  • Li, Sherly X.
    et al.
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    Zheng, Jusheng
    Ye, Zheng
    Agudo, Antonio
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Boeing, Heiner
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Dow, Courtney
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Grioni, Sara
    Gunter, Marc J.
    María Huerta, José
    Ibsen, Daniel B.
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Molina-Portillo, Elena
    Murphy, Neil
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Poveda, Alaitz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Center, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ramón Quirós, J.
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tumino, Rosario
    Winkvist, Anna
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Scott, Robert A.
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence: analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases). Macronutrient intake was estimated from diets reported in questionnaires, including proportion of energy derived from total carbohydrate, protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric macronutrient substitution.

    Results: No interactions were identified between any of the three GRSs and any macronutrient intake, with low-to-moderate heterogeneity between countries (I-2 range 0-51.6%). Results were similar using isocaloric macronutrient substitution analyses and when weighted and unweighted GRSs and individual SNPs were examined.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI did not modify the association between macronutrient intake and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests that macronutrient intake recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes do not need to account for differences in genetic predisposition to these three metabolic conditions.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-14 09:15 Gunnesalen, Uppsala
    Cato, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Breastfeeding – Initiation, duration, attitudes and experiences2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about factors that influence breastfeeding initiation and duration, as well as about women’s attitudes towards breastfeeding during pregnancy.

    The first two studies were a part of the UPPSAT project, a population-based cohort study conducted in Uppsala, Sweden. The women answered questionnaires five days, six weeks and six months postpartum, including questions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Eight hundred and seventy-nine women and 679 women were included in the first study (Paper I) and second study (Paper II), respectively. The third study (Paper III) was part of the BASIC study, a large cohort following women from pregnancy and up to one year postpartum. In BASIC, the women completed web-questionnaires, and 1217 women participated during mid-pregnancy and postpartum. The fourth study (Paper IV) was part of a qualitative project, “Narratives of breastfeeding”, and included 11 women, interviewed individually in late pregnancy.

    The prevalence of the hands-on approach was 38%. Women who received the hands-on approach were more likely to report a negative experience of the first breastfeeding session (Paper I). Seventy-seven percent of the women reported exclusive breastfeeding up to, at least, two months postpartum. Being a first-time mother, reporting emotional distress during pregnancy, and giving birth by cesarean section were factors independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum (Paper II). Women with depressive symptoms during pregnancy who breastfed for the first time later than two hours postpartum had the highest odds of not breastfeeding exclusively at six weeks postpartum (Paper III). When pregnant women thought about their future breastfeeding, they were balancing between social norms and personal desires (Paper IV).

    These results can help to develop clinical practice to improve women’s experience of the first breastfeeding session. Additionally, the results may facilitate identifying women in need for targeted support, in order to promote longer exclusive breastfeeding duration. By acknowledging pregnant women’s thoughts and attitudes about breastfeeding, breastfeeding information and support, health care professionals can meet the needs and desires of women.

     

  • Holmberg, John
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nässén, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svenberg, Sebastian
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klimatomställningen och det goda livet2011Report (Other academic)
  • Public defence: 2018-06-13 10:30 Room FB53, Stockholm
    Medina Rincon, Daniel Ricardo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics. Nordita.
    Holographic Wilson Loops: Quantum String Corrections2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gauge-string duality has been one of the most exciting areas in theoretical physics as it connects strongly coupled field theories with weakly interacting strings. The present thesis concerns the study of Wilson loops in this correspondence. Wilson loops are observables arising in many physical situations like the propagation of particles in gauge fields, the problem of confinement, etc. In the gauge-string correspondence these observables have a known physical description at both sides, making them ideal probes for the duality. Remarkable progress from localization has lead to predictions at all orders in the coupling for certain Wilson loop configurations in supersymmetric field theories. Being the string theory weakly interacting, in principle we can use perturbation theory to calculate the corresponding quantities. However, current string calculations have only been successful at leading order and in rare cases, next to leading order. At next to leading order the difficulties encountered include divergences, ambiguous boundary conditions, mismatch with field theory results, etc. The research presented in this thesis aims at a better understanding of these issues. The first calculation presented here concerns the Wilson line in N=2*, a massive deformation of N=4 SYM. The string theory dual to this configuration is a straight line in the type IIB Pilch-Warner background. Using techniques for functional determinants, we computed the 1-loop string partition function obtaining perfect matching with localization. This constitutes a first test of the correspondence at the quantum level for nonconformal theories. The second calculation in this thesis corresponds to the ratio of the latitude and circular Wilson loops in AdS5xS5. An IR anomaly related to the singular nature of the conformal gauge is shown to solve previously found discrepancies with field theory results.

  • Wang, Ludi
    et al.
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, Automat Sch, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Xing, Ying
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, Automat Sch, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Xiaoguang
    Beijing Univ Posts & Telecommun, Automat Sch, Beijing 100876, Peoples R China..
    A Novel Neural Network Model for Blood Pressure Estimation Using Photoplethesmography without Electrocardiogram2018In: Journal of Healthcare Engineering, ISSN 2040-2295, E-ISSN 2040-2309, article id 7804243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevention, evaluation, and treatment of hypertension have attracted increasing attention in recent years. As photoplethysmography (PPG) technology has been widely applied to wearable sensors, the noninvasive estimation of blood pressure (BP) using the PPG method has received considerable interest. In this paper, a method for estimating systolic and diastolic BP based only on a PPG signal is developed. The multitaper method (MTM) is used for feature extraction, and an artificial neural network (ANN) is used for estimation. Compared with previous approaches, the proposed method obtains better accuracy; the mean absolute error is 4.02 +/- 2.79mmHg for systolic BP and 2.27 +/- 1.82mmHg for diastolic BP.

  • Manni, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Näs, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Åberg, Erika
    Umeå kommun.
    Sammansatta problem i undervisning för hållbar utveckling2017In: Nordisk arbeidsmodell for undervisning for bærekraftig utvikling / [ed] Eldri Scheie, Majken Korsager, Oslo: Naturfagsenteret , 2017, p. 14-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2018-06-11 10:15
    Alaqra, Alaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    The Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenge for Crypto-based Solutions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the continuous increase of online activity. Researchers study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users’ data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is a continuous challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem. Our aim was to focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing solutions.  In this thesis, we followed a user centered design method by using empirical qualitative means for investigating user’s perceptions and opinions of our solutions. Most of our work has focused on redactable signatures in the cloud context within the eHealth use-case. Redactable signatures are  a privacy enhancing scheme allowing to remove parts of a signed document by a specified party for achieving data minimization without invalidating the respective signature.

    We mainly used semi-structures interviews and focus groups in our investigations. Our results yielded key HCI considerations as well as guidelines of different means for supporting the design of future solutions.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-14 13:31 Häggsalen, Uppsala
    Vasquez Jaramillo, Juan David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Probing Magnetism at the Atomic Scale:  Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics Theoretical Treatise2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, I present a theoretical study, based on non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and on the non-equilibrium extension to the RKKY intveraction,where I investigate the emergence of magnetism at the atomic scale in adsorbed molecular complexes hosting localized spin moments, at the stake of being probed with scanning tunneling microscopy tip, and being driven by a temperature gradient and gated by an electric field. The scanning tunneling microscopy set up is modeled as a molecular junction with a magnetic molecule embedded within it, where the molecule consists in a set of electronic levels resembling the typical s-p orbitals of a metal hydride or an organometal, and a localized spin moment resembling the magnetic unit hosted by the latter and former type of molecules mentioned. The electronic levels and the magnetic units are coupled via the Kondo interaction. One of the electrodes in the junction plays the role of an scanning tunneling microscopy tip, and the other one, does it for the metal in which the molecule is adsorbed, and a bias voltage and a temperature gradient is applied across both metals, giving rise to the effect of the above mentioned experimental set up and producing electrical, spin, energy and heat currents as a response, providing the possibility to predict experimentally observed quantities such as differential conductivities. Throughout the thesis, I present first a comprehensive introduction to the topic pointing out its relevance, the experimental context in which the work I append lies and I as well present the formal structure of the work I present. The upcoming chapters, lead the audience to the discussion of the non-equilibrium formalism in atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics, paying special attention on the subject on magnetism, and putting in to context the molecular system where the interplay, among electrons, spins and phonons is relevant. To wrap up the theoretical discussion I described the state of the art progress on quantum coherence and interferometry in molecular junctions and locate my contribution into this context. Then I conclude and summarize. My contribution promises to pave the way to more robust spin based quantum engineered technology.

     

  • Jegermalm, Magnus
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    Anhörigstöd: en uppföljningsstudie av kommuners och frivilliga organisationers stöd till äldres anhöriga2002Report (Other academic)
  • von Essen, Johan
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedberg, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Folk i rörelse: medborgerligt engagemang 1992-20142015Report (Other academic)
  • Jegermalm, Magnus
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    Sundh, Kenneth
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social mobilisering i frivillig regi: en studie av Svenska Röda korsets arbete med lokala utsatthets- och kapacitetsstudier2005Report (Other academic)
  • Svedberg, Lars
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    von Essen, Johan
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Enheten för forskning om det civila samhället.
    Svenskarnas engagemang är större än någonsin: insatser i och utanför föreningslivet2010Report (Other academic)
  • Duvold, Kjetil
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Beyond Borders: The Return of Kin-state Politics in Europe2015In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2018-06-13 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Wiberg, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Lyssnandets praktik: Medborgardialog, icke-vetande och förskjutningar2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of creating forums to give voice to marginalized residents is often emphasized in participatory research and planning practice with the purpose of creating politically equal processes, strengthening democracy and developing social sustainability (Abrahamsson, 2015). At the same time, less focus is placed on the act of listening’s role in relation to what is possible to be heard.

     

    While listening is central to communication and politics, it has received less attention as being political, in regards to its potential for giving voice. The act of listening is more often associated as being passive, whereas voiced language, is associated with the act of writing, reading or speaking. It, therefore, easily falls into a reductive binary of active or passive, which according to the media theorist Kate Lacey (2014), has prevented listening from being viewed as a political action. By shifting the focus from giving voice towards the practices and habits which determine what is considered noise and what is considered voice, we are also paying attention to the political aspects of listening (Palmås and von Bush, 2015).

     

    The starting point for the dissertation is my personal experience as a process leader for two dialogue processes. The first was a municipal citizen dialogue process which I carried out in Botkyrka Municipality, Conversations about the future, between 2011-2012. The second was an exploratory art and research project, Rehearsals – eight acts about the politics of listening, which was carried out together with a group of 30 people at Tensta konsthall between 2013-2014. As a group, we explored different ways to communicate with each other beyond our words.

     

    The purpose of the dissertation is to make visible different dimensions of listening and explore its role in the leadership and organization of citizen dialogues. The intent is to illuminate the messiness and complexity of practice rather than to show success stories.

     

    Philosopher, theologian and mystic, Nicholas of Cusa’s concepts, ratio and intellectus, descriptions of two aspects of reason, are central concepts in the dissertation. While ratio sorts the sensory input we receive by creating categories, dividing things into opposites and making things calculable – and thus viewing life as something one can reach absolute answers about ­– intellectus relates to the fact that we can never know the big picture. Life exceeds us. To live means to be in relation with the knowledge that around everything we surround ourselves with lie dimensions of unknowing. Therefore, intellectus knows that the categories that ratio uses to understand the world are unstable and thus also possible to reshape and reformulate (Bornemark, 2017). In the thesis, I argue that allowing space for intellectus can be a way to listen to the unexpected, to open up to be moved by what you hear, and thereby make room for the political where we can create an increased possibility for the development of different visions of possible futures.

  • Tahir, Aisha
    et al.
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Faisalabad, Pakistan..
    Hussain, Fatma
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Faisalabad, Pakistan..
    Ahmed, Nisar
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Ctr Agr Biochem & Biotechnol, Faisalabad, Pakistan..
    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Jamil, Amer
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Fac Sci, Dept Biochem, Faisalabad, Pakistan..
    Assessing universality of DNA barcoding in geographically isolated selected desert medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e4499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pursuit of developing fast and accurate species-level molecular identification methods, we tested six DNA barcodes, namely ITS2, matK, rbcLa, ITS2+matK, ITS2+rbcLa, matK-krbcLa and ITS2+matK+rbcLa, for their capacity to identify frequently consumed but geographically isolated medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae indigenous to the desert of Cholistan. Data were analysed by BLASTn sequence similarity, pairwise sequence divergence in TAXONDNA, and phylogenetic (neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood trees) methods. Comparison of six barcode regions showed that ITS2 has the highest number of variable sites (209/360) for tested Fabaceae and (106/365) Poaceae species, the highest species-level identification (40%) in BLASTn procedure, distinct DNA barcoding gap, 100% correct species identification in BM and BCM functions of TAXONDNA, and clear cladding pattern with high nodal support in phylogenetic trees in both families. ITS2H-matK+rbcLa followed ITS2 in its species-level identification capacity. The study was concluded with advocating the DNA barcoding as an effective tool for species identification and ITS2 as the best barcode region in identifying medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae. Current research has practical implementation potential in the fields of pharmacovigilance, trade of medicinal plants and biodiversity conservation.

  • Nordin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Equalis, Sweden.
    Dybkaer, Rene
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier
    Clin Lab Sci Consulting, Spain.
    Pontet, Francoise
    Vocabulary on nominal property, examination, and related concepts for clinical laboratory sciences (IFCC-IUPAC Recommendations 2017)2018In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0033-4545, E-ISSN 1365-3075, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 913-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long worked on a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, report of results, and communication of experience and - scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various examinations in addition to measurements. The International vocabulary of - metrology - Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM), is designed for metrology, the science of measurement. The aim of this vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and a selection of terms related to nominal properties, i.e. properties that have no size.

  • Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.
    et al.
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS-40220, F-38043 Grenoble, France.;Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ, Lab Ornithol, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Cubo, Jorge
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS INSU, Inst Sci Terre Paris, ISTeP UMR 7193, F-75005 Paris, France..
    de Margerie, Emmanuel
    Univ Rennes 1, Univ Caen Normandie, CNRS, Lab Ethol Anim & Humaine, 263 Ave Gen Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Roeper, Martin
    Burgermeister Muller Museum, Bahnhofstr 8, D-91807 Solnhofen, Germany.;Bayerische Staatssammlung Palaontol & Geol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Beyrand, Vincent
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS-40220, F-38043 Grenoble, France.;Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ, Lab Ornithol, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Bures, Stanislav
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ, Lab Ornithol, 17 Listopadu 50, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Tafforeau, Paul
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS-40220, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS-40220, F-38043 Grenoble, France.
    Wing bone geometry reveals active flight in Archaeopteryx2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil taxon with feathered wings from the Late Jurassic of Germany that occupies a crucial position for understanding the early evolution of avian flight. After over 150 years of study, its mosaic anatomy unifying characters of both non-flying dinosaurs and flying birds has remained challenging to interpret in a locomotory context. Here, we compare new data from three Archaeopteryx specimens obtained through phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography to a representative sample of archosaurs employing a diverse array of locomotory strategies. Our analyses reveal that the architecture of Archaeopteryx's wing bones consistently exhibits a combination of cross-sectional geometric properties uniquely shared with volant birds, particularly those occasionally utilising short-distance flapping. We therefore interpret that Archaeopteryx actively employed wing flapping to take to the air through a more anterodorsally posteroventrally oriented flight stroke than used by modern birds. This unexpected outcome implies that avian powered flight must have originated before the latest Jurassic.